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By: Jasmine Rodriguez, Jessie Eraza, Ray Mora, Steven Fonseca

By Jessie Erazo

A Look into the Current and Recent Presidency

In todays struggle in the 1930s we


can look at the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to help better the condition of America. With looking back we can also look at the efforts of the previous president, Herbert Hoover. Hoover was a president that believed in voluntarism. He encouraged the citizens to donate to charities. He also urged business leaders to not lay off or cut wages for workers. Public opinion changed quickly against Hoover, once it was apparent that this wasnt enough. His administration did put effort in responding to the depression. The Agricultural Marketing Act helped create a Federal Farm Bond that had the ability to give loans to the agricultural communities, and to also buy crops to sustain farm prices. When 1932 came about this program wasnt able to keep itself a float.

Hoover actually did try to get more money for public work programs. In 1932 he authorized the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, the agency gave finances to banks. They were then authorized to give loans to businesses and railroads with that money. To many Americans bills like these were signs that Hoover cared little for the average person and focused only on the wealthy. These opinions, Americans felt, were somewhat confirmed by the Bonus Army that appeared in Washington on 1932. The Bonus Army was a group of around 17,000 veterans from the Great War that wanted an advance on their bonuses that was to be given in 1945 (hopefully there isnt another war by then). The Senate rejected legislation for this, at Hoovers urging of course. The army camped out in Washington in response. To respond Hoover had them removed. Douglas MacArthur led the military force

that removed them. They used tear gas and forced the bonus army out, they burned all the shacks they had been living in.

Obviously with the brilliantly positive consensus of Hoover out, in the next election he lost. In his place was our current president Franklin Delano Roosevelt. When he gave his inauguration speech he reassured the American people of optimism with the most quoted line from the speech so first of all let me assert my firm belief that the only thing that we have to fear is fear itself.

Roosevelt gave many fireside chats where he would explain, on the radio, what the problems the country had and what his solution was as well as explaining

it. During his first hundred days and afterwards he created many programs to help Americans. One was the repeal of prohibition by Congress in February 1933, mainly to generate taxes. The banking act created the FDIC; this insured the bank deposits of individual citizens. The CCC was founded around this

time and employs over 2.5 million men, young men. This program provided conservation and forest programs to workers in exchange for a small amount of pay, which helped in a time of struggle. Under the National Industry Recovery Act, committees of union leaders and owners in each industry would try to agree on set prices, wages, working hours, and working expectations. The NRA was made to enforce the NIRA. The Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional in 1935. In an attempt to stop the decline in farm prices the AAA was made to pay farmers to not produce certain crops and livestock. Roosevelt was advised to do more even though wealthy Americans appalled him. The result was the Second New Deal which was yet another flurry of legislation. The Resettlement Administration was established in May of 1935, it offered bank loans to small farmers who faced

foreclosure, funds to keep help them find work were included. The WPA took people on relief and employed them because Roosevelt believed that the people shouldnt get handouts but they should work. This included fixing roads, bridges and buildings. The most important legislation was the Social Security Act, which was made to create a retirement plan for those who reach age 65. Workers and employers paid into this retirement plan. So it is no question, which president tried to look after the well being of the everyday American, and FDR did try to help recover us from Hoovers mess. I think we are blessed to have FDR because he is so great, like if any president was to not have internment camps for a single race out of nothing but paranoia and no logical reasoning or morality, it would be FDR, which it wont be.

By; Jasmine Rodriguez Dust Bowl and Okies 1930s

The 1930s was a dry time in the Plains. Evidence of this was the Dust storms that would blow off all the topsoil. Parts of Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Texas became known as the Dust Bowl. In 1932 there were 14 storms, in 1933 there were 38 storms, and in each year more and more storms came. Thanks to this, farmers lost topsoil on 100 million acres. Then on April 14, 1935 was the worst of these storms; winds were going at 60 mph. That day was known as black Sunday. Congress had to act so they passed the Soil Conservation Act. This dry time also affect the crops of course, since there wasnt any rainfall. Crops began to fail and this would

ultimately affect all of the United States. But this wasnt just Mother Natures fault. Farmers were planting crops that thrived in the wetter East. The Plains was no place for these crops. When the crops failed it left the ground exposed and the winds would carry the dust creating dust storms. The drought and depression caused many farmers to just up and leave to find a better job. Some farmers were able to scrape enough money together to buy a tractor, and then they could buy their neighbors land to cultivate more land. Tractors allowed on farmers to farm more land, but what happened to all the other farmers? Well some went to cities in search of work, and others moved to

the west coast. Many migrated to Washington, Oregon, and California. California had advertised that they had perfect weather and a high demand for agricultural laborers. So many migrated from Oklahoma that they began to call them Okies. California saw as many as 7,000 migrants coming to California every month. However, California didnt need these many workers. There just werent enough jobs for everyone. So cities like Los Angeles would send police men to the border of California to turn migrants back. They couldnt stay there forever, so once they left migrants came back. Californians saw the migrants as nuisances and

hobos thatll just take up space. Still some gave their sympathy to them because compared to the Mexican and Filipino workers, they were white. These migrants also came in families and had to often live all together in the back of a truck. They struggled to live and often just barley survived. John Steinbeck wrote the Grapes of Wrath during this time and he dramatically but honestly describes the situation in which these migrants lived in. Okies and migrants suffered through out this time, but some how they pulled through thanks to the efforts of FDR.

By: Ray Mora The federal government during this Great Depression wanted to become more involved in the economic life of the American people. President FDR came in with his New Deal seeking to get the American people out of the large hole Hoover had dug them in. Influenced by the Townsend movement, the Social Security Act was a welfare system to help the old and the unemployed. There was also the passage of the National Labor Relations Act, or the Wagner Act. Robert Wagner of New York wanted to dissolve unions in companies and unfair practices to collect for fair labor negotiations. The Wagner Act brought alive the American Labor Movement and a permanent change in the way labor was going to be managed. The Fair Labor Act which established which established minimum wages and maximum hours of work per week. There was bread lines for the poor and line for minorities, like AfricanAmericans and for the rich white people. The main parts of FDRs New Deal consisted of the AAA and the NRA and the alphabet soup agencies that he created, which were to reduce production and increase wages and prices. The reduction of production was supposed to increase prices of what was being made. Crops and milk were being thrown away to increase their prices. The other thing he did was change the monetary policy and take away gold from the people.

By: Steven Fonseca During the 1930s, the United States was facing the Great Depression which had to be handled by President Herbert Hoover. As president, Hoover was unsuccessful in achieving mos and was widely disliked across the country. However, his successor Franklin Delano Roosevelt did not face the same situation.Under Roosevelt, Congress passed the Good Neighbor Policy which reduced American political and militaristic influence in Latin America. With the reduced influence, America had a more peaceful relationship with the Latin American countries which would be pivotal if the USA ever engaged in war or with any other powerhouse nation. FDR was also facing a crisis with European nations on the brink of beginning another World War. Roosevelt however did not want any part of this war so Roosevelt had the Neutrality Acts passed. These would keep America isolated from any foreign affairs These neutrality acts included banning loans and the of arms to other nations and the new cash and carry system. This new system would aid the allied powers while the US remained neutral as long the allied powers were able to pay in cash and provide their own transportation.