You are on page 1of 310

) /73 (

1351

: - 1349

: ) (/ .
: : .1387

:292 . .

: 1351 /73.

978-964-387-490-2 :

:
:.

: --

:

8 1387 :2QE28/3/

551/7 :

1289216 :



:
:
:
:
* * * :
1387..........
* * * :
.



.
)(

.
)( .

)( .
.
)(
. )(
)( .

.

:

1-1
2-1
1-2-1
2-2-1
3-2-1
3-1
1-3-1
4-1
1-4-1
2-4-1
3-4-1
4-4-1
5-1
1-5-1
3-5-1
4-5-1
6-1
1-6-1
2-6-1
7-1
1-7-1
2-7-1
3-7-1
4-7-1
1

1
1
2
2
3
4
4
6
6
8
8
8
9
13
14
15
16
16
17
18
20
21
22
23
24
24
26

:

1-2

29
29
30


1-1-2
2-1-2
3-1-2
4-1-2
2-2
1-2-2
2-2-2
3-2
1-3-2
2-3-2
3-3-2
2

30
31
34
35
36
37
42
47
47
48
49
51

:

1-3
2-3
1-2-3
2-2-3
3-2-3
3-3 ) (
1-3-3
2-3-3
3-3-3
4-3
1-4-3
2-4-3
3-4-3
3

53
53
54
55
55
56
56
57
57
57
59
59
60
61
63
65

:

1-4
2-4
3-4
4-4
1-4-4
2-4-4
3-4-4
4-4-4
5-4
6-4


67
67
68
68
69
72
73
74
74
75
76
77125

78
78
79
79
90
93
97
98

1-6-4
2-6-4
7-4
1-7-4
2-7-4
3-7-4
8-4
4
:

1-5
2-5
3-65
1-3-5
2-3-5
3-3-5
4-3-5
5-3-5
4-5
1-4-5
2-4-5
3-4-5
4-4-5
5

101
101
102
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
108
109
109
109
110
110

:

1-6
2-6
3-6
4-6
1-4-6
2-4-6
3-4-6
6

111
111
112
113
114
115
115
116
118
123

:


1-7
1-1-7

125
125
126
127
127


2-1-7
2-7
1-2-7
2-2-7
3-2-7
3-7
1-3-7
2-3-7
3-3-7
4-7
1-4-7
2-4-7
3-4-7
5-7
1-5-7
2-5-7
3-5-7
6-7
1-6-7
2-6-7
3-6-7
7-7
1-7-7
2-7-7
3-7-7
7

129
129
130
131
133
135
136
137
139
141
141
143
146
147
148
148
151
153
153
155
162
164
165
166
168
169

:

1-8
1-1-8
2-1-8
2-8
1-2-8
2-2-8
3-2-8
3-8
1-3-8
2-3-8
3-3-8
4-8
1-4-8

173
173
174
175
176
177
177
178
180
181
182
183
186
187
188

2-4-8
3-4-8
8

189
192
195

:

1-9
1-1-9
2-1-9
2-9
3-9
1-3-9
2-3-9
4-9
1-4-9
2-4-9
5-9
1-5-9
2-5-9
6-9
7-9
1-7-9
2-7-9
8-9
1-8-9
2-8-9
35-8-9
9-9
1-9-9
2-9-9
3-9-9
10-9
1-10-9
2-10-9
11-9
1-11-9
2-11-9
3-11-9
4-11-9
9

199
199
200
201
203
203
204
205
206
207
207
210
211
212
214
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
222
224
226
227
227
228
228
229
232
233
234
243

245

249
253
281
289




.
.

.
:
 .
.

.
 .
.
 .
.
 . .
.
.
 . .

.

.

 .
.
.
.
 . .

.
.

.

. .

.
 .
.
 .

.

.
.
 .
)*(
.

.




:


:
 .
.
 . .
 .
.
.
.
.
.
 .
.
 .
.
 .
.
 .
.
 .
.



.
.
.

.


.

.

.

.

.



) (
.
.


.
 . .
 .
.
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
. .

. .

 . .
 . .

1-1
1

.
.

.
.
.
) ( .

.
.

.
.

.

2-1


. ) 548-640 (
1. Introduction to Historical Geology

352-430) 1 (
) ( .
) 480-586 ( ) (
)
( .
1-2-1
2
.
(1750-1817) 3 .

. :
 :
) ( ) ( .
 :
.
.
 :
.
 :
.
.
 :
.
)
( . 5
3. Abraham Werner

2. Neptunist

1. Xenophone

.
2-2-1

2 .

.
) ( .

.
) (
.
.

. :
 .
.
 . .
.
3-2-1
3 .

.
.
4 ) (1769-1832
.
3. William Smith

2. James Hutton

1. Plutonist
4. George Cuvier

.

.
.
1 .
) (
.
.
) (1797-1875
.


.
2 .
.
) (

.

.

.

.
.

2. Uniformitarianism

1. Catastrophism

3-1

4/567 ) (4/567109 .
) (
.
) (
4/404 .

.

4/567
.
)( .
100
. .
.

.
1-3-1


.
.
.
.

1799 1
.
.
1830 2
) 65 (
) 10000 (
80 .
1897 3 .
24-40
.
1899 4 .

.
) (
. 90-100
.

. 1860 3
1/6 1910 .
5

1896 .
.

4 .
) 4/4 (
) 3/96 ( ) 3/8
( .
3. Lord Kelvin

2Charles Lyell
5. Henri Becquerel

1. George Buffon
4. John Joly

4-1
1-4-1
15 .

.
. 12740 .
150 .
9 . :
.
5/9 248
. 9
. 34

.
.
.
)

( .
224 .
100 .
2-4-1
1 . %70
%27 %3 . 9

1. Solar system

) ( ) ( .
 . :1 ) 4-5/5
(
.
 . :2 )0/7-1/5
(
.
.
) (
.
.
3-4-1

.
.1 :
3
) (
. .

)(
.

.


2. Hot origin

1. Jovian

10

.

.
.2 )( :1 1900

.
2 3
. 4 .
.


.
.

.
 . :5 6
7
. ) (
.

. )
( -
5 6

.

3. Moulton
6. Von weizacker

2. Chamberlin
5. Solar Nebula

1. A cold origin
4. Planetesimal
7. Kuiper

11


.
.
.
-
.

) (
.
.

9 10 1 ) .(1-1

1-1
.
.
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004
1. Protoplanet

12


.
.
.
.

.

) ( .


) .(2-1 ) -5/5
5/1 (
) 0/71-2/47 (
.


.

2-1 :
:
. ) ( H ) ( He
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

13

4-4-1

%95
.
.
15 20

) .(1-1 15 1-1
.
1-1

)(Fe
)(O
)(Mg
)(Si
)(S
)(Ni
)(Ca
)(Al
)(Co
)(Na
)(Mn
)(K
)(Ti
)(P
)(Cr

)(%
5 /0
46/6
2 /1
27/7
0/03
0/008
3 /6
8 /1
0/008
2 /8
0/045
2 /6
0/442
0/105
0/010

)(%
36/0
28/7
13/6
14/8
1/66
2 /0
1 /7
1 /3
0/09
0/14
0/05
0/02
0/08
0/21
0/47

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

) (%
27/2
33/2
17/1
14/3
1 /9
1 /6
1 /3
1 /2
0 /1
0 /6
0 /3
0 /1
0 /1
0 /1
0 /3



.

.

14



.
2/7 3
. 5/5
.

.

5-1
12740
1 23
4 5 ) .(2-1
2-1

)(km

1027
)(cm3

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004


27

)(%

)(g/cm3

10
)(g


0 /1
0/00137
) 380(
1 /4
0/008
17
82/3
0/899
2883
16/2
0/175
3471
100/0
1/083
6371

0/12 * 8-10
1/03
2 /8
4 /5
11/0
5/52

0/000005
0/00141
0/024
0/016
1/936
5/976

)(%
0/00009
0/024
0 /4
67/2
32/4
100/0


. .
12
.

3. Crust

2. Hydrosphere
5. Core

1. Atmosphere
4. Mantle

15


4/6
.
.


.
1-5-1


. ) :(3-1
 7000 ) 3500 (
.
1 2 .
 2900 .
%82/3 .
670 .
) 100-200 ( ) 3( .
670-2900
.) 4(
. 100
.

.
)( .
3. Asthenosphere

2. Inner core

1. Outer core
4. Lithosphere

16

3 -1 .
. .
200 .
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

2-5-1

.

.
.

. 1.
:
2

4 .
3-5-1
300
.
) :(3-1
) (%21 ) (%78 ) (% 0/03 ).(%0/09
3. Gutenberg discontinuity

2. Moho discontinuity

1. Disruption
4. Leman discontinuty

17

3-1
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

)(

)(

) (%73 )(%99

)(%78

) (%21 ) ( ) (%12

)(%0/9


) (%0/03 ) (

)(

) (

) (

) (

) (


.
4/56
.
6-1
1
1912
.
1596 2
.

.

2. Abraham Ortelius

1. Alfred Wegener

18

.
1620
1 2
.

1900

) ( .
.

.
.
1950
. 1960
7

. 4 5 6 .

.

.

8 .

1-6-1

) (
) .(4-1
100 .
3. Pangaea
6. Harry Hess

2. Benjamin Franklin
5. Bruce Heezen
8. Plate tectonic

1. Antonio Snider-Pellegrini
4. Robert S. Dietz
7. J. Tuzo Wilson

19


.
.

4-1 ).(Doyle et al., 2001


) .(4-1
4-1


) .(5-1
.
.
.

) .(5-1
.
.


.


) .(5-1

20

5-1

.
.

2-6-1
) :(5-1
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
5-1




) .(6-1
.

) .(7-1
.

) .(8-1
.

.



200 .
.

6-1
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

7-1
) (1380

8-1 )(1369

21

22

7-1
1

1890
Orogeny .

)
( .
.


.
.

.
.

.
2 .
.
.
3 .
.



. .
.
3. Peripheral orogenes

2. Interior orogenes

1 Orogeny

23

.
1-7-1
1

2
.
3 4 5 6 7
8 .

9 10
.
11 )( .

.
.
.
: .
2-7-1
12
.
416-444 .
13 .
.

3. Atlas
6. Hellenide
9. Carpathean orogeny
12. Caledonian orogeny

2. Alpide orogeny
5. Dinaric Alps
8. Caucasus
11. Cimmerian plate

1. Alpine orogeny
4. Pyrenees
7. Taurus
10. Hellenic orogeny
13. Caledonia

24

.
.
.
.
)
2

.
.
. -
-
3
. -
4
.
3-7-1

. 6

) 310-390 (
.
7 .

.

3. Laurasia
6. Hercynian or Variscan orogeny

2. Tornquist Ocean
5. Varisci

1. Laurentia
4. Acadian orogeny
7. Armorican orogeny

25

.

. .


.
4-7-1
1


.
.
.
.
.

.


) .(6-1

1. Uralian orogeny

26

6-1

11

12

10

13

14

15

16



17

18


) 1/84-1/85 (
.
.
1/7 .
1/6
.
.
) 1-1/3 ( .

.


. .

.

.

.
.

.

.

.

.

.
.
.

2. Hudsonian orogeny
3. Mazatzal orogeny
5. Avalonian orogeny
6. Taconic orogeny
8. Antler orogeny
9. Alleghenian orogeny
11. Ouachita orogeny
12. Nevadan orogeny
14. Sevier orogeny
15. Pan-African orogeny
17. Cimmerian & Cathayasian orogenies18. Himalayan orogeny

1. Penokean orogeny
4. Grenville orogeny
7. Acadian orogeny
10. Sonoma orogeny
13. Laramide orogeny
16. Aravalli Orogeny

1
.1
.

.2
.

.3
.

.4
.

.5
. .
. .
. .
. .
.6
.

.7
.

.8
.

27

28

.9
.

.10
.


.
 . .
 . .
 . .
 .
.
 . .
 . .
 . .
. .

. .

30

1-2

.

.
2 3
.
4

.

.
1-1-2

.
7
.
) .(1-2

1-2

8 .
.
9 .

1. Fundamentals of Relative Dating 2. Stratification
3. Bedding
4. Strata
5. Steno Laws
6. Principle of Superposition
7. Nicholas Steno
8. Principle of Original Horizontality
9. Principle of Original Lateral Continuity

31


.
:
 .
 .
 .

.

.
.

.

.

.
2-1-2

.
. :1
.
.

) .(2-2
1. Principle of Intrusive Relationships

32

2-2 1
C B A : .D 2
B A : .C 3 B A : .C

. :1
.
.


) .(3-2

3-2
B A C D E
. D B A C

. 2 :3
) 2(
.


.
2. Principle of Components

1. Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships


3. Inclusions

33

) :(4-2
 . .
 . .
 .
. .

4-2

1
.
) ( .

.
.
.

) .(5-2

5-2

. :2
2. Principle of Fossil Succession

1. Xenoliths

34

.
) ( .
.

.
1

. :
.
.
.
.
.
)(
.
.

.
3-1-2
3

.


4 .
.

3. Unconformitie

2. Unconformable

1 Conformable
4. Hiatus

35

1
2 3 4 .
:
.





.



.
 )
(.

) (.
 )
(.
 )
(.
4-1-2
5
.
3. Disconformity

2. Non-Unconformity
5. Igneous Contacts

1. Angular Unconformity
4. Paraconformity

36


) .(6-2

6-2


. )
(


) .(7-2

7-2 :
:

2-2

1. Absolute Dating

37

.

.
.


. ) (
1896


.

.
1-2-2

.
)
(
.
1 2 .

. 3
.

)
.(8-2
3. Half life

2. Daughter elements

1. Parent elements

38

8-2 .

. )(50-50
)(Gore, 2004


.
.

) .(1-2
1-2

1/25
48/8
14
4/47
704
5730


40
87
208
206
207
14

)(Gore, 2004


40
87
232
238
235
14


. .

.
.
.

39


.

.


.
 . .
 .
.
 .

.
 .

.


.
:
. - :
) ( 235 238 .
235 207 238 206
.
235 238 .
. 238
235

40

. .

.


.
.
. - : 87 87
. 87
. 87
87
. 87
87 87
. ) 4/7 (
) (
.
. - : 40 1/3 .
40
40 40 . 89 ) 40(
40 .
40 40
. 11 40
40
. 40
40
.
.

41


)(
- .
. :14 14

) ( . 14
) 5730(
70000 .
12 14 .
) ( 14 12.
14
14
14 . 14
12 ) .(9-2

. .
.
14 .
14
. 14
14
. 14 14
14 14
.
) .(10-2
14 12 .

42

9-2 14 14 .
) (p (C14) 14 .
14 ) (Co2 .

10-2 14 .

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

2-2-2
. : 1897
20 40
.

.
.

43


.
. : 1899
.

.

80 90 .

.

.
. :



.
:
.
.

.
. :
.

. 1 ) .(11-2
1. Varve

44

11-2
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004


.
) ( .
. :

.
) .(12-2

12-2 Heliophyllum
.
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

. :
.
.

45

.
.

.
) .(13-2

13-2 -
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

. :
) (L ) (D
.

.
200-100000 .
. :
.

.

. 500
.
. :
238

46

.
.

)
.(14-2

.
.

14-2
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

. :

.
) ( .
.

.
.
.
1. Fission tracks

47

3-2
1




. .


:
1-3-2
2

.

.
.
: 3 4 5 ) 6 .(2-2
2-2

.

.

.

.



3. Bed
6. Group

2. Lithostratigraphical units
5. Formation

1. Stratigraphical units
4. Member

48




.
2-3-2
1

.
) (
.
2

) :(3-2
3-2





.

.

.


.


) (

2. Taxon range zone

1. Biostratigraphical units

49

.
.
3-3-2
1

2 ) .(4-2

.

3
4 .
5
6 .


.
7


8 .

.
9

10

.
. 11
3. Chronozone
6. Age
9. System

2. Time stratigraphical units


5. Stage
8. Epoch
11. Devon

1. Chronological units
4. Chron
7. Series
10. Period

50

.
.
1
2 .

.

.
.
.
3 .
4
. .
4-2


.
) (15-2
.

3. Eonothem

2. Era

1. Erathem
4. Eon

51

15 -2 )(.

80 .

)(Doyle et al., 2001

2
.1
.

.2
.

.3

52

.
.
.
.
.4
.

. .

.5 3 1

.

.6
. 40

. 40

. 40

. 40

.7

. -

. 14

. -

. -

.8 14
. 14 14

. 14 16

. 14 14 . 14 12
.9
.

.10
.




.

.
.


.
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
. .

. .

54

1-3

.
.
:
 . 1 .
 . 2
.
 . 3
.
80
.
.

.
.
.
4 5

.

.
.

.
.

3. Metamorphic Rocks
6. Terrigenous

2. Sedimentary Rocks
5. Detrital

1. Igneous Rocks
4. Clastic

55

.

.

2-3
:
 .
.
 .
.
 . .
1-2-3

.
.
.
) (
) ( )
( ) :(1-3
1-3

2
.
.

) 1/16-2( .
.
.
1/16
. .

56

2-2-3

. ) (

.

) :(2-3
2-3


.
.
) (SiO2 .
.
) (%15
.
.
19/5 P2O5
.
) (%50 .
.

3-2-3
.
.
. 1
. 2 .
.
3 .
) (
4 .
3. Lignite

2. Coal

1. Peat
4. Bituminous coal

57

1 .
.
.
- - - - .

3-3 ) (
1-3-3
2 ) (
.
.
.
.
.
.
)
( .
2-3-3
3 .

.
) 1-3( .
.
4

.

) 1-3( .
3. Transgressive

2. Facies

1. Anthracite coal
4. Regressive

58

. .
.

1-3 : :


. :
 . ) (:
 )( .

60-70 .
 )( .
100

.
 . :

)(.
 . : 8000-10000

300 .

59

3-3-3
1
.
.
.
2

4-3



.
.
) ( )( ) .(2-3

2-3 )(Doyle et al., 2001


2. Depositional Sedimentary Environments

1. Walther's Law

60

1-4-3

.
. :
) .(3-3

3-3
) (
)(Gore, 2004

. :2
.
.

.
) ( .
.
. :3
. .

. .

.
. :4
3. Glacial environments

2. Alluvial fans

1. Continental environments
4. Lacustrine environments

61

.
) ( .
.
.
)
( ) ( .
.
2

. :1
3 4 . 5 6
7 ) ( .
.
. .
.
. :8
.
.

.
. .
. :9 .
.
2-4-3

10

.
) .(4-3
3. Meandering
6. Levees
9. Swamps environments

2. Braided
5. Bars
8. Aeolian environments

1. Fluvial environments
4. Stream
7. Floodplains
10. Intermediate environments

62

4-3 )
( )(Gore, 2004

. :1 .
)
(
.
)( .
.
.


.
)(
.
.
. :2
.
.
.
. .
2. Barrier islands

1. Delta

63

.
.
. :1
.
) 2 ( .
.

.
.

.
.
. :3 . )
( .
.

.
.
.
3-4-3
4 .

) .(5-3
.

3. Tidal flat

2. Atolls

1. Lagoons
4. Marine environments

64

5-3

. :1 .
10000
. .
1 ) 200(
.

.
. 2 :3 .
5-25 .
.

4 .
. :5
)
(
.
. :6

.

3. Continental rise
6. Reefs

2. Continental slope
5. Abyssal plain

1. 5. Continental shelf
4. Turbidity currents

65

30 .
1
. - .

.
2 .

3
-1
.

.2
.

.3
.

.4
.

.5 :
.

-6
.

2. Bikini Atoll

1. Zooxanthellae




.
.

)(
.


.
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 .
.
 . .
. .

68

. .
 .
.
 .
.

1-4
1

.
. )
( ) ( .

.
2-4
.
.
:
 . .

.
 . .
 . .
.
 . .
) (
1. Fossilzation

69

.
.
.

.


.

3-4



) .(1-4
1-4


.



. )(

) 1-4 .(3-4



.
) 4-4 .(6-4
.

:

) 7-4 .(8-4


.

70

1-4
)(Gore, 2004

2-4
)(Gore, 2004

3-4
)(Arnold, 1947

4-4

)(Gore, 2004

5-4

71

)(Gore, 2004

6-4

)(Gore, 2004

7-4

8-4

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

:
.

.

72


.
.
.

1.
2 .

.
. 3 )
( .
.

4-4
4

.
.
.
.



.

.
3. Snapsho

2. Deposit places

1. Lagersttten
4. Paleoecology

73


:
:1

.
.
3
4 .
.
1-4-4


) pH (
) (
.
.
5 .
) ( )( )( .
.
. 34-36 .
.

.
. .

.
3. Habitat

2. Ecological system
5. Aquatic

1. Ecosystem
4. Community

74

.

.
2-4-4
:
. 1 200.
. 2
:
 . 3 200-4000.
 . 4 4000-6000.
 . 5 6000 .
11033 .


.
.
. .
3-4-4
:
. 6
.
7

.
3. Bathyal zone
6. Plankton

2. Oceanic region
5. Hadal zone
8. Zooplankton

1. Neritic region
4. Abyssal zone
7. Phythoplankton

75

. 1
.
. 2 .
3 4
.
5
6.
4-4-4
7


8 . ) (

.
.
) (
) ( .
:
. 9 .
. 10 .
. 11 .
. 12 .
. 13 .
. 14
.
3. Epifauna
6. Sessile benthos
9. Parasite
12. Deposit feeders or Detritus feeders

2. Benthos
5. Vagrant benthos
8. Hetreotroph
11. Suspension feeders
14. Decomposers & Transformers

1. Nekton
4. Infauna
7. Autotroph
10. Scavenger
13. Grazers

76

5-4

. :1
2 3 4) 5( 6 .7
.
8


9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16
17 ) .(9-4
.

.
) .(2-4

.
) .(2-4
.
.
18 .
19 .

.
.
.
3. Class
6. Genus
9. Animals
12. Protoctista
15. Eukaryota
18. Prokaryota

2. Phylum
5. Family
8. Plants
11. Protista
14. Domain
17. Archeobacteria

1. Kingdom
4. Order
7. Species
10. Fungi
13. Monerea
16. Eubacteria
19. Extreme conditions

77

9-4 .
.
2-4

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

6-4

.
. .

.
) .(10-4

78

10-4 )(Prothero & Dott, 2004

1-6-4

.
.
. 1/8 .
.
2-6-4

.
) 1 (

.
. DNA
.
.

.
1. Monophyletic

79

7-4
) ( .
20 .

.
1 .
.

)(
.
2

1-7-4



.
.
. 8
.
:
: 3
.
4

:
.
1 3 .5
6 7 ) .(11-4
3. Porifera
6. Stellispongia

2. Invertebrate Macrofossils
5. Raphidonema

1. Chordata
4. Spongea
7. Pronidella

80

:
.
:- .

11-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

:
: 1
. 2 .
:
.
. ) (
) ( .
.

.
.
: .

.
: - .

.
2. Colentrata

1. Cnidaria

81


1 )(
)( .2
3 5 6 7 8 9
) 12-4 .(14 -4
: - .

12-4 ) (1377

13-4 ) (1377

14-4
3. Calceola
6. Syringopora
9. Isastrea

2. Zaphrenties
5. Halysites
8. Montlivaltia

)(Ball, 1983b

1. Anthozoa
4. Tabulata
7. Acropora

82

:
: 1 .
: )(

.
.
.
.
2 3 ) .(15-4
:
.
: - .

15-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

:
: 4 ) Brachio Pod
( .
:
.
- - .
3. Idomona

2. Constellaria

1. Bryozoa
4. Brachiopoda

83


. .

. 1 2
3 ) 16-4 (18-4
:
.
: - .

16-4

)(Ball, 1983b

17-4

)(Ball, 1983a

18-4 )(Ball, 1983a

:
: 4 Mollis .
:
.
.
3. Billingsella

2. Rhypidomella

1. Lingula
4. Mollusca

84


.
1 2 34
5 6 7 8 .
.
:
.
.
: - .

: .

. .
9 10 11 ) .(19-4
:

.
.
: - .

19-4 )(Ball, 1983b


3. Monoplacophora
6. Bivalvia
9. Venus

2. Solenogastres
5. Scaphopoda
8. Cephalopoda
11. Chlamys

1. Caudofoveata
4. Polyplacophora
7. Gastropoda
10. Pecten

85


: .
) (
. 1 2 3
) .(20-4
:
.
: - .

20-4

)(Ball, 1990


: .
.
. .
.
4 5 )( ) .(21-4

.
: .
.
:-
3. Buccicum

2. Trochus
5. Douviliceras

1. Strombus
4. Mantelliceras

86

21-4

)(Ball, 1983b

:
1

: .
:
. .
.

.
.
) ( )
( ) (
.
:
.
:- .

: 2

. 3 4 5
).(22-4
3. Phacops

2. Trilobita
5. Agnostus

1. Arthropoda
4. Olenellus

87

: .

.
: -.

22-4

)(Ball, 1983a

:
: 1 .
:
.
.
.
. 2
3 ) ( )
( ) (4
) 5 (6 .
.
: .

.
: - .
3. Carpoids
6. Edrioasteroidea

2. Homalozoa
5. Holothuroidea

1. Echinodermata
4. Ophiuroidea

88


: .
1


.
. 2 3

) .(23-4
: )
6000(
.
: - .

23-4

)(Walker & Ward, 1996


: 5

.
. . 6 7
) .(24-4
:
.
:- .
3. Petrocoma
6. Micraster

2. Saccocoma
5. Echinoidea

1. Crinoida
4. Pentacrinites
7. Conolus

24-4

89

)(Ball, 1983b

:
: 1 ) ( .
:
. :
.
.
: .
:- .

4

:
.
.
.
. 2 3

) .(25-4
:
.
:-.

3. Nemagraptus

2. Tetragraptus

1. Hemichordata
4. Cyrtograptus

90

25-4

)(Ball, 1983a

2-7-4
1
. .

.
.
.
.
.
.
:
2 .
. : 3
4
.5
. 6 7
) .(26-4

26-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989


3. Agnatha
6. Pteraspis

2. Fish
5. Gnathostome

1. Vertebrate Macrofossils
4. Lamprey
7. Coccosteus

91

:
1 .
.

.
. .
2
. 3 ) .(27-4

27-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

:
4
. .

.
. 5 ) .(28-4
6

28-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989


3. Microsaur
6. Anthracosaurian

2. Crossopterygian
5. Hylonomus

1. Amphians
4. Reptiles

92

:
1 .
. 9000
.
.

.
.
. 2 3
) .(29-4

29-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

:
4 .

5 .
6

) 20-30( -
) .(30-4
3. Diatryma
6. Morganucodon

2. Phorusrhacus
5. Therapsida

1. Aves
4. Mamals

93

30-4
)(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

3-7-4
1
.
. .
:
: 2
) ( .
: 3

.
. 50-500 .
.
) (
) (

) (
) .(31-4
3. Palinomorphs

2. Palyn

1. Microfossils

94

: .
:- .

31-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

:
: 1
.
:
} {Ca3 (PO4)2 0/2-3
. 4 1/8
.
.
) 2 (3
) .(32-4
: .
:-.

3. Hibardella

2. Polygnathus

1. Conodonts

95

32-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

:
: .
: 1
.
0/1 0/5 .

. 2 3 4
) .(33-4
:
.
:-

33-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

3. Alievium

2. Pterocanium

1. Radiolaria
4. Theocamp

96

:
: 1
.
:
.

. .

.2
3 4 5
) .(34-4
:
.
:- .

34-4 )(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

3. Quinqueloculina

2. Textularia
5. Globigerinoides

1. 5. Foraminifera
4. Cyclammina

97

8-4
.

. 1 2
3 4 .
.


.
) .(35-4

35-4 )(Arnold, 1947

5
.
) :(3-4

3. Gymnosperm

2. Spermatophyta
5. Palaeobotany

1. Pteridophyta
4. Angiosperm

98

3-4

4
.1
.

. .

.2
.

. .

.3
.

.4
.

.5
.

.6
.

.7
.

.8
.

.9
.

.10
.

.11
.

.12
.

.13
.

99

100

.14
.

.15
.


.
.

. .


.
 . .
 . .
 . .
 .
.
 .
.
 . .

102

1-5


.

.
) 5 (
) %50 ( 1 .
)
( .
:
.1 .
.2 .

.
. 550 ) ( 5
.

.
65
.

2-5
.

:
1. Mass Extinction

103

.1
.
.2
.
.3
) ( .
.4
.

.

.
:
 .
.
 .

.

.
.

3-5


) .(1-5

104

1-5

)(Doyle et al., 2001

1-3-5
-
.
444-447
.


.
100
%49 .

.
) (%30

.
.

105

) (
.
2-3-5

.
.
) (
.
) (
.
. 364

.

. 22
) ( 57 %75
.
.

.
.

) (
)(
)( .
.

106



.
. ) (

.

.
3-3-5


.
)( .
) ( .

.
- ) (P-Tr
251
.
%96 %70
.

) ( .

) (
.

107


.
.

.
-
. ) (
.
.
4-3-5

.
. %22
.

) (

. .

. -

.

.
.
.

108

5-3-5
.
)(
) ( .
.
- ) %85 (K/T
.

.
) (
)(
) ( .
) (
.

.


.

.
.
.

4-5

.

109

1-4-5
.
. %80
.

.

.
2-4-5

.

.
.
) ( .
) (
) ( .
3-4-5
. 9
11 .
) 39( .

.

.

110

4-4-5
10000 .

.

) (
.
.

)( .

5
.1
.

.2
.

.3
.

.4
.

.5
.





.
.


.
 .
.
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
. .

. .

112

1-6

4/6
.
. -
4-5 .
:
. . . . 4/6

. 4/4
4/404
.
.
3/8
.
.
1 2 3
. %90
) :(1-6
1-6 )(Doyle et al., 2001

3. Obscure life




2. Cryptozoic

1. Precambrian Eon

113

:1 3/8 . .
:2 3/8 2/5 . :3 2/5 600 .

.
. :
 . : .
 . : .
 . : ) (
.
 . :4
.
 . : .

2-6
3/8
.
3/46 .
100 .
.
600 .
543-600
.
.
3. Proterozoic

2. Archean
5. Vendian biota

1. Hadean
4. Transition Eon

114

) 544 ( 1
2
3.

3-6


. 4 .
) .(1-6 ) (
.
.
. -
- .
550
5 ) .(1-6

1-6

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

6 2/2

3. Cambrian explosion
6. Huronian

2. Burgess fauna
5. Pannotia

1. Small shelly fauna


4. Rodinia

115

. -
1 600 .
2.

.
.

4-6
1-4-6
4/6
.
.
)( .

.

) ( .
:
 . 3 4
.
 . .
. 1/8-2/5 .

. ) (O2 %2
.
. 5
.
3. Pyrite

2. Snowball Earth
5. Anaerobic

1. Sturtian-Varangian
4. Urananite

116

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
) 1
( .
.
.
4/6
3/8 .
800
.
3/8 .
3/8
. .

.

2-4-6
) 2 ( 800
.
2. Archaean Era

1. Supernova

117

. .

.
. .
.

. .
.
.
.
.
.
.

. .



. 1 .


.
. .
.
:
 . .
1 Precambrian Shields

118

 . 1
.
.
 . )(
) .(2-6
.
- .
3/4-3/8 .
.
3/5 .
)( 3-3/1
. .

2-6
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

3-4-6
2/5 543
. .

.
.
1. Greenstone belts

119

.

.
:
) ( ) (
) ( .
 . :1 ) 1/6 -2/5
( .
 . :2 0/9 -1/6
.
 . :3
900 .
:
543650 ) ( .
: 3/8
.
.
.
) .(3-6
.

. 700
.
.
3. Neoproterozoic

2. Mesoproterozoic

1. Era Paleoproterozoic

120

. 540
.
.

3-6
) 1/6 ( )(Prothero & Dott, 2004


.

.
.
)
( .

)
( .
543-650 .

1 .
. .
1. Vendian fauna

121



540
.
.

.
3/8 .
.
543-650
.
. :
.
543-650 .

.
.

.
.
:
.
.
.

.
.

122

.
.

.
.
. : 560

) .(4-6

.
.

.
.
)(
.
)
( .

.
.

4-6
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

123

. : 2/2
. 1

. %1
. 1/8 %15
. 2 3 .
.
.
.


3/5
.
.

.

6
.1
. .
. .
. .
.
.2
.

3. Oxygen Catastrophe

2. Pollution crisis

1. Paleosols

124

.3
.

.4
.

.5
.

.6
.

.7
.

.8
.

.9
.

.10
.





.

.


.
 . - .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
. .

.
.

126

 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . .
 .
.


. 545
.
.
.

. )
( . 19
) 2 ( 1950
.
)
(
) 3 (
.

.
3. Trichophycus pedum

2. Metazoa

1. Phanerozoic Eon

127



.
.

1-7
1 Palaio Zoion

. ) 300 (
251 -545 .
.


.
%90 .
.

: .
.

.
1-1-7

2 .

2. Sophisticated

1. Paleozoic Era

128

1
.
300 .

.
.
.
.
)(
) (
) (
.
.

.
.
.

) ( )
( .

.

.

) .(1-7
1. Archeocyathids

129

1-7 )(Prothero & Dott, 2004



. 244
.
.
2-1-7

.
.
.

2-7
1 2 .
2. Cambria

1. Cambrian Period

130

.
542
488/3
.
.

. .
1-2-7
1 .
.
. ) :(1-7
: 2.3
: 4.5
: 6 7.8
1-7 )(Harland et al., 1989

500-570 .

. 20
. 2002
3. Dolgellian
6. Tommotian

2. Maentwrogian
5. Menevian
8. Lenian

1. Furongian
4. Solvan
7. Atdabanian

131

) 488/3-542 ( .


.
13
. ) (13
- .
.
13 .

5420/3 .
.

2-2-7


.

.
) 5
( ) .(2-7

2-7
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

132

.
.

.

. 1 2
) .(3-7
3 4 5
.

.

3-7 )(Ball, 1983a


6

) ( ) .(4-7
7 8 9 ) .(5-7

4-7 )(Ball, 1983a


3. Edrioasteroids
6. Hyolithids
9. Eodiscus

2. Obolella
5. Helicoplacoids
8. Olenus

1. Lingulella
4. Eocrinoids
7. Paradoxides

133

5-7 )(Ball, 1983a



.
.

.
)
( .
.

.
.
.
3-2-7

.
.
.
1
1. Gondwana

134

.
.
) ( .
.

.
) .(6-7

6-7 .

)(Doyle et al., 2001


.
.
1 .
2 3 4 .
.
.
.
.
.
3. Iapetus

2. Proto-Tethys

1. Panthalassa
4. Khanty

135

.
.

.
.
.
.
.

3-7
1
. 2
3 1879 .
4 5 .
.

. .

. 1906
.

)( .
.

.
.
3. Charles Lapworth

2. Welsh
5. Roderick Murchison

1. Ordovician Period
4. Adam Sedgwick

136

.


.
%60 %25 .
1-3-7
488/3 44/6
. 443/7
%60 .
2006
. 10

.
.

) :(2-7
: 1 .2
: 3 .4
: 5 .6

.
) (
.
- -
. .
3. Lanvirnian
6. Arenigian

2. Ashgillian
5. Tremadocian

1. Caradocian
4. Landeiloian

137

.
2 .
3 . .

.
.
2-7 )(Harland et al., 1989

2-3-7
.

4 5 ) (6 ) (7
.
12

8 9 10 . 11

.
.
.

. 13 14 15
3. Dobs Linn
6. Cyclonema
9. Cyrtolites
12. Diabolocrinus
15. Parabolinella

2. Parakidograptus Acuminatus
5. Sowerbyella
8. Sinuites
11. Protaxocrinus
14. Asaphellus

1. Dictyonemid
4. Nicolella
7. Modiolopsis
10. Orthoceras
13. Shumardia

138

.
. 1 2
) 7-7 .(11-7
.
)
(3
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
4
5 .
.
. .

.
.

7-7 )(Ball, 1983a

3. Ostracoderms

2. Petilograptus
5. Latest Ordovician

1. Dictyonema
4. Liverworts

8-7 )(Ball, 1983a

139

9-7 )(Ball 1983a

10-7 )(Ball, 1983a

11-7 )(Ball, 1983a

3-3-7
.

140

. .

.
) (
) .(12-7

12-7 .
-
.


.
.
.

. )
(
. ) (
.
. )
( .
.
.

141

1 .
.

.

4-7
2


) 443/7 ( ) 416 ( .
.
.
1830 . 3
) ( .
.
.
.
. .
.
.

.
1-4-7
) ( ) (
.
4 5 6 7
3. Silures
6. Ludlow

2. Silurian Period
5. Wenlock

1. Midcontinental
4. Landovery
7. Pridoli

142

) .(3-7
.
.

.
1 . 2 3
4 . ) 423-428 (
5 .
6 .

. 7 8 9 .
3-7 )(Harland et al., 1989

) 419-423 (
10 . 11 12 .
) 417-419 (
13

. ) (
14 15
3. Aeronian
6. Pterospathodus amorphognathoides
9. Gleedonian
12. Ludfordian
15. Fungochitina kosovensis

2. Rhuddanian
5. Cyrtograptus centrifuges
8. Whitwellian
11. Gorstian
14. Urnochitina urna

1. Akidograptus ascensus
4. Telychian
7. Sheinwoodian
10. Neodiversograptus nilssoni
13. Monograptus parultimus

143

. .
2-4-7

. .1
2 3 .
4 5 6
.
.
7 8 9 .
) (10 11
.

.
12
. .

) 13-7 .(20-7
.
.
.
.
13 .

. 14

3. Sagenocrinites
6. Plectatrypa
9. Thecia
12. Errettopterus

2. Periechocrinites
5. Atrypa
8. Ketophyllum
11. Acanthodians
14. Psylophyton

1. Eucalyptocrinites
4. Dolerorthis
7. Kodonophyllum
10. Osteichthyes
13. Cooksonia

144

.
2

. 1

.
3.

13-7 )(Ball, 1983a

14-7 )(Ball 1983a

15-7 )(Ball 1983a

16-7 )(Ball, 1983a

3. Ascomycete
6. Pteronitella
9. Loxoplocus

2. Lycopod
5. Cardiol
8.Poleumita

1. Rhyniophyta
4. Fuchsella
7. Bembexia

145

17-7 )(Ball 1983a

18-7 )(Ball, 1983a

19-7 )(Ball, 1983a

20-7 )(Ball, 1983a


3. Ananaspis

2. Deiphon

1. Encrinurus

146

3-4-7


.
) 1
( ) .(21-7 -
)(

. 2
.
.

) ( .
. 3
4 .

.
.

21-7 .
-
)(Doyle et al., 2001
3. Rhic

2. Caledonian orogeny

1. Euramerica
4. Ural

147



) .(4-7
4-7

5-7
1 . 2

.
) 416 ( ) 359/2
( .


. .
2. Devon

1. Devonian

148



.

1 .
1-5-7
.
) :(5-7
: 2 .3
: 4 .5
: 6 7 .8
.
5-7 )(Harland et al., 1989

2-5-7

. ) (
.
) 22-7 .(26-7
.
3. Frasnian
6. Emsian

2. Famennian
5. Eifelian
8. Lochkovian

1. Old Red Sandstone


4. Givetian
7. Pragian

149

22-7 )(Ball, 1983a

23-7 )(Ball, 1983a

24-7 )(Ball, 1983a

11

10

25-7 )(Ball, 1983a

12

26-7 )(Ball, 1983a

3. Productella
6. Actinopteria
9. Murchisonia
12. Manticoceras

2. Cyrtospirifer
5. Buchiola
8. Serrpulospira
11. Dechenella

13

1. Mesoplica
4. Cucullaea
7. Euryzone
10. Trimerocephalus
13. Tornoceras

150


1 )
( .
.
2


) .(27-7 3
) 4 (
)( . ) (5
.
.

27-7 )(Ball, 1983a

.
6 )(
. .
)( .
.
.

. 7 8 .
3. Sarcopterygiians
6. Tetrapods
9. Sphenophyte

2. Cephalaspis
5. Cladoselache
8. Trimerophyte

1. Stromatoporoids
4. Lobe-finned fish
7. Zosterophyll

151

. 9
1 2 .
.) 3
(
. .
) .(28-7

.
.
.

.

.
.

28-7 )(Arnold, 1947

3-5-7
.
) (
3. Archaeopteris
6. Horneophyton

2. Progymnosperm
5. Psilophyton

1. Fern
4. Rhynia

152

) .(29-7 .
- -
.

.
.
.
-
.

.

.
.

.
.

.
.

29-7 .
)(
)(Doyle et al., 2001

153

6-7
1 .
.
.
.
.
) ( ) ( .
.
) ( 2
.
.

.

.

.
. .
1-6-7
)
323-354 ( ) 290-323 (
.
. 3
4 .
) :(6-7
3. Dinantian

2. Amniotes

1. Carboniferous Period
4. Silesian

154

: 1 2 3 .4
: 5 6 .7
6-7 )(Harland et al., 1989

8 .
9

10

.
11


12 13 .
.
.

.
.
12
.
.

.
.
3. Moscovian
6. Visean
9. Sphaeroschwagerina fusiformis
12. Milerella pressa

2. Kasimovian
5. Serpukhovian
8. Siphonodella sulcata
11. Declinognathodus noduliferus

1. Gzhelian
4. Bashkirian
7. Tournaisian
10. Pseudoschwagerina beedei
13. Milerella marblensis

155


.

. .
.
.
.

.
.

.
:
.
.

%35 %21 .
.
1 .
2-6-7

) ( .

.
.
1. Gigantism

156

.


.
.
2 3 .
.
.
) (
) .(38 -7

30-7

1 2 3 4
6

) .(30-7 5

7
) .(31-7 8
9 10.
.
11 12 13
) .(32-7 .
14 15 .
3. Schwagerina
6. Climacammina
9. Girtycoelia
12. Palaeosmilia
15. Archimedes

2. Tritisites
5. Stacheia
8. Cotyliscus
11. Lithostrotion
14. Polypora

1. Stafella
4. Verbeekina
7. Endotyranopsis
10. Titusvillia
13. Aulophyllum

157

. 1 2 3
) .(33-7 4 5.
.
: 6 7 ) 8 .(34-7
.
9

10

11 ) .(35-7

12

13 14 15
) .(36-7

16

) 17 (18 ) .(37-7
.

. 19 ) .(38-7
20 .
.
21 22 ) .(39-7

23

) ( .
.

) .(40-7

.

3. Leptagonia
6. Aviculopecten
9. Mourlonia
12. Goniatite
15. Homoceras
18. Brachymetopus
21. Orophocrinus

2. Rhipidomella
5. Discinia
8. Lithophaga
11. Straparollus
14. Goniatites
17. Eocyphinium
20. Blastoids
23. Elasmobranchs

1. Spirifer
4. Crania
7. Posidonomya
10. Soleniscus
13. Gastrioceras
16. Proetids
19. Platycrinites
22. Orbitremites

158

31-7 )(Ball, 1983a

32-7 )(Ball, 1983a

33-7 )(Ball, 1983a

34-7 )(Ball, 1983a

35-7 )(Ball, 1983a

159

36-7 )(Ball, 1983a

37-7 )(Ball, 1983a

38-7 )(Ball, 1983a

39-7 )(Ball 1983a

40-7 )(Ball 1983a

3. Cladodus

2. Helodus

1. Orodus

160


. 1
7
2 3 4 5 6
. .
8 9 10 .
30 1/5
11 14 .
16 17.
22 30-60
20 . 24 ) 6 30
( .
25
. 26 27 28
) .(41-7

.

29

3. Lycopodiales
6. Medullosales
9. Callistophytales
12. Halonia
15. Fronds
18. Neuropteris
21. Caulopteris
24. Cordaites
27. Sphenophyllum

2. Sphenophyllales
5. Filicales
8. Cycadophyta
11. Lepidodendron
14. Sigillaria
17. Cyclopteris
20. Sphenopteris
23. Sphenophyllum
26. Asterophyllites
29. Rhacopteris

1. Equisetales
4. Lepidodendrales
7. Cordaitales
10. Voltziales
13. Lepidophloios
16. Pecopteris
19. Alethopteris
22. Calamites
25. Walchia
28. Annularia

161

41-7 )(Arnold, 1947

1. Sigillaria

162

1 2
.

.
.
. 3
35 .

.
.
. ) ( .
2
4 . 15 .
.
.


. .
.

. .
3-6-7
.
.
.
3. Archaeoptitus

2. Myriapods

1. Insects
4. Lepospondyl

163

.
) .(42-7
.

.
.
.

42-7 .
)(Doyle et al., 2001

) (O .
) (O
) .(43-7

43-7 .

)(Doyle et al., 2001

164

) 1
(
. .
30
. .

.
.
.
.



.
2

7-7

290 248
. )
( . 1840
.
.
.

.

.

2. Permian Period

1. Epicontinental seas

165


.
.
. ) (
.
.
1-7-7

1 2 3 4 .
) 10( .
.
)( .
.
) :(7-7
5 : 6 7 8 9 .10
11 : 12 13 14 .15
7-7 )(Harland et al,. 1989

3. Guadalupian
6. Changxingian
9. Wordian
12. Kungurian
15. Asselian

2. Chihsian
5. Zechstien Epoch
8. Capitanian
11. Rotliegendes Epoch
14. Sakmarian

1. Uralian
4. Lopingian
7. Longtanian
10. Ufimian
13. Artinskian

166

2-7-7

) 44-7 .(46-7
.

.
) 2( ) 3( .

.
.
.

.

.
. 1 .

.
4


. 5 6 .
7 8
) 47-7 .(48 -7
9 .
.

10

) ( .
3. Diptera
6. Synapsid
9. Archosaurs

2. Coleoptera
5. Sauropsids
8. Sphenacodon

1. Ginkgos
4. Temnospondyli
7. Edaphosaurus
10. Cynodonts

167

44-7 )(Ball, 1983a

45-7 )(Ball, 1983a

46-7 )(Ball, 1983a

47-7 .
.

)(Benton, 2005
3. Spiriferellina
6. Bakevillia

2. Pterospirifer
5. Psudomonotis

1. Dielasma
4. Parallelodon

168

48-7 . 3


)(Benton, 2005

3-7-7
.
) (
.
) .(49-7
.

.
)
( .
. )
(
.
) ( )
(
.

) .(8-7

169

49-7 .
.
)(Doyle et al., 2001

8-7

170

7
.1
.

.2
.

.3
.

.4
.

.5
.

.6
.

.7
.

.8
.

.9
.

.10
.

.11
.

. - .
.12
.

.13
.

.14
.

.15
.

.16
.

.17
.

.18
.

171

172

.19
.

.20
.

.21
.

.22
.

.23
.

.24
.

.25
.


.
 . .
 . .
 .
 .
.
 . .
 . .
 . .
.
.

174

1-8
1 .
2 .
3 .
)
( .
. ) Meso

Zoion ( .
.
) ( .
4
.
.
. 180 )65-251
( .
) :(1-8
) 199/6-251 (.
) 145/5-199/6 (.
) 65/5-145/5 (
1-8 )(Harland et al., 1989

-
%90 %70 .
3. Secondary

2. Giovanni Arduino

1. Mesozoic Era
4. Speciation

175


.
.
. .
1
. -

. %50
.
1-1-8

.
.
) (
.

) (
.
.
.

.
.
) (
.
1. Placental mammals

176

2-1-8

.
.
) ( .
.

.
.

.

.
.

.
200 .

.

.
.

. )
10( .

2-8

177

1
2

.
1834
. :
) ( .
200-251 .

. .

) -( .

- . .
)(
.
.
.
1-2-8

.
3 4 5 .
) :(2-8
: 6 7.8
: 9.10
: 11 12.13
3. Bunter sandstein
6. Rhaetian
9. Ladinian
12. Nammalian

2. Alberti
5. Kupper
8. Carnian
11. Spathian

1. Triassic Period
4. Muschel kalk
7. Norian
10. Anisian
13. Griesbachian

178

2-8 )(Harland et al., 1989



2-2-8
:

- .

.

.
.
1 2 3 ) .(1-8

1-8 )(Ball, 1983b


.
) ( .

.
3. Atreta

2. Modiolus

1. Chlamys

179


1 . ) (
.
. ) .(2-8

2-8

)(Arnold, 1947

-
. ) 7 (

.
) (
) .(3-8
.
3. Voltzia
6. Albertia

2. Otozamites
5. Williamsonia

1. Ginkgophyta
4. Glossopteris
7. Lissamphibia

180

3-8 1
.
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004


.
. ) (
.
2
.
.
3-2-8

.

) .(4-8
)
( . .

.
.
.
2. Ornithodira

1. Lisstrosaurus

181


.
.

1 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

4-8 .
)(Doyle et al., 2001

3-8
2 200
) ( 148 ) (
. .
- .
3 4
3. Alexandre Brogniart

2. Jurassic Period

1. Estheria
4. Jura Mountains

182

. 62

.
. )
( .
.
.
1-3-8

.
) :(3-8
2

: 1 .
: 4 5 6.7
: 8 9 10.11
3-8 )(Harland et al., 1989

3. Oxfordian
6. Bajocian
9. Pliensbachian

2. Kimmeridgian
5. Bathonian
8. Toarcian
11. Hettangian

1. Tithonian
4. Callovian
7. Aalenian
10. Sinemurian

183

2-3-8

. ) (5-8
) (6-8 .
:
)( . 62 ) 7-8 .(12-8
) .(8-8 ) ( ) 9-8 .(10 -8 ) .(11-8
.
1

2 3 .
.
) 4 ( .

.
.

5 -8 95
)(Walker & Ward, 1996
3. Megalosaurus

2. Ceratosaurus

1. Bennettitales
4. Coelurosaur

184

6-8 4 )(Walker & Ward, 1996

7-8 )(Ball, 1983b

10

11

8-8 )(Ball, 1983b

3. Arnioceras
6. Macrocephalites
9. Stephanoceras
12. Morrisithyris

2. Oxynoticeras
5. Sonninia
8. Perisphinctes
11. Spiriferina

12

1. Echioceras
4. Lytoceras
7. Pavlovia
10. Sphenorhynchia

185

9-8 )(Ball, 1983b

10-8 )(Ball, 1983b

11-8 )(Ball, 1983b

10

11

12-8 )(Ball, 1983b

12


.
3. Myophorella
6. Purpuroidea
9. Stomechinus
12. Cylindroteuthis

2. Cardinia
5. Phyllocheilus
8. Nucleolites
11. Acrocoelites

1. Oxytoma
4. Eucyclus
7. Hemicidaris
10. Passaloteuthis

186

.
.
.
1
2 3 4 5 6 .
7 ) .(13-8
) (
) ( .

13-8 )(Arnold, 1947

3-3-8

. ) (
.
10 ) .(14-8
.
.

.
3. Pinaceae
6. Taxodiaceae
9. Baiera

2. Cephalotaxaceae
5. Taxaceae
8. Nilssonia

1. Araucariaceae
4. Podocarpaceae
7. Tree ferns
10. Neotethys

187

14-8 .
.
)(Doyle et al., 2001

4-8

2
) 146 ( ) 65/5
( 81 .
.
. Creta 2
3 1822
.

.
.
4 5 .

.

.
.
3. Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy

2. Chalk
5. Pachycepalosaurid

1. Cretaceous Period
4. Ceratopsian

188

.
1-4-8
.
.
) :(4-8
: 1 2 3 4 5.6
: 7 8 9 10 11 .12
13
.
.
.


. 65/5 .
- .
4-8 )(Harland et al., 1989

3. Santonian
6. Cenomanian
9. Barremian
12. Berriasian

2. Campanian
5. Turonian
8. Aptian
11. Valanginian

1. Maastrichtian
4. Coniacian
7. Albian
10. Hauterivian
13. Neocomian

189

2-4-8
) (1
.
.
. :
2 3 4 .
.
) .(15-8


.
.

. .
.
6

) .(16-8 )
( ) ( ) (
. 7 ) (
. .
.
) 17-8
.(25-8 .
10

8 9

11

) .(26-8
3. Planes
6. Teleosts
9. Globotruncana

2. figs
5. Rays
8. Bulimina
11. Gavelinella

1. Anthophyta
4. Magnolias
7. Hesperornithiformes
10. Globorotalites

190

15-8 )(Arnold, 1947

16-8 )(Ball, 1983b

17-8

)(Ball, 1983b

3. Elatocladus
6. Doryderma
9. Bathycyathus

)(Ball, 1983b

10

19-8

18-8

11

)(Ball, 1983b

2. Cycadeoidea
5. Squalicorax
8. Parasmilia
11. Onychocella

1. Windwardia
4. Cretolamna
7. Siphonia
10. Palmatopora

191

20-8 )(Ball, 1983b

10

21-8 )(Ball, 1983b

11

22-8 )(Ball, 1983b

13

23-8
3. Ancistrocrania
6. Entolium
9. Inoceramus
12. Anchura

12

14

)(Ball, 1983b

2. Terebrirostra
5. Aetostreon
8. Rastellum
11. Viviparus
8. Micraster

1. Orbirhynchia
4. Neithea
7. Birostrina
10. Tessarolax
13. Catopygus

192

24-8 )(Ball, 1983b

25-8 )(Ball, 1983b

26-8

)(Kalantari, 1976

3-4-8
)(-

3. Douvilleiceras
6. Mortoniceras
9. Belemnitella

2. Hamites
5. Scaphites
8. Actinocamax

1. Deshayesites
4. Mantelliceras
7. Hobolites

193

.
- - .
-
.- -
. -
- .
.
) 27-8
.(28-8

.

.

.
.

. 1
.

.
.
15-20 .

15 .

1. Deccan Traps

194

.
.

) (
.
.

27-8 . -
.
-
)(Doyle et al., 2001

28-8 .
.
.
)(Doyle et al., 2001


) .(5-8

5-8

)(

)(

)(
)(

195

8
.1
.

.2
.

.3
.

196

.4
.

.5
.

.6
.

.7
.

.8
.

.9
.

.10
.

.11
.

.12
.

.13
.

.14
.

.15
.

.16
.

.17
.

.-

.18
.

197






.
.


.
 . .
 . .
 . .
 . - .
 . .
 . .
 . .
. .

. .
 . .

200

 . .

1-9
1

Kainos
Zoe .
65/5 - ) (T/K
.
.
.

)( ) .(1-9
) ( 2 3 .
65 -1/8
.
1/8
. .
. 1760 1770
4
. .
5.


.


.
3. Quaternary

2. Tertiary
5. Primitive

1. Cenozoic Era
4. Giovanni Arduino

201

1820 1830

. .
.
.

.
%90 .
. %18
%9/5 .
.

.

.
.
1-9

)(Harland et al., 1989

1-1-9
.

.

202

.
. 1
. .
.

.
.
) (1-9
) (
2 . 3
.
.
.

.
.

.
. .

1-9
- )(Kalantari, 1965
3. Nummulites acutus

2. Nummulitic period

1. Globigerinid

203

2-1-9

.
.
.
.
.
2

2-9

2 65/5
23/03 . 42
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
) .(2-9
. )(
) ( .
2-9

)(Harland et al., 1989

204

3-9



.
65/50/3 55/80/2 .
.

. 1
.
.
-

.

.
) 54/8-55/5 (
.
- 2 .

.

4 ) .(3-9
3-9

)(Harland et al., 1989

2. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum


4. Thanetian

1. Paleocene Epoch
3. Danian

205

1-3-9
-
.

. - .
.
.

.

.
.

.


.
. 10

) ( .

.
) (
.
.
1 64/5
1. Hadrosaur

206

.

.
.
) (

1 . 2

.
.
.
.
2-3-9

. .

.
.

.
.
.
.

.

3. Berruornis

2. Ogygoptynx

1. Gastornis

207

.
. .
.
.

4-9
eos ceno
. ) 1 33/90/2
55/80/2 (
.
.
. ) 2
(
3.

) :(4-9 45
6.7
4-9

)(Harland et al., 1989

1-4-9

.
3. Chesapeake Bay
6. Bartonian

2. Grande Coupure
5. Lutetian

1. Eocene epoch
4. Ypresian
7. Priabonian

208

.
) .(2-9
.
.
.
.

.

.
.

.


.
.
.

.
) (1 2
) .(3-9
.

10 .
%60 .
2. Primates

1. Phenacodus

209

.
.
1
2 3 .

)
( .
. 4
) .(4-9 5
.
6 .

)( .
8
.
.
.

50 .

2-9
3. Rodents
6. Mesonychids
9. Glyptostrobus

2. Proboscidians
5. Basilosaurus
8. Moeritherium

10

)(Arnold, 1947

1. Bats
4. Carcharinid sharks
7. Sirenians
10. Taxodium

210

3-9 ) 90( .

.
. 1
).(Walker & Ward, 1996

4-9 )(Ball, 1990


:1 :2 2 :3 3 :4 4 :5 5

2-4-9
.
.

. 45
) (

. .
3. Striatolamia
6. Galeocerdo

2. Otodus
5. Odontaspis

1. Condylarthra
4. Procarcharodon

211


.

.

.
.
)
(
-
7
100000 .
.


.
. 45
.
.
) (CH4
10 24 .

5-9
1

34 23
. Oligos Ceno
.
1. Oligocene Epoch

212

.
.
.

) (
. -
.
1

) :(5-9
5-9

)(Harland et al., 1989

1-5-9
.

.
.
.
.
3 4 5
6 7 .
8 9 ) .(5-9

. ) (

3. Lychee
6. beech
9. Bulrushes

2. Chattian
5. pine
8. Sedges

1. Rupelian
4. Cashews
7. Roses

213


.
. 1 23
4 5 ) .(6-9
. 6

. .
7 .
. 8
.
.
9 10 11 12 ) .(7-9

13

5-9

14

)(Arnold, 1947

6-9
)(Benton, 2005
3. Enteledont
6. Choristodera
9. Streptolathyrus
12. Cornulina

2. Indricotherium
5. Mesohippus
8. Pinnipeds
11. Bartonia
14. Sassafras

1. Brontotherium
4. Creodont
7. Eurotrochilus
10. Sycostoma
13. Sterculia

214

7-9
:1 :2 1 :3 2 :4 3

)(Ball, 1990
4

2-5-9
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.

6-9
5 23/030/05
.
) .(6-9

3. Bartonia

2. Sycostoma
5. Neogene Period

1. Streptolathyrus
4. Cornulina

6-9

215

)(Harland et al., 1989

.
) ( .

.
) (
)
( .
) (
.
.

.
.
.

7-9
1 20/03 5/332
. .
Meioon Kainos
) %18 (
.
.
1. Miocene Epoch

216

.

) :(7-9
1 2 3 4 5 .6
7-9

)(Harland et al., 1989



.
.
1-7-9



.
.
.

.
.

3. Langhian
6. Messinian

2. Burdigalian
5. Tortonian

1. Aquitanian
4. Serravallian

217


. .
1

) 2 3
(4 ) .(8-9 )
( .

8-9

)(Kalantari, 1976

2-7-9
.

.

.

. .
- 12 19 )
-( .

.

3. Quinquloculina

2. Cibicides

1. Kelp
4. Ammonia

218

.

. 21 14
. 8

. 7 8
.
.

8-9
1

5/332 1/806
.
. .
.
Pleion Ceno
.
.

.

.

2 3 ) .(8-9
8-9

3. Piacenzian

)(Harland et al., 1989

2. Zanclean

1. Pliocene Epoch

219

1-8-9

. .

.
. .

. 1
2
3 ) .(9-9

. 4 5
6 .
7 8
9 .

10 11 12 )
(
.
.

.
.
.
13 14
3. Homo erectus
6. Opossums
9. Chalicotheres
12. Glyptodonts

2. Australopithecines
5. Gomphotheres
8. Tapirs
11. Sloth
14. Antelopes

1. Hominins
4. Mastodonts
7. Rhinos
10. Armadillo
13. Stegodonts

220

. .
)( 1
.
) .(9-9
.

9-9

) 2 (
) 3 ( 4
. 5 .
6
.
) ( .
.
.
2-8-9

2002 2
- 8
3. Diprotodonts
6. Titanis

2. Wombats
5. Platypus
8. Scorpius-Centaurus

1. Saber-toothed cats
4. Dasyurids
7. Supernovae

221

150
.

.
3-8-9

. 250 70
.
) .(10-9


. .
.
.
.
.
3 .
.

10-9 .
)(Doyle et al., 2001

222

9-9
1 1/808
11/550 .
Pleistos Kainos
.
.
. 2
.

.
) :(9-9
4

3 .
.
9-9

)(Harland et al., 1989

1-9-9
.


.
. 10
) .(11-9
3. Calabrian
6. Mammoths
9. Short-faced bears

2. Paleolithic
5. Tyrrhenian
8. Neanderthal

1. Pleistocene Epoch
4. Sicilian
7. Teratorn
10. Mammoths

223

) (12-9 ) (13-9

. 1 .


2 .


.

.


.
3
. 1960

.


.
.

.
.
.
3. Homo sapiens

2. Short-faced bears

1. Neanderthal

224

11-9

)(Selden & Nudds, 2004

12-9 )(Selden & Nudds, 2004

13-9 )(Selden & Nudds, 2004

2-9-9
100

.
40
. %30

225

.
.
) (-6 )(0
.
1500-3000 .
100 . )
(
.

.

) ( .
.
.
. 1
.
.
.

2 . - 3
.
.

.

. .
3. Fenno-Scandian

2. Laurentide

1. Ruwenzori Range

226

.
.
3-9-9
) ( .
.
.
1 2 .

.
) 10-9 .(11-9
10-9

1 2 3

5
4
3

9
8
7

13
12
11

17
16
15

4
6

10

14

18

11-9

1

2
20
19

-
-
23
22

26
25

29
28

3. Gnz
6. Wrm
9. Saalian
12. Anglian
15. Nebraskan
18. Wisconsin
21. Riss-Wrm
24. Eemian
27. Ipswichian
30. Sangamonian

2. Interstadial
5. Riss
8. Elsterian
11. Beestonian
14. Devensian
17. Illinoian
20 Mindel-Riss
23. Holsteinian
26. Hoxnian
29. Yarmouthian

3
21
-
24

27

30

1. Stadial
4. Mindel
7. Eburonian
10. Weichselian
13. Wolstonian
16. Kansan
19. Gnz-Mindel
22. Waalian
25. Cromerian
28. Aftonian

227


.
1 .

.
.
)(
.

10-9
2 11/430130
) 10/000 ( .
) ( . Holos

Kai-ne .
3 .
.

4 5 6 .
1-10-9

.


.

15. Alluvium Epoch


18. Neolithic

14. Holocene Epoch


17. Mesolithic

1. Milankovitch cycles
16. Epipaleolithic

228

2-10-9
10000 ) 1(
) .(14-9
35 . 40
180 .

.
.
.
.

.

. 3000 ) 19000
( .

14-9 .
)(Doyle et al., 2001

11-9
.

.

229

.

.
)(
.
.
1 .

.

1-11-9
2
:
3

.

.
.
3. Tetrapods
6. Synapsids
9. Mammals

2. family tree
5. Amniotes
8. Cynodonts

1. Occipital condyle
4. Amphibians
7. Therapsids

230

.
1 2 3 ) .(15-9

.
.
) ( .

15-9
.
.

.


:
4

. 5 ) (
.
.
.
) (6
3. Allantois
6. Anapsida

2. Chorion
5. Sauropsids

1. Amnion
4. Mammal- like reptiles

231

) (1
) .(16-9

16-9 .

)(Benton, 2005


2
.
.

.
:
) ( ) (
) ( . )
( )
( .
.
.

2. Pelycosauria

1. Diapsida

232

) ( . .
.
.
. .

. .
.
2-11-9
70 )
( .
.
.

.
.
.

.
) (
.

.
.

.
1. Archosaurs

233

1
.

.
3-11-9
)( .
150
.
.
.
.

.
.
: 2
6

.3 4 5

. .

.

.
) ( .
.
.
. .
3. Placental
6. Koala

2. Marsupial
5. Opossum

1 Neocortex
4. Kangaroo

234


.

. 150

. .
1.
4-11-9
.
.
.
150
. )
( ) (
.
. .
.
.
.
2
3 .
-
.
.
) 15 (
3. Purgatorius

2. Protungulatum

1 Mammals Age

235

) .(17-9
22

.
.
.


.
.
.
.
-
.
.
.
) (
)
(
. .
.
.
1 .
2
.
.
2. Condylarths

1. Browers

236

17-9 .

.
1
.
2
.

.
.
.

.
3
.
) ( ) 4 (
6
) 5 (
) (
7
)(
9
) ( ) 8 (
) 10
)(Prothero & Dott 2004
3. Glires
6. Carnivorans
9. Whales

2. Marsupials
5. Insectivorans
8. Perissodactyls

1. Multituberculates
4. Archontans
7. Artiodactyls
10. Tethytheres

237


. 2/4 .
1
. ) .(18-9

18-9 .
.

.
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

2
. )
2. Creodonts

1. Mesonychids

238

(
.

.
) 10
(
. .

.
.

.
) ( .
.

.

.


.

.


.
.

239


.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.

.
. )(
.
)
1 (2 .

3
.
.
) .(19-9
3. Equus

2. Miohippus

1. Mesohippus

240

19-9 .
.

.
.
)(Benton, 2005


.
.
.
.
) 1 2 ( .
6 20 ) .(20-9
.
2. Indricotherium

1. Paraceratherium

241

20-9
.
6 .
. )(Prothero & Dott, 2004

1 .

.
.
. )
( .
. 2
.
.
3 .

.
. )(
3. Shovel-like

2. Mastodonts

1. Artiodactyls

242

) .(21-9

21-9 .
.
.
) (
.
.
.

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

243


) .(12-9
12-9

9
.1
. - -

. - -.

. - -

. - -.

.2
.

.3
.

.4
.

.5
. -

. -

. -

. -

.6
.

244

.7
.

.8
.

.9
.

.10
.


.1
.

.2
.

.3
. 40

. 40

. 40

.4
.

.5
.

.6
.

.7
.

.8
.

246

.9
.

.10
.

.11
.

.12 .
.

.13
.

.14
.

.15
.

.16
.

.17
.

247

.18
.

.19
.

.20
.

.21
.

.22
.

.23
.

.24
.

.25
.

.26
.

248

.27
.

.28
.

.29
.

.30
.

.31
. .
. .
.32
.

.33
.

.34
.

.35
.


.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

.10


.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

.10


.1

.2

.6

.7

.3

.4

.5


.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

.10

.11

.12

.13

.14

.15


.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

250


.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

.10

.11

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

.10

.11

.12

.13

.14

.15

.16

.17

.18

.19

.20

.21

.22

.23

.24

.25


.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

.10

.11

.12

.13

.14

.15

.16

.17

.18


.1

.2

.3

.6

.7

.8

.4

.5


.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

.10

.11

.12

.13

.14

.15

.16

.17

.18

.19

.20

.21

.22

.23

.24

.25

.26

.27

.28

.29

.30

.31

.32

.33

.34

.35

251



1
.
) 543-565 (
.
.
)(

.
)
( .

) (
.
. 2 .
1946 3
4 1950 .

5 .

3. Reg Sprigg

2. Flinders Ranges
5. Sea-pens

1. Ediacaran biota
4. Martin Glaessner

254

. )
(
.



.


.

) 543-565 ( .
.

-
.
.
.


. .

. 1
.
) ( .
2 3 .
3. Parvancorina

2. Spriggina

1. Dickinsonia

255

1
.


. 100
.

.
.
.

.

6 .
:
:Parvancorina minchami


. ) .(1

Parvancorina minchami
)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001
1. Charniodiscus

256

:Spriggina floundersi .
10
) .(2

2 Spriggina floundersi
)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001

:Dickinsonia costata .
.
.

) .(3

3 Dickinsonia costata
)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001

:Charniodiscus arboreus
.
40 ) .(4

257

Charniodiscus arboreus
)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001



.

).(Donovan& Lewis, 2001

. 1
.
. . . 2
1886
.
.
3


1907 .
1908 . 30
1909 .
.
3. Charls Walcott

2. R.G. McConnell

1. Yoho National Park

258

.
1 .
65000
.
2
. 1930 20
3 .

. .




.
.
.
)
( .

. )
( 100 .

.
.
.

3. Raymond Quarry

2. Percy Raymond

1. Walcott's Quarry

259

.
6 .
.
. 1
.

- .
- 110
.

.
.
2
.
30 .
. 20

.
:
 .
.
 .

.

.
2. Olenoides serratus

1. Maotianshan shales

260

:
:1
.
. 25
) .(5

)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001

:2 .
.
. ) .(6

)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001

:3
) .(7

7
3. Eiffelia

)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001


2. Canadaspis

1. Marrella

261

:1 .
.
) .(8

)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001

:2 ) ( .
.
) .(9

)(Stearn & Carroll, 1989

:3 ) .(10

10
3. Echmatocrinus

)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001


2. Canadia

1. Olenoides

262

:1 .
. .
) .(11

11

)(Donovan & Lewis, 2001

) 155 (
.
.
.
.
.

.
.

.


3 .
.


.
3. Plattenkalk

2. Solnhofen Limestones

1. Pikaia

263

.

.

.
.
.
) (
.
) 12 .(13

12

13

)(Selden & Nudds, 2004

)(Selden & Nudds, 2004

3
4

.
3. Archaeoptery

2. Protolindenia

1. Saccocoma
4. Archaeopteryx lithographica

264

. .

. .

50 .
.
.


.
) 14 .(15

.
.
)( .
)(
) .(16
.
.

14 50 )(Walker & Ward, 1996

15

265

)(Selden & Nudds, 2004

16 : :
)(Benton, 2005

1 160
. 230
) ( 65
)
.(34-9
.
.

.
1. Dinosaurs

266


.
.
) (
.


.

34-9 .
.

1818
1 1842
2 .
3 4
.
2006 527 .
.
7

5 6

.
8 9 .
3. = Deinos
6. Quadrupeds
9. Ankylosaurus

2. Saurian
5. Bipeds
8. Velociraptor

1. Richard Owen
4. = Saura
7. Ammosaurus

267

.
.

.


.

) ( ) .(35-9

35-9 :

1
.
.
.

) .(36-9 .
.
.
) .(37-9
. )
( ) (
.
1. Archosaurs

268

36-9 1

37-9 2


.
.

) (3
.
.
200 33/5
.
.
.
4 500 5000
63 850
3. Magnitude

2. Sauropod

1. Theropod
4. Bill Erickson

269

.
863 )
( . -
.




.

.
.
.

1907-1912 .
12
33-66 .
27 1907 .

.

88-121
40 2 .
18 3 .
4
16-18 9 .
5 6
3. Sauroposeidon
6. Mapusaurus

2. Supersaurus
5. Giganotosaurus

1. Argentinosaurus
4. Spinosaurus
7. Carcharodontosaurus

270

. .
1 2 3 60
. .

.


4 230
- 20
- %95 .
5
.

.
.
8

6 7

.

.

.
- 65

.
.

3. Saltopus
6. Ornithodirans

2. Parvicursor
5. Eoraptor
8. Lagerpeton

1. Microraptor
4. Archosaur
7. Marasuchus

271


:
: : : - :

:2

- :

: ) (. 3 1887
)( :
5

. 4

. )
( ) .(39-9
) ( )
( . .
. 6

) .(39-9

.
.
) (
.
3. Harry Seeley
6. Bird-Hipped

2. Dinosauria
5. Saurischian

1. Archosauria
4. Lizard-Hipped
7. Ornithischian

272

. .
1
.

.

39-9 .

)(Prothero & Dott, 2004


2 .

.

) (
)
(
.
.


65
2. Maniraptors

1. Temporal fenestrae

273

. .


.
1970 .

.
.
1

1970
65/5
. 2

) 40-9 .(41-9
5-15 3
4 170 ) (41-9
.
.

.

.

.

.
3. Yucatn Peninsula

2. Iridium

1. Walter Alvarez
4. Chicxulub Crater

274

40-9
- )(Doyle et al., 2001

41-9 ) (
)(Prothero & Dott, 2004

. )(
.


.

.

275

.

25-100 .
) 25 ( .
50 .
.
12 32-35
) %21( .
.
) .(41-9

.

.

.
:
:1
. 10 5 4-5
.
.

. 5-15
.
.
.
1. Iguanodon

276

:1
.
27 8 14
70 .
.
.
.
.

:2
.
S
.
.

15 . 12
2. Allosaurus

1. Diplodocus

277

5 1400 . 90

.
5-10 .

:1 8-9 2/75
3100 .

.
. 17
. 76 .
.

.
.

1. Stegosaurus

278

:1
.
.

. 12-16
. 26
33-88 .

.
.
- .

:2
.
.
.

2. Compsognathus

1. Brachiosaurus

279

. 3 .
11 . .

:1
.
.
) 1(
.
3
.
- . 9 3
6-12 .
.
.
.

1. 2. Triceratops

280

:1 2
.
.
.
.

. 3
.
.
. 12/4 4/6-6
5-7 . 1 .

3. T. rex

2. Tyrannosaurus rex

1. Tyrannosaurus

Absolute dating

Abyssal plain

) (

Abyssal zone

Acme zone

Acrozone
Aeolian environment

Age
Alleghenia orogeny

Allochem

Alluvial fan

Anaerobic

) (


Angiosperms

Angular unconformity
Antarctica
Anthracite coal
Ants

)(

Arnaceous

B
Barrier islands
Bars

Bathyal zone

Bats

Beach

Beach islands

)(

Bed

)(

)(

Archaen

Arkose

Atolls

)(

Asymmetrical ripple

Argillaceous

Asthenosphere

Aquatic

Asteroidean

Arenites

Assemblage zone

)(

Artiodactyls

)(

Aphids

Aregillites

Arthropoda

Bedding
Beech
Bifurcate
Biological weathering

) (

Biomicrite
Bionomial nomenclature
Biosparite
Biostratification

282

Biostratigraphical units

Bioturbation

) (

Bipeds

Bird hipped

Bituminous coal

Bituminous shale

Bivalvia

)(

Blastoids

Bog iron ore

Borings

Braided stream

Breccia

Bulrushes

) (

Chelicerata

Chemical weathering

Chert

Chordate

Chronological units

Chronozone

Clast

Clastic sediments

)(

Claystone

Cleavage

Coal measures

Coccolithophore

Cocoliths

Burgess shale

Community

Burrows

Conformable

Calirudite

Cambrian

Cambrian explosion

) (

Carbonate rock

Continental rise
Continental environments

Continental slope

Coprolites

Carboniferous

Carbonization

Continental crust

Continental shelf

Cast

Conglomerate

Chalk

) (

Catastrophism

Caudofoveata

)(

Cement

Coquina
Core
Corss lamination
Cretaceous
Crinoida
Cross bedding

Cenozoic

)(

Cenozone

Crustacean

Cephalopoda

Cryptozoic

)(

Crust




  

Elephants

Crystalline limestone

Eon

Cyanobacteria

Eocene

Eonothem

Epicontinental seas
Epipaleolithic
Epoch
Era
Erathem

Eukaryota

Euramerica

Eurasia
Evaporates
External mold
Extrabasinal
Extreme conditions

F
Ferns
Fibrous
Figs
Fissile
Fission tracks
Flint

( )

Cystoids

Daughter elements

Decomposers

Delta

Deposite feeders

Depositional sedimentary environments


Detrital sediments
Detritus feeders

Devonian

Devonian explosion

( )

Diatomite

Diatoms

Dinosaurs
Disconformity

Dolostone

Dripstone

Dunes

Floodplain

Flowstone

Echinodermata

Flute marks

Echinoidea

( )

Ecosystem

Fluvial environments
Foot wall

Footprint

Formation
Fossil

( )

Ediacara fauna

Ediacaran
Ediacaran biota

( )

284

Gastroliths

)(

Gastropoda

Gigantism

Hyaenas
Hypersaline

Giraffes

Ichnofossil

Glacial environments

Ichnology

Glaciation
Glassy
Gondwana
Graded bedding
Granular
Grapolites
Grasshoppers
Graywack
Grazers

Igneous contacts

Igneous rock

)(

Inclusion

Inner core

Insecta

Interference ripple

Internal mold

) (

Interpluvial

Interstadial

Greenhouse age

)(

Greenstone belt

Group
Gymnosperms
Gypsum

Interval zone

Intrabasinal

Intraclast

Intraclastic limestone

Intertidal

Intrusive

Invertebrate

Hadal zone

Hadean

Half life

Jasper

Hanging wall

Hardness

Hercynian orogeny

Hiatus

)(

Histirical geology

Holocene

Homo sapiens

Jurassic

Kelp

L
Lacustrine environments




  

Milankovitch cycles

Mineral

Laminae

Mollusca

Lamination

Monoplacopgora

( )

Layering

Life position

Mudshale

Lignite

Mudstone

( )

Nebular hypothesis

Lithostratigraphical units

Neolithic

New red sandstone


Non- conformity
Normal fault

O
Obscure life
Ocean

Lizard hipped
Luster

Macrofossil

Mammoths

Mantle
Marine environments
Marsupials

Mass extinction

Matrix

( )

Member
Mendering river
Mesolithic

Oceanic region

Mesoprpterozoic

Ooilds

Oligocene

( )

Oceanic crust

Old red sandstone

Lithic sandstone

Neritic region

Lithosphere

Neogene

Neoproterozoic

( )

Nebulae

Litharenite

Neanderthals

Levees

Laurentia

Mudcrack

Myriapoda

Monotermes

Lake

Miocene

Monophyletic

( )

Lagoon

Mesozoic
Metamorphic rock
Micrite

( )


( )
( )

286

Physical weathering

Pine

Pinnipeds

Pisolite

Oolite
Oolitic limestone

Opal

Ordovician

Placental

Ostracoda

Pleistocene

Outer core

Pliocene
Plutonic igneous rock


( )

Pluvial

( )

Polymorph
Polyplacophora

( )

Poorly sorted

Palaeogene

Paleocene

Paleocene- Eocene thermal maximum

Paleoecology

Primates

( )

Paleolithic

Primitive

Paleozoic

Principal of superposition

Prokaryota

Proterozoic

Pangea

Pannotia

Panthalassa
Paraconformity
Parasites
Parent elements

Peat

Pellet

Peloidal limestone
Perissodactyls
Permian

R
Radiolarian

( )

Quartz sandstone

Paleoproterozoic

Paleosoil

Principal of original lateral continuity

Qartz arenite

( )

Principal of original horizontality

Precambrian shields

Precambrian

Proboscidians

Ozone layer

Petrification

Raindrop prints

Phanerozoic

Recrystalization

Phosphatic rock




  

Silurian
Skeletal limestone

Sloth
Small shally fauna
Snowball earth
Sole marks

Reefs

Regressive

Relative dating

Replacement

Reverse fault

Rhinos

( )

Ripple

Solenhofen limestone
Solenogastres

Reefal limestone

Spar

Rock cycle

Stadial

Rodents

Stage

Rodinia

Stalactite

Stalagmite

Roses

Steno laws

Rudites

Stratification
Stratigraphical unts

Stratum
Stromatolites
Subduction
Subtidal

( )

Stratotype

Root marks

S
Saber-toothed cats

Satiny

( )

Scaphopoda

Scavengers

Secondary

Sedges

Supernova

( )

Supratidal

( )

Sedimentary ironstone

Sedimentary structure

Suspension feeders

( )
Swamps envoironment
Symmetrical ripple
System

T
Telosts
Temporal fenestrae

Sedmentary rock

Series

Sessile bethos

Shale

Shark

Short- faced bears

Siliceous sedimentary rock

288

Termites

Terrestrial
Terrigenous sediments

)(

Tertiary

Tetrapeds

Tetrapoda

Textural component

Thrust fault

Tidal flat
Time stratigraphical units

Unconformable

Unconformity

)(

Uniformitarianism

Uniramia
V
Vagrant benthos

Varve

) ( Vendian biota

Volcanic igneous rock

)(

Tool marks

Trace fossil

Tracks

Trails

W
Walter s law
Wasps

Transformers

Weathering

Transgessive

Well sorted

Transition

Travertine

Triassic

)(

Trilobite

Tufa

Turbidity currents

X
Xenolith

Z
Zooxanthellae


 . ) :(1377
66 355 .
 . ) :(1371
6 .64-71
 . ) :(1358 223 .
 . ) :(1344 ) (
236 .
 . ) :(1365 244 .
 . ) :(1368 )( 190
.
 . ) :(1364
2 .6-18
. ) :(1368
367 17.

. ) :(1368 424 .
 . ) :(1374 444 .
 . ) :(1383
306 .
 . ) :(1382 239 .
 . ) :(1366
8 .28-37
 . :(1367) .
8 .28-37
 . ) :(1369 )(
140.

290

 . ) :(1380 202 .
 . ) :(1377 392
.
 . ) :(1369 )( 250 .

 . ) :(1371 258 .
 . ) :(1380 ) : (
704 .
 . ) :(1381 259 .
 . ) :(1386
327 .
 . ) :(1376 ) ( 328 .
 . ) :(1380 ) : (
715 .
 . ) :(1373 -
)( 493 .
 . ) :(1375 )( 231
.
 . ) :(1371
421 12.
 . ) :(1374 )( 305 .

 . ) :(1385 344 .
References:
1. Arnold, C. A. (1947): An introduction to paleobotany, McGraw- Hill book, 431P.
2. Ball, H. W. (1983a): British Palaeozoic fossils, Fourth edition, British museum (Natural
history), 203P.
3. Ball, H. W. (1983b): British Mesozoic fossils, Sixth edition, British museum (Natural
history), 209P.
4. Ball, H. W. (1990): British Caenozoic fossils, Fifth edition, British museum (Natural
history), 132P.
5. Benton, M. J. (2005): Vertebrate palaeontology (Third edition), Blackwell Publishing,
455P.
6. Bozorgnia, F. (1973): Paleozoic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of central and east Alborz
mountains- Iran, National Iranian oil company, N. 4, XLV Pl., 185P.
7. Bozorgnia, F. and A. Kalantari (1965): Nummulites of parts of central and east Iran,
National Iranian oil company, 25P.
8. Bozorgnia, F and S. Bennafti (1964): Microfacies and microorganisms of Paleozoic
through Teriary sediments of some part of Iran, Nat. Iran Oil Com., pp. 1- 22, Pl. I- XLL.
9. Bozorgnia, F. and A. Kalantari (1965): Nummulites of parte of central and east Iran,
National Iranian oil company, XXIV Pl., 23P.

291

10. British Mesozoic Fossils, (1983), The Natural History Museum, London.
11. Brookfield, M. E. (2004): Principles of Stratigraphy, Blackwell Publishing, 340P.
12. Cushman, J. (1947): Foraminifera, their classification and economic use, Harvard
University prss, 535P
13. Donovan, S. K. and D. N. Lewis (2001): The Ediacaran biota, Geology today, V. 17, No.
3, pp. 115- 119.
14. Donovan, S. K. and D. N. Lewis (2001): The Burgess shale biota, Geology today, V. 17,
No. 6, pp. 231- 235.
15. Doyle. P., M. R. Bennett and A. N. Baxter (2001): The key to earth history, An
introduction to stratigraphy, Second edition, john willy 7 Sons, 293P.
16. Gore, P. J. W. (2004): Historical geology, Georgia Perimeter College, Home page.
17. Harland, W. B., R. L. Armstrong, A. V. Cox, L. E. Craig. A. G. Smith and D. G. Smith
(1989): A geological time scale, based on information published in a geological time scale
1989, Cambrige University press.
18. Kalantari, A. (1976): Microbiostratigraphy of the Sarvestan area, southwestern Iran,
National Iranian oil company, Publication No. 5, 129P.
19. Prothero, D. R. and R. H. Dott, Jr (2004): Evolution of the Earth (Seventh Edition), Mc
Graw Hill, 524P.
20. Rahaghi, A. (1976): Contribution a l etude quelques grands foraminiferes de l Iran, No. 6,
79P.
21. Selden, P. and J. Nudds (2004): Evolution of fossil ecosystems, Manson publidshing,
160P.
22. Skinner, B. J. and S. C. Porter (1995): The Dynamic Earth: An Introduction to Physical
Geology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 557P.
23. Spencer, E. W. (1971): Geology/ A survey of earth sciences, Thomas Y. Crowell
Company, 653P.
24. Stearn, C. W. and R. L. Carroll (1989): Paleontology: The record of life, john Wily &
sons, Inc., 453P.
25. Stanley, S. M. (1999): Earth System History. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company,
280P.
26. Storer, T. I. and R. Usinger (1957): General zoology, McGrow- Hill, 664P.
27. Tucker, M. E. (2005): Sedimentary rocks in the field, Third edition, Wiley, 234P.
28. Walker, C. and D. Ward (1996): Fossils, Dorling Kindersley, 320P.

.
.
.............................................. / ........................................... ...................
: ..................... ...........
........................ .............

.1
.2
.3
.4 ) (
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.10 ...
.11 /
.12
.13
.14
.15
.16
.17 ...

.18

.



.

-19569 19395-4697 .