SUBJECT: SCIENCE

FORM: 5

TOPIC: MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON LIVING THINGS  CLASSIFICATIONS OF MICROORGANISMS

o Type of microorganisms Definition: Tiny living thing that !"nn#t $% %%n $y n"&%' %y% , but !"n $% %%n $y %l%!t(#n )i!(# !#*% + They are also known as )i!(#$% + S#)% #, )i!(#$% "(% h"(),-l. $-t #)% #, th%) "(% - %,-l t## Classification: There are 5 )"in g(#-* for microbes: a) B"!t%(i" b) P(#t#/#" c) F-ngi d) Alg"% e) Vi(- % Beruk Pergi Filipina Angkat Van

o Characteristics of various type of microorganisms 0+ B"!t%(i" Definition: 1n' )"ll% t living thing can be %%n $y %l%!t(#n )i!(# !#*%, have the i)*l% t t(-!t-(%, and have the l"(g% t n-)$%( ")#ng th% ,iv% g(#-* #, )i!(#$% + Si e: Consists only one cell !about "#$ to %" micrometer)

Shape: There are four general shapes: a) C#!!i b) B"!ili c) S*i(ili" d) Vi$(i# Structure: Cium Baboon Sampai Vietnam

&utrition: Some bacteria h"v% !hl#(#*hyll, so they !"n )"&% th%i( #2n ,##' $y *h#t# ynth% i *(#!% + Some of bacteria don't have chlorophyll, so they have to be: a) S"*(#*hyt% b) P"(" it% (espiration: Some of bacteria carry out "%(#$i! (% *i("ti#n, and some of them carry out "n"%(#$i! (% *i("ti#n# (eproduction: a) )y $in"(y ,i i#n - g%t ,##' ,(#) '%!"ying )"tt%( - g%t ,##' ,(#) #th%( living #(g"ni )

##'+ (espiration: . #nly #n% !%ll# They are -ni!%ll-l"(# +. but mostly they have irregular shape !no fi.b) )y *#(% *abitat: )acteria live in any '")* places# 1+ P(#t#/#" Definition: Ani)"l which are )"'% -* #.ed shape) Structure: &utrition: Some of proto oa live as *"(" it% # +#g: plasmodium+ Some of them obtain . *"(")%!i-) and etc# Si e: Consists only one cell !about $ to -$" micrometer) Shape: *ave various shapes.(#) th%i( -((#-n'ing # +#g: amoeba and paramecium+ Some of proto oa )"&% th%i( #2n .ample: ")#%$".##' .

#()"ti#n5 c) )y %3-"l (%*(#'-!ti#n 4!#n6-g"ti#n5 *abitat: /roto oa live independently in any *#n' . and they liv% in !#l#ni% +.ercise: %# &ame the five main groups of microorganisms -# )acteria can live in unfavorable conditions# 0nder such conditions. (iv%(.ll of proto oa carry out "%(#$i! (% *i("ti#n (eproduction: a) )y $in"(y . '")* #il #( in #th%( #(g"ni ) ..i i#n b) )y " %3-"l (%*(#'-!ti#n 4 *#(% . they11111# 2# 3abel the part of bacteria below 4# Si e of proto oa is about11111111 $# 5hat is the shape of paramecium6 ############################ .

round ball ii.7+ F-ngi Definition: /lants which '# n#t h"v% chlorophyll# They include mushrooms. it bursts open and disperses the spore# b) )y $-''ing .long filaments iii. moulds and yeast# They '# n#t h"v% root. and some of them are tiny !i#e moulds and yeast) Shape: *ave various shapes: i. stems or leaves Si e: Some of them are large !i#e mushroom).oval-shaped Structure: &utrition: 7ost of fungi live as *"(" it% 4i+% )#-l' 5 #( "*(#*hyt% 4i+% )-!#(5 # (espiration: 7ost of fungi carry out "%(#$i! (% *i("ti#n (eproduction: a) )y *#(% 8ungi such a mushrooms form spores within their caps# 7ucor form sporangium !containing spores)# 5hen it ripe.

long filaments iii. stems or leaves Si e: Some of them are large !i#e seaweed).network-like structure Structure: &utrition: .lgae '# n#t have root. so that they can make their own food by photosynthesis# . and some of them are tiny !i#e diatoms.ample: 7ucor grows on damp stale bread placed in the dark 8+ Alg"% Definition: 9ery simple plants which h"v% chlorophyll# .i i#n5 !hl#(#*hyll.round ball ii.lgae *# % (espiration: 7ost of fungi carry out "%(#$i! (% *i("ti#n (eproduction: a) )y " %3-"l (%*(#'-!ti#n 4$in"(y .oval-shaped iv.*abitat: 8ungi live in '")* '"(& habitats# +. euglena and etc) Shape: *ave various shapes: i.

(% h 2"t%(. '# n#t %3!(%t% 2" t% *(#'-!t . "n' '# n#t *# % n-!l%.b) )y " %3-"l (%*(#'-!ti#n 4.bout "#".. maybe in spherical. t(%% + 5+ Vi(Definition: Smallest microorganisms and it '# n#t (% *i(%.lgae reproduced by breaking a long filament into two# c) )y %3-"l (%*(#'-!ti#n 4!#n6-g"ti#n5 *abitat: .("g)%nt"ti#n5 . and can be seen #nly by %l%!t(#n microscope Shape: *ave various shapes. '")* #il #( #n '")* $"(& #. rectangular or rod-shaped Structure: . !%ll )%)$("n% "n' !yt#*l" ) Si e: . "lt 2"t%(.: "#4 micrometer.lgae live in .

# )acteria )# .ercise: %# *ow do fungi continue its generation under adverse condition6 -# 5hy algae look greenish6 2# 5hat a different between algae and tree6 4# 5hich of microorganisms cannot survive outside living cells6 .# State 7 *(#*%(ti% of viruses which are not characteristics of living things .&utrition: 9iruses live as *"(" it% in living cell# (eproduction: *abitat: 9iruses live #nly in living cell# +.lgae C# 9iruses D# /roto oa .

$"!t%(i" prefer 'i) #( '"(& h"$it"t. most of microorganisms will be killed# . th%y '# n#t g%t 2"t%( for a period of time# *owever. h-)i'ity# That means.5 <n v%(y "!i'i! 4*H = 0 t# 75 and v%(y "l&"lin% 4*H = 01 t# 085 conditions.. while "lg"% "n' . . vi(. and they get it by being: "5 "-t#t(#*hi! $5 "*(#*hyti! !5 *"(" iti! 1+ H-)i'ity 7icroorganisms n%%' living *l"!% 2ith high l%v%l #.#()ing *#(% # 8or amoeba. FACTOR 9HICH AFFECTS TO THE GRO9TH OF MICROORGANISM There are $ main factors that affect the growth of microorganism: 0+ N-t(i%nt 7icroorganisms need n-t(i%nt t# liv%.-ngi "n' *(#t#/#" and #)% #. and they 2ill 'i% i.%2 #. $"!t%(i" tend to live in $(ight *l"!% in!% th%y h"v% !hl#(#*hyll t# !"((y #-t *h#t# ynth% i *(#!% + 8+ T%)*%("t-(% M# t -it"$l% t%)*%("t-(% for the microorganism's growth and live is about 7. #)% $"!t%(i" can live in a place 2ith#-t 2"t%(: *(% %n!% by . they form !y t !spore with outer ring)# 7+ Light M# t #. they n%%' )#i t-(% #( 2"t%( t# liv%.<C !human's body temperature)# High t%)*%("t-(% will &ill microorganisms. while l#2 t%)*%("t-(% )"&% them in"!tiv%# 5+ *H v"l-% 7ost of microorganisms prefer to liv% in n%-t("l )%'i-) 4*H = .

$i#g" "n' . cows and etc) and termites digest their food They produce an en yme called !%ll-l# % to help herbivores and termites 'ig% t !%ll-l# % int# gl-!# % en yme !%ll-l# % cellulase gl-!# % 1+ In D%!"y 1+0 F#()"ti#n #. goat.#( '(y !#-gh 'i %" %+ . USEFUL MICROORGANISMS 0+ In th% Dig% ti#n #. which are: a) /enicillin !prepared from penicillium notatum bacteria) b) Streptomycin !prepared from streptomyces griseus bacteria) . h-)Some of saprophytic bacteria and fungi decompose organic matter into humus 1+1 P(#'-!ti#n #.(#) '%"' #( v%(y 2%"& $"!t%(i" "n' vi(. F##' Some bacteria and proto oa help herbivores !e#g: rabbit.common antibiotics in world.%(tili/%( Some of saprophytic bacteria decompose organic waste !e#g: waste from oil palm.% # <t used t# ti)-l"t% th% $#'y t# *(#'-!% "nti$#'i% # V"!!in"ti#n refers to an in=ection containing certain vaccines that can prevent a person being infected to a certain disease# +. paddy and coconut) and turn it into )%th"n% gas 1+7 Di *# "l #.ntibiotics !"n #nly &ill bacteria 7+1 V"!!in% 9accines are *(%*"(%' . #il *ill Some of bacteria break up oil spills and decompose it into less harmful substance# 7+ In M%'i!in% 7+0 Anti$i#ti! There are .ample: BCG in6%!ti#n .

t(y 5+0 M"&ing $(%"' "n' !"&% >east is used in the making breads and cakes# <t is mi.ying $"!t%(i" .8+ In Ag(i!-lt-(% 8+0 M"t-(ing #. !"($#n 'i#3i'% "n' %n%(gy# )y the way.ed with flour. t#$"!!# l%"v% )acteria used to make tobacco leaves mature. !h%)i!"l . '%!"y Fig-(% 8+1> A 4Si)*l% nit(#g%n !y!l%5 8+7 P(#'-!ti#n #.i3ing $"!t%(i" &itrates /lant and animal proteins Nit(i.ying $"!t%(i" &itrogen gas Nit(#g%n>. this process is known as .%()%nt"ti#n+ en yme y%" t ? -g"( !"($#n 'i#3i'% ? %th"n#l ? %n%(gy ymase C"($#n 'i#3i'% released makes the dough rise.mmonium compounds B"!t%(i" #. so that they can emit desirable smell and taste# 8+1 Nit(#g%n !y!l% D%nit(i.(#) "lg"% Some algae used to produce beneficial chemicals for human beings# 8or the e. so that breads and cakes become very soft# .ample: a) beta-carotene : which has anti cancer properties b) fatty acids : which make cholesterol level in human's blood become low 5+ In In'. sugar and water? and made into dough >east will reacts with sugar to produce "l!#h#l 4%th"n#l5.

#y "-!% S#y "-!% is produced from the fermentation of a mi. "n' y#gh-(t Vin%g"( !ethanoic acid) is prepared by using bacteria to change ethanol into ethanoic acid# %th"n#l 4"l!#h#l5 ? #3yg%n bacteria %th"n#i! "!i' 4vin%g"(5 ? 2"t%( @#gh-(t !contains l"!ti! "!i') is prepared by the action of bacteria on milk# )acteria will reacts with lactose in milk and turns it into lactic acid# l"!t# % 5+8 P(#'-!ti#n #.5+1 M"&ing %th"n#l >east is also used to produce alcohol !ethanol) instead of carbon dio. flour and soy beans# Salt is added to make it become salty# +.ture containing mould. C or D is the highest density of the bacteria colony6 /etri dish .ll microorganism grow faster in dry conditions C# .ide# $#2 P(#'-!ti#n #.ll microorganism can be seen under light microscope $# <n which bacteria cultures in petri dishes . )..# *igh temperature will kills microorganisms but low temperature will make them inactive )# .ercise: %# 3ist all factors affect to the growth of microorganism -# 5hich microorganisms that can live in bright place6 2# Tell the range of air humidity which most of microorganisms are very active# 4# 5hat is true about microorganisms6 . vin%g"(.ll microorganism cannot produce their own nutrients D# . yeast. ) C D p* 2 @ @ %" 3ight )right )right Dark Dark 7oisture 7oist Dry 7oist Dry bacteria l"!ti! "!i' .

ual intercourse 4# Syphillis %# Through se. his testis becomes inflamed and enlarged# *e feels pain during urination# -# 8or female.Aet vaccine ii . HARMFUL EFFECT B@ MICROORGANISMS .7icroorganisms which can cause disease called *"th#g%n + They can be either bacteria or viruses or fungi or proto oa# > )efore that.5ash your mouth and brush your teeth after eating# T"$l% B+8 C A 4Di %" % C".)oil all drinking water iii .%' $y B"!t%(i" DISEASE %#Tuberculosis !)atuk kering) METHOD OF INFECTION %# Through food -# Through infected air breathed into the lung S@MPTOM %# /atient loss weight and appetite for food -# /atient coughs often. th% $#'y+ 0+ Di %" % C".<ncrease the chlorine content in water supply %# Can be treated by using antibiotics !i#e penicillin) -# Can be prevented by avoid having se.ual intercourse %# Can be treated by using antibiotics !i#e penicillin) -# Can be prevented by avoid having se.Cover all food iv . and in advanced he coughs out of blood# %# /atient has severe diarrhoea and vomits -# /atient feels giddy and pain in abdomen 2# *is body becomes dehydrated# %# 8or male. 'i %" % can be defined as "ny !#n'iti#n 2hi!h "!tiv%ly h"() th% n#()"l . with prostitutes# 2# Aonorrhoea %# Through se.*aving a diet low in sugars ii . she has painful vagina and uterus# %# /atient has fever and non-itchy rash on the body# -# /atient has sores on the penis or vagina 2# /atient has sore throat and pain in the bones and =oint# %# /atient feels pain for infected teeth since teeth's pulp is badly inflamed TREATMENTAPREVENTION %# Can be treated by using antibiotics !i#e streptomycin and isonia id) -# Can be prevented through immuni ation by )CA vaccine -# Cholera !Taun) %# Through contaminated water and food# %# /atient given saline drip and antibiotic -# *ow to prevent from being infected6 i .-n!ti#ning #. with prostitutes# $# Tooth decay %# Through food's waste on the teeth's surface# %# Can be prevented by: < .%' $y B"!t%(i"5 .

edes mosCuito !in=ect the virus into patient's blood) %# &B /(B/+( T(+.%' $y Vi(.% DISEASE %#Common cold !Selsema) METHOD OF INFECTION %# Through contaminated air !when people around snee es) S@MPTOM %# /atient gets cough.Deep our living place clean ii .<DS !.have fresh and clean air iii. and coughs very often# -# /atient has loss appetite for food and weight# TREATMENTAPREVENTION %# &B /(B/+( T(+.% 5 .having proper diet ii . muscles and eyes 4# )lue marks appear on the body %# /atient has fever and diarrhoea.8ogging 2# .T7+&T -# Can be prevented by: i .T7+&T -# *ow to prevent from being infected6 i . running nose and red or watery eyes -# /atient has a sore throat 2# /atient becomes weak %# /atient has high fever# -# )leeding in nose and gums 2# /ain in the bones.Sharing of syringes during drug addicts iii.<nfected pregnant woman to her baby# %# &B /(B/+( T(+.cCuired <mmune Deficiency Sydrome) %# Through 2 ways: i -Se.Destroy . fever.edes mosCuito's habitat iii .T7+&T -# Can be prevented by having healthy clean life# T"$l% B+8 C B 4Di %" % C".ual intercourse ii .%' $y Vi(.1+ Di %" % C". =oints.keep away from the crowd -# Dengue fever !Demam denggi) %# Through .

do not share towel or comb %# Can be treated by suitable anti-fungal drugs -# Can be prevented by: i .fter fever.% Cy!l% #.keep the body clean and dry ii . A%'% M# D-it# 7+ Di %" % C". reddish area appears on the infected skin -# <nfected skin becomes itchy TREATMENTAPREVENTION %# Can be treated by suitable anti-fungal drugs -# Can be prevented by: i .nopheles mosCuito !in=ect parasitic proto oon plasmodium into blood) S@MPTOM %# /atient has high temperature at intervals -# .fogging ii .%' $y F-ngi DISEASE %#Tinea !/anau) METHOD OF INFECTION %# Through spore of the fungus S@MPTOM %# 5hitish patches appears on the infected skin !usually face or back of the body) %# .+gg are laid singly in stagnant water .do not share towel or comb -# (ingworm !Durap) %# Through spore of the fungus T"$l% B+8 C C 4Di %" % C".%' $y P(#t#/#" DISEASE %#7alaria !Demam kepialu) METHOD OF INFECTION %# Through .avoid direct contact with infected person # iii .%' $y F-ngi5 8+ Di %" % C". or chloroquine -# Can be prevented by: i .keep the body clean and dry ii .Deep our living place clean . patient feels very cold and shivers# 2# Aot rapid pulse rate 4# Aot very liitle urine.avoid direct contact with infected person # iii . quinine.dult mosCuito : has black stripes on the abdomen and legs +gg are hatched and becomes larva 3arva grows and becomes pupa Li. which is very yellow# TREATMENTAPREVENTION %# Can be treated by suitable drugs such as plasmoquine.

a spray or tiny droplets of moistures containing pathogens released into air Diseases transmitted by air: common cold and tuberculosis ii> By 9"t%( <t occurs when water from ponds. iii> By F##' <t occurs when food contaminated by pathogens due to unhygienic handling or houseflies presence# Diseases transmitted by food: cholera. iv> By C#nt"!t <t occurs when there has direct contact between infected people to others or wity ob=ects handled by infected people Diseases transmitted by contacts: tinea.<DS. Di %" % .Diseases transmitted from one person to another by FIVE 2"y : i> By Ai( <t occurs when infected person snee es.%' $y P(#t#/#"5 5+ Th% T("n )i i#n #. gonorrhoea and syphilis v> By V%!t#( 9ectors: . rats.nimals carry pathogens in their bodies# 8or e. coughs or talks# So. houseflies. dogs and etc Diseases transmitted through their bite into human's blood or carrying pathogen onto the food# Diseases transmitted by vectors: dengue fever.edes mosCuito. these pathogens can spread into water supplies due to unsanitary conditions E seeped through the soil Diseases transmitted by water: cholera and hepatitis . malaria and cholera . food poisoning and hepatitis . river and sea always contaminated with faeces which usually contains pathogens# So.T"$l% B+8 C D 4Di %" % C". . ringworm.ample: .

V%!t#( Common vectors.li% To control houseflies. we must: a) &%%* our surrounding cleans b) !#v%( our foods c) th(#2 organic waste into plastic bags and tied it up for disposal d) *("y insecticides to keep away the adult fly away e) &%%* manure and compost heaps far away from houses# 0+1 C#nt(#l #. their pathogens and diseases transmitted by them can be shown as following table: V%!t#( Aedes mosCuito Anopheles mosCuito *ousefly (ats P"th#g%n 9irus /roto oa !plasmodium) )acteria 8leas T"$l% B+E C A 4V%!t#( "n' it 'i %" % 5 Di %" % Dengue fever 7alaria Cholera /lague 0+0 C#nt(#l #. M# D-it#% To control mosCuitoes. PREVENTION OF DISEASES CAUSED B@ MICROORGANISMS 0+ P(%v%nti#n th(#-gh th% C#nt(#l #. St%(ili/"ti#n: Destruction of pathogens and their spores in a substance or ob=ect Ty*% #. drains and stagnant water d) !"((y out fogging around living places e) .%. t%(ili/"ti#n: a) h%"t b) !h%)i!"l .i3 wire gau e at doors and windows f) l%%* under a mosCuito net 1+ P(%v%nti#n th(#-gh St%(ili/"ti#n D%. H#.initi#n #. we must: a) '("in marshes and unused ponds b) !l%"n the house from opened empty tins and coconut shells c) *-t anti-larva chemicals or into ponds.

pplied to lamp in surgical operating theatre and lab for air sterili ing# $5 G"))" ("y > <t used for sterili ing surgical instruments and certain foods .%!t"nt .+ffectiveness of sterili ation using this way is less compare to using autoclave# 1+1 St%(ili/"ti#n .c) ("'i"ti#n 1+0 St%(ili/"ti#n .ample: iodine solution.ide solution and potassium manganate !9<<) solution $5 Di in.ample: lysol. floors.<t usually used for cleaning wounds . containers. hydrogen pero.ing H%"t "5 B#iling .. walls and etc# .n autoclave is a steam sterili er# The things to be sterili ed are kept in closed container and steam under high pressure and temperature of %-"FC for %$--" minutes .<t used for sterili ing instruments.Surgical instruments in clinics or hospital are usually sterili ed in this way# $5 A-t#!l"v% . cloths.ing R"'i"ti#n "5 UV light .+.The things to be sterili ed are kept in dry air oven at %@"FC for %$--" minutes . formaldehyde.ing Ch%)i!"l "5 Anti %*ti! ../owerful chemicals to destroy pathogens ..ll the bacteria and spores will be destroyed in this way# !5 D(y "i( #v%n .<t can be used to sterili e glassware and metal ob=ects# .+.<t can be used to prevent the growth of some bacteria and destroy some others# .)oiling a substance or an ob=ect in water for -" minutes will kill all bacteria cells and many spores# . phenol and sodium hypochlorite 1+7 St%(ili/"ti#n .

+ffect of this immunity is slow but permanent# ..Can be either natural or artificial immunity .ins produced by pathogen# +ach of antibody acts on a particular pathogen# Ty*% #.(efer to situation when a *%( #n (%!#v%(%' .Can be done by in=ecting antibody !usually contains antiserum) directly into a person's body .initi#n #. the person has antibody to fight back b) A(ti.(#) "n in..+ffect of this immunity is fast but temporary# d) A!tiv% . "nti$#'i% produced by the person's body to fight that infection (%)"in in th% *%( #n: $l##' for months or even for hisEher whole life# .rtificial immunity also can be gained when a person is given an in=ection contains antibody# c) P" iv% .8oods that have been sterili ed in this way can be kept for a long period of time and it is safe to eat# 7+ P(%v%nti#n th(#-gh I))-ni/"ti#n D%.(efer to a situation when a person given a v"!!in"ti#n.5hen same infection comes back again.Can be done by having antibody after recover from infection or vaccination . Gin=ecting a dead or weak pathogens into the person's body to stimulate hisEher body to produce antibodyH ./art of artificial immunity . i))-nity: a) N"t-("l .i!i"l .Chemical substance produced from white blood cells to destroy pathogen or neutrali e the to. Anti$#'i% : . I))-ni/"ti#n: /rocess of increasing a person's resistance to a particular infection by using antibodies D%.initi#n #.%!ti#n.

 TREATMENT OF DISEASES CAUSED B@ MICROORGANISMS 0+ Anti$i#ti! 1+ Anti %(-) 7+ Ch%)#th%("*y 8+ R"'i#th%("*y 5+ S-(g%(y .

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