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: . . ,

1
.
) :
i) pH < 7.

ii) [H3O+] > [OH-]

iii) pOH < pH

iv) pOH < 7

) o pH;
i) Cl
ii) HNO3
iii) 4Cl
iv) CH3COOH

) CH3COOH ClO4 .

i) Ka CH3 COOH

ii) pH

iii) [CH3COO ]

iv) [H3 O ]

. ,

)
i) 3 1-4Cl 1M

ii) HF 0.5M- KF 0,4M

iii) NaHSO4 1M- Na2SO4 0,8M

iv) HBr 1M- NH4Br 0,6M

)
i) CH3CH2COO-

ii) S2-

iii) HS-

iv) SO24

NH3 H2 O NH4 OH
Kc Kb 3 :
) b = Kc

) Kb = Kc 18

) b = c 55,5

) Kc = Kb [H2O]

) :
i) pH < 7
iii)

[ ]
0,1
[H]

ii) pH > PKa(H) + 1


iv)

[H] [ ]

) 2SO4 25C :.
i) pH = 7

ii) pH < 7

iii) pH > 7

iv) pH < 7 pH > 7


2,58 = 20

)
i) aOH 10-8 25C pH = 6
ii) Cl [H3O+] [OH-] .

. ,

iii) ClO .
iv) Brosted Lowry
.

HCOOH ClO .
v) HClO4 HCOO

ZHTHMA 2

] 25C 0,05M
:
Ca2+ , H3O+ , F- , OH-

)
) , .
) pH . F: Ka = 10-5
2 +2+4 = 8

] ) .

HCO3

3PO4

..

H2SO4

H2O

HNO2

. ,


3 +3 =6

) ( 1) ( 2) C=0.1M, , =25oC. 1 pH 2 ( <0.1)


) .
) 1 2 NaOH.
NaOH.
) ( 3) ( 4) C =25oC.
pH 3 4.
6

CH3NH2 Cl

25C.
)
) pH
.
) (pKa = 5) (pKa = 9.5)

.
3 <0,1
1+2+2=5

ZHTHMA 3
1 CH3COOH 0,6%w/v.
) CH3COOH 1;

. ,


) 200mL 1 CH3COONa,
, 2 pH pH
1. moles CH3COONa
CH3COOH 2.
) 400mL 1 200mL aOH 0,2 4L. pH 3.
) 1, 2 3 3 .
25 C,
CH3COOH: =10-5, =210-5 ,
, : w =
10-14,
C: 12, H: 1, O: 16
4+7+7+7 = 25

ZHTHMA 4
NH3() pH=11.
) 3
) mol NaOH 500mL ,
3 100 ;
) mol NH4Cl 2L pH ;
) mol HCl 400mL pH=5
. NH3:Kb=10-5 H2O Kw=10-14
4+7+7+7 = 25