SURVIVAL

,
EVASION, AND
RECOVERY
MULTI-SERVICE
TACTICS,
TECHNIQUES, AND
PROCEDURES FOR
SURVIVAL, EVASION,
AND RECOVERY

FM 3-50.3
NTTP 3-50.3
AFTTP(I) 3-2.26

MARCH 2007
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution
authorized to DOD and DOD contractors only to
protect technical or operational information from
automatic dissemination under the international
Exchange Program or by other means. This
determination was made on 23 June 2006.
Other requests will be referred to:
HQ TRADOC, ATTN: ATFC-EJ, Ft Monroe, VA
23651-1067;
NWDC, ATTN: N5, Newport, RI 02841-1207; or
HQ AFDC, ATTN: DD, Maxwell AFB, 36112-6112.

DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method
that must prevent disclosure of contents or
reconstruction of the document.

FOREWORD
This publication has been prepared under our direction for use
by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate.

RICHARD J. ROWE, JR.
Major General, US Army
Deputy Director/Chief of Staff
Army Capabilities Integration Center

TIMOTHY L. DAVISON ALLEN G. PECK
Captain, US Navy Major General,
Commander, Acting Commander
Navy Warfare Development Command Air Force Doctrine Center

This publication is available through the ALSA
Web site (www.alsa.mil); through the Army at
Army Knowledge Online (AKO)
(www.us.army.mil) and at the General Dennis
J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library
(www.train.army.mil) Web sites; and through
the Air Force at the Air Force Publishing Web
site (www.e-publishing.af.mil).

QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST
FIVE PHASES OF EVASION

1. Immediate Actions—THINK BEFORE YOU ACT!
a. Assess immediate situation.
b. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (chapter V).
c. Take action to protect from chemical, biological, radiological,
and nuclear hazards (chapter IX).
d. Gather equipment; move to initial hole-up/hide site.
e. Make initial radio contact in accordance with (IAW) combat
search and rescue/special instructions (CSAR/SPINS).
f. Sanitize uniform of compromising information.
g. Sanitize area; hide equipment you decide to leave.
h. Apply initial personal camouflage.

2. Initial Movement
a. Move in the direction of your evasion plan of action (EPA), if
possible.
b. Attempt to break line of sight from your initial isolating area
and move uphill if possible.
c. Move out of area, zigzag pattern recommended.
d. Use terrain and concealment to your advantage.
e. Move to hole-up/hide site.

3. Hole-Up/Hide Site
a. Select hole-up/hide site that provides:
(1) Concealment from ground and air searches.
(2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of
communications (LOCs).
(3) Listening and observation points.
(4) Multiple avenues of escape.
(5) Protection from environment.
(6) Communications/signaling.
b. Be prepared to authenticate IAW CSAR/SPINS.
c. Establish radio contact IAW CSAR/SPINS.
(Communications/signaling devices may compromise position.)

20 March 2007 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 i

d. Stop. e. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers. Inventory equipment. Travel slowly and deliberately. listen. c. (You are more at risk during movement. Determine specific location. maintain security. i. Isolated Personnel Report (ISOPREP) card. ii FM 3-50. Evaluate combat needs. Drink water. e. b. During recovery: (1) Follow recovery force instructions. d. Stay away from LOCs. d. Review and execute your EPA. Use noise and light discipline. and smell. e. j. Secure equipment. treat injuries for long term.) b. (3) Assume non-threatening posture. Use evasion movement techniques (chapter I). Improve camouflage. and be flexible. c. Move from one point of concealment to another point of concealment. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. g. f. Do not leave evidence of travel. i. Stay alert. f. look. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent.3/NTTP 3-50. Select best area and prepare for use of communications and signaling devices. h. g. Observe/report enemy activity and hazards. 5. g. Evasion Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Be prepared to authenticate via DD Form 1833. (2) Secure weapon. f. h.26 20 March 2007 . Prepare to transmit position (range and bearing). Prepare for conventional or unconventional recovery. 4. Recovery (Chapters III and IV) a.

. ATTN: N5... AND PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL.....I-1 Shelters..... *FM 3-50........................26.............3 US Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe. ATTN: ATFC-EJ..... AND RECOVERY MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS.... * This publication supersedes FM 3-50....... or HQ AFDC....II-9 River Travel......... RI 02841-1207.. 36112-6112.............3/AFTTP(I) 3-2...... AND RECOVERY TABLE OF CONTENTS Page QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST ...... Maxwell AFB..... Ft Monroe.............II-9 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to DOD and DOD contractors only to protect technical or operational information from automatic dissemination under the international Exchange Program or by other means..... i CHAPTER I EVASION...... Rhode Island AFTTP(I) 3-2............................. VA 23651-1067...... ATTN: DD...........26 iii .. Other requests will be referred to: HQ TRADOC. 19 March 2003........................... This determination was made on 23 June 2006.... Newport.........................26 FM 3-50.................II-1 Determine Navigation and Position .............I-3 Movement .....................II-9 Ice and Snow Travel ..... EVASION.......3/NTTP 3-50.......... EVASION...................3/NTTP 3-50.. NWDC.. Virginia NTTP 3-50........... DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that must prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document. Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base.....26 Headquarters.............................3 Navy Warfare Development Command Newport...............II-1 Stay or Move Considerations ............... TECHNIQUES...........3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.................... 20 March 2007 FM 3-50...............................I-1 Planning ...............................II-2 Travel Considerations .... Alabama 20 March 2007 SURVIVAL..........................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2........3 NTTP 3-50.....I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION............I-1 Camouflage..

...........................................................VII-1 Signs and Symptoms of Dehydration........................................................IV-2 General Principles of Recovery............. III-1 Signaling ........IV-2 Prepare for Recovery.................................................IV-3 Assisted Recovery .............................................. II-12 CHAPTER III RADIO COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALING................................ II-11 Open Seas................................................VIII-9 Food Requirements ..............................V-9 Health and Hygiene ..............V-12 Rules for Avoiding Illness...........................................VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing.......................................VII-1 Water Procurement.........................3/NTTP 3-50............VIII-15 iv FM 3-50...............................V-12 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION ...................................................IV-1 Actions on the Ground/in the Water .......... III-2 CHAPTER IV RECOVERY.............. III-1 Radio Communications (Voice and Data) .............................................................................VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER .VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD .........................................................................V-5 Plant Medicine ..................................................VII-1 Water Requirements ......................VIII-9 Food Preparation ..VII-1 Water Preparation and Storage ...................................IV-3 Unassisted Recovery......................3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.......26 20 March 2007 ...........................V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses ..................................IV-1 Site Selection.................... II-11 Dry Climates .............VI-3 Fires............VI-1 Other Protective Equipment ................................................VI-1 Priorities................... II-11 Tropical Climates .........V-1 Immediate First Aid Actions ...................................IV-1 Initial Actions..................................................IV-1 Responsibilities.............................................................IV-5 CHAPTER V SURVIVAL MEDICINE ....IV-2 Communicate with Recovery Force ....................................................................................................... Mountain Hazards........................VI-2 Shelters ...................................

.. IX-6 Chemical Conditions ................................................................................................................ The Will to Survive...................II-10 Figure III-1.................... IX-6 APPENDICES A............II-4 Figure II-5............. Radio Transmission Characteristics............................ IV-4 Figure IV-3..3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. A-1 B..I-2 Figure II-1..... Forest Penetrator.........II-2 Figure II-2.................................. Map Orientation with a Dial or Needle Compass........II-3 Figure II-3.......................................................... Dogleg and 90-Degree Offset..II-5 Figure II-6........... Stick and Shadow Method to Determine North/South Line............ Map Orientation with a Compass Rose ......3/NTTP 3-50....... V-1 20 March 2007 FM 3-50....... VIII-17 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS .....II-6 Figure II-7...................... Celestial Aids (Stars) Method to Determine North/South Line.......... Rescue Strap............ Improvised Snowshoes ............................. Glossary-1 FIGURES Figure I-1.........................III-3 Figure IV-1................. IV-4 Figure IV-2.......................................26 v ............... Setting the Compass for Night Navigation ...... Size and Ratio...... Food Preservation... Signal Key.. Open Airway .................. Camouflage Patterns ......II-8 Figure II-9.....III-3 Figure III-3.................................................................. IX-1 Biological Conditions........................ IX-1 Nuclear Conditions............ Wristwatch Method to Determine North/South Line ......... Publication Information ........III-1 Figure III-2... Triangulation ......... Fixed Loop...................... B-1 GLOSSARY ................. IV-5 Figure V-1......................................II-3 Figure II-4.................II-7 Figure II-8.........................

........VIII-12 Figure VIII-6......................VI-6 Figure VI-8.......VI-7 Figure VI-9.VI-10 Figure VII-1......... Improvised Foot Wear..VI-3 Figure VI-4.........................VII-6 Figure VII-8.. Shingle Method ....................... Beach Well.... Useful Plants..... Snare Placement ............ Elevated Platform Shelter ......................... Gaiters ........ Tepee Fire and Log Cabin Fire.............................. Combat-Application-Tourniquet ..............................................................VI-3 Figure VI-3......... Water Vines .............VI-5 Figure VI-7..... Radiation Shielding Efficiencies .... Transpiration Bag...........VII-7 Figure VIII-1........... Sun and Snow Goggles ............................ Vegetation Bag ................ Procurement Devices..........IX-4 vi FM 3-50..................... Settling Water ..............................VII-2 Figure VII-2.... Filtration Systems............. Squirrel Pole .....IX-4 Figure IX-5... Water Procurement..VI-8 Figure VI-11...... Thermal A-Frame................. Procurement Methods.. Snow Cave ................ Improvised Shelter ..........................VI-2 Figure VI-2.......... Locking Loop.............................VIII-10 Figure VIII-3............VI-9 Figure VI-12....... Figure V-2.........................VII-5 Figure VII-6.........VIII-12 Figure VIII-7.......................... Immediate Action Shelter .................3/AFTTP(I) 3-2...................................... QuickClot ......................... Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter..V-3 Figure V-4..................VI-10 Figure VI-13...... Small Game Skinning ................... Immediate Shelters ..............................................V-2 Figure V-3.3/NTTP 3-50................VII-5 Figure VII-5.............................VII-3 Figure VII-3........................................VIII-11 Figure VIII-5....................................IX-2 Figure IX-3...................... Snow Trench.....VII-6 Figure VII-7..26 20 March 2007 ..VI-5 Figure VI-6.......VII-4 Figure VII-4...V-11 Figure VI-1....... Dakota Fire Hole .....IX-1 Figure IX-2...VIII-10 Figure VIII-4........... Water Indicators.....VI-4 Figure VI-5.VIII-16 Figure IX-1...........VIII-9 Figure VIII-2............... Seepage Basin.. Filtration Systems...VI-7 Figure VI-10.................................... Banana Plants.............. Sod Fire and Reflector .......... Filtering Water .....IX-3 Figure IX-4.............................................................. Funneling .

or any other odors that may stand out and give you away.000 days of evasion are better than one day of captivity. Mask scent using natural materials such as dirt or vegetation. Camouflage a. perfumes. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. (7) Conserve strength for critical periods. (6) Drink water (DO NOT eat food without water). (2) Use established procedures. (3) Follow your EPA.3/NTTP 3-50. Planning a. Determine where to go IAW theater recovery plans: (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. (4) Maintain radio discipline. (2) Selected area for evasion. 2. (5) Be patient. b. (3) Apply personal camouflage.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. d. Review the quick reference checklist at the front of this publication. Camouflage patterns should match environment (figure I-1): 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. 1. Avoid food.26 I-1 . (4) Designated area for recovery. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. Chapter I EVASION 1. c. (8) Rest and sleep as much as possible. e. Follow these guidelines for successful evasion: (1) Keep a positive attitude. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. (9) Stay out of sight. b.

Neck. name tags. pens. Hands. (d) Use stains from grasses. (8) Break up the outline of the body—“V” of crotch/armpits. rank insignia. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. (2) Ears. change regularly. watches. berries. Use a hat. Camouflage Patterns c. or coloration methods. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. or mask if available. (5) Never expose shiny objects (i. (3) DO NOT overcamouflage.3/NTTP 3-50. Figure I-1. and Under Chin.26 20 March 2007 . The insides and the backs should have two colors to break up outlines if not covered. Position and movement camouflage: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. (c) DO NOT select all vegetation from same source. netting. glasses. (3) Head. Use scarf. (4) Remember when using shadows. collar. vegetation. I-2 FM 3-50. dirt..3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (6) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. netting. (4) Light-colored Hair / No Hair. they shift with the sun. and charcoal.e. and so forth. (7) Remove unit patches. (1) Face. boots). Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. head/shoulders.

3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. and rocks to keep from forming paths to hole-up/hide site. 4. use the "military crest" (2/3 of the way up) of a hill. S – Small (enough for you and your gear). (5) At irregular intervals: (a) STOP at a point of concealment.3/NTTP 3-50. If travel is necessary: (1) Mask with natural cover. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. (4) Avoid silhouetting. L – Low silhouette (smaller than surroundings). wind. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50.26 I-3 . Attempt to return the area to its original state before you start your movement. or reduced enemy activity. d. Conceal with minimal to no preparation. Shelters a. e. (3) Restrict to periods of low light. 3. Movement a. Be wary of natural hazards such as flash floods in ravines and canyons. Ensure overhead concealment. h. (2) Stay off ridgelines. Use camouflage and concealment. (9) Observe from a prone and concealed position. ditches. g. b. routes. LISTEN. c. S – Secluded location (least likely to be searched). I – Irregular shape (natural looking). f. Locate carefully—remember the acronym: BLISS. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. Choose an area with observable approach and escape B – Blend (blend with environment). A moving object is easy to spot. ridges. bad weather. and SMELL for signs of human or animal activity. Use brush. (b) LOOK.

this creates a path of snowless vegetation. rocks. (6) If pursued by dogs. allows tracks to fill in. (b) Travel over rough terrain and/or through dense vegetation to slow the handler. I-4 FM 3-50. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. In snow country. (d) Take advantage of solid surfaces leaving less evidence of travel. d. (b) Move before and during precipitation.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Concealing evidence of travel: (1) DO NOT break branches. or grass. (2) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. Camouflage evidence of travel. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. concentrate on defeating the handler. (d) Zigzag route if possible. and snowdrifts. (5) Secure trash and loose equipment. if possible. (a) Travel downwind of dog/handler. (3) Pick firm footing. (c) Travel during windy periods. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. b. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle noise. and sticks. TRY NOT TO: (a) Overturn ground cover.3/NTTP 3-50.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back.26 20 March 2007 . Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. leaves. (e) Tie cloth or vegetation to feet or brush / pat out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. consider loop-backs and “J” hooks. (4) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing: (a) Place tracks in the shadows of vegetation. c. downed logs. Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag). (c) Travel downstream through fast moving water. hide or bury discarded items.

Warning: If there are three rails. change direction radically. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. (7) Use cloth. (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks as used for roads. (6) Use caution when passing windows and doors. Urban considerations: (1) Look for and move to “friendly” controlled location or stronghold point. presenting as low a silhouette as possible. look for electrical insulators or security devices. (3) Penetrate rail fences. and other structures. shadows. go over the top. passing under or between lower rails. DO NOT touch fence. or bend in road. one may be electrified.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. (8) Conceal movement utilizing buildings. Go under fence if unavoidable. crossing at damaged areas. Cross in a manner leaving footprints parallel to the road (do this by stepping sideways). (4) Head to concealment to break visual contact. e. (5) If seen. (3) Avoid high rise buildings. clothing. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. Cross the tracks using a semi-pushup motion moving sideways. rags. lower your body to the ground aligning parallel to the tracks with face down.3/NTTP 3-50. and other man-made material to blend in.26 I-5 . (2) Avoid movement into market-type areas and crowds. Then. If this is impractical. (9) Observe structures for movement or life threatening obstacles. rubble. try to avoid.

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(3) Decide what equipment to take.g. or destroy. Stop movement with sufficient time to find concealment and shelter prior to sunrise. Avoid compromising information when using a map in a combat environment: (1) DO NOT write on the map. Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. Leave only when: (1) Dictated by the threat. d. (c) Supplies available. Exceptions to such movement would be when moving through hazardous terrain or dense vegetation (e.. shelter. (b) Personal condition. with vehicle). leave information at your starting point that includes: (a) Destination and route of travel. (2) If you do not stay in place. and/or help. c.g. food. Considerations for non-combat: (1) Stay in place (e. b.3/NTTP 3-50. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. cache. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. 1. If you decide to move: (1) Follow your EPA. (4) It is usually better to move at night because of the concealment darkness offers. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why..26 II-1 . (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. (2) Certain of your location and your destination and you are able to get there. (3) Able to reach water. Stay or Move Considerations a. jungle or mountainous terrain).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.

(2) Use stick and shadow method to determine a true north/south line (figure II-1). (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. (b) Man-made checkpoints. south. and west). b.26 20 March 2007 . (3) Use information provided in map legend. or compass (e. global positioning system (GPS). Note: Determine best guess direction based on previous knowledge when navigating without a map.g. visualize a clock face on the watch.3/NTTP 3-50. Figure II-1. (1) Use compass. Determine general location. (a) Geographic checkpoints. II-2 FM 3-50. (4) Use prominent landmarks. (5) Visualize map to determine position. (1) Develop working knowledge of operational area. With digital watches. Determine Navigation and Position a.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Determine cardinal directions (north. (4) Use wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction.. movement is east toward the border). east. if current local time is known (figure II-2). (2) Use formula: Rate x Time = Distance. Stick and Shadow Method to Determine North/South Line (3) Remember the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west.2.

Figure II-2. Figure II-3. To orient the map: (1) Use a true north-south line (figure II-4). • Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees). Wristwatch Method to Determine North/South Line (5) Use stars (figure II-3). 20 March 2007 FM 3-50.26 II-3 . Celestial Aids (Stars) Method to Determine North/South Line c. • Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). (b) Align compass on true north-south line. level nonmetallic surface.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.3/NTTP 3-50. (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. flat. (a) Unfold map and place on firm.

Figure II-4. Map Orientation with a Dial or Needle Compass (2) Use a compass rose (figure II-5). (a) Place edge of the compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. II-4 FM 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees.26 20 March 2007 .3/NTTP 3-50.

obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. one-directional “marching”— receiver shows a continuous “marching” of latitude or longitude (for example the value continuously increases or decreases in a single direction).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (1) Using GPS and map. (b) More frequent position fixes = shorter time to acquire next position. (a) More sky = better accuracy and quicker position acquisition.26 II-5 . GPS satellite signals are very susceptible to jamming and interference. Figure II-5. Indications include: • Continuous. Determine specific location (be prepared to give coordinates and datum to rescue forces if asked). • Obviously incorrect position data—you know your rough position but your GPS receiver shows a location that is 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. d. Map Orientation with a Compass Rose (3) If there is NO compass.3/NTTP 3-50. orient map using cardinal direction. (c) Watch for jamming and interference.

(d) Protect against jamming and interference. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. Determine relative location of jamming and block jamming by using body/structure shielding from jamming signal. Figure II-6. but cannot maintain position lock or is unexpectedly knocked off a position lock.3/NTTP 3-50. (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). (e) Conserve GPS battery life. Use the compass for night navigation by: (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (figure II-7). • “Jumping” position data —receiver position jumps between significantly different positions (for example more than a tenth of a degree at a time). (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs.significantly and obviously incorrect (for example you know you are in Iraq but your receiver shows 0 degrees latitude and 5 degrees longitude). • Unexpected loss of position lock—receiver has good view of the sky and good power supply and is operating normally.26 20 March 2007 . II-6 FM 3-50. (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (figure II-6). placing GPS receiver in a hole (16”x12”) or building a wall (18”x14”) between GPS receiver and jammer. (a) Try to use three or more azimuths (between 30 and 130 degrees apart). Triangulation e.

(2) Dogleg and 90-degree offset (figure II-8).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Figure II-7. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. (c) Resume your route of travel.26 II-7 .3/NTTP 3-50. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. Setting the Compass for Night Navigation f. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of obstacle on current heading. Use route selection techniques: (1) Circumnavigation. (3) Using point-to-point navigation.

in rough terrain or night. 90 to 100 paces per 100 meters). (5) Point-to-point same as straight line: (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. or injured/uninjured condition.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. II-8 FM 3-50. • One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. Dogleg and 90-Degree Offset (3) Straight-line heading: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. 65 paces per 100 meters [average].3/NTTP 3-50.26 20 March 2007 . Figure II-8. (4) Deliberate offset: (a) Use when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. day/night travel. (b) Intentionally navigate to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. (b) Track number of paces traveled to monitor progress. Individual pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. (c) Use pace count with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. • Distances measured by paces are approximate (for example: in open terrain. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. road or river). • Keep track of your pace count (pebbles in pocket or knots in a string per 100 meters).

if possible. 5. Pack equipment to prevent loss. Ice and Snow Travel a. a. and personal safety. and bogs. 3. and bitterly cold winds. Consider the following for swamps. Maintain a realistic pace. c. g. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. pack imbalance. if possible. waterfalls. d. Use flotation device (such as raft. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. f. damage. Travel in forested areas. Use caution while traveling in blizzards. b. Use caution when traveling on rivers. Consider food and water requirements. Keep near shore and stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). poor visibility. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. Avoid overdressing and overheating. c. log. not over or through them. d.3/NTTP 3-50. and hazardous animals. bamboo) when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. establish another landmark and continue.26 II-9 . i.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. if possible. Avoid travel on trails. b. Take rest stops when needed. Go around obstacles. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. (b) On reaching a point. k. lakes. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. 4. rapids. lakes. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water and an oar in deep water. avoid submerged objects. Travel Considerations a. j. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). e. h.

(c) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. make snowshoes (figure II-9). (4) Frozen water crossings. b.26 20 March 2007 . Figure II-9. (b) Use swimming motion to remain on or close to surface. • Objects protrude through ice. II-10 FM 3-50. (a) Weak ice should be expected where: • Rivers are straight. • Snow banks extend over ice.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.3/NTTP 3-50. if movement is necessary. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). Obstacles to winter travel include: (1) Deep soft snow. (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops. (3) If caught in an avalanche: (a) Move perpendicular to hillside. Improvised Snowshoes (2) Avoid avalanche prone areas: (a) Slopes 25 to 60 degrees. Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted.

belly crawling. c. 7. Stop movement with sufficient time to find concealment or construct shelter prior to sunrise. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. (4) Cover mouth and nose with piece of cloth. Mountain Hazards a. 8. Hazardous terrain and vegetation may force travel during daylight. or using snowshoes. Tropical Climates a. • Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. Dry Climates a. Lightning. b. (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel until storm passes. d. • Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. If a sandstorm occurs: (1) Mark direction of travel. Avalanche. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. b. e. Flash Floods. Travel at night to avoid heat. Consider remaining in place unless certain of reaching destination using water supply available.3/NTTP 3-50. In sand dune areas: (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. distribute your weight by laying flat.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided because of unseen hazards. (2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. (b) When crossing frozen water. c. and wadis with no escape in the event of heavy rains.26 II-11 . • Rivers or streams come together. ravines. Avoid creek bottoms. (c) Have long pole (to prevent total submersion) and knife or other pointed tools available to assist with self-recovery. (5) Protect eyes. 6. c. Avoid areas prone to avalanches/falling rocks.

(3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). Part the vegetation to pass through. (2) Sit low in the raft. (4) Accessory Bag—Locate accessory bag. Using winds to travel: (1) Pull in sea anchor. d. e. Note: Attach all equipment to raft or self. II-12 FM 3-50. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. (2) Assistance—Assist others into the raft. Raft Procedures. 9. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps.3/NTTP 3-50. Open Seas a. c. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. remember the five “A's. c. Go around logs when possible. b. While traveling trails: (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. Obstacles like thickets and swamps pose significant hazards. (4) Exercise caution. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. the enemy uses the trails also. (3) Air—Ensure all chambers are inflated and all inflation valves are closed and equalization tube clamps are clamped off when fully inflated. For all rafts. Avoid grabbing vegetation. Using currents to travel: (1) Sea anchor may be closed to make use of existing currents. (5) Assessment—Assess the situation and keep a positive mental attitude.” These are the first things you should do if you are the first person into the raft: (1) Anchor—Ensure sea anchor is deployed so that when the anchor is on the top of a wave your raft is on the bottom of the wave or vice versa.26 20 March 2007 . but may provide best evasion environment. b. Trails are often located along waterways or mountain saddles.

Indications of land include: (1) Greenish tint in sky (tropics). e. (11) Select landing point: 20 March 2007 FM 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (2) Use a flotation aid. (b) Lie as close to surface as possible. work shoreward in next trough. (8) In moderate surf: (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. (6) Wear footgear and at least one layer of clothing. d. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (2) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections in arctic). face it and submerge. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves.3/NTTP 3-50. (c) After it passes. (4) Odors. (9) In high surf: (a) Swim shoreward in trough between waves. (3) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (5) Directional flights of birds at dawn (from shore) and at dusk (to shore). and debris. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at point further down shore. Swimming ashore: (1) Consider physical condition.26 II-13 . (b) When seaward wave approaches. (b) Make shallow dive just before wave breaks to end ride. (5) Use sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (10) If caught in undertow of large wave: (a) Remain calm and swim to surface. Making landfall. sounds. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches wind. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible.

(2) Land on lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land. (2) Store raft away from ice edge.3/NTTP 3-50. (b) Find place where waves smoothly rush onto rocks. (c) Deploying sea anchor for stability. II-14 FM 3-50. if possible.26 20 March 2007 . (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. f. (12) After selecting a landing site: (a) Face shoreward.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. g. Icebergs. and disintegrating flows are dangerous. (b) Assume sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. (4) Penetrate surf by: (a) Taking down most shade/sails. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows: (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. (3) Head for gaps in surf line. Rafting ashore: (1) Select landing point carefully. small flows. (b) Using paddles to maintain control. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral.

(2) Keep the beacon with you to supplement radio communications. Transmissions (figure III-1): (1) Use concealment sites that optimize line of site. space blanket. Figure III-1. Make initial contact as soon as possible. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.3/NTTP 3-50. If no immediate contact. Use data burst if available. Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating instructions of all communications and signaling equipment. as directed in SPINS. (5) Keep transmissions short (3 to 5 seconds) to avoid radio detection finding. b.26 III-1 . Combat: (1) Ensure personal locator beacon is off. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). Radio Transmission Characteristics (4) DO NOT ground antenna (finger on antenna or attaching bolt. d. (2) Face recovery asset. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. attempt contact again. 1. e. c. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. or as directed in SPINS. and vegetation). (3) Follow personnel recovery instructions in SPINS for on/off operations.

Note: May produce one residual flash when turned off. (1) Materials: (a) Man-made (space blanket. parachute). (3) Use alternate radio frequency if aircraft beacon is interfering with radio transmission. (8) Do not use your radio at the same time for several days in a row. (6) Face the equator. c. signal paulin. Strobe/infrared lights. consider filters and shields. d. or as directed by recovery forces). (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. Pattern signals (use as directed). if transmitting in the blind. (1) Prepare early. Signaling a. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders. b. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders. Non-combat: (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. (2) If no radio.3/NTTP 3-50. Signal mirror (additional directions on back of survival mirror): (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. Pyrotechnic signals: (1) Prepare early (weather permitting). Note: Make a mirror from shiny metal or glass. g. (7) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. III-2 FM 3-50. extend downwind over the raft's edge before activating. 2. (3) Conserve battery life. use only with confirmed friendly forces. or as directed by recovery forces. (3) If in a raft. (3) Cover when not in use. f.26 20 March 2007 .3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.

(6) Height to create shadows. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners). (7) Pattern signals (figure III-3). Figure III-2. Figure III-3. (5) Contrasting colors. branches.26 III-3 .3/NTTP 3-50. (2) Location: (a) Maximize visibility from above. (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (figure III-2).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. stomped grass). Signal Key 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. (b) Natural. brush. use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks.

f. (2) Sea dye is limited. (3) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. lights. (4) May be used to color snow.26 20 March 2007 . (1) Dye dissipates quickly in rough seas or fast moving water. and weapons fire). III-4 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50. use when recovery is likely. (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. fires). (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (5) Internationally recognized signal for distress is a series of three of anything (such as gunshots. Sea dye marker. e. whistle. (4) Use audio signals (voice.

e. b. d. SPINS section for CSAR procedures. b. be prepared to authenticate via DD Form 1833. Initial Actions a. g. Non-combat information can be provided in the clear: (1) Call-sign/location/nature of emergency. e. Upon contact with recovery forces. f. d. Weigh tactical/peacetime situation versus survival needs. h. Responsibilities—YOUR EFFORTS ARE INSTRUMENTAL TO YOUR RECOVERY. Follow EPA to best of ability.3/NTTP 3-50. 3. this is Cowboy 02”).g. Actions on the Ground/in the Water a. Weigh potential cost-benefit of movement. Prepare to communicate (see chapter III). Be prepared to provide position using the appropriate codes listed in the ATO. a.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. follow instructions explicitly. All missions require an EPA. 2. i. Follow/establish communication plan (exception—opportune communication). Organize/prepare communication devices. “Mayday/Mayday/ Mayday—any station/aircraft. Execute “Mayday” call using emergency frequency and/or follow air tasking order (ATO) SPINS.. d.26 IV-1 . c. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. (2) State number of souls on board. If applicable. b. Be prepared for any form of recovery. Identify self/call-sign (e. Combat operations will require authentication when providing coordinates and datum. Consider all potential actions before execution. Construct an EPA and leave with vested authority. c. c. either physically or by radio if in command. Establish head count. Prepare well ahead and prior to mission execution.

Ensure equipment is packed and secure at all times. Inventory and retain all survival/recovery equipment until directed to do otherwise. and universal transverse mercator). i. Communicate with Recovery Force a. c. 6. Locate several concealment sites around area. if practical (approximately 150-feet diameter. as required. flat and level). or boat). Locate key terrain features for quick navigation or to assist recovery forces in finding your location. 5. e. e. ground. Locate area for landing pick-up. f. re-enable ELT/beacon (non-combat). b. Disable emergency locator transmitter (ELT)/turn off beacon (combat). Note: Once contact is made.3/NTTP 3-50. g. Treat injures as required (see chapter V). j. k. Initiate contact. Site Selection a. f. b. Retain/destroy classified material. d. d. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). Be prepared to move. b. free of obstructions. follow recovery forces directions. IV-2 FM 3-50. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes. h.26 20 March 2007 . c. see chapter II). military grid reference system. Establish location (preference is latitude/longitude. Switch frequencies as directed. Note: If communication cannot be made. Determine threat—move as required. 4.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Place prescribed visual signal/authentication. Mentally review recovery methods (such as aircraft. Be prepared to authenticate. Prepare for Recovery a. c. Follow EPA/move to appropriate recovery location (non- combat—remain in place. Assess evidence of human activity at/near site.

(4) DO NOT become entangled in cable. Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. (3) Put rescue strap under armpits. (7) Drag feet on ground to decrease oscillation. Unassisted Recovery a. c.26 IV-3 . Be prepared to provide medical condition. keep cable in front. d. to avoid injury from static discharge. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. 8. Use eye protection (glasses or helmet visor). For unassisted hoist recovery (figures IV-1 and IV-2): (1) Allow metal on recovery device to contact surface before touching. Be prepared to provide/update threat information. b. d. especially on sloping or uneven terrain.3/NTTP 3-50. e. (6) Use a vigorous thumbs up. (5) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. fold arms around it. (8) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into rescue aircraft. (2) Sit or kneel for stability while donning the recovery device. 7. or radio call to signal you are ready. if available. g. Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. vigorous cable shakes. Follow crewmember instructions.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Assume non-threatening posture. f. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. General Principles of Recovery a. Assist recovery forces in identifying your position. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent. f. DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. when using the forest penetrator. Be prepared to describe location/key terrain features. e.

For no-hoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment).26 20 March 2007 . (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits keeping knot in front (figure IV-3). Figure IV-1. IV-4 FM 3-50. Forest Penetrator b.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.3/NTTP 3-50. Rescue Strap Figure IV-2.

accessory kit. (4) Add enough water to replace body weight to prevent raft from getting lifted into rotors. Assisted Recovery a. in the accessory bag. (5) Secure yourself to raft until recovery device is in other hand. 9. Make no threatening gestures/moves. (2) Be prepared to secure yourself to recovery device by any and all means available. Fixed Loop c. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. REMAIN IN RAFT! (3) Deploy sea anchor and accessory kit. Remain in place until directed. Follow all instructions from recovery forces. or on person) prior to recovery.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 IV-5 . (2) Take down canopy and secure all loose equipment (in the raft. For water recovery—surface vessel: (1) Pull in sea anchor. Figure IV-3. d. d. (2) Stay in raft until directed otherwise.3/NTTP 3-50. c. For water recovery—helicopter: (1) Follow procedures for standard unassisted hoist procedures above. b. Retain all survival equipment until directed otherwise. or lines to prevent entanglement.

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listen. Note: If spinal injuries are suspected use the jaw thrust method (figure V-1).3/NTTP 3-50. Chapter V SURVIVAL MEDICINE 1. a. (2) If no response: (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (e) If breaths are blocked.5 seconds. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. and feel for air exchange for 3 to 5 seconds. arouse by shaking gently and shouting.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. remove any blockage.26 V-1 . (c) Airway: Open airway (figure V-1). Determine responsiveness. (1) If unconscious. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. try again. the next important step is to look for and control severe bleeding injuries. (b) Roll victim onto back. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with two slow breaths that last for 1 to 1. (d) Breathing: Look. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Open Airway (3) If victim is not breathing: (a) Check for a clear airway. Immediate First Aid Actions Note: Following assessment and control of patient’s airway. reposition airway. Figure V-1.

apply QuikClot. V-2 FM 3-50. (4) If victim is unconscious but breathing: (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (2) If bleeding is still uncontrolled with conventional methods. Stop bleeding using conventional methods (direct pressure. CAUTION: Use a tourniquet when severe. Combat-Application-Tourniquet (3) If bleeding continues after applying a tourniquet. (a) Hold pack of QuikClot (figure V-3) away from your face and tear open. apply a Combat-Application-Tourniquet (figure V-2) or improvised tourniquet (a band at least 3 inches or wider is best) just above bleeding site on limb.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 20 March 2007 . Figure V-2. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). b. (1) Wrap wound with compression bandage. If no compression bandage is available. hold pressure with gauze or available bandage.3/NTTP 3-50. uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life elevation. (f) If still not breathing victim is beyond the scope of care. pressure points).

preserving any clots in the wound if possible. (5) Reapply pressure.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (b) If situation does not allow for manual pressure. Apply more QuikClot if bleeding does not stop. reassess tourniquet to determine if it should be replaced with direct pressure/dressing. (d) Only use enough QuikClot to stop the bleeding. c. (a) Slowly pour QuikClot directly into the wound until layer of tan granules is observed. (b) Immediately wipe excess that falls onto surrounding tissue. (c) Apply firm pressure to the wound with gauze roll.3/NTTP 3-50. (b) Remove pressure dressing and gauze from wound and wipe any excess pooled blood.26 V-3 . QuickClot CAUTION: When tactical situation allows. (4) Apply QuikClot. (a) Pack wound with the gauze roll. Figure V-3. Apply manual pressure for 3 minutes. Treat shock. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. and then apply a pressure dressing. apply pressure dressing directly over the roll of gauze.

(1) Identify by one or more of the following:
(a) Pale, cool, and sweaty skin.
(b) Fast breathing and weak, fast pulse.
(c) Anxiety or mental confusion.
(d) Blood loss.
(2) Treat underlying injury.
(3) Maintain normal body temperature.
(a) Remove wet clothing.
(b) Give fluids.
• DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim.
• DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag.
(c) Insulate from ground.
(d) Shelter from elements.
(4) Place conscious victim on side.
(a) Allow mouth to drain.
(b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway.
d. Treat chest injuries.
(1) Sucking Chest Wound. This occurs when chest wall is
penetrated; may cause victim to gasp for breath; may cause
sucking sound; may create bloody froth as air escapes chest.
(a) Expose wound and immediately seal wound with
airtight material (e.g., candy wrapper, plastic bag, bandage
wrapper, etc.).
(b) Monitor breathing and check dressing.
(c) If victim develops trouble breathing, lift side of
dressing to allow trapped air to escape and immediately reseal.
(d) Position casualty on injured side or in a sitting
position, whichever makes breathing easier.
(2) Fractured Ribs.
(a) Stabilize as follows:
• Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site.
• Tape pad to site.
• DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs.
e. Treat fractures, sprains, and dislocations.

V-4 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 20 March 2007

(1) Control bleeding.
(2) Remove watches, jewelry, and constrictive clothing.
(3) If fracture penetrates skin—apply dressing over wound.
(4) If no pulse below the break, attempt to straighten limb to
restore circulation.
(5) Position limb as normally as possible.
(6) Splint in position in which found (if unable to straighten
limb).
(7) Improvise a splint with available materials:
(a) Sticks or straight, stiff materials from equipment.
(b) Body parts (for example, opposite leg, arm to chest).
(8) Attach with strips of cloth at least 2-inches wide.
(9) Keep fractured bones from moving by immobilizing joints
on both sides of the fracture. If fracture is in a joint, immobilize
bones on both sides of joint.
Note: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position, NOT in straight
position.

(10) When resting, elevate injured area above heart level to
reduce swelling.
(11) Check periodically for pulse/signs of circulation beyond
the injury site.
(12) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if
swelling occurs because bandage is too tight.

2. Common Injuries and Illnesses
a. Burns:
(1) Flush burned skin for chemicals and irritants.
(2) Cool burned area with water.
(a) Use immersion or cool compresses.
(b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water.
(3) Remove watches, jewelry, constrictive clothing.
(4) Cover with dry sterile dressings.
(5) DO NOT use lotion or grease.
(6) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss
from burns. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt and 1/4 teaspoon of sugar [if
available] to each quart of water.)

20 March 2007 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 V-5

(7) Change dressings when soaked or dirty.
b. Eye injuries.
(1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty, burning sensation, and
possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure):
(a) Prevent with improvised goggles (see chapter VI,
figure VI-2).
(b) Treat by covering affected eye(s) with cool
compress.
(2) Foreign body in eye:
(a) Irrigate with clean water from inside to outside
corner of eye.
(b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation,
improvise a small swab. Moisten and wipe gently over affected
area.
(c) If there is a foreign object in the eye – both eyes
should be bandaged.
c. Heat injury.
(1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen):
(a) Rest in cool or shady area.
(b) Slowly sip one quart of water. Add 1/4 teaspoon of
salt per quart.
(2) Heat exhaustion (pale, sweating, moist, cool skin):
(a) Rest in shade.
(b) Slowly sip one quart of water.
(c) Protect from further heat exposure.
(3) Heat stroke, victim disoriented or unconscious, skin is hot
and flushed (sweating may or may not occur), fast pulse:
(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with
water and fan victim). Remember to cool the groin and armpit
areas. Cooling may be facilitated by pouring water on the head and
back of neck (avoid overcooling).
(b) Maintain airway, breathing, and circulation.
d. Cold injuries.
(1) Frostbite:
(a) Signs and symptoms.
• Ears, nose, fingers, and toes are affected first.

V-6 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 20 March 2007

(d) Loosen clothing and boots to improve circulation. DO NOT rub. armpits. Skin tissue damage. • Coma. or shelter. and open to air. stumble]. (b) Protect victim as follows: • Remove wet clothing and put on dry clothing. (1) Immersion injuries (skin becomes wrinkled): (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. (e) Keep area dry. • Muscular rigidity with blue. • Cover top of head and back of neck. • Skin-to-skin contact. puffy skin. Avoid overly rapid re-warming. warm fluids. (2) Hypothermia [fumble.3/NTTP 3-50. Re- warm victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside a sleeping bag/shelter. • Place heat packs at groin. • Warm with blankets. • Prevent further heat loss. jerky movements. difficulty speaking. • Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to numbness that progresses to a waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. • Impaired ability to perform complex tasks. (b) Pat dry. Keep feet protected. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. • Altered mental state. mumble.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (b) Re-warm areas with body heat. (c) Dry socks and shoes. sleeping bags. CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. e. • Intense shivering. which may cause cardiac arrest. respiratory and cardiac failure. warm. and around neck. • Insulate from above and below. Skin tissue will be sensitive.26 V-7 . • Warm body core before extremities. (a) It is a progressive injury. • Avoid causing burns to skin.

DO NOT use mouth to create suction. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy): (1) Wash with large amounts of water. (d) DO NOT rub area with sand. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). Use soap.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (b) Remove jewelry and watches. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. cover with a dressing. Snakebite: (1) Treat all snakebites as poisonous. h. (b) Keep sores dry.26 20 March 2007 . (3) DO NOT cut bite site. (4) Clean bite with soap and water. (1) Stings: (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release).3/NTTP 3-50. (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. (2) Minimize activity and limit movement to prevent spread of venom. Remove watches. if available. (e) Treat for shock. (2) Punctures: (a) Cover with clean dressing. (b) Treat for shock as needed. (5) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion (constantly check circulation/swelling). (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. boots. (2) Saltwater sores: (a) Change body positions frequently. f. rings. Marine life. g. (7) For conscious victims. and other constricting items on the affected limb. (6) Treat for shock. i. Infection: V-8 FM 3-50. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. force fluids. Urine may be used to flush area in a survival situation.

acorns. Dysentery and diarrhea: (1) Drink extra water. acorns.) k.) (2) Sources. diarrhea. and sprains. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. as needed. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. b. (2) Eat charcoal. (b) Diarrhea. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). and blackberry stems. Use to treat colds.3/NTTP 3-50. Plant Medicine a. Tannin. (a) Burns: • Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. inflammation. Drink extra water. • Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. common plantain. j. (1) Medical uses. sore throat. • Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. (b) Leach out tannin by soaking or boiling. (2) Change bandages. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins. (1) Medical uses. Use to treat burns and skin problems and for parasites. (See paragraph (4) below. and dysentery. Found in outer bark of all trees. or leaves in water. (d) Lice and insect bites. Drink strong tea solution. 3. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. (4) Treatments. and worms. strawberry leaves. Salicin/salicylic acid. (3) Preparation (to brew tannin tea): (a) Place crushed outer bark. (1) Keep wound clean. aches. dysentery. • Apply compress to burned area. pain.26 V-9 . fever. • Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. banana plants. Salicin/salicylic acid has aspirin-like qualities.

3/NTTP 3-50. V-10 FM 3-50. moist poultice for aches and sprains. buds. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. • Hold in place with dressing. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen.26 20 March 2007 . (c) Make poultice. • Make pulpy mass. • Crush plant or stems. (2) Sources. (b) Brew tea following method as described in paragraph 3a(3) above. (3) Preparation: (a) Gather twigs. • Apply pulpy mass over injury. (4) Treatments: (a) Chew on twigs. Willow (Salix alba) and aspen (Populus tremula) trees (see figure V-4). or cambium for symptom relief. or cambium layer (soft. buds. (c) Use warm.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.

stings. (b) Brew tea from leaves. diarrhea. (4) Treatments: (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. Figure V-4.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (c) Make poultice of leaves. and dysentery. Common plantain (Plantago major). abrasions.26 V-11 . Useful Plants c. wounds. Musa paradisiacal). banana-like fruit. (3) Preparation: (a) Brew tea from seeds. (2) Source. (1) Medical uses. The common plantain shown in figure V-4 is Plantago major and is common in North America. Use to treat itching. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. (Do not confuse this plantain with the starchy. There are over 200 species in the plantain family (Plantaginaceae) with similar medicinal properties.3/NTTP 3-50.

you know you have the right plant (1) Medical uses. fleas. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. inflammations. Wash hands before preparing food or water. boils. c. b. (4) Treatments. (b) Use plant for food. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. burns. (2) Source. Wounds. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). ticks. b. Avoid contaminating water source with human waste. sores. If a stand is still topped by last year’s cottony seed heads. leeches. Common cattail (Typha latifolia). vitamins. 5. (a) Check body regularly. (b) Pick off insects and eggs. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. burns. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets or bleach. 4. CAUTION: Do not confuse with the poisonous daffodil (Amaryllidaceae) and poisonous iris (Iris species) shoots. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. (3) Preparation: (a) Pound roots into pulpy mass for poultice. or bringing to a rolling boil for at least 10 minutes and then strain. d. and minerals. DO NOT crush. which have similar leaves.26 20 March 2007 .3/NTTP 3-50. as well as an excellent food source. Health and Hygiene a.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. sores. V-12 FM 3-50. and stings. Prevent and control parasites: (1) Check body for lice. or other parasites. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. Cattail plants are found in marshes (see figure V- 4). Stay clean (daily regimen).

h.26 V-13 . Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. f.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. netting. Try to rest. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. d. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. g. and clothing. Eat what you can. e.

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When fully clothed. (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on ground. Keep clothing dry to maintain insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in sun or by fire).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. 2. i. d. Evaluate available resources and situation and accomplish individual tasks accordingly. Care and Use of Clothing a. Avoid overheating. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. b. Examine clothing frequently for damage.26 VI-1 . Priorities a. f. Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. (2) Remove wet clothing and re-warm by fire. not drinking water. Note: Only use drinking water for drinking. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. (1) Use salt water to dampen clothing. If you fall into water in winter: (1) Build fire. If no fire is available: (1) Remove clothing and get into personal protection. e. (2) Layers create more dead air space. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze/break ice out of clothing. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. Wear loose and layered clothing.3/NTTP 3-50. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. (2) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. Never discard clothing. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. c. Dampen clothing when on ocean in hot weather. h. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces insulation qualities). g.

dry grass. (2) Wash clothing and repair when possible. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. bark. or the back page of this publication.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing.e. one at a time. j. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. Sun and snow goggles (figure VI-2).. especially at foot of bag.3/NTTP 3-50. Improvised foot protection or hiding foot signature (figure VI- 1). b. Sleeping bag. Other Protective Equipment a. over instep. VI-2 FM 3-50. Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over toes. dry moss). (1) Cut two to four layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. (5) Fold side corners. (1) Fluff before use. leaves. 3. Figure VI-1.26 20 March 2007 . (3) Improvise with available material (i. (2) Fold into a triangle. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. (6) Secure or tuck into other layers of material.

Sun and Snow Goggles c. Site selection. and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). Figure VI-2.26 VI-3 .. a. b. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. (4) A location large and level enough in which to lie down.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Used to protect from sand.e. insects. Gaiters 4. and avalanche areas. Figure VI-3. i. Gaiters (figure VI-3). (2) Available food and water. Types. drainage and dry river beds. (3) Avoid natural hazards. snow. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. (1) Near signal and recovery site. dead standing trees.3/NTTP 3-50.

Temperate climates require shelter that protects from wind and rain. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. unless you can see your breath. Figure VI-4. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. snow cave (figures VI-5 through VI-7). Note: As a general rule. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (figure VI-4). insulated shelter. snow trench. (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. (3) Thermal A-frame. Immediate Shelters Note: The metal skin of an aircraft will act as a heat exchanger in very cold weather making the interior of the aircraft as cold or colder than the outside air.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (1) Immediate shelters. (2) General shelter.3/NTTP 3-50. VI-4 FM 3-50.26 20 March 2007 . Cold climates require an enclosed. Try to dig down to earth surface to utilize radiant heat.

26 VI-5 .3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Snow Trench 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Thermal A-Frame Figure VI-6. Figure VI-5.3/NTTP 3-50.

(a) To reduce surface temperature. Figure VI-7. (b) For thermal protection. Hot climates require shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (figure VI-8). a minimum of two layers of material (12 to 18 inches apart) are required. VI-6 FM 3-50. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.3/NTTP 3-50. shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches).26 20 March 2007 . Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter.

Figure VI-9. (a) If natural materials are used.26 VI-7 . (1) Have entrance 45 to 90 degrees from prevailing wind. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. arrange in layers starting at bottom with each layer overlapping previous layer (figure VI-10). Elevated Platform Shelter c.3/NTTP 3-50. (2) Cover with available material. Figure VI-8. Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter (5) Elevated platform shelter (figure VI-9).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Shelter construction.

In wet climates dig a ditch around the shelter to aid/improve drainage and prevent water from flowing into/through the shelter. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. Shelter construction materials using natural and man-made materials at hand (i. snow. boughs. (2) Use fires at dusk. sheet of plastic. VI-8 FM 3-50. b. and/or dry moss). lighter. Fires CAUTION: Use fire only as a last resort. Figure VI-10.e. batteries. fuel.3/NTTP 3-50. Shingle Method (b) If using porous material like parachute. or during inclement weather. Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for fire. dawn. raft. bark. a. damp ground (i. parachute. raft vehicle/aircraft parts. (1) Heat sources: • Matches. foam rubber from vehicle seats. d. sod. blankets. and broad leaves). • Use a 40. f. • Stretch as tight as possible. 5. sand. Bed construction. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke.26 20 March 2007 .e. and oxygen.. (3) Use fires at times when local populace is cooking. and pyrotechnics. leaves. flashlight reflectors. Building a fire: Three essential elements for starting a fire are heat.to 60-degree slope.. spark devices. e. such as flares (last resort).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. magnifying glass. Construct bed to protect from cold.

kindling. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. (b) Kindling. c. Without prior training. Figure VI-11. Types.3/NTTP 3-50.. dry grasses. • Friction. pitch (sap saturated coniferous wood). gunpowder. and dry dung). Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from fire. and candle wick.) (a) Tinder. Examples of tinder include cotton with Vaseline. aircraft fuel). Chap Stick. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn.26 VI-9 . (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting a fire. (1) Tepee fire (figure VI-11).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (c) Fuel (i. Use tepee fire to produce concentrated heat source for cooking. this source is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device. and fuel. Tepee Fire and Log Cabin Fire (3) Sod fire and reflector (figure VI-12). insect repellant. (2) Fuel is divided into three categories: tinder. Many of these items can be found in first aid kit. Kindling is pencil-lead to pencil-size dry wood small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. dry wood [removing bark and using hardwoods reduces smoke]. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. lighting. bamboo [open chambers to prevent explosion]. (2) Log cabin fire (figure VI-11). saturate with petroleum or alcohol-based products (Vaseline.e. Build fires against rocks or logs. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. Use log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat to dry wet wood and provide coals for cooking and so forth. dry bark. or signaling.

Sod Fire and Reflector (4) Dakota fire hole (figure VI-13). Figure VI-12.3/NTTP 3-50. Dakota Fire Hole VI-10 FM 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Figure VI-13.26 20 March 2007 . Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations.

weakness. There are no water substitutes. (4) Ground water (arid or desert environment) (figure VII-2). 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. (f) Bird flight in the early morning to water or late afternoon from water. DO NOT drink urine. blood. fatigue. (2) Precipitation (rain. Chapter VII WATER 1. fish juices. Water Procurement c.26 VII-1 . injury. d. dark urine. heat. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. Thirst. and headache. Dry/chapped lips. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. dew. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. b. dizziness. 2. or sea water. Exertion. Signs and Symptoms of Dehydration a.3/NTTP 3-50. and springs). 3. Water Requirements Drink water. lakes. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. or an illness increases water loss. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). sleet) (figure VII-1). (e) Croaking frogs and presence of bees. snow.

3/NTTP 3-50. Stir frequently to prevent damaging container.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (c) Melt with body heat. induces dehydration. (a) Do not eat snow or ice. (b) Melt with fire. It lowers body temperature. Use waterproof container and place between layers of clothing. and may cause minor cold injury to lips/mouth. Water Procurement (5) Snow or ice. VII-2 FM 3-50.26 20 March 2007 . Figure VII-1.

20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Water Indicators (6) Open seas. (b) Vegetation. and collect dew off raft. Figure VII-2. Cut down the plant. (c) Fresh water from old sea ice or icebergs has rounded corners and tastes relatively salt-free. (a) All open sources previously mentioned.3/NTTP 3-50. • Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. leaving stump. First three fillings of water will be bitter. but succeeding fillings will be palatable. Scoop out center of stump so hollow is bowl- shaped. (a) Water available in survival kits.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. • Banana plants (figure VII-3). catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers.26 VII-3 . Water from roots will immediately start to fill hollow. (7) Tropical areas. Be sure to cover it with banana leaves to keep insects out. (b) Precipitation: Drink as much as possible.

water will flow again. and taste to determine if drinkable. Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. Filter and purify. Shake and listen for water. Banana Plants • Vines (figure VII-4). Cut out entire section to carry with you.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. If juice is clear and water-like. color.3/NTTP 3-50. Figure VII-3. cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). VII-4 FM 3-50. • Bamboo.26 20 March 2007 . When water flow stops. Cut bark (DO NOT use milky/red sap). DO NOT touch vine to lips. Pour into hand to check smell. cut off 4-6 inches of opposite end.

Figure VII-4. Along coast. or pointed stick. Figure VII-5. Utilize clear plastic bag and ensure as airtight as possible. Beach Well (8) Dry areas. • Beach well. Water Vines • Coconuts. (a) Transpiration bag (figure VII-6).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. obtain water by digging beach well (figure VII-5). saw. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50.26 VII-5 . Break through husk and nut to obtain water utilizing knife. Ripe coconuts (on ground) may cause excessive diarrhea.3/NTTP 3-50. Construct as many collection devices as possible/necessary.

Figure VII-7.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (a) Purify all water even tap water.3/NTTP 3-50. Vegetation Bag (9) Urban areas. Utilize clear plastic bag. bundle vegetation. Figure VII-6.26 20 March 2007 . Consider all water polluted. and ensure as airtight as possible. Transpiration Bag (b) Vegetation bag (figure VII-7). VII-6 FM 3-50. CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/transpiration bags. Water may taste like vegetation.

(1) Pour from one container to another to improve taste. (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. to aerate.e.. b. A seepage basin will also help to filter water (figure VII-8). (c) Bleach: 4 drops per quart (d) Two percent Iodine Tincture (in first aid kit): 10 drops per quart. filter through porous material (sand/charcoal) prior to purifying. Seepage Basin c. When procuring dirty water. 4. (a) Bring to a rolling boil for at least 10 minutes and then strain. (b) Water purification tablets. (2) Purify all other water. Follow instructions on package or use one tablet for clear water and two for muddy/murky water. (c) Utilize unorthodox sources (i. puddles. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Potable Water.3/NTTP 3-50. Figure VII-8. See figure IX-4 and figure IX-5 depicting filtration systems. and run-offs). Purification. in chapter IX. sinks. (e) Ten percent Povidone Iodine Solution (in first aid kit): 1-2 drops per quart.26 VII-7 . (b) Beware of chemically poisoned or treated water traps. Filtration. Water Preparation and Storage Note: Filtration does not equal purification.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. drainages. a.

26 20 March 2007 . use a clean. trash bag. To prevent contamination. obtain water from the cleanest source possible and filter. VII-8 FM 3-50. (2) If water cannot be purified. covered..e.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. This may kill pathogens if temperature and UV light is optimal. or sealed container (i. d. Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays to kill bacteria (4 hours of direct sunlight should be sufficient to kill bacteria). section of bamboo. Storage. or flotation gear). prophylactic. utilize clear plastic bag.3/NTTP 3-50.

Sources and location. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas). Snare Placement 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. b. lakes. (1) Snares: (a) Work while left unattended.3/NTTP 3-50. (1) Mammals can be found where: (a) Trails lead to watering. Find them in dead logs and stumps and on ponds. feeding. Chapter VIII FOOD 1. (2) Birds can be found by: (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. watering. Food Requirements a. and bedding areas. (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. and bedding areas. and roosting areas). feeding. (b) Place at trails leading to water. Figure VIII-1.26 VIII-1 . (5) Insects are easy to gather and could provide primary source of protein. (3) Fish and other marine life locations. (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. and slow moving streams. and mouths of dens (figure VIII-1). Procurement techniques.

• Make noose opening slightly larger than animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. and animal’s escape. • Placement of snares (set as many as possible) (figure VIII-3). wire locks in place. Squirrel Pole (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than hands).3/NTTP 3-50. • Use figure eight (locking loop) if wire is used (figure VIII-2).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Locking Loop Figure VIII-3. • Use funneling (natural or improvised) (figure VIII-4). Figure VIII-2. • Avoid disturbing the area. • Ensure a struggling animal cannot use nearby vegetation or rocks to break loose from the snare. (c) Construction of simple loop snare. • Once tightened. fist-sized for rabbits). VIII-2 FM 3-50. • Use materials that will not break under strain of holding a struggling animal. preventing reopening.26 20 March 2007 .

binding animal's hide in fork. (3) Twist stick (figure VIII-5).3/NTTP 3-50. (b) Twist stick.26 VIII-3 . (a) Insert forked stick into den until something soft is met. Figure VIII-4. Funneling 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. then remove animal from den.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. it may be dangerous. (c) Be ready to kill animal.

3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. and trap. Figure VIII-5. hook. Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices (see figure VIII-6 for fishing procurement methods). spear. (c) Wear shoes to protect feet when wading in water.e. i. more dangerous animals. Animals in distress may attract the enemy or larger. rock.26 20 March 2007 . slingshot. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Kill animals before handling. net. Figure VIII-6. club. (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. VIII-4 FM 3-50..3/NTTP 3-50. line.

these guidelines may help determine edibility. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). Each part of a plant (roots. use evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: The critical factor in using plants for food is to avoid accidental poisoning. and ticks. however. bark) requires more than 24 hours to test. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. Before using the following guide. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or raft. Eat only those plants you can positively identify and you know are safe to eat. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. pale/slimy gills. mosquitoes. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects. Even after testing food and finding it safe. sunken eyes. (j) Avoid hairy and bright colored insects. Plant foods. Always prepare and test it the same way. leaves. (k) Avoid poisonous insects and arachnids.3/NTTP 3-50. such as—flies. nausea. (b) Test only one part of one plant at a time. If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant.26 VIII-5 . (h) Avoid all crustaceans above high tide mark. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. (f) DO NOT eat fish with spines. (1) Selection criteria. flabby skin. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. and flesh that remains dented when pressed. (a) Before testing for edibility. eat in moderation. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). stems. or cramps. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into raft. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. c.

(e) During 8 hours you abstain from eating. (g) Beans. (c) Smell food for strong acid odors. (f) During testing. 90% are edible. test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. raspberry). (d) DO NOT eat 8 hours before test and drink only purified water.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (b) Spines. NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. (b) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. (b) Blue or black. Sap or juice should contact skin. (a) Test only one part of a plant at a time. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). or black spurs. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). smell alone does not indicate plant is edible or inedible. (4) Edibility test procedures. (c) Red. bulbs. (3) Berry rules: (a) Aggregate berries (blackberry. VIII-6 FM 3-50. (c) Mushrooms and fungus. (d) White. wilted.26 20 March 2007 . test the part raw before eating. fine hairs. or seeds inside pods. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. Remember. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. (i) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. and shiny leaves. 10% are edible. (h) Old. roots. purplish. yellow. buds. (f) Grain heads with pink. or green. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). 50% are edible. Almost all are edible. and flowers). CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility.3/NTTP 3-50. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. (g) Select small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it.

(1) Mammals. (a) Remove skin and save for other uses. (k) If nothing abnormal occurs.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Cook underground portions to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. If no ill effects occur. taking only what you absolutely need (in and around densely populated areas). local foods. rinse out your mouth with water. and their sources. plant part as prepared is safe for eating. If eating inner 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. is the best indicator of ripeness. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. wash the meat to avoid contamination. (h) Before placing prepared plant in mouth. take great steps to go unnoticed. Butchering and skinning. (j) If there is no reaction. a. d.3/NTTP 3-50. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW-spit excess saliva). If the bladder ruptures and urine spills on the meat. (b) One cut skinning of small game (figure VIII-7).26 VIII-7 . swallow food and wait 8 hours. (2) Theft is not recommended and carries harsh consequences. (1) Know your area of operation's flora and fauna. 2. rather than color. eat 1/4 cup of same plant prepared same way. If any ill effects occur during this period. Wait another 8 hours. Food Preparation Animal food gives greatest food value per pound. (3) Blend your procurement methods with local methods. place plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. Open abdominal cavity. (i) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on lip. If any ill effects occur. touch small portion (pinch) to inside of wrist to test for burning or itching. Softness. Urban Procurement CAUTION: Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. If theft is necessary to sustain life. Avoid rupturing the intestines or urine bladder when removing entrails. (l) If no ill effects occur.

liver. Small Game Skinning (2) Frogs and snakes. (a) Gut soon after killing. wings. then discard skin. (c) Remove entrails and gills to prevent spoilage. tongue.organs (heart. (a) Remove all hard portions such as legs.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. DO NOT save. (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. (d) If preserving meat. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open belly. head (snake) with two inches of body (to avoid poison glands). (e) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. (b) Protect from flies. (4) Birds. remove it from bones. (3) Fish. Figure VIII-7. and extremities. brain. (5) Insects.26 20 March 2007 . Skin. (c) Skin or pluck them (skin scavengers and sea birds). (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. Consume all meaty parts of skull. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. VIII-8 FM 3-50. and eyes (c) Wash when ready to use. and kidneys) cook well-done. and internal organs.3/NTTP 3-50.

(b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or cook food. Keep animal alive. (1) Long term. CAUTION: To kill parasites. (a) Improvise metal cooking containers from available resources. (2) Baking. (b) Mark cache/freezer location to relocate. b. Food Preservation a. pour off water. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. If bitter. (4) Roasting. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. clams. freshwater fish. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. and most nuts can be eaten raw. thoroughly cook all wild game. and taste plant. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. Refrigerate. (6) Fruits. boiling water is sometimes best. 3.26 VIII-9 .3/NTTP 3-50. snails. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. berries. (3) Leaching. mussels. and scavenger birds. Cold water should be tried first. • Crush and pour water through. (b) Second method: • Boil. repeat process until palatable.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the broth). crawfish. (a) Freeze in meal-size portions. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: • Soak and pour water off. Discard water. b. however. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over candle. Cooking.

and shrimp in wet seaweed. (a) Hang meat in shade. (b) Ensure all corners of wrapping are insect proof. (1) Wrapping food. and re-wet as water evaporates. d. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. (3) Avoid using fir or pine to smoke meat (produce soot and makes meat inedible). such as cotton. (a) Wrap before flies appear. (a) Use clean material. Wrap pieces individually. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. Protecting meat from animals and insects. (c) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. Note: This method should only be used in a permissive environment as the hanging of meat may reveal your position. Cut or pound meat into thin strips (1/8 inch). VIII-10 FM 3-50. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool. c.26 20 March 2007 .3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. (b) Buried (shady areas or along streams work best). crabs. (3) Packing meat for movement. (2) Hanging meat. (2) Remove fat. Food stored in shelter could attract animals. (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation and place in pack. (c) Carry shellfish. e. (2) Short term.

(1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. a. Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure. Figure IX-1. distance from the source. • Cover with available material. dig a trench or foxhole as follows: • Dig trench deep enough for protection. Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (figure IX-1).26 IX-1 . Immediate Action Shelter (b) If no shelter is available. (3) Avoid detection and capture. Protection. and shielding.3/NTTP 3-50. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. then enlarge for comfort (figure IX-2).

and rest. (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. Improvised Shelter (4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (figure IX-3). (6) Lie down. sleep.26 20 March 2007 . IX-2 FM 3-50. Figure IX-2.3/NTTP 3-50. keep warm.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.

(a) Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3rd day for water procurement. pools. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies b. etcetera. or underground sources are safest. Figure IX-3. • Lakes.26 IX-3 . • Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. Water sources (in order of preference): • Springs.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.3/NTTP 3-50. Sustenance. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. ponds. • Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during fallout). • Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking). wells. (1) Water.

Filtering Water Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems. Filtration Systems.3/NTTP 3-50. • Use seep well. wash and wipe containers before use. • Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. (b) Water preparation (figures IX-4 and IX-5). • Purify all water sources. • Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the water). Figure IX-4. Settling Water (2) Food.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. IX-4 FM 3-50.26 20 March 2007 .

• Milk from animals. potatoes. (b) Cover with clean dressing.3/NTTP 3-50. • Discard all internal organs. • Smooth skinned vegetables. • Cook all meat until very well done. (d) Watch for signs of infection. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. Self-aid. (c) Avoid.26 IX-5 . (d) Drink liquids. • Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). turnips. (c) Cover with clean dressing. avoid fatigue. carrots). (3) Burns. c. • Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on bone. (c) Rest. etcetera). • Before cooking. • Skin carefully to avoid contaminating meat. Wash and remove skin. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference). (b) Animal foods. • Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. (2) Wounds. (a) Clean affected area. • Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. cut meat away from bone. • Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. (1) General rules.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. fruits. (a) Clean affected area. apples.

sick looking plants or crops. radiation burns). particularly those bursting with little or no blast and muffled explosions. Chemical Conditions a. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. mouth. Biological Conditions a. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. tongue.3/NTTP 3-50. (1) Use protective equipment. (b) Rest. and roof of mouth frequently. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation. weakness. (3) Keep nose. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. (1) Keep body and living area clean. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. Many agents have little or no odor. (5) Clean teeth. c. and skin covered. 3. Survival tips for biological conditions.26 20 March 2007 . loss of hair. If in doubt. 2. (d) Maintain food intake. Clues that may alert you to a biological attack. (1) Smell. (e) Prevent additional exposure. b. gums. travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). boil food and water for 10 minutes. vomiting. fatigue. (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. Detecting. (6) If traveling. (c) Drink fluids. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area away from vegetation. (4) Keep food and water protected. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. (2) Bathe as soon as situation permits. Protection from biological agents. diarrhea. IX-6 FM 3-50. (a) Time is required to overcome.

3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. Yellow. 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. eyes. when needed. • Destroy. (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. difficult breathing.26 IX-7 . or red smoke or mist. Pinch-blotting. (5) Taste. (3) Sound. (e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible. Bury. Warm water. Presence of sick or dying animals. (a) Color. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available: (a) Use all protective equipment. (b) Select routes on high ground. Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available: (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. c. (2) Sight. tall grasses. (d) Solid. (c) Gas. Tears. Oily. • Neutralize. and valleys. (6) General indications. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. b. Irritation to nose. dark patches on leaves and ground. Protection against chemical agents. and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors. coughing. itching. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. (c) Avoid cellars. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. dizziness. trenches. orange. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. (4) Feel. Most solid state agents have some color. choking. • Remove. (d) Avoid woods. (b) Follow antidote directions. Many agents are colorless. gullies. ditches. (7) Wildlife. or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. (b) Liquid.

(c) Improvise breathing filter using materials available
(such as T-shirt, handkerchief, or fabric).
d. Tips for survivor:
(1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire.
(2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources
before procurement (oil spots, foreign odors, dead fish, or animals).
(3) Keep food and water protected.
(4) DO NOT use plants in contaminated areas for food or
water.

IX-8 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 20 March 2007

Appendix A
THE WILL TO SURVIVE

1. Psychology of Survival
a. Preparation.
(1) Know your capabilities and limitations.
(2) Keep a positive attitude.
(3) Develop a realistic plan.
(4) Anticipate fears.
(5) Combat psychological stress.
(6) Recognize and anticipate existing stressors (injury, death,
fatigue, illness, environment, hunger, isolation).
(7) Attribute normal reactions to existing stressors (fear,
anxiety, guilt, boredom, depression, anger).
(8) Identify signals of distress created by stressors
(indecision, withdrawal, forgetfulness, carelessness, and propensity
to make mistakes).
b. Strengthen your will to survive with:
(1) The Code of Conduct.
(2) Pledge of Allegiance and patriotic songs.
(3) Faith in America.
(4) Short term and personal goals.
(5) Thoughts of return to family, friends, and future plans.
c. Group dynamics of survival include:
(1) Leadership, good organization, and cohesiveness.
(2) Promote high morale.
(3) Prevent panic.
(4) Create strength and trust in one another.
(5) Favor persistency in overcoming failure.
(6) Facilitate formulation of group goals.
(7) Take care of your buddy.
(8) Work as a team.

20 March 2007 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 A-1

(9) Reassure and encourage each other.
d. Influencing factors.
(1) Enforce chain of command.
(2) Organize according to individual capabilities.
(3) Accept suggestions and criticism.

2. Spiritual Considerations
Note: Never press spiritual considerations in large groups if
doing so divides the group and/or creates active
dissention.

a. Collect your thoughts and emotions.
b. Rely on your personal belief system.
(1) Identify your personal beliefs.
(2) Use self-control.
(3) Practice meditation.
(4) Remember past inner sources to help you overcome
adversity.
(5) Exercise personal religious rituals (e.g., prayer, worship,
and/or recitation of religious writings, scripture, or songs), if any.
c. With other survivors.
(1) Create an environment where each can openly discuss
his/her personal beliefs without fear of judgment, if he/she chooses
to do so.
(2) Encourage each other to maintain hope while waiting for
rescue.

A-2 FM 3-50.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2.26 20 March 2007

US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Distribution is IAW Military Standard Requisition and Issue Procedure Desk Guide (MILSTRIP Desk Guide) Navy Supplement Publication-409 (NAVSUP P-409). Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC)[N5]. and the Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. Distribution is IAW Air Force Instruction (AFI) 33-360.3/NTTP 3-50. 2. Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center (AFDC).3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. evasion. Scope This multi-Service tactics. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility will review this publication. and recovery information. TRADOC. Distribution is IAW applicable directives and the Initial Distribution Number (IDN) listed on the authentication page.26 B-1 . weatherproof. techniques. The Air Force will incorporate the procedures in this publication IAW applicable governing directives. 5. Appendix B PUBLICATION INFORMATION 1. Applicability The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. regulations. User Information a. this publication incorporates the procedures contained herein into the United States (US) Army Doctrine and Training Literature Program as directed by the Commander. evasion. Navy. where appropriate. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy training and doctrine publications as directed by the Commander. Air Force. pocket-size guide on basic survival. 4. and recovery information. and curricula as follows: Army. validate the information and. reference and incorporate it in Service manuals. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. 3. NWDC. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. Upon approval and authentication.

b. Send comments and recommendations directly to— Army Commander.3/NTTP 3-50.26 20 March 2007 .3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. and procedures.af. Changes in Service protocol.mil ALSA Director. Navy Warfare Development Command ATTN: N5 686 Cushing Road Newport RI 02841-1207 DSN 948-1070/4201 COMM (401) 841-1070/4201 E-mail: alsapubs@nwdc.mil Air Force Commander.director@langley.mil Navy Commander. personnel.mil B-2 FM 3-50. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DD 155 North Twining Street Maxwell AFB AL 36112-6112 DSN 493-2640/2256 COMM (334) 953-2640/2256 E-mail: afdc. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. ALSA Center 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: alsa. We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. facilities. c. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. command and control organizations.af.dd@maxwell. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine.army.navy. responsibilities. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications.approving Service commands. US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATFC-EJ Fort Monroe VA 23651-1067 DSN 680-3951 COMM (757) 788-3951 E-mail: doctrine@monroe.

Q. R NAVSUP Navy Supplement NWDC Navy Warfare Development Command S. U. X.3/NTTP 3-50. H GPS global positioning system I IAW in accordance with IDN Initial Distribution Number ISOPREP isolated personnel report J. K. Y. GLOSSARY PART I – ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS A. L JP Joint Publication LOC line of communications LOP line of position M MILSTRIP Military Standard Requisition and Issue Procedure MTTP multi-Service tactics. T. techniques. F ELT emergency locator transmitter EPA evasion plan of action G.26 Glossary-1 . V. B AFDC Air Force Doctrine Center AFI Air Force Instruction ALSA Air Land Sea Application ATO air tasking order C. P. D CSAR combat search and rescue E.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. W. O. Z SPINS special instructions TRADOC US Army Training and Doctrine Command UV ultraviolet 20 March 2007 FM 3-50. and procedures N.

(JP 1-02) concealment—The protection from observation or surveillance. misleading." (JP 1-02) Department of Defense (DD) Form 1833 Isolated Personnel Report— contains information designed to facilitate the identification and authentication of an evader by a recovery force. the plural form is "datums" in contrast to the normal plural "data. (JP 1-02) Glossary-2 FM 3-50. (JP 1- 02) datum—Any numerical or geometrical quantity or set of such quantities which may serve as reference or base for other quantities. (JP 1-02) evasion plan of action— A course of action. objects. that is intended to improve a potential evader's chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing recovery forces with an additional source of information that can increase the predictability of the evader's actions and movement.26 20 March 2007 . Also called EPA. or evading the enemy. Where the concept is geometric. Also called (ISOPREP). (JP 1-02) evasion and recovery—The full spectrum of coordinated actions carried out by evaders. (JP 1-02) camouflage—The use of natural or artificial material on personnel. PART II – TERMS AND DEFINITIONS authenticate—A challenge given by voice or electrical means to attest to the authenticity of a message or transmission. or tactical positions with the aim of confusing. developed before executing a combat mission. and operational recovery planners to effect the successful return of personnel isolated in hostile territory to friendly control.3/NTTP 3-50.3/AFTTP(I) 3-2. recovery forces.

Army National Guard. RELEASABILITY: Distribution authorized to DOD and DOD contractors only to protect technical or operational information from automatic dissemination under the international Exchange Program or by other means. PECK Major General. CASEY General. This determination was made on 23 June 2006. United States Army Chief of Staff JOYCE MORROW Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 0000000 DISTRIBUTION: Active Army.3 NTTP 3-50. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center ACCESSIBILITY: Publications and forms are available on the e- Publishing website at www. . Supersedes AFTTP(I) 3-2. requirements for FM 3-50. 19 March 2003.3.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.e-publishing.af.26 20 March 2007 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: Official: GEORGE W. By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force ALLEN G.mil for downloading or ordering. FM 3-50. and US Army Reserve: Distribute IAW the initial distribution number (IDN) 115787.26.

Navy S/N: 0411LP1060669 PIN: 080832-000 .