Homogeneity: bubbles formation in the manufacturing of glass

Since the art of glass making is known, achieving homogeneity in the glass melt during melting of the chemical batch has been a serious problem to concern. Homogeneity is not a single physical or a chemical property, it encompasses coexistence of several factors such as bubbles, striae and undisolved particles which arises complexity in the glass melt. The occurrence of bubbles is considered as a principal problem when the glasses are used in industrial and technological applications. In glass production, bubbles have different physical particle si!e of the raw materials, duration of melt time, high temperature and casting of the melt" and chemical origins mixing of raw materials, moisture release, degassing or release of gasses like #$%, $%, &%, S ' #$ entrapped between fused raw materials and redox reactions". In general, oxide and sulphate glasses are more prone to this problem when compared to fluoride and chalcogenide glasses and to some extent oxy(fluoride glasses. )uring the melting process, several chemical and physical reactions occur, for example incorporation of atmospheric air into glass melt, degassing of #$% from carbonates from raw materials, and chemical dissolution of the raw materials in the glass melt. *lthough the raw chemicals are well ground and properly mixed, when this loose material batch is transferred into the crucible there exists some air space in the chemical mix due to different particle si!es and densities of the raw materials. +reheating of the glass chemical mix at ,--(,.- /# for 0- minutes before melting reduces the chances of bubble formation through decomposition of carbonates and sulphates and also through water evaporation. This process will decrease the volume of the gas formed by the decomposition of the carbonates and sulphates. Thus, calcined batch is fed into the furnace for melting and it is cast in to desired product. 1ubbles count may change with time because some of the gasses may dissolve in the metal or diffuses in to the bubbles. If the bubbles dissolution occurs at the given temperature, the separation of small bubbles is difficult. Two types of bubbles are present $xygen bubbles and #arbon dioxide bubbles, the former gas is easily soluble and the latter one is hardly soluble in the melt. The extent of bubbles in the melt depends on the melting temperature, time and the presence of fining agent.