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Housing Design

A Manual

Bernard Leupen
Harald Mooij

NAi Publishers














































































With contributions by:
Rudy Uytenhaak
Birgit Jürgenhake
Robert Nottrot
John Zondag
NAi Publishers


Activity, Place and Space

Dwelling and Protection 18
Dwelling and Identity 19
Dwelling and the Housing Environment 21
Dwelling and Social Change 23
The Rise of Mass Housing Construction 25
Trends and Developments 27
Dwelling and Modernity 29
Designing Dwellings 32

Systematization 37
The Origins of the Concept of Type

Designing the Dwelling


Single-Space Dwelling 92
Depth 93
Width 99
The Centre of the Dwelling: Core or Space? 111
Height 118

Form of the Dwelling

The Formation of the Type 50
The Moment of Form Specification 50


Designing Based on Function and Scale 74
Criteria 75
Patterns of Activity 75
Designing from Place to Place 78
Zoning 82
Time as a Factor in the Design 82

Spatial Organization of the Dwelling

The Type: A Case Study of Three Theatres 43
The Concept of Type Operates Between Word and Diagram 43

Typological Levels 45
The Application of a Type


From Activity to Spatial Design 63
Between Ideal and Reality 64
Basic Activities of Dwelling 66
Programme, Function and Dimensions 68
Quality and Comfort 68
Rules and Regulations 71
Orientation 73


Detached House 130
Semi-Detached Dwelling 135
Row House 136
Apartment 140
Maisonette 142

Linking and Stacking 145
Clustered Low-Rise 146
Row 148
Mat 152
Urban Villa 156
Infill 158
Slab 160
Block 165
Tower 168

Dwelling Access
Street 173
Staircase 176
Lift 184
Gallery 186
Corridor 194





Starting Point of the Process 383
Forms of Commission 386
Three Projects 387

Villa park 206
Ribbon Development 214
Perimeter Block 216
Semi-open Block 220
Open Block 224
Parallel Rows 227
Free-Standing Objects 230
Free Composition 232
Superblock 234

Piraeus 387
Logements PLUS 402
Le Medi 410

In Conclusion 423
Bibliography 425
Publications on Dwelling Typology 433

Four Layers 240
Structure 243
Monolith / Monolith
Monolith / Skeleton
Skeleton / Monolith
Skeleton / Skeleton


Index 440
Illustration Credits 446
Credits 448



The Façade 285
The Roof 295
The Belly 305

Scenery 309
Services 321
Service Core or Zone 324

Aspects of context


Substratum and Geology 333
Networks and Links 335
Settlement and Built Development 337
Climate 337
Political Context 338
Cultural Context 339

Analysis and design
Design tools 343


Programmatic Tools 343
Morphological Tools 343
Architectural Tools 343

Typological and morphological analysis


Typological Analysis 347
Morphological Analysis 348
GIS and Datascaping 358

The brief


Planning tools 361
The projects 364


Housing is not only a major part of the construction that takes
place in the Netherlands, but also a major architectural challenge
here. Dutch housing enjoys a fine reputation worldwide because of
its high architectural quality and the numerous new design
solutions architects have come up with over the last hundred
years. Perhaps more than anywhere else in the world, housing in
this country represents a challenge for designers. There is room for
innovation and experimentation, which also offers young designers
opportunities to build up their own practice. Indeed housing
design is an important element of the architecture programme at
the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology.
The Housing Design Chair aims to record the rich housing
tradition of the Netherlands, hand it down and develop it further.
Our chair programme, for instance, has conducted a great deal of
research into design outlooks and housing concepts from the
recent past. Studies into the work and ideas of Adolf Loos and Le
Corbusier, the Russian Constructivists, Scharoun, Bakema, Alison
and Peter Smithson, Team X and others have led to wonderful
exhibitions and publications. Current design issues are also
addressed in research and teaching, of course.
Publications such as Frame and Generic Space (Bernard Leupen’s
thesis research) and Time-based Architecture (Leupen, Van Zwol,
Heijne) focus on aspects of the dwelling’s flexibility and
adaptability. This year [2008] will see the publication of an
analytical report on the Vinex suburban districts in the Vinex
Atlas and a design research project into density, Cities Full of
Space (Rudy Uytenhaak). Het woongebouw (The Residential
Building, by Jasper van Zwol), a book about significant residential
buildings of the last century, will also soon be published, as well as
the first issue of DASH (Delft Architectural Studies on Housing),
a new series of publications on current design issues in housing.
What was missing until now was a ‘handbook’ more focused on
the practice of design. Housing Design fulfils a long-cherished
intention to produce a book that examines the design of housing in
all its aspects. The knowledge and experience of the Chair of
Housing Design were brought together and systematized in this in
a clear way, in order to appeal to a broad audience of users:
students and architects, but developers and clients as well. In this
way we hope to provide impetus for a renewal of housing design in
this country.
A major challenge awaits. Of all planned new construction project,
over half are intended for areas that have until now remained

We are confident that Housing Design will earn a place alongside such internationally renowned books as Federike Schneider’s Floor Plan Atlas and Roger Sherwood’s Modern Housing Prototypes. Bernard Leupen and Harald Mooij have collected all this and brought it all together with tireless dedication into an inspirational and clear handbook. It is based on the work of many. as well as on the breadth of themes addressed in this publication.unbuilt. The knowledge gathered and developed in this book represents a significant part of the body of knowledge in the field of housing design as it has been developed or collected. The other. This book aims to provide a basis for this. Finally thanks are owed to BAM Vastgoed. design enjoyment! Dick van Gameren Chair of Housing Design Architecture Department of the Faculty of Architecture 7 . Innovation begins with the knowledge of what is already there. Adding. We wish you much reading enjoyment. We consider the international dissemination of this knowledge. Increasing densities and mobility in these areas call for a reassessment of the dwelling types that have been used hitherto. in the Netherlands. and even more important. for the most part. densifying and improving within an existing context form a huge challenge in terms of quality as well as quantity. The strength of our book lies mainly in the extensive theoretical exposition of the typologies used. for their indispensable and substantial financial contribution. In this we include both the dissemination and exchange of ideas in architecture practices abroad and in the Netherlands as well as the debate in knowledge centres and academic institutions. Comparing and analysing solutions helps in selecting the right design principles for the new challenge. The wealth of the principles already developed deserves to be studied again and again. certainly at a time when more than half of the world’s population resides in urban areas. steadily growing part of the challenge will have to be met through the renovation of existing residential areas. We hope to stimulate the international exchange of this knowledge so that debates taking place elsewhere may also be reflected in the debate in this country. The publisher’s unconditional support proved a major motivation. to be of crucial importance. These too call for new solutions that will make the existing residential areas more sustainable and give dwellings a longer lifespan.

The information collected and developed in this book represents a significant portion of the body of knowledge in the domain of housing design as developed or collected for the most part in the Netherlands. REVISED EDITION. We feel that Housing Design is set to find a significant place alongside internationally renowned books such as Federike Schneider’s Floor Plan Atlas and Roger Sherwood’s Modern Housing Prototypes. With this book we hope to stimulate the international exchange of this knowledge and know-how. as well as the broad range of themes presented in this volume. this time accompanied by an English translation. We consider a worldwide dissemination of this knowledge to be of major importance.FOREWORD FOR THE SECOND. Dick van Gameren Chair of Housing Design Architecture Department of the Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology 8 . The strength of our book lies primarily in the extensive theoretical foundation provided for the typologies used. cetainly in an age in which more than half the world’s population is living in urban areas. By this we mean dissemination and exchange of ideas in architecture practices here and abroad as well as debate in knowledge centres and academic institutions. REVISED ENGLISH-LANGUAGE EDITION FOREWORD FOR THE SECOND. both revised and more extensive. Authors Bernard Leupen and Harald Mooij were ready and willing to compile this second. Housing Design. revised edition with great enthusiasm. NOW TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH The highly successful publication of the first version of Het ontwerpen van woningen (in Dutch) has encouraged us to produce a second version . so that debate taking place elsewhere can also be reflected in the debate in the Netherlands.

The first examines what the dwelling is. with dwelling tectonics and materials and finally with the context in which dwellings are designed. yet they remain difficult to define. as something we do. especially when different types of dwellings are combined within a single building. It is meant to be a broadly applicable book about the design of dwellings – a handbook. In practice as in teaching. As a handbook. we need to figure out what dwelling is. we have endeavoured to address the subject from as broad a perspective as possible. as a place. The two typologies explicated in this chapter (typology according to spatial configuration and typology according to material configuration) 9 . each in turn. This concept of type encompasses such notions as the adaptation. parking or leisure facilities. a residential building exists not in a vacuum. the 100 m2 of the average dwelling prove a challenging puzzle to solve. you can navigate it using the matrices and pictograms. with dwelling as a phenomenon. The scope of Housing Design extends beyond design-specific problems. All in all. To ensure that the book can be read in all these different ways. This lends the book a certain ambition: to be a book you keep on hand as you design. combination and transformation of types. however. Eight chapters deal. a context. To make it broadly applicable. Dwellings and the phenomenon of dwelling are concepts everyone knows. we have given it a clearly defined structure. time and time again. this publication can be read in a variety of ways: you can read it like a textbook. The ‘Typology’ chapter deals with dwelling typology. retail premises. with typology. as its subtitle indicates. The challenge becomes even more complex when multiple dwellings are stacked and linked to form residential buildings. Finally. but as part of an urban network. This chapter sets out the framework for the chapters that follow. from start to finish. or you can leaf through it until an inspiring project catches your attention.INTRODUCTION Housing design seems a simple task: everyone has lived in a home and so has at least the benefit of that first-hand experience. The concept of type used in this chapter is based on typology as an instrument of design. The first two chapters are descriptive in nature. In order to understand what a dwelling is. these are more than enough reasons to compile a book on housing design. prepare and develop new housing projects. such as work space. we look at their evolution and transformation: dwelling in a changing society and dwelling and modernity are the main themes here. Design becomes still more complicated when additional programmes are added. in a physical as well as a philosophical sense. and everyone has an image in mind of what they are. In order to better understand these concepts. with spatial development.

Using examples. The ‘Tectonics’ chapter opens with a general introduction and explains why a book on housing design needs to include tectonics. This is achieved through the description of the design processes of three projects. These sections are again organized according to projects. through the horizontal linking and vertical stacking of dwellings and the configuration of the residential building up to and including the dwelling access (the system in multistorey residential buildings needed to get from the communal entrance to the private front door). The chapter is then divided into four sections dealing with the ‘layers’ that make up a building: ‘Load-Bearing Structure’. the configuration of the urban ensemble is described in relation to residential buildings and dwelling types. as a basis for new uses in future projects. From this point on the chapters are project-oriented. The second half of the chapter reprises the rhythm of the book’s project-oriented organization. based on its width. The ‘Dwellings’ chapter describes the spatial organization of the dwelling in relation to activity and place. which brings together many aspects from the previous chapters. In this section the focus is on the project. The chapter then describes the configuration of the dwelling systematically. This description is generously illustrated with original design sketches. Typology according to spatial configuration is elaborated in the chapters ‘Dwellings’. 10 . while typology according to material configuration is elaborated in the ‘Tectonics’ chapter. depth and height. guide the reader through the issues associated with housing design. Here too the chapter examines a series of interesting projects from the Netherlands and abroad. Complexity increases in the ‘Residential Building’ chapter. A series of attractive examples from the Netherlands and abroad. The penultimate chapter of the book deals with context and is in two parts. The assembling of separate dwellings or residential buildings into a greater urban whole has produced a range of identifiable types of morphological configuration. most of them recent. ‘Scenery’ and ‘Service Elements’. for instance. in terms of the urban design preconditions the architect initially had to satisfy? The book concludes with a chapter entitled ‘The Design Process’. ‘Skin’. the morphology of an existing section of a city.INTRODUCTION form the backbone of the four following chapters. In the ‘Urban Ensemble’ chapter. The first part describes ways of looking at a context. Concise instructions provide the reader with the tools to analyse. ‘Residential Building’ and ‘Urban Ensemble’. the qualities of these various types are demonstrated. each time placing the emphasis on the following question: What exactly was the challenge.

Dick van Gameren. To distinguish them from other graphic elements. Rudy Uytenhaak. while Birgit Jürgenhake shared her knowledge of façades and the relationships between inside and outside. with an overview of the typology upon which each particular section is based. in his role as housing design practice professor. stimulated us with his critiques and supported us at crucial moments. Cecile Calis assisted us in providing necessary structural details. where relevant. whom we wish to thank for their cooperation. Mohamad Sedighi and Alexander van Zweeden. for instance. No book is possible without a publisher and designer. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the many people who contributed to the content of this book. Robert Nottrot and John Zondag helped lay the foundations for the ‘Dwellings’ chapter. the sections in the various chapters open. These pictograms then feature in the margins of the projects discussed. First there are the colleagues who have given us the benefit of their knowledge in the form of texts and comments. we have used two different fonts. Harald Mooij 11 . Vincent Ligtelijn made suggestions on the phenomenon of place in the work of Aldo van Eyck. context and beauty. To help the reader navigate through the book. We also wish to thank our student assistants.In order to make a distinction between the reading sections and the project discussions. The reading texts are distinguished from the project descriptions through the use of a different colour. in the first and second editions or in other ways. We obtained a great deal of illustration material from various architecture practices and institutions. finally. In many instances the typology is represented in a matrix. challenged us with his texts on tectonics. Bernard Leupen. We therefore wish to thank Marcel Witvoet of NAi Publishers and designers Joost Grootens and Tine van Wel of Studio Joost Grootens. who took care of the numerous analytical drawings with unflagging energy. the pictograms are set in a different colour. A good working relationship with them is of the greatest importance. The types to be differentiated are indicated by pictograms. as holder of the Chair of Housing Design at Delft University of Technology.


We know. others in lightweight tent structures they take with them and set up elsewhere. society has a virtually constant need for new homes. we come home after outside activities. it’s where we grow up. Among the Dogon in Mali. Yet there is wide variety in what the thought of ‘a dwelling’ conjures up to different people. Different worlds with different cultural backgrounds. housing design seems a straightforward task. simply because it is an indispensable part of every human life. it’s where we learn to walk and talk. After all. Conversely. We visit our friends’ homes.On the surface. What’s more. film. Households are ever increasing in number and dilapidated dwellings need to be replaced by new homes that meet today’s requirements. and they might both answer in the same terms and yet be describing very different structures. What is it that makes a dwelling 15 . photographs and exhibitions. from the proximity of the souk and the mosque with which they form a unit. The dwellings in Morocco’s kasbahs cannot be considered separately from the dwellings that surround them. Our idea of a dwelling is defined by our individual frame of reference. loam houses form a configuration of places and small volumes that bear symbolic parallels to the human body. We know the homes in which we have lived and the way we lived in them. We move into at least one dwelling after leaving our parents’ home and we may raise children of our own there. the same dwelling may have an entirely different meaning to someone who works at home or has a family as opposed to someone who only occasionally sleeps there. the first question we need to address is just what a dwelling is. circular space. Ask an Eskimo and a South African what a home is. paintings. which have resulted in different expectations in terms of the organization of housing. in which every spot has a specific ceremonial significance. we know the dwellings we have visited or those we have seen during our travels. that nomadic peoples occupy their dwellings for a succession of short periods. some in vast structures they leave behind when they move on to find new housing somewhere else. literature. We know that the log hogans of the Navajos in Arizona contain a single. for example. everyone knows instinctively what a dwelling is. We are born in a home. And in Western countries a ‘drive-in’ dwelling offers its occupants optimal privacy as well as an anonymous connection between the home and the outside world. Even people who have no home – whether temporarily or for extended periods – know precisely what we mean when we say ‘a dwelling’. And our notions about dwelling – something we do – and dwellings – places – are also influenced by the images and narratives we absorb from history. Yet these are all dwellings. [→ 01–06] Once we design housing and become conscious of the many variations in its significance and interpretation.

DWELLING 01 02 03 04 16 .

05 06 01 Nomad dwelling. While temporary and limited in size. Aerial photo and plans. the tent structure meets the housing needs of its occupants. 02. 06 Dogon dwellings in Mali. 17 . 03 Plan and interior of a log hogan 04 Plan of a Moroccan kasbah 05.

this inner world becomes larger. We seek this in the first place in clothing. Adult animals are sufficiently armed against the deprivations and dangers of the outside world. nor do they remain in the shelter they construct all their lives. is create a division between a controllable world inside and an uncertain world outside. what are 18 Around 1100. This definition carries an important implication: not only is the dwelling distinct from other places – where one does not live – but the reverse is also true: a place.’1 Nine hundred years later. but their dwelling provides protection in periods of vulnerability. Even today the Dutch still use the expression ‘building a nest’ in the sense of starting a family and setting up a home for that purpose. Shutting out the outside world makes it possible to create our own living environment – a self-made habitat . Occupants. what does it mean to dwell? DWELLING AND PROTECTION 1 Literal translation: ‘All the birds have started nests except me and you. a Flemish monk in an English monastery scribbled a sentence on the cover of a manuscript. these words taken from an old Dutch love song are considered the romantic wellspring of Dutch literature. and secondly in a larger envelope closed off from the outside world. Additional shelter is a necessity not just to raise children in safety but for everyday selfpreservation. probably just to try out his quill: ‘Hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan hinase hic enda thu wat unbidan we nu. a tent or a house into a home? In other words. make the house a dwelling. the dwelling becomes not just a shelter but a place of residence. a space. in which one lives’. Humans are far less equipped than animals to face the deprivations and dangers of their immediate surroundings. One of the first things a dwelling does. we attach greater importance to it. Once the young are strong enough to face the dangers on their own. but as technology advanced. a home. Its space is adapted and arranged to serve this residence: the inner world acquires more and more significance. They are not constantly doing this. As we spend more time in it. a house. We initially did this in holes in the ground and in caves. foxes a den. only becomes a dwelling once it is lived in. How do they do that? What happens to turn a place. The instinct to withdraw to a sheltered abode is directly linked to the birth and raising of offspring. both they and their parents abandon the family nest. Birds build a nest. not designers. we moved on to structures – built by ourselves or by others – increasingly better suited to our needs. rabbits dig a warren. or part of a house.DWELLING / Dwelling and Protection a dwelling? One dictionary definition of a dwelling is ‘a house. simply by living – dwelling – there. therefore.

The ease with which the interaction between the private world inside and the desired elements outside can be achieved determines to a large extent the occupants’ enjoyment of their home and their potential for self-actualization. And as the dancer reveals himself in the dance. DWELLING AND IDENTITY This actualization of an individual identity. In his essay ‘Building Dwelling Thinking’3 he traces the meaning of the German word bauen. is the true essence of dwelling. 143–161. the boundary with the outside world can now be approached and crossed from the other side. according to the German philosopher Martin Heidegger. in spite of the fact that he knows his actions are bound by a choreography. ‘to build’. pleasure. investigating the origin of linguistic concepts along the way. work or adventure.whose occupants can shape their own lives as they see fit. a building is a bygnig and a by is a city. so is the dweller himself explicitly present in his movements. ‘Wonen als grensverkeer’. transl. For dwelling is an art. desirable or even paradisiacal states depict humans without clothing or shelter and in harmony with nature. 3 Martin Heidegger. ‘Bauen Wohnen Denken’ (1951). in: Poetry. in: E. In that sense the phenomenon of dwelling might be seen as a form of the art of living: Some dwellers simply understand the art of dwelling better than others. in search of contact. back to its etymological root. the limits of selfactualization are defined by the size and shape of the envelope. living together in the same ‘neighbourhood’ . Language. ‘he who dwells nearby’. Protection against the outside world is also a constraint on the individual domain – the freedom found in the personal world also a limitation on that freedom. building and dwelling prove to be we waiting for. even as his self-expression is tempered by the form in which his movement is contained. 2001). The protective envelope becomes a point of departure towards the freedoms of the world outside. At the start of the twentieth century. It is an operation in which the goal coincides with its performance. Indeed this can make a dwelling seem oppressive and give its occupants a sense more of confinement than of comfort. Baydar.2 Self-expression. which also means ‘to dwell’. Thought (New York: Harper & Row. In that respect. is tempered by this separation. as in dance or theatre. Albert Hofstadter. 1971). it is remarkable how many conceptions of ideal. Negotiating Domesticity: Spatial Productions of Gender in Modern Architecture (London/New York: Routledge. made possible by self-chosen separation. at least if we use the term in the sense Aristotle gives it. Heynen and G. see H. Russian artists Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko championed new forms of domesticity under the slogan ‘novyi byt’. Equally. the High German word buan. living among the beasts with no protection of any kind. [→ 07] From inside the dwelling. Hoeks. The more consciously and explicitly they do this. In their original meaning. Heidegger himself makes a link with ‘neighbour’ (Nachbar). 2005). These seem to suggest that we would be truly happy only if that protection we so cherish were unnecessary.’ 2 H. so that the word implies a certain solidarity. Wonen in Indië (The Hague: Tong Tong Foundation. Wils. 4 Other words in various North European languages show a kinship with this High German ancestor: in Norwegian the word for ‘to build’ is bygge. the more ‘lived in’ the home becomes. Based on ontology (the ‘study of being’) Heidegger attempted to decipher the meaning and the nature of being and of things.

DWELLING / Dwelling and Identity 07 20 07 Hieronymus Bosch. 1480–1490 . The Garden of Earthly Delights.

7 DWELLING AND THE HOUSING ENVIRONMENT We live in a dwelling. buan here connects the meaning of building. however.6 And. of the German verb sein.5 Although the period Heidegger was writing in (an era of reconstruction in the aftermath of the Second World War) was marked by severe housing shortages. It was only later that these two meanings diverged. Furthermore. squares and other nonresidential structures. they all belong to the domain of dwelling. next to a shopping centre and close to friends. but not just there. in the sense of putting up edifices. op. he identifies the real housing problem by observing that ‘mortals ever search anew for the nature of dwelling.. in the woods. near the ring road. he argues. 5 Heidegger. inescapable for dwelling. if they remain within their limits and realize that the one as much as the other comes from the workshop of long experience and incessant practice.’7 (Nachbarschaft). 6 Ibid. dwelling – 21 . ‘to be’. fencing in and taking care of things that grow. in a province. to build means to bring forth places on earth where people dwell. only then can we build.inextricably linked to each other: building is related to dwelling. ‘you are’. The essence of building. dwelling implies building. in an environment that defines the experience of dwelling at varying levels. on a continent and on earth. While the dwelling – the place – effects a separation between inside and outside. And Heidegger goes further: even the conjugations ich bin. in the mountains or by the sea. each in its own way. with cultivating the land.4 In this. This applies to the building of houses but also of bridges. a country. ‘Bauen Wohnen Denken’. The two. in a village or in a city. he says: ‘Only if we are capable of dwelling. unified in the ancient word for building. They are able to listen if both – building and thinking – belong to dwelling. or as Heidegger puts it: Building and thinking are. is to let dwell. he imparts dwelling with an existential dimension as well: people are because they dwell. We also live in a street. ‘I am’. that they must ever learn to dwell’. based on its root meaning. in a suburb or a city centre. 160–161. so that the sense of dwelling vanished from the definition of building we know today. Dwelling takes place as part of a greater whole. 161. buan. It is this loss of meaning that Heidegger observes in the ways twentieth-century civilization dwells and builds. dwelling and building are a form of self-realization (Darstellung) that shapes earthly existence (Dasein). (note 3). and du bist. can be traced back to the same root word. cit. in the countryside. are also insufficient for dwelling so long as each busies itself with its own affairs in separation instead of listening to one another.

DWELLING / Dwelling and the Housing Environment 22 .

was often also the place where its occupants plied their trade. traditions. Ultimately. the way dwelling is shaped. religion and economic interests determine to a large degree which activities take place on either side of the boundary between inside and outside. 8 W. shops and other facilities. is significantly linked to culture. to a significant degree. After work the man would go home. The industrialization of Europe in the nineteenth century. according to different notions about the needs of residents and the organization of activities in the city – and sometimes without any specific notions at all. Different parts of the city can also display significant differences in standards of living: luxury developments or stately urban districts on the one hand and impoverished areas or slums on the other. where you go out and where you meet up with friends – all of this is part of dwelling in the larger sense. lies in the access it provides to the facilities its residents require. which consisted of only a few rooms in spite of often large families. if any. This traditional idea is the reason. in a human society. Dwelling is implicitly contained in a social context. 160. in the public world. For the first time. 1986). patterns of social behaviour. 28. for instance.the phenomenon – takes place on both sides of this line of separation. where you do your shopping. however. Indeed. a division between home and workplace was created on a mass scale: the man was out of the house during the day. DWELLING AND SOCIAL CHANGE Changes in the social organization of our activities are often directly related to the use of the home and its significance for dwelling. Home: A Short History of an Idea (London: Penguin Books. Indeed the quality of a housing environment. These differing housing environments were built at different times. brought with it major changes to the daily lives of the middle class. This division had major implications for the meaning of the home in nineteenth-century society. while the woman kept the home and took care of the children. Local weather conditions. that is to say to a place he did not share with the public world. from quiet residential neighbourhoods with parks and a school to busy traffic arteries lined with apartment blocks. as well as the relationships between dwelling and other social activities. for instance. These do not vary simply from country to country: even the same city will contain a great variety of highly divergent housing environments. Prior to this.8 The advent of industry changed all this. Rybczynski.. It was usually a scene of hustle and bustle and it afforded little privacy. that late into the twentieth century Ibid. 9 Heynen and Baydar. How you get from home to work. . what all of these housing environments share is an interaction between the world their residents create for themselves and activities elsewhere in the city. the home.

library . Richardson. Glessner House. Chicago.H. 1885–1887.DWELLING / Dwelling and Social Change 08 24 08 H.

11. Industrialization led to a mass migration of people in search of work in the city. who in the office has to deal with realities. The great agricultural crisis in Europe around 1880 accelerated this process of urbanization. who creates his private world at home in contrast to his public life outside it [←08]: The private individual. The nineteenth century. he brings together remote locales and memories of the past. . it is also his étui. like no other century. and yet afterwards it would be a very long time before women were accepted into the ‘public’ sphere. and it encased him with all his appurtenances so deeply in the dwelling’s interior that one might be reminded of the inside of a compass case. transl. a place that was homely. The poor housing conditions of the new working class in the emerging industrial cities was initially only the purview of city planners and engineers involved in sewer management and the supply of drinking water. A few exceptions aside.9 In the rise of the increasingly well-to-do middle class during the nineteenth century. in which home and occupant are entirely attuned to each other: The original form of all dwelling is existence not in the house but in the shell. We can find famed projects from this era in places like Vienna (Karl Ehn’s Karl-Marx-Hof) and the Spaarndammerbuurt in Amsterdam (‘Het 25 . or men could carry out home decoration or housekeeping work with any degree of respect. The interior is not just the universe of the private individual. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin (Cambridge. The Arcades Project [Das Passagen-werk]. the dwelling becomes a shell. In the interior. Walter Benjamin sees the emergence – for the first time in history – of the private individual.11 Negotiating Domesticity. it was only at the start of the twentieth century that architects would begin to take an interest in the construction of working-class housing. cit. usually violet folds of velvet. op.the home was still regarded as the woman’s domain. (note 4). . His living room is a box in the theatre of the world . soothing and private. the nineteenth century had been over for some time. 10 Walter Benjamin. ‘manly’ outside world. The rise of industry in the nineteenth century had had a very dramatic impact not just on the individual’s perception of the home but also on the city and on housing. The shell bears the impression of its occupant. needs the domestic interior to sustain him in his illusions . . It conceived the residence as receptacle for the person. in contrast with the public.10 Benjamin sees in the endeavours of the nineteenth-century bourgeois a yearning for a deeper meaning of dwelling. MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. These opposing connotations had not been nearly so marked prior to industrialization. . was addicted to dwelling. where the instrument with all its accessories lies imbedded in deep. In the most extreme instance. THE RISE OF MASS HOUSING CONSTRUCTION When Benjamin wrote this.

DWELLING / The Rise of Mass Housing Construction 26 .

so that suppliers garner information about their customers’ habits. radio. activities that used to take place inside the home have been shifted outside. 19–20. people stopped relying on the coalman.. Connecting homes to a central supply of drinking water meant people no longer had to walk to a collective pump to get water. First there was an observable evolution in the course of which dwelling seemed to turn inward. The evacuation of waste water through the sewers made communal toilets obsolete. In various European countries. Their architects came together to form the Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne. 27 . influencing modes of living and thinking about dwelling throughout the course of the twentieth century. The use of all these services can be measured. it has been said that the private sphere has been colonized. 12 Willem Koerse discusses these changes and their impact on dwelling in the Netherlands in greater detail in his essay ‘Over wonen. maintaining contact with the outside world from inside the home. Frankfurt.Schip’ by Michel de Klerk). Inspired by the great leaps achieved by the exact sciences as well as by the successes of mass production and the time-and-motion studies on which it was based. as well as others. 11 Ibid. designs produced and buildings constructed according to the new principles of modernism and functionalism. 220. progressive architects joined forces to produce optimal designs. television. Rotterdam. In the 1930s.12 Yet the outside world has penetrated the home at the same time. We have already touched on the relocation of the workplace outside the home – just for men in the nineteenth century. all focused on the organization of activities on both sides of the dividing line between inside and outside. In addition. Cables now deliver individual electricity. telephone and Internet. These developments continue to this day. housing design became a science. but later more and more women would be working outside 1999). Advertising and commerce come right into the home to tell people what they should buy or how they should live. New developments succeeded one another closely and at an ever-increasing pace. Berlin. studies were carried out. TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS The consolidation of housing construction as part of the modernization of society brought its own problems. In this context. Going to the public baths also became a thing of the past once showering at home became an option. Once every home was connected to the gas mains and the coal stove had been replaced by gas fires or central heating. Moscow. Amsterdam. in fact. working-class housing construction moved to the top of the political agenda. CIAM for short. Paris: in all these places.

and two-person households grew exponentially during the second half of the twentieth century. This has served to undermine the connection with our own place of residence: people have become less oriented towards social cohesion in and around the home. The number of one. People are often out of the house even at night. Birth and death also occur less and less in the home. Filosoferen over de gebouwde omgeving (Amsterdam: Thoth. 28 the home. The dwelling has become less a ‘home’ and more a place of transit. The home has become a place for domestic chores and togetherness. the more time we spend with colleagues and friends in other parts of the city rather than with our immediate neighbours.DWELLING / Trends and Developments woning en privacy’. or no one at all. theatres. in: Architectuur als decor. As a result. we abandon . An additional trend has been the steady decrease in population density. including grandparents and other relatives in need. like the other places we pass through over the course of a day. The square footage of housing per person has increased dramatically. Thanks to the rise in the standard of living. The more educated we are. Another trend has been the relocation of activities as a result of the expansion of health care. The ‘multipurpose trip’ has become the norm: people no longer go home first after each activity. cinemas. 1992). after work is completed elsewhere. In such households. The dwelling as a ready-made object serves as a temporary abode for an outer-directed existence. Schools and other educational institutions have also become increasingly generalized. For the same reason. This has made a dwelling and a housing environment increasingly interchangeable for these households. the dwelling has gradually ceased to be the place where we come home to a family setting: in it we find at most one person. At the same time. Dwelling in fact seems to take place more and more independently of the dwelling itself. partly because there are fewer people at home to take care of them. When external circumstances or changing requirements make the abode less suitable.and two-person households display a strong affinity towards venues ‘in town’: pubs. young one. dwelling has been relocated even more to the world outside. restaurants. one or two people now live in dwellings that not so long ago housed entire families with seven or more children. in regard to whom we most jealously cherish our privacy. so that children and young adults spend increasing periods of time out of the house. The sick are increasingly cared for outside the home. to the other side of the divide created by the home. and in that sense becomes almost akin to a hotel room in which we stay for a given period of time. for a growing number of people. so that the home is losing significance as a domain for all-encompassing dwelling and living. the care of elderly members of the family has been delegated to nursing homes.

The list is not complete: new occasions and possibilities for change are emerging all the time. Immigration has also increased diversity in the number of different dwelling cultures. (note 12). It seems only a matter of time before these imported customs lead to new housing built specifically to accommodate their dwelling requirements. ‘Over wonen. DWELLING AND MODERNITY According to Hilde Heynen. in a different home. cit. working at home simultaneously with almost never being home because of work somewhere else. Dwelling patterns from South America. 13 Koerse. but because the world changes so fast as to undermine all certainties and established values. The freedom that this independence from the dwelling affords has gone hand in hand with a certain loss of the ‘sense of home’. it is impossible to find dwelling unified as a whole in any single place. a society no longer dominated by a generally accepted tradition. ‘Homeless’ dwelling also implies a certain restlessness. a vagabond search that seems most prevalent among young two-income couples. and the ways technology has made it possible to stay in touch with the world from home. 14 Heynen and Baydar. but diffusely and simultaneously. An important point to make is that the trends and tendencies outlined here have not taken place separately or in sequence. (note 4). even as a number of constants remain applicable. Africa. Negotiating Domesticity. A growing number of self-employed professionals. op. All That 29 . New developments offer exciting possibilities and perspectives. woning en privacy’. Longer life expectancies. in a different age and with a different occupant. the Middle East and Asia are adjusting in their own ways to housing built in the Netherlands. Modernity alludes to the experience of living in a society driven by development and change. the sense of homelessness described above is a defining aspect of modernity as it has been conceived since the early twentieth century. cit. When dwelling is spread across many places outside the home. have brought the workplace back into the home.13 A more recent trend has been the rise in work at home. higher standards of living and an aging population have meant a rise in the number of active older people willing to change homes. and the individual finds it difficult to feel at home anywhere. the result is confusion. growth and emancipation 15 Marshall just as casually for another readymade dwelling somewhere else. To Heynen. At the same time there has been a recent increase in new housing demand for older one. A different kind of workplace. 1.and two-person households. 22. op. ‘Homeless’ dwelling exists alongside the timeless family home. Dwelling is subject to a continuous process of evolution. modernity is also ‘marked by a moment of ambivalence: the appetite for progress.

1919–1921. maquette 11 . Mies van der Rohe. Taut. Glashochhaus. 1923 11 L. 10 B. reforming a middle-class living room.DWELLING / Dwelling and Modernity 09 10 09.

In his now famous words. where security had priority.14 Or as Marshall Berman puts it: To be modern is to find ourselves in an environment that promises us adventure. new materials. 1999). As early as 1910 Adolf Loos had railed against the craze for innovation among artists and architects of the Vienna Secession. Loos distinguished architecture from the arts and championed the occupant’s comfort: The house has to please everyone. aimed to teach its readers how they should – and especially how they should not – be decorating and using their homes. the Stichting Goed Wonen (Good Living Foundation). inspired by new production methods. everything we are. has had its day. Le Corbusier turned the abiding places of man into a transit area for every conceivable kind of energy and for waves of light and air. 16 Walter Benjamin. And while the home stands for security and domesticity.16 Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin Books. new domestic products and new ideas about new ways of living. ‘Die Wiederkehr des Flaneurs’. 15. 17 Adolf Loos. who aimed to help mankind out of its supposed misery by imposing new modes of dwelling. 1982). It is therefore no surprise that the writers. everything we know. But there were other voices. Modernity and ‘feeling at home’ are by nature polar opposites. transformation of ourselves and the world and. growth. The house is quoted in Hilde Heynen. progress and the subversion of the stuffy conventions of the past. contrary to the work of art which does not. 114–115. ‘Architecture’ (1910). the perception of modernity is by definition not homelike.on the one hand. Giedion. artists and architects of the Modern Movement.15 Uncertainty and discontinuity are necessary conditions for change. Anything that reeked of the nineteenth-century bourgeois dwelling was dismissed as old-fashioned and dull. was consequently swept aside to make way for radically new forms of dwelling. joy. melancholy about and nostalgia for what is being irretrievably lost on the other’. [← 11] New designs succeeded one another at breakneck speed. Periodicals were launched to disseminate the new ideas among the public at large. in an effort to raise the tone of working-class homes. In the Netherlands. The work is a private matter for the artist. [→ 09–10] The bourgeois. Architecture and Modernity: A Critique (Cambridge. focused so much of their energy on ‘subverting’ this idea of dwelling. MA: MIT Press. power. at the same time. as a depository of personal possessions in darkly upholstered rooms. The time that is coming will be dominated by transparency. which was often designed by the architect in the form of a fully furnished interior. Mendelsohn. quoted in Roberto 31 . nineteenth-century notion of the home as a lined case for its occupant. in the early twentieth century. that threatens to destroy everything we have. A new home meant an entirely new lifestyle. associated with new forms of freedom: For it is the hallmark of this epoch that dwelling in the old sense of the word. published an eponymous magazine that. Heynen argues. using photos of noteworthy contemporary homes.

The house thinks of the present. The work of art shows people new directions and thinks of the future. The freedom of potential habitation. Just what happens in there is largely unpredictable. Thus he loves the house and hates art. Man loves everything that satisfies his comfort. how long they will stay and the degree to which they situate the spheres of dwelling and work within the home is usually not known in advance. opening and measurement of space plays a role in defining – intentionally or not – the possibilities inherent within the home. 18 The term ‘architectural system’ What does all this mean for the designer? We know that it is the occupant who makes the house a home by dwelling in it. The completed design offers opportunities for the emergence of certain forms of dwelling and hinders others. The designer anticipates these places. Whether they aim to radically reform the home. or at the very least impossible to define with any precision. The architect creates places in which to dwell but also sets constraints upon this. to a significant degree. 1996). The work of art is brought into the world without there being a need for it. is already circumscribed in a dwelling’s floor plan and cross sections.DWELLING / Designing Dwellings not. floor. to design a . The work of art wants to draw people out of their state of comfort. DESIGNING DWELLINGS Schezen. Architects are outlining these possibilities as they create their design. Adolf Loos: Architecture 1903–1932 (New York: Monacelli Press. the house is conservative. the house is responsible to everyone. The house satisfies a requirement. The work of art is revolutionary. Who the occupants will be. The architect merely designs the envelope within which this dwelling takes place. We also know that to build brings forth places in which to dwell. and therefore has to form an idea of what kind of places these are to be. within the constraints placed upon them by the envelope. So architects have to consider very carefully which forms of habitation they want to accommodate in their design. He hates everything that wants to draw him out of his acquired and secured position and that disturbs him. It is within this crucible that their first choices are forged. as the modernists did in the early twentieth century. These places are where the occupants will later demonstrate their art of living. The work of art is responsible to none. Kenneth Frampton and Joseph Rosa. with every line they add to their drawings. and which forms they exclude in the process. Modernity stands for an orientation towards the future that will be different from the present as well as from the past. The house has to serve comfort.17 Whereas the Modern Movement and modernist architecture are now identified with a specific period in the early twentieth century. Every wall. this is not at all true of the idea of modernity.

orientation and position relative to one another. Every design now seems to be searching for its own identity. In principle this can be was introduced in Emil Kaufmann’s Architecture in the Age of Reason (Cambridge. how the transition between inside and outside is mediated.dwelling as a straitjacket for a precisely defined pattern of daily use or to plunk a standardized dwelling inside a publicly subsidized housing block. Gerrit Rietveld and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe broke open the organization of space. This main idea. van der Voordt (eds. their dimensions.M. structural system and use of materials. Around 1900 these underlying rules and systems began to be called into question from all directions.18 a clear set of rules dictating the proper dimensions. characterized by the absence of a coherent and generally accepted architectural system. its primary purpose is to make statements about the idea. 2002).M. Ways to Study and Research Urban Architectural and Technical Design (Delft: Delft University Press. Gradually a new architecture emerged.20 A concept is the representation of an idea. we call the concept. proportions. The development of a concept is the first step towards shaping and organizing the design: A concept need not yet reach a verdict about the form of the final design. ‘Concept and Type’. The concept expresses the basic idea behind a design. a style largely defined the total composition of the edifice. in: T. But all of the answers put together do not automatically lead to the final form. Le Corbusier developed new rules of composition. these underlying design rules are developed as one-offs for each design. based on its own set of rules. to which all other decisions are subordinated.19 In essence. Design 33 . the opportunities for contact with the outside world. 109. rhythm. The style was based on an architectural system. it provides direction for the design choices and simultaneously excludes variants. How then do architects organize their design? From the Renaissance until the end of the nineteenth century. The number of rooms within the dwelling. organization of the space. 20 Bernard Leupen et al. there are always many different ways of shaping the substance of dwelling. Adolf Loos opened the assault on ornamentation.J. However extensive the designers’ knowledge of dwelling and however definite their opinions. the foundation of the design. each of these examples generates possibilities and constraints for different forms of habitation. the character and the direction of the solutions. it organizes the design choices. MA: Harvard University Press..). Victor Horta challenged symmetry. 1955). the modes of access. the way in which the new edifice shapes and responds to its context – architects provide answers to all of these questions as they develop and shape their design. such choices were regulated by the prevailing style. in a manner of speaking. the dwelling’s orientation in relation to other dwellings and its immediate surroundings. de Jong and D. 19 Bernard Leupen. More than simply the external appearance and the kind of decorations. A coherent whole can now be achieved by deriving the various design choices from one guiding main idea.




With the help of a few case studies. objectives. racing bike) or pans (wok. Housing designers can draw and build on a wealth of information. for example. 1 The Dutch property website Funda (http://www. The great. from Palladio to Jean Nouvel and from Berlage to Koolhaas. casserole. even though the objects within these collections can vary considerably. The subject area of classifying. It can be argued that building on existing knowledge closes our eyes to new possibilities. innovative architects. mountain bike. They have an immense and varied housing output – worldwide – at their disposal. pans or houses that we talk of do not make up a typology in the scientific sense of the word. this observation does not warrant the proposition: spread no knowledge and you will discover so much more. the different types of cars. However. the second part of the chapter will show how types can be used in the design process.However original architects may be. An estate agent. . bikes. they are bound to fall back on previously used ideas and principles – whether they like to or not. all share(d) an unrivalled knowledge of the history of architecture and the architectural output of their time. bikes (city bike. but that are not always easy to define. forms or functions. These terms all stand for collections that share certain principles. whether we are talking about cars (saloon. SYSTEMATIZATION How is knowledge systematized? In everyday parlance. van). naming and schematizing the design of buildings or parts of buildings is known as typology. We cannot keep reinventing the wheel. To get a better understanding of the concept of type. Likewise we have different words for different kinds of houses.funda. Different possibilities have been put forward by others. To draw on this knowledge and capitalize on this experience. Because the meaningful use of types and typology is often coupled with the modification and transformation of types. different combinations have been tried and tested. convertible. Sometimes new inventions are made or new territory explored as a result of a lack of knowledge combined with an open-minded approach. a brief historical retrospective is necessary. this chapter will also look at the concept of transformation. we use all kinds of classifications. grill pan). might talk about a canalside house or a converted farmhouse. This systematization of widely used solutions is based on types. What does typology mean and how does the concept of type differ from other architectural classifications? How can an architect put typology to use to arrive at a better design? These are the questions that this chapter seeks to features categories that are used in everyday parlance.1 However. this knowledge must be systematized.

such a classification or typology2 of buildings can be described in different ways. the different categories are. The Universal Decimal Code (UDC) is a case in point. this classification is commonly used in libraries to organize subjects ranging from philosophy to technology. will classify homes according to customers’ expectations of both the home and its surroundings. Well-known examples include the classification of the world of plants by the likes of Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and the periodic table of elements devised by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834–1907). In both classifications the subject has been subdivided into categories according to certain principles. in principle.3 which he defines as the description of the reproducible system of related design tools and design choices. Architects. whereas classification is a broader concept that can also be applied to abstract phenomena. Indeed. while Linnaeus categorized plants on the grounds of formal attributes such as the position of the petals and the number of stamens [→ 01]. on the other hand. 2 (1981). a building typology is a design tool. allowing them to weigh up their design choices. Les Cahiers de A scientific classification is based on very specific characteristics. Wonen-TA/BK. it plays a role in the design process. it is important to remember that a typology is an intellectual construct with a specific purpose. 3 Philippe Panerai. How a typology of buildings is put together will depend on the purpose of the typology. Again. This brings us to an important point. a property investor or a resident and that used by an architect. 11.TYPOLOGY / Systematization 2 Both classification and typology are systems of organization. because there is a significant difference between a typology used by an estate agent. exclusive. include mutually exclusive categories. translated and introduced by Francis Strauven. the concept of type as discussed in this chapter does not only serve to classify and understand present reality. Estate agents. Typology refers primarily to tangible things such as the world of plants or technical objects. Location and income play a key role in this. reality can be classified in an infinite number of ways. ‘Typologieën: een middel tot inzicht in de logica van ruimtelijke patronen’. Mendeleev created categories of chemical elements on the basis of their atomic weight (more specifically on the basis of the number of protons in the element’s nucleus). How does this exclusive concept of typology differ from other building typologies? In the first place. for example. The categories in both systems are exclusive: a certain chemical element or a particular plant only fits a single category. it will have to be made on the basis of specific characteristics and should. Mendeleev and Linnaeus classified reality as they knew it at the time to arrive at a better understanding of it. Of course buildings can be classified on a scientific basis as well. In contrast to what it meant to Mendeleev and Linnaeus. Originally published as ‘Typologies’. French architecture theorist Philippe Panerai speaks of a generative typology. where possible. This means that a designer’s classification will be structured along design principles. Whereas for the first group the typology is merely an instrument with which to classify buildings. for the architect and others who are actively involved in the design process. Above all. will favour a classification that says something about different design principles. . in the creation of new types and combinations of types. the designer will need a typology that can be used to generate potential design decisions. Depending on the purpose. no.

01 01 Page from C. Linnaeus’s catalogue of the botanical world 39 .

floor plan 05 A. Dance 40 Theatre. 1987. Stack houses 03 R. Genoa. Rossi. Teatro Carlo Felice.TYPOLOGY / Systematization 02 03 04 05 02 S. Essen. Holl. The Hague. 1988. Stadttheater. Koolhaas/OMA. 1991. Aalto. floor plan . floor plan 04 A.

4 Bernard Leupen et al. How this theoretical knowledge ultimately leads to a design is difficult to ascertain. 6–9. The Oppositions Reader: Selected Readings from A Journal for Ideas and Criticism in Architecture 1973–1984 (Cambridge..). and Antoine Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy. type is used as a theoretical tool for the classification of terms. Pamphlet THE ORIGINS OF THE CONCEPT OF TYPE The concept of type used here can be traced back to the ideas about typology developed by the French architecture theorist Antoine Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy (1755–1849) and the Italian architecture historian Giulio Carlo Argan (1909–1992). template and relief.4 Depending on experience and study. the genes of a design solution. 8 Antoine Chrysostome . who revived interest in Quatremère de Quincy’s text in the 1960s. 6 Carl Linnaeus. such as the concepts of model. see also Francis Strauven. 7 For more background information. The term type comes from the Greek ‘typos’ and is so broad that it can be used to describe many subtle distinctions and variations of the same idea. A type can be regarded as a carrier of design experiences with a similar problem. imprint. than the idea of an element which ought itself to serve as a rule for the model. The word ‘type’ presents less the image of a thing to copy or imitate completely. 617–620. In the Encyclopédie méthodique. 5 Steven Holl. since this is often an unconscious process for highly experienced architects. Such a type is ‘solidified experience’ and can be stored in the proverbial ‘memory suitcase’. from which a page has been reproduced here. designers will have a series of examples in their heads. as in Linnaeus’s celebrated classification of plants. 132. 1997). op. (note 3). MA and London: MIT Press. What we do know is that many renowned architects have an in-depth knowledge of architecture history and are extremely well-informed about their colleagues’ work. mould. American architect Steven Holl gives us an impression in Rural and Urban House Types in North America.Depending on the situation and the programme. ‘Type’ (1825). On the basis of the type ‘each (artist) can conceive works of art that may have no resemblance’. architecture theorist Quatremère de Quincy defines the concept of type as follows: The word type is also used synonymously with the word ‘model’.6 It is with this meaning that the concept enters into the architecture discourse. 1998). Architecture (1788). it is the internal form structure that unites works that are based on a similar type.8 According to the Italian art historian Argan. From the eighteenth century onwards. a more comprehensive analysis of this internal form structure will reveal Architecture 9 (New York: William Stout & Pamphlet Architecture Press. la recherche architecturale. the type is defined as ‘more or less vague’. no.5 [← 02] But few architects display their sources of inspiration quite so openly. cit. in: K. 4 (December 1979). Classes Plantarum (Leiden: 1739). although there is between the two a difference that is easy enough to understand. a new design can be generated on the basis of a type in this sense of the word. ‘Typologieën’. transported and unpacked again. 1982). Design and Analysis (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Michael Hays (ed.7 In Quatremère de Quincy’s definition. Rural and Urban House Types in North America. According to Argan.

First of all. theatres. designed by Aldo Rossi. prisons. a large part of the audience. viewers watch the stage via this arch. but until Gottfried Semper drew up his design for the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth (1872). Besides. We have images of three theatres to illustrate this: the Danstheater (1987) in The Hague by Rem Koolhaas/OMA. theatre makers rather than architects develop theatre types. In the case of repetition or narrowly defined programmes (housing. would traditionally be seated in boxes. . we will take a detour to theatre design. But what is this internal form structure? What is it that fundamentally links two seemingly different buildings? The Type: A Case Study of Three Theatres As argued before. A second similarity can be found in the structure of the house. On closer inspection the structures of the three buildings show two similarities. To describe the role of type in the design process. the auditorium. these theatres do have something in common. Despite their very distinctive architectural styles. as the following suggests. which can be closed off with a curtain. in all three cases the stage and the auditorium are connected through a so-called proscenium arch. we often see the same recurring principles. diagrams or models are more useful than others. etcetera). it is often the client who will stipulate a particular type of theatre and. Seated in the auditorium. in each the audience is seated on a rising slope. guaranteeing all spectators a good view of the stage. Why theatre design in a book about housing design? The nice thing about theatres is that the number of theatre types is limited. Although all three look different. These boxes are situated on horseshoe-shaped balconies around an auditorium with a flat floor and positioned so that it is easier to see one’s fellow spectators than the stage.TYPOLOGY / The Origins of the Concept of Type the similarities between the two objects. making it relatively easy to pinpoint where the influence of type and where the influence of a particular architectural view comes into play. The auditorium has a socalled shell-shaped floor. the Stadttheater Essen (1988) by Alvar Aalto and the Teatro Carlo Felice (1991) in Genoa. people went to the theatre to see and be seen. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. especially. Unlike the classical Greek theatre. especially those from the upper echelons of society. the audience watches the stage as if it were a diorama. [← 03–05] 42 The Concept of Type Operates between Word and Diagram A theatre with a good view of the stage may seem obvious. what was happening on the stage was of secondary importance. we know from experience that certain forms.

Koolhaas/OMA. different architecture 07 43 . Bayreuth 07 R. Dance Theatre. 1872. One of the shell-shaped halls: same type. Semper. The Hague.06 06 G. Festspielhaus (Festival Theatre).

→ 08–09] This may seem mere word play: type. To achieve this. The term bay refers to a structural unity. toilet). there can be types of a . named after the German town that is home to Semper’s design. as the theatres designed by Koolhaas. The similarities between these three theatres can be captured in a diagram depicting the internal form structure of the shared principles. on the basis of the interrelationship between the dominant elements in a design.TYPOLOGY / The Origins of the Concept of Type 44 The Scala in Milan – a famous proscenium theatre – is a case in point. Apparently the concept of type revolves around a similarity between buildings on the basis of their structure.[→ 10a–b] This raises the question of what the concept of type. Such a diagram is known as a typological diagram: a representation of the type. dining room). with the house subdivided into a narrow and a wide bay. staircase) and service areas (kitchen. But please note: the diagram is not the actual type. [← 06–07. refers to: an entire building or house. the linking of rooms or a particular kind of structure? In principle the concept covers them all. In principle this type says something about the relationship between the rooms and between the load-bearing walls. Going back to housing design: there is a dwelling type with two bays. The concept of the type is positioned between the diagram and the word. Since then. the shell-shaped auditorium has become a commonly used type. The concept of type can also be applied to the corresponding spatial organization – or the internal form structure. internal form structure. When Richard Wagner commissioned Gottfried Semper to design a theatre. while the narrow bay contains the circulation areas (corridor. Every single spectator had to have the best possible view of the stage. that is to say. etcetera. the arrangement of buildings in the urban design scheme. in this case between the diagram representing the configuration and the words ‘shell-shaped theatre’ and ‘proscenium arch’. Semper broke with a long-standing tradition and designed an auditorium with a shell-shaped floor. The three theatres under discussion have two types in common: the proscenium arch and the shell-shaped or Bayreuth auditorium. The wide bay contains the larger rooms (living room. In a way Semper’s auditorium can be seen as a proscenium stage with an element from the classical Greek theatre. This so-called intermediate support divides the house into two bays. as Argan calls it. as outlined in the paragraphs above. he made it clear that it had to be a theatre that prioritized the performance of his operas. The structure of a house consists of two load-bearing walls with another wall in between to ensure that the span is not too wide. The plan clearly shows the boxes arranged in a horseshoe shape. Many single-family houses are based on this type. Aalto and Rossi testify. elements of the building.

Argan’s first level. Architectural Design (December 1963). van der Voordt (eds. But having found Argan’s three levels not entirely adequate. while Essen is a hybrid structure of reinforced concrete and steel and The Hague predominantly steel with a concrete base). Thanks to their specific articulation in a certain building these components together form a specific building. The concept of decorative elements could be translated into contemporary parlance as dividing and finishing elements or skin and scenery. A typological level can be seen as a level of scale on which the design decisions constitute a coherent system of choices.M. like theatres. Argan.M. but we must bear in mind that Argan was first and foremost an art historian. but also a tool with which to analyse buildings. which makes typology not just a classification system. Architectuur-fragmenten’. Ways to Study and 45 .). Encyclopédie méthodique: Architecture. there is a typology that is particularly relevant to the area of housing. we can also identify typological levels in residential buildings. the decorative elements. immediately presents us with complications. It means that buildings no longer just represent a type. transl. for example. de Jong and D. Claessens (eds. If we cast our minds back to the three theatres. in: T. Engle and F. Vol. may strike us as slightly oldfashioned. the three theatres are also rather different. After all. However. TYPOLOGICAL LEVELS An important aspect of typology-based design is the interrelationship of the design decisions. they can be unravelled into different components. in principle. identified three typological levels with which to analyse the buildings of his era:9 — the overall building configuration. ‘On the Typology of Architecture’.J. van Duin (Delft: Publicatiebureau Faculteit der Bouwkunde.reproducible system of related design choices or a generative typology at all levels. have specific structures. — the decorative elements. Published in Dutch as ‘Het concept van architectonische typologie. 1991). — the major structural elements. the decorative elements. At the third level. 65–70. we have developed them further in this book. The last. ‘Concept and Type’. 10 Bernard Leupen. many housing blocks.10 Thanks to Argan’s definition of typological levels. Wat is architectuur?. separate from function (the concept is first and foremost based on the internal form structure of designs). There is little resemblance in their architectural expression and detailing. 544. they vary considerably at the major structural level (Genoa is mainly stacked brick. we could say that the three are similar at the level of the overall building configuration: they all conform to the type of the proscenium arch with shell-shaped auditorium. The complexity of the residential building has Quatremère de Quincy.). L. Although the design-related concept of type is. we can look at these levels both individually and in relation to one another. the overall building configuration. Following Argan. The concept of typological level plays a central role in this. 9 Giulio Carlo Argan. in: H. III (Paris: 1788). each of which refers to a particular type.

Milan.TYPOLOGY / Typological levels 08a 08a G. floor plan with typological scheme 08b Typological scheme of the shell-shaped hall with proscenium stage 09 Floor plan of the Scala. Festspielhaus. an example of an eighteenth-century theatre 10a Two-bay dwelling 10b Two-bay dwelling with upstairs and downstairs flat 08b 09 . Semper. 1778. Bayreuth.

10a Ground floor First floor 10b Downstairs flat Upstairs flat Attic level (upstairs flat) 47 .

and so forth. Preceding Argan’s first level. the linking or stacking of the independent units in combination with a certain kind of access also results in a particular building shape. The residential building is made up of independent housing units. The skin separates inside and outside. such as staircases. This is the level that covers the way buildings are grouped within the urban ensemble: are the blocks parallel. that is the decorative elements. such as flats and maisonettes. We can draw up a typology of both the independent housing unit and the dwelling access. ‘mat’. devices and other facilities). Argan’s third level. the finishing of floors. slab. walls and ceilings). ‘Linking and Stacking’ and ‘Dwelling Access’. We use the term dwelling access for this set of elements. In the case of a stack. do the buildings form a perimeter block or a superblock. tower. — Scenery of the space (cladding. the building form: row. while at the same time presenting the building to the outside world. The service elements control the supply and drainage of water. corridors. We have added another level for the large-scale residential building in relation to the urban ensemble. underside and roof). A particular horizontal sequence or perhaps vertical stack of independent housing units together make up the building. etcetera. beams. there are additional elements that provide access to the stacked dwelling. can be subdivided into: — Skin (façade. The scenery defines the visual and tactile properties of the rooms. the major structural elements. as the load-bearing structure. The structure transfers the building load down to the foundation. 48 .TYPOLOGY / Typological levels prompted us to add an extra level. — Service elements (pipes and ducts. Finally. galleries and lifts and that link the communal front door to the dwelling door. It covers columns. load-bearing walls. Our classification retains Argan’s second level. energy. inner doors and walls. fresh air and include the devices and dedicated rooms associated with these tasks. Although these typologies are closely related. we will initially look at them separately under the headings: ‘Spatial Organization of the Dwelling’. we have identified the level of the configuration of the urban ensemble. trusses and structural floors.

Following Argan. During the actual design process these two phases will overlap.11 Research Urban. In the first three chapters. For example. we must first be able to label each separate component. In the final two chapters. Architectural and Technical Design (Delft: Delft University Press. the emphasis is on layout type at the level of the dwelling. 2002). the type will undergo modification during the design process. these typologies are interrelated. That we have nevertheless opted for this division can be justified by the belief that typological classifications must also function as an analytical tool. 31– . Needless to say. THE APPLICATION OF A TYPE Existing types are rarely applied without some adjustment. where this line of reasoning is developed in more detail.A diagram of Argan’s levels for the residential building and Argan Housing Design Ch 5 Urban Ensemble 1st level: The overall building configuration Ch 4 Residential Building Spatial Organization of the Dwelling Dwelling Access Ch 3 Dwellings nd 2 level: The major structural elements Ch 6a Structure 3rd level: The decorative elements Ch 6b Skin Ch 6c Scenery Ch 6d Service Elements development as we understand them in this book looks like this: In the following chapters. the concept of Argan’s typological levels is looked at in greater detail for stacked housing. the relationship is given the attention it deserves in a number of analyses. As a rule. The next chapter covers the typology of the structural elements. To analyse the relationship between rooms and the overall structure. we can identify two phases in the metamorphosis from type to design: the formation of the type. a structure with load-bearing walls determines the layout of the rooms inside. and the moment of form specification. the building and the urban ensemble.

11 Argan. If the modification of a typological diagram results in a new variant of the existing type. We can identify a number of steps in the transformation process in Kassel. the kitchen can have a window. Case Study: The Transformation of the Access Staircase The entrance with stairs is a type of access commonly used in the twentieth century for stacked dwellings of up to four floors. (note 9). the formation of the type. Hertzberger makes this a corner window overlooking the stairwell. the typological diagram – the result of a process of reduction – will undergo a number of modifications. ‘On the Typology of Architecture’. Each of the individual typological levels of the design can go through this phase several times. 12 For the concept of 50 The Moment of Form Specification During the second phase. shifts. [→ 11] 32. cit. It gives the design its distinctive features. Each one of these series contains a wealth of experience and tradition. One can imagine that years or even centuries of adjustment after adjustment or transformation after transformation can result in series of slowly evolving types. the transformation of the entrance has a distinct influence on the quality of the layout. Because it now has a front aspect. The modification of the entrance and stairs access in the Schöne Aussicht project by Herman Hertzberger in the Dönche neighbourhood in Kassel (1980–1982) is extraordinary. The most fundamental change that the entrance has undergone is the opening up of the foyer area through the rotation of the two adjacent homes. 69. Forms of adjustment include rotations. Insertion into an architectural system12 results in the definitive composition and formal elaboration. the modified diagram is exposed on all typological levels to an architectural idiom chosen by the designer. . The typological analyses below illustrate the application and transformation of a dwelling type. the moment of form specification. Hertzberger has transformed the entrance from the usual front steps and access landing into a meeting place between the homes.TYPOLOGY / The Application of a Type The Formation of the Type During the first phase. The type is ‘dressed’ and given architectural expression. op. we speak of the adjustment of the type. In the case of structural changes to the type we speak of the transformation (remodelling) of the existing type to a new type. Although the homes themselves have not undergone a fundamental change. thereby creating a form of social monitoring of otherwise anonymous entrance stairs. the introduction of differences in level and mirroring. In the case of such family trees we speak of typological series. This step moves the kitchen to the front and allows the creation of a spacious balcony with a good aspect at the corner.

11 11 Typological series. transformation of the Domus elementare 51 .

TYPOLOGY / The Application of a Type 12a 12b 12 H. 1982. Hertsberger. Kassel-Dönche a Staircase access zone with balcony b Section and floor plan c Transformation of the entrance 12c access to the access as implemented in the Schöne Aussicht project . Schöne Aussicht housing.

A carport is situated between the two dwellings. a width of 6 m was not enough. This kind of modification appears virtually confined to Dutch housing and has its origins in housing competitions during the 1980s. [→ 13a–e] A cross between a single-family row house and a flat was the solution. A house developed width-wise would be ideal. 53 . The houses would be marketed as owner-occupied dwellings on private lots. Prijsvraag Jongerenhuisvesting Kruisplein (Rotterdam: DROS Volkshuisvesting.. 13 W. the living room is situated across the full width of the first floor. which can be seen as a combination of the single-family row house and the single-level apartment or flat. such as the one for flexible housing on the Kruisplein in Rotterdam. Design and Analysis. cit. The Panorama houses (1994) in Huizen by Neutelings Riedijk Architecten are a case in point. 1982).13 The idea behind the dwelling type developed by Neutelings Riedijk is as follows: the houses are aligned north-south. 27.The stairs are made even more visible and incorporated into the residents’ daily lives via another modification. Hertzberger manages to give architectural expression to the entire access area and to make it a special entrance. [← 12a–c] Case Study: The Combination of Two Dwelling Types New dwelling types can be developed by combining two existing types. A common criticism of stacked housing is that the residents of the upper floors have little or no contact with children playing at street level. ‘architectural system’. while the large living room occupies the full width of the second floor. by opening up the entrance area. Finally. while there is space for a bedroom on the second floor. Hertzberger enables the parents to have contact with their children. To make the most of this view. Hertzberger increases the size of the landings and fits them with sandboxes. Patijn et al. see Leupen et al. Because the best view (a lake called Gooimeer) is to the north of the houses. The initial plan was to create a development consisting of singlefamily row housing. the architects’ interpretation of the special location led to the development of a new type. The home with its entrance on the left has a sun room on the ground floor.. However. The monumental columns supporting the balconies increase the impact of this entrance. op. while the communal garden at the rear of the properties has been subdivided. enhancing the landings with a sandbox and large patios. By situating the play area (the sandbox) only a short distance from the homes and by providing sightlines from the kitchen. This solution came about by interlinking sets of two dwellings each and produced a living room with a width of 12 m. Some living rooms have a balcony. residents will follow the direction of the light when they look out of the window at the view. (note 4). The other home (entered from the right) has a sun room and bedroom on the ground floor and first floor respectively.

1994.TYPOLOGY / The Application of a Type 13a 13b 13c 13d 13e 13 Neutelings Riedijk. Panorama dwellings. Huizen a Waterside location b Urban plan c View of the adjoining lake d Floor plans e Typological transformations .

116] The structure responsible for the transformable living space can be seen as an unusual combination of the two aforementioned basic types: the (Dom-ino) skeleton and the structure with load-bearing walls. which also provides the necessary fire resistance and soundproofing between the dwellings. Van der Pol chose a different type of structure here in her quest for more freedom: the skeleton. Although the structure introduces few functional constraints. is quite special. its presence is further emphasized by the oblique position of the yoke. is simply an architectural gesture and does not have a structural role. On the other hand. [→ 14a–b] House builders tend to prefer load-bearing walls because of their fire resistance and soundproofing qualities. such as the shared foundation and roof. To cater to the future residents’ diverse households and lifestyles the homes were given a transformable living space. a skeleton offers more freedom in the configuration of the rooms.The disadvantage of this intertwining of two homes is that the living rooms do not border the garden. Although this is an undesirable situation for privately owned properties. so that residents can look after their interests. Both structural types can be combined without too much difficulty. Van der Pol used a concrete construction with load-bearing walls. Case Study: The Combination of Two Types of Structure There are two basic types of structure (see also Chapter 6. This requires a homeowners’ association for every pair of homes. The commission from housing association Lieven De Key stipulated 49 affordable homes for the street’s original residents. Because the dwellings interlock. A second disadvantage is that the homes are no longer on residents’ own land. a redevelopment project. as described above. which she alternated with supporting yokes of columns and beams. The structure. Van der Pol defiantly placed the structure in full view. ownership of the land is shared. it did not put off buyers because of the benefits offered by the new type. But because the additional support in the middle of the house to reduce the span does not have to meet these requirements. I’m responsible for the transformability! [→ 15a–c. which goes a long way towards creating the necessary freedom. which appears to exclaim: Look at me. which meant that the budget was limited. see also p. 55 . The oblique position of the columns and beam. Van der Pol used the load-bearing wall as a dividing wall. its form is quite emphatic. ‘Tectonics’): structures with load-bearing walls and structures with columns (comparable to Le Corbusier’s Dom-ino skeleton). A good example of an inventive combination of these two basic types can be found in Liesbeth van der Pol’s housing design in the Dapperbuurt neighbourhood in Amsterdam (1992). In the large central transformable space. which is a standard feature of a row house. In fact.

interior . Villa Savoye. 1929. Dom-ino skeleton.TYPOLOGY / The Application of a Type 14a 14b 56 14a Le Corbusier. Poissy. 1914 14b Le Corbusier.

The categories used in this examination represent an implementation of the theoretical framework established in this chapter. How autonomous or interdependent are different typological levels in relation to one another? This is not just a question of personal opinion. The typological transformation is also explained using several examples. we will examine the spatial and material organization of the housing construction project in greater depth. the two different façades can hide one and the same dwelling type. but a question of use. It is equally conceivable to have a façade that emphasizes the large scale of the overall building and in which the homes are no longer recognizable as individual units. For example. the designer of a large residential building can opt for a façade composition in which the small-scale individual units present themselves to the outside world as the constituent parts of the whole. ‘Residential Building’ and ‘Urban Ensemble’ and material configuration typology is elaborated in the chapter ‘Tectonics’.Whereas there is considerable cohesion between the design decisions on the same typological level of a plan. The relationship between the different levels of a design is an interesting subject. In the next four chapters. The two typologies developed in this chapter – typology according to spatial configuration and typology according to material configuration – form the backbone of the following chapters. Spatial configuration typology is elaborated in the chapters ‘Dwellings’. The concept of type elaborated in this chapter is applied in the rest of this book. 57 . technical possibilities and convention. the situation is much more complex when it comes to decisions at different typological levels. Nonetheless. The next few chapters will look more closely at design on each individual level before moving on to the relationships between the various levels.

TYPOLOGY / The Application of a Type 15a 15c 15b 15 L. van der Pol (Dok architecten) Pieter Vlamingstraat. 1992. Amsterdam a principle floor plan b conceptual model of the open floor plan c interior with obliquely 58 positioned columns and joist .


from the organization of places and spaces to an organization of dwellings in a residential building and finally to the organization of residential buildings as part of the city. in a constant search for improvement to the whole. these levels of scale are often intertwined. pub and theatre. The organization of dwelling space in fact does encompass all of these levels. Knowledge and experience enable designers to estimate the implications of given dimensions and orientation for the quality of the organization of internal space. the designer is asked to bring the two together into a building. therefore. but even here the scale level is higher than that of a precise adaptation within the dwelling itself. we first need to look at the organization of the space down to the square metre. in other words the configuration of the dwelling or housing unit. We organize our home floor plan. a programme is drawn up. think about where to park our bicycle or car. all the levels will continually intertwine. in a village or a city – then the spaces of dwelling can also be found on all these levels of scale. as our first chapter contends. whether it is higher or lower. how we get past the neighbours or whether the neighbours are walking past our windows. positioned more forward or set further back – all of which has an impact on the number of dwellings that fit inside it and how large these can or should be. An actual project will often begin on the scale level of the city: there is a site that can be built upon. 61 . During the design process. but we also connect the front door with the street. they are inextricably linked in a complex entanglement of interests. we presume no such insider knowledge. In the consideration of dwelling space and places. school and beach – in short everything that makes us feel ‘at home’ in a place. Changes on one level have immediate implications for others. we have therefore opted for a progression from small to large. This chapter deals with the organization of places and spaces within the individual dwelling. From a didactic standpoint. Sometimes designers will start from an ‘ideal’ dwelling floor plan and attempt to fit this within the parameters the city block affords them. In a book that seeks to draw attention to the organization of our dwelling spaces at all levels. consists of the myriad activities we engage in every day in and around the home as well as between the home and the workplace. But we also think about whether the new building fits in with the existing urban structure.If dwelling. whether we want to live close to street level or prefer a panoramic view of the city. In order to make the ultimate decisions at the scale level of the building understandable.

62 .

Conversely. The first chapter of this book already highlighted how the distribution of activities into various spaces not only differs from one country and one culture to the next. and the spaces of the city and its broader environs. in every new project. From Activity to Spatial Design The number of different activities we carry out inside a dwelling is virtually endless: coming in. within a suitable envelope and with easy access. how much comfort is desirable or possible in this regard and what demands they place on the spaces needed for the purpose. eating breakfast. we must first define which activities can be carried out in which place. Behavioural scientists identify connections in our daily activities. Furthermore it is not always useful to design daily life in such detail. Making an inventory of these activities every single time would be virtually impossible and highly timeconsuming. but for the practice of design it often takes us too far afield. when individual versions of it can differ so widely. For instance. hanging up our coats. but can change rapidly within a country or culture. they distinguish patterns of collection and division that form a representation of a given mode of living or lifestyle. the spaces of residential buildings. It is therefore vitally imperative. how they relate to one another. a dwelling creates conditions for everyday rituals that occupy a place in and around the home throughout the seasons. The spatial organization of dwelling therefore consists of organizing the various places in which these activities occur. Moreover. watching television. simultaneously and in parallel to one another within the same society. throwing away rubbish. and defining the spaces in which they can best unfold. Within this. PLACE AND SPACE Dwelling consists of human activities that take place inside as well as outside. have a 63 . and so on. in an easy chair you can sit. to consider who we are designing for. Charting these patterns and recording their changes is an interesting and extensive area of study. listening to music. brushing our teeth. in the spaces of dwellings. these differences and changes exist continuously. Designing a dwelling means considering how these activities can be given appropriate places. the spaces of the street and neighbourhood. washing our hands. in proper relation to one another. this means that in order to design the spaces of a dwelling so that they provide sufficient room for us to carry out our activities in comfort. doing the dishes. and which possibilities are being included and excluded in the dwelling.ACTIVITY. getting dressed. sometimes in a span of no more than five or ten years. Designers are better served by a simplified representation based on the use of space. reading a book.

study. [→ 01] 64 Between Ideal and Reality If we design without any limitations on budget or space. The designer thinks primarily in terms of basic activities like sitting. takes place within spatial. the room it takes and its distance from the table. views. bathroom. the coffeemaker or the television. Place and Space cup of coffee. and subordinates other activities to these. To a significant degree. however. History is filled with inspiring examples of residential houses created in this way. . Designing a dwelling begins with situating the places where the activities of dwelling can take place. at the expense of others. such an approach would be too limiting. sheltered enclosures and open views. Occupants. vestibule. of pleasing spatial proportions. bedroom. its quality. kitchen. The dwelling can become the spatial representation of a dwelling ideal. Yet even with unlimited freedom you can only allocate space once: choices have to be made. for instance. When every dwelling requirement cannot be granted unlimited fulfilment. that give a dwelling its quality. the character of the dwelling. a designer also has to choose: which places merit precedence. each refined to our heart’s content in an ideal location. we are able to assign every conceivable activity a place of its own. it is the design of these places.DWELLINGS / Activity. watch television or read the newspaper – what matters to the designer is the chair itself. As a designer you have numerous means at your disposal to provide a fascinating and meaningful envelope for dwelling. their dimensions. first identify in the dwelling the spaces that accommodate their activities: living room. The majority of housing construction. air and space. It is by no means certain that every separate basic activity requires a separate space: perhaps a less standard space is required. the crystallized spatial system. and make use of the spaces as these allow them to do so. of spatial sequences. which have to do with less. financial and political constraints. for instance between the quality of a large space in which many activities come together and that of various smaller spaces that may or may not be interconnected. During the design process. cooking. Besides intended use. or the use of different spaces may be interchangeable. getting more space or a better position. These choices determine the various possibilities of habitation. high and low. spatial and aesthetic requirements play an important role: think of the perception. eating. These are the places within the dwelling where daily occupations can best be accommodated. formal reception room. position and relation to one another as well as to light. however. finally. washing and sleeping. angles of light and shadow. They see the result of the design process. of contrasts great and small.

01 01 Sketches by A. Smithson illustrating how a carefully designed (sheltered) space can accommodate the small pleasures of life 65 . and P.

which requires sufficient space. sleeping. 1968). Following Nishihara’s example. spaces in the Japanese home have names that reflect their relationship to one another: zashiki (main room). . the dwelling seems. Japanese Houses: Patterns for Living (Tokyo: Japan Publications. to be the locus of operation for a number of dwelling-specific activities. cultures and occupants. [→ 02–03] Remarkably. many activities can occur: sitting. windows and stairs. basic activities into the categories gathering. tsugi-no-ma (the room next to the big room).DWELLINGS / Activity. what sub-activities comprise them. floors. 66 Basic Activities of Dwelling While dwelling features highly specific characteristics that differ among countries. Places are kept together or separated from one another by walls. 1 Kiyoyuki Nishihara. views and fresh air and connected to services. ‘Washing’ includes sub-activities like cleaning the body. its colour and its texture. level of development and geographic location. clothing and dishes. watching television. This describes the spatial system of the house without locking down what the spaces are for. eating. regardless of the era. virtually always and everywhere. washing and working. it is also the place to gather. dimensions and meaning in part from the material that envelops them. Analyses of the use of dwellings in various cultures show that a number of recurring activities occupy. The use of these six activities enables us to compare the use of dwellings in various cultures. The ways these activities are carried out. Place and Space It is then possible to further define the way the dwelling is to be used and experienced. etcetera. supplied with (sun-)light. their locus of operation inside or outside the home. however. activities that take place within the home as a whole are placed on the same footing through a certain degree of abstraction. as well as using the toilet. Nishihara argues that whereas the Western concept usually features single-function spaces. the space(s) they require and their relationship to one another are all aspects that may differ significantly from one dwelling to another. bathroom. Ultimately. what utensils they require. In his book Japanese Houses: Patterns for Living. naka-noma (middle room). however. cooking. the spaces of the dwelling derive their form. kitchen. Yet in all of them we recognize the same basic activities. and so forth). doors. objects and differences in elevation. a place in and around the home. For one. linked to one another by openings. we divide these general. In a place of ‘gathering’. reading the newspaper.1 Whereas in the Western home spaces are often named after their use (living room. spaces in the Japanese home are used in much more diversified ways. Kiyoyuki Nishihara contrasts dwelling in the Western world with the traditional Japanese home. bedroom. there are also discernible similarities.

use during the day.02 03 02 Differing uses of the same room over the course of a winter day: breakfast. gathering of family in the evening and sleeping 03 Comparison between the functional approach to spaces in the Western world and in Japan 67 .

000 years. but also in Japan. [← 04] Only in single-occupancy dwellings or temporary accommodations like hotels is such a place missing from the individual housing unit. Bauentwurfslehre (Berlin: Bauwelt-Verlag. The degree to which an accommodation is liveable is influenced. 1936). but also in China.4 Quality and Comfort Generous dimensions alone are not a guarantee for a comfortable home: a large mansion can be horrible to live in while a small flat can be very pleasant. For older and less physically able people. New-build housing is also likely to include a place about 4 m across the diagonal for the activity of gathering.3 [→ 05–06] The dimensions required for a place or space are determined to a large extent by the objects used to carry out the given activities. Architects’ Data 68 Programme. It quickly becomes clear. The space required can therefore be differentiated as follows: [→ 07] — the dimensions of an object. 4 Ernst Neufert. Function and Dimensions Further analysis reveals another generally shared feature. — the use space of an object. but also whether or not you have to go through a bedroom to reach the toilet. ‘Polyvalence.DWELLINGS / Activity. The household objects used in various countries and in various eras play an important part in this. it is possible to research the appropriate dimensions of each of the places needed for the remaining activities. Various volumetric analyses of the use of space have been extensively documented in book form and represent a practical resource for many designers (Ernst Neufert’s Architects’ Data. for instance the lobby of the hotel or the common room in a university residence hall. or whether a long corridor is needed to access a particular room. but also often place demands on the space around them. 3 (2006). among other things. that additional cultural differences that have an impact on the space required come into play. which is partly determined by the object itself (the drawers or doors of a cupboard) and partly by the user of the object. expressed in length. hard furniture has traditionally been used – people sit on chairs – whereas in places like the Middle East. 26. a concept for the sustainable dwelling’. and so on. It is also a matter of safe access to upper floors. In Western Europe. soft furniture is used. Dwellings and dwelling spaces are easily and logically accessible. 3 A differentiation can be made on a world scale among cultures based on hard and soft furniture.2 Similarly. these spaces are then often found on a separate level. This involves not only the size of (doorway) openings. Nordsk architekturforskning. Place and Space 2 Bernard Leupen. — the circulation space needed to reach the object. which is always (a little) larger than the object itself. third English-language edition: Ernst and Peter Neufert. in the form of cushions and floor mats. for instance). dwellings all over the world have included a place measuring about 4 m across the diagonal in which people can gather. These take up space themselves. no. For the last 4. by several qualitative factors: — Accessibility. — the emplacement of an object. . width and height. however.

04 05 04 Section and floor plan of a typical dwelling in Deir-el-Medina. 06 Dwelling and household goods of a family in Mali and of a family in the US 06 69 . c. with the living room in the middle 05. 1400 BCE.

in this case.DWELLINGS / Activity. Place and Space 07 07 Indicative schematic overview 70 of different household objects and the space for their optimum use specified by. the Woonkeur certification panel .

Laws and codes are therefore also the expressions of a culture: a place. However logical these may sound. even when the dwelling has multiple storeys or is situated on top of other dwellings? There is a reason the kitchen. the Building Code (Bouwbesluit) and local building ordinances at the municipal level are the main regulations that govern housing design. which is quite a different thing from the ideal quality of comfortable dwelling spaces that can be aspired to. close to their source. The actual quality of a dwelling. Warm enough in the winter. — Natural light. How do you evacuate these outside without obstructions. as well as adequate protection from undesirable exterior conditions. many dwellings are subject to the drawbacks of a lack of these three qualities. Unpleasant odours and moisture are also usually extracted here. etcetera. which also affords a spectacular view and ensures comfortable ventilation even in the winter. In the Netherlands. the law sets out the minimum requirements that the less privileged places must 71 . This is not simply a question of quantity: think of how attractive a certain incidence of light can make a room. electricity and data. the Housing Act (Woningwet). While decisions within a design privilege certain places over others. but an integral part of the dwelling design: how do you get the necessary conduits to the places you most want them. how do you limit their length and how do you keep them accessible for maintenance and future changes and expansion? — Evacuation of fouled air and waste water.and time-specific representation of the most commonly shared attitudes towards the minimum level of acceptable housing quality. views and fresh air. Rules and Regulations The minimum dimensions allowable for various dwelling spaces and the minimum level of allowable quality and comfort are stipulated as requirements in national. Keep in mind that the law prescribes the minimum quality and dimensions allowable. the bathroom and especially the toilet are usually clustered around vertical pipes that use gravity to drain waste water downwards. Often invisible to the occupants. the placement of walkers and scoot mobiles. cool enough in the summer – a constant interior temperature or one dictated by the season? This also involves the systems and appliances to regulate the temperature. space or place is usually found in spaces that deviate from the minimum requirements. water.proper accessibility requires extra additions from the designer: the elimination of obstacles. the turning circle of a wheelchair. — Supply of gas. provincial and municipal legislation and ordinances. — Temperature.

DWELLINGS / Activity. Place and Space 08 08 Schematic representation of 72 Sherwood’s categorization of dwellings according to orientation .

The way space in a dwelling is allocated is therefore closely related to the options for creating this relationship. Modern .nevertheless fulfil. The incidence of natural light. the creation of shadow or a certain line of sight. Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Professional. is a difficult and often determining requirement in this respect. Orientation Virtually every aspect of quality and comfort outlined above has something to do with the interaction between the spaces of the dwelling and the world outside. we can say that the length of the façade determines the quantity of programme that can be achieved behind it. Some of these aspects. the orientation of the dwelling. or the relationship between the dwelling’s floor plan and the façades exposed to natural light. three or four sides. A dwelling with a façade on only one side is therefore trickier than a dwelling exposed to natural light on two. Sometimes a certification comes with a subsidy – and therefore the financial scope for added quality. Other motivations and factors. A designer therefore needs to carefully consider which interests are best served by individual quality requirements. in order to be aligned as well as possible towards natural light. Roger Sherwood (Ames. each project also incorporates the wishes of housing corporations. while setting numerous lofty use demands for every space – in the case of a limited budget and square footage – can conflict with striving for specific quality in a few spaces that give the dwelling as a whole its quality and character. The combination of various interests often leads to a maze of different set of requirements the dwelling is expected to fulfil. views and fresh air. however. this is not very difficult: the spaces can easily be positioned in a variety of ways along the façades all the way round. The more a dwelling is surrounded by other dwellings. requirements are often primarily practical in nature. In addition. In a detached dwelling in open terrain. can play a role in the positioning of places and spaces in and around the house. Its spaces have to be arranged in a different way. 2002). We call this ‘alignment’. the fewer the options for establishing contact with the outside world. This makes certification a political instrument during the design process. In the book Modern Housing Prototypes. Roughly speaking. like a specific view. While the value of special certifications is not in question. 5 Roger Sherwood. A correct placement of the spaces now becomes crucial to fulfilling the stipulated requirements and conditions. in particular. Fulfilling these requirements does not automatically result in a high-quality dwelling. such as natural light and sun exposure. even concern the direct relationship of the occupant(s) with the outside world. or the certifications of special-interest groups like retirees or the disabled.

dwellings for unknown users (buyers or tenants). for there is still something nineteenth-century about our furniture. das MinimumMass’. This area also used to be called mass housing construction or housing construction for the anonymous client. it is trying to impress. the closely related ‘designing from place to place’. Das Neue Frankfurt. In this book we will confine ourselves to the more complex sort of housing construction. What follows is a series of different approaches to the design of housing. i10. ‘M-Kunst’. 1970). MA: Harvard University Press. We will look in succession at the functionalist approach. 74 Designing Based on Function and Scale Our objects are to be on a human scale. most of all at a time when the minimum requirements in housing and standard of living of many thousands of the working population remain unsatisfied. Today. for instance – and in the case of a detached house or a penthouse flat. quadruple orientation. 6 Mart Stam. ‘Das Mass.5 [← 08] Although a large proportion of massproduced housing can be described in this way. zoning and design using the factor of time. they ought to be but they are not yet. 3 (March 1929). das richtige Mass.6 This Mart Stam quotation from 1929 illustrates the passionate commitment of architects in the first half of the twentieth century to the central issue in mass housing construction: how to develop as many good-quality dwellings as possible for the working class.DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling categorizes housing units according to their orientation. at an acceptable and affordable price. That is representation and not the human scale. And excess is a proof of want of principle and of an antisocial way of life. translated by C. DESIGNING THE DWELLING There are many possible methodologies for the design of a dwelling. in our layout of public places and town-planning too. This statement is not just . it is excess. including the role played by the programme. rooms and homes. no. 7 Mart Stam. 1978). these labels are no longer sufficient. He distinguishes between single-orientation units and doubleorientation units. 1920–1965 (London: Royal Institute of British Architects. pattern language. There is not one of us completely free from something that our parents and grand-parents really had in their blood: design for prestige’s sake. Stam was convinced (along with many of his colleagues at the time) that the solution needed to be found in the precise correlation of the scale of dwelling spaces to ‘the human scale’. His statement ‘the door is 2 metres high – we know why’7 is characteristic of his unswerving commitment to design based on the human scale. in: Mart Stam: A Documentation of His Work. Housing Prototypes (Cambridge. however. it is trying to seem more than the truth. van Amerongen as ‘Scale – Right Scale – Minimum Scale’. design according to criteria. Dwellings with double orientation can be further divided into those with natural light exposure on two contiguous sides (90°) and those with natural light exposure on two opposite sides (‘open-ended’). there are also dwellings with triple orientation – an end-of-row home.

A Pattern Language (New 75 . Willem Van Tijen conducted studies into the activities that took place in the home. The idea of designing for human dimensions led to numerous studies into the space taken up by our activities. There was an effort to arrive at the Existenzminimum: the minimum dimensions of dwelling spaces and household objects considered necessary for a standard German working-class family of the period. 12 Christopher Alexander. bears a particularly heavy responsibility.characteristic. Later regulations set out minimum dimensions in what came to be called matjes (‘little mats’): specifications outlined for various sub-activities. 11 Alison and Peter Smithson. Architectural Design (September 1967). Grete Schütte-Lihotzky developed the ‘Frankfurt kitchen’ based on similar ergonomic analyses. These ergonomic analyses and especially their adaptation into prescriptions and suggestions provide a snapshot of the standard post-war Dutch family. exclusively focused on measurements and numbers. attention can be concentrated on specific points until the design is successful according to every criterion. in: ibid. Functionele grondslagen van de woning. One example of this approach is the checklist of the husband-and-wife architecture team of Peter and Alison Smithson. 8 Willem van Tijen. [→ 09] He documented domestic life in measurements and motion diagrams. eventually attracted substantial criticism. 1 (1927) no.8 In Germany. the occupants of which are not known during the design process and towards whom the architect. These prescriptions and suggestions. Their ‘criteria for mass housing’11 were intended for dwellings and housing environments in low. 1958). these studies led to codes in the Netherlands such as the ‘functional fundamentals of the home’9 promulgated by the Centre for Building Excellence (Bouwcentrum) and the housing ministry’s ‘Prescriptions and Suggestions’ (Voorschriften en wenken)10.and high-rise housing. They took into account spiritual and emotional well-being and a great number of other psychological aspects. 2. in the Smithsons’ view. [→ 10–11] After the Second World War. van Amerongen as ‘M-Art’. formed the programme of requirements for post-war reconstruction housing. translated by C. 9 Bouwcentrum. leading to new methodologies. Criteria Another approach to the design of housing is to design according to pre-established internal criteria against which the design can be tested over the course of the design process: if at a given point the design does not satisfy all the criteria. 1966). which every subsidized dwelling in the Netherlands had to satisfy. Voorschriften en wenken voor het ontwerpen van woningen (The Hague. The Smithsons’ conclusion was that the criteria represent potential prescriptions that plans must satisfy in order to be accepted as a minimum environment for vol. ‘Criteria for Mass Housing’. 1965). in: De ruimtebehoeften in en om de Nederlandse volkswoning (thesis proposal) (Zandvoort. Around 1930 there were various attempts undertaken in Germany to design dwellings that catered to this ‘human scale’. ‘Het onderzoek naar de ruimtebehoeften in en om de gezinswoning’. 44 ff and appendix. Algemene inleiding (Rotterdam. In the Netherlands. 10 Netherlands Ministry of Housing and Spatial Planning. [→ 12] This approach. it is now also obsolete in an age when people taller than 2 m are no longer exceptions.

DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling 09 11 10 76 12 .

research into minimum required dimensions in the home 10. and P. Schütte-Lihotzky. drawn up in 1957. 1926.13 09 Van Tijen. 11 G. Grete Schütte-Lihotzky designed this model kitchen as a machine entirely attuned in use of space and ergonomics to the needs of a standard working-class German family. ‘Criteria for Mass Housing’. the Frankfurt Kitchen. 12 Illustration from Functionele grondslagen van de woning (‘Functional Fundamentals of the Home’) of specification matjes for the various functions centred on preparing food 13 A. Smithson. Aiming to improve social housing. revised in 1959 .

16 The concept of ‘designing from place to place’ has not. [→ 14] Pattern language is a complex system. 295.. Aldo van Eyck: Collected Articles and Other Writings 1947–1998 (Amsterdam: SUN Publishers. been defined in writing. 1977). and this space has been absorbed into the void along with the mind. One illustrative example is Pattern 130. Designing with pattern language makes one yearn for a more self-evident and more architectural way of working.12 Alexander.). as far as we have been able to ascertain. as follows: — identify the usual problems encountered within the area in question. one of the first architects to use a computer. 2008). Alexander explains the methodology in three steps.13 In his 1961 essay ‘Interior Art’ Van Eyck emphasizes why he prefers the word ‘place’ to the word ‘space’: The word I want to talk about is place. endeavoured to apply the principles of computer programming to architectural design. in which Van Eyck published ‘Place and Occasion’ (often referred to by its opening line.DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling housing. It was initially embraced by many people in the 1970s. but its complexity often makes its application problematic. Both . 295. — describe their most significant features and effective solutions. taken from a poem by Thomas Campion: ‘There is a garden in her face’). a poetic text in which he calls attention to place with sentences such as ‘Today. One might construct the outline of the emptiness and call this space!14 Also in 1961. It is precisely this ‘space’ in which the mind went astray. the journal Forum put out a special issue with the theme ‘Door and Window’. The patterns are arranged in a hierarchical system. In his book A Pattern Language Alexander outlines a method whereby the design project is examined using a number of activity clusters or patterns.. following various paths through the design process. It means everything and therefore nothing. Van Eyck gave a reading of this text on 6 February 1961 at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in The Hague. — the designer must then work from problem to problem in a logical way. far more systematic and more extensive response to the functionalist approach of housing design came in the 1970s. 13 Vincent Ligtelijn and Francis Strauven (eds. the pattern for the entrance to a dwelling. 14 Ibid. Designing from Place to Place For Aldo van Eyck. from city to home. look. the concept of place played a vital role. Because. 15 Ibid. in the sense associated with Aldo van Eyck it was used frequently in design teaching practice within the Faculty of Architecture at Patterns of Activity Another. space and what it should coincide with in order to become “space” – humanity at home with ourselves – are lost. In A Pattern Language Alexander describes many patterns. the word ‘space’ has become a sort of academic conjuring word. [→ 13] York: Oxford University Press. Pattern language is a structured way of describing design problems and sub-problems. from American architect Christopher Alexander: ‘pattern language’.

van Eyck. design sketch for the Amsterdam Orphanage. place within a place 16 A. The sketch clearly shows how Van Eyck investigated circulation lines and places. design sketch for an urban dwelling in London (1969). van Eyck. . from Christopher Alexander’s Pattern Language 15 A.14 16 15 14 Pattern 130: the entrance space.

between outside and inside. 19 N. translated by B. Instead I tried to articulate the transition by means of defined inbetween places which induce simultaneous awareness of what is significant on either side. place is an important motif: This interior street is yet another intermediary – there are many more. however.’ And a little way down the page. In fact the building was conceived as a configuration of intermediary places clearly defined.. On the contrary. until 1961. He countered this with his own concept. This also involves the connections among these places. flowing space both through the building and from inside to outside (‘call it sickness’). i. in big letters.DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling Delft University of Technology throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Its first edition in English was Supports: An Alternative to Mass Housing. Het einde van de massawoningbouw (Amsterdam: Scheltema & Holkema. but cannot find it. search the same place. 319. John Habraken. This is comparable to some extent to Le Corbusier’s route architecturale. as it is an attitude towards design. is less systematic and far more poetic. however. 17 Ligtelijn and Strauven. One or more places form the basis of the space to be created. 18 Ibid.16 This is not so much a method. This does not imply continual transition or endless postponement with respect to place and occasion. in which he describes such elements as the design of the interior street. [← 16] Later in the same text he also describes the effect of lighting on place: ‘The electric lighting. in which spaces may indeed transition into one another. shortly after completing his architecture studies in Delft. 1972). it implies a break away from the contemporary concept (call it sickness) of spatial continuity and the tendency to erase every articulation between spaces. moreover. with its continuous. Valkenburg (London: Architectural Press. and then in lowercase: ‘make of each a place. Aldo van Eyck.e. Habraken wrote this book in the 1950s. cit. [← 15] In Van Eyck’s text on the orphanage in Forum in 1961. the place is the locus of operation from which the design is conceived. between one space and another. moving from one place to another. In from-place-to-place design. at the same time this complex is a fine illustration of ‘designing from place to place’. De dragers en de mensen.17 It should be noted that Aldo van Eyck was not simply describing an attitude towards design here. The design for the Municipal Orphanage in Amsterdam (1955–1959) is predominantly a search for the right configuration and new order of building. 319.15 Van Eyck’s text. (note 13). with the key difference that the main objective is not the way this progression is experienced: the route is merely a means to connect activities and places.’ It sounds a lot like Alexander’s argument for pattern language: he too made a place of coming in. It was not published. like pattern language. The concept of place plays an equal role in the way Van Eyck designed and can be described as ‘designing from place to place’. is like street lighting in the sense that the child moves from illuminated place to illuminated place via comparative . op. but only so long as their transitions are clearly articulated. a countenance of each window’. An in-between place in this sense provides the common ground where conflicting polarities can again become dual phenomena. the famous phrase ‘make a welcome of each door. 1961). he was also offering a critique of the modernist concept of space.

B.B. elaboration of the zoning principle in cooperation with I. 18 Diagoon house. base principle 19 Ensemble of Diagoon houses 19 .17a 17b 18 17 SAR.

we can generally agree that working with zones can be useful in housing design.L. A successful dwelling is more than a programme of requirements translated into material form. Habraken described how the problems of mass housing construction could be resolved. page 325). We show here an illustration of the zoning system for vertically stacked housing developed by the SAR in the late 1960s in collaboration with the IBB engineering bureau. as well as changes due to cultural.J.20 Together with nine architecture practices and the Royal Institute of Dutch Architects (BNA). which can hinder future changes in use. while the light-grey zone (the α zone) indicates the placement of the habitation spaces. 1969). the ‘10–20 grid’. Without going into the specific features and rules of the SAR grid.W. which determine the placement of specific elements of the building or specific kinds of spaces. One of the issues a housing designer has to take into account is the factor of time. called supports.. This issue is addressed in the following section. 22 82 Zoning In the late 1950s. 21 H. One of the pillars of this research is a zoning system. Over the course of its lifetime. they can be zones in which access or ‘wet areas’ are situated (see also CePeZed’s Heiwo house. Briefly summarized. [← 17] The dark zones in the middle (the β zones) define the location of ‘wet rooms’ and conduits. the dark zone along the façade (the γ zone) the access or exterior spaces. Habraken founded the Foundation for Architects’ Research (SAR) in 1964. This foundation devoted itself to studying the possibilities for mass production and standardization in housing construction. a dwelling undergoes many changes in use. Methodisch ontwerpen in het IBB- gietbouwsysteem (Leiden / Eindhoven: IBB-SAR.’18 His draft designs show how much the search for and the formation of places and their relationships to one another was part of Van Eyck’s design process. 20 Ibid. this comes down to the following: zones of a specified width are defined.19 In his book Supports: An Alternative to Mass Housing he developed a system whereby the government should provide large structures. 84. One danger in ‘designing from place to place’ is that the space becomes fragmented and every activity is assigned not just its own place but also its own space. Dutch architect N. upon or within which occupants could construct their own homes.DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling darkness. These can be zones in which material – such as loadbearing walls – as well as space can be located. societal and technological developments – changes that the designer cannot predict .21 Time as a Factor in the Design Growing criticism of functionalism and the design methods and prescriptions derived from it led to increasing attention among designers towards the treatment of the unexpected and towards the flexibility of the dwelling. Heyning.

through the spatial organization of the dwelling. in: R. Topological Analysis The spatial system of a home can be expressed using a topological diagram. we must design dwellings that are able to absorb these changes in one way or another. Herman Hertzberger introduced this concept into the architecture debate in the early 1960s. react or interact’). In order to accommodate the time factor. It also lets the large spaces communicate visually. In relation to housing. the other vertical element houses service spaces. the polyvalency of the spatial Bernard Leupen et al.. TimeBased Architecture (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. ‘Moderne Beweging in de Dapperbuurt’. These spaces are also staggered horizontally in relation to one another along the depth of the dwelling.23 We can see some of his ideas on polyvalency in the ‘Diagoon’ row houses he designed in Delft (1967–1971). 3 (1962). a graph. 24 Han Michel. The spatial system he has designed can be inhabited in a variety of ways. Brouwers (ed. 83 . labelled the ‘frame concept’ in the rest of this discussion — semi-permanent dwellings. Polyvalent Dwellings Polyvalency literally means ‘having more than one valency’ (valency in this case being the ‘relative capacity to unite. With a graph. The occupant can choose where to live. each of which is shifted half a storey in relation to the next. in the first place. sleep or work within the home. 2005). The stairs are situated in one of these elements. including the kitchen.or identify in any comprehensive way. The spaces are partially separated by two vertical closed elements. [← 18–19] Hertzberger achieves polyvalency here. The large spaces for habitation are arranged across from one another diametrically around a central open vertical space (vide). their functions are not fixed. The dwelling is composed of a number of large habitation spaces. more or less identical in shape. polyvalency means that the dwelling can be used in different ways without requiring adaptations of an architectural nature. Because the large habitation spaces all have more or less the same dimensions and because their position in relation to the vertical elements housing the service spaces is not unidirectional. 23 Herman Hertzberger. This open vertical space allows natural light coming through the roof to reach deep into the heart of the home. which allows the occupants to experience the split-level organization.). ‘Flexibility and Polyvalency’. Forum. no. The book Time-Based Architecture describes three strategies to accomplish this:22 — polyvalent dwellings — dwellings with a permanent part and an adaptable part. thanks to the way activities can be interchangeably carried out throughout the various spaces. The play of light engendered by the central open vertical space creates a constantly changing atmosphere in the large spaces.

[→ 20] Two Examples A classic example of polyvalent housing is the project designed by Duinker Van der Torre in Amsterdam’s Dapperbuurt area.24 The doors. 84 system of a house can be examined. they invite the occupant to utilize the home in a personal and original way. 75. Yet the sliding doors are not primarily what make the dwelling polyvalent. symposium on Time-Based Buildings. 2006). and with the intention to have a service area in the middle of the apartment. As a consequence one has a free choice how to use all the spatial sequences along the facade. Rather than the floor plan constructed on the basis of modern analyses.DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling Architectuur in Nederland Jaarboek 88/89 (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. which is too large for the entrance. A spatial system in which various spaces are accessible only through another space. 1989).25 A more recent example in which polyvalency plays a role is the Straßgang housing project in Graz by Austrian architects Riegler & Riewe (see also page 109). it is the arrangements that have proved their value over the millennia that can make a home habitable even over the long term. 25 Bernard Leupen. By creating spaces whose proportions do not immediately refer to the usual categories of dwelling space. play an important role in the manipulation of the spatial system here. ‘Is architecture no longer any use?’. [← 21–23] The placement of the service spaces within a central core is an important facet of this (see also page 108). is less suited to different forms of habitation than a dwelling in which the spatial system offers the option of accessing every space from a central point or by multiple routes. In order to avoid the route from one room to another leading through too many habitation spaces. 26 F. Polyvalency is created here by the spatial system itself. the architects have created a shortcut through a small corridor past the ‘wet area’ (see the section in the upper right of the graph with the little squares representing the spatial system). through the living room for example. .26 [→ 25–26] The floor plans this produces are more reminiscent of the archaeological digs of Ancient Greek and Roman sites than of the usual modern dwelling floor plan. which makes it possible to access every space by two different routes (principle graph D). The architects describe this as follows: We generated this project with the intention to have a room. The polyvalency of the spatial system is constrained by the fact that only one space can accommodate the function of gathering (the living room). the dwelling can be inhabited in different ways. Frame and Generic Space: A Study into the Changeable Dwelling Proceeding from the Permanent (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Riegler. in particular the two sliding doors. In practice. Delft 2004. But perhaps it is precisely in these archetypal features that the secret of the polyvalent dwelling lies. too small for being a living or bedroom.

21 Duinker van der Torre. Different patterns of use. 22 Graph of the spatial system. this implies an increasing sequence in the home from the more communal to the more private. Wagenaarstraat.20 20 Series of graphs representing the organization of space. the checked boxes are the ‘wet cells’. Dapperbuurt. Essentially. A represents a spatial system with a low degree of polyvalency: one must go through one room to reach another. In the other four graphs. Amsterdam (1986–1988). the rooms are either organized to coordinate (B and C) or accessible by multiple routes (D and E). 23 Axonometrics of the spatial system 21 22 23 85 .

DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling 24 25 26 .

Bathing. floor plan of storey 26 Graph of the organization of space (l).27 24 Two graphs of two different forms of habitation. Legend for the letter symbols in English: Sleeping. Working. Nieuwe Australië. Get together. 25 Riegler and Riewe. axonometrics of the frame 28 87 . alongside three different graphs of three different approaches to habitation 27 DKV architecten. Straßgang project in Graz. Eating. floor plan 28 Nieuwe Australië. Cooking.

op. reinforced at the corners by small steel struts. Other combinations are conceivable within the frame concept. however. [← 27–28] The use of this flooring leaves the partitioning of the dwelling entirely independent of the location of the plumbing and wiring. de Vroom. In the new section these shells are accessed through a gallery. 28 It must be pointed out that in the eventual implementation. 29 P.29 Semi-Permanent Dwellings If future use is undetermined or the function short-lived. Frame and Generic Space. is made up of small concrete elements. of a type often used in computer rooms. which owes its name to the former dockland warehouse Australië. and in particular in dwellings. The wall between the dwelling (type AA) and the gallery contains the shafts for plumbing and wiring. kitchen and bathroom – is discretionary. Even the location of the service spaces – toilet. the architects opted for a raised floor. If the toilet is located more than a few metres from the plumbing shaft. Here is where the dwelling. Semi-permanent dwellings are often designed to meet specific needs on a temporary basis. a foamed concrete flooring was selected. a system needs to be installed in order to pump waste matter to the main soil stack. An illustrative example in which the frame concept can be identified is the Nieuw Australië complex in Amsterdam. hire someone to build the interior. the façade (the skin) and the supply and discharge conduits (the ‘service elements’).28 In this project. such as in the aftermath of calamities or to provide a quick solution to a . the permanent part (the frame) consists of the load-bearing structure. however. In order to keep the partitioning of the dwelling as unrestricted as possible. or build it themselves. The new structure designed by DKV architecten is situated next to the converted warehouse and part of it is suspended over the old building. since in principle the main soil pipe for the toilet can be concealed under the floor. This concept is developed in detail in the book Frame and Generic Space. Both the old and the new sections consist of shell housing units. for instance) as the permanent portion. so to speak. Future occupants can select from a range of prefabricated internal elements. the semipermanent dwelling offers a solution. each 60 × 60 cm. ‘Australië- 88 The Frame Concept In the case of the frame concept. with sometimes surprising results.DWELLINGS / Designing the Dwelling 27 Leupen. in the old section through a corridor. in which channels for plumbing and wiring can easily be excavated. between the part of the dwelling that remains constant for an extended time and the part that is subject to change.27 here we will confine ourselves to one instance. is plugged into the network of pipes and cables. (note 25). so this level of choice does require an additional financial investment. a distinction is made in buildings. This flooring. An obvious example is the common distinction between the shell (the load-bearing structure plus the main access. cit. and the building elements that define the division of space (like partition walls) as the variable portion.

cardboard emergency dwellings. 1995 89 . Kobe.29 29 Shigeru Ban.


91 . A characteristic of semi-permanent design is the use of provisional. Japan. non-durable (in the sense of long-lasting) materials and/or structures that can be taken apart. [→ 29] In this case Shigeru Ban designed accommodations that were constructed out of a special cardboard structure.specific problem in the housing market. The example selected here is emergency housing for the victims of the 1995 earthquake in Kobe.

— The orientation of the dwelling determines which side(s) will be exposed to natural light. the dwelling floor space increases while the façade surface area remains constant. The spaces that require natural light or views will be grouped here. three factors have a defining impact on the partitioning options of the dwelling: its size. Divided by the ceiling height. as long as they can be adequately supplied with . its orientation and its total façade surface area: — The size of the dwelling determines the number of separate spaces that can be created inside it. As the dwelling gets deeper. The façade surface area – and therefore the potential quantity of natural light – is dependent on the size. wider or taller. supplemented by the minimum 92 amount of facilities necessary. this gives the façade length. while the spaces that can do with less natural light are placed in the darker areas of the dwelling. next to or above this (principal) space. which determines how many spaces can be positioned next to or on top of one another along the façade. orientation and shape of the dwelling: — if the dwelling is made deeper. New spaces can be added along the depth.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 30b SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DWELLING 30a SINGLE-SPACE DWELLING In the most general sense. more spaces can be added behind. — The total façade surface area determines the maximum quantity of natural light that can be let into the dwelling as a whole. The smallest self-contained dwelling consists of nothing more than a simple space for habitation.

the façade surface area and the façade length increase in direct proportion with the dwelling floor space. 2 ZONES DEEP 93 . The façade length therefore increases only in increments. Higher ceilings allow natural light to penetrate deeper into the dwelling. New spaces can be added along the height when there is sufficient room for an additional storey. In the following pages the principles outlined above are illustrated using real-life (design) examples. — if the dwelling is made taller. width and height. orientation and available façade surface area.31a 31b 0 2m natural light. the façade surface area increases in direct proportion with the dwelling floor space. We begin with the dwelling as a simple space. New spaces can be added along the width when there is sufficient room along the façade. — if the dwelling is made wider. successively increasing its depth. The partitioning options produced are directly dependent on the dwelling’s size.

30 Facilities and utensils for additional activities are situated around this space.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 32a 2 ZONES DEEP 32b 0 2m The smallest dwelling possible consists of a single space. in which essentially all activities of dwelling take place. certain facilities (including the toilet and shower) are separated from the living space. As previously noted. so there is really no such thing as an entirely single-celled dwelling. 94 30 According to Dutch regulations every dwelling must . Its dimensions are determined by the most space-consuming activity: gathering. In keeping with hygiene standards. since time immemorial spaces with a diagonal measurement of about 4 m have been reserved for this activity.

is built into the surrounding walls.3 × 3. They are constructed so as to be put in place.3 m. the wall opposite featuring a single round window. A detached dwelling. Infrastructure for the supply and discharge of water and air is also incorporated in the prefabricated wall structure. The entrance provides direct access from the stairwell to the living space. as a whole. television and audio equipment. his single-celled dwellings are clustered as prefabricated capsules around two central stairwells.33a kISHO kUROkAWA. at the end of their lifespan. 1970–1972) 33b 0 2m include one space measuring at least 3. could be replaced by newer dwellings. must provide at least 24 m2 of floor space. using only four bolts. a cooking facility and closet space. fold-down desk. entirely in line with the metabolist movement’s ideals of interchangeability. taken apart and repositioned as individual units. The dwellings were originally 2 ZONES DEEP 95 . A door conceals an alcove for the toilet and bathroom. reuse and sustainability. In kisho kurokawa’s Capsule Tower. All furniture. NAGAkIN CAPSULE TOWER (TOkYO. including the bed. The idea was that the dwellings.

An L-shaped space features multiple directions and is generally perceived as less pleasant. all the typical problems of housing design are present here in a nutshell. fourth floor 34a 34b 34c 0 2m 3 ZONES DEEP 96 intended for temporary habitation. The composition of these two spaces can be problematic even on this small scale. as an overnight accommodation for business people in crowded downtown Tokyo. The position of the wet cell makes the living space L-shaped. first to third floors 34c Dwelling floor plan. unless there is a subdivision among the different sections of the space.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 34b Dwelling floor plan. . The dwelling consists of a relatively large habitation space and a smaller service space (the ‘wet cell’). Although these are tiny. singlecelled dwellings. for instance. in effect creating different spaces in open communication with one another.

This leaves as much free space as possible along the façade. where a large window provides a view and natural light. As the depth of the single-orientation dwelling increases. more space is created in the area that gets the least natural light. stacked in four levels. the dwelling floor space increases while the façade surface area remains constant. so that facilities can be located in the innermost section of the dwelling. Dwellings of varying size are created by linking these identical spaces. FINk+JOCHER. This is also where the entrance to the dwelling is located. The dwelling is deeper than it is wide. directly into the living space from a gallery running along the outside of the building. New spaces can be added along the depth. 97 . Locating facilities here frees up the habitation space along the façade. The repetition of the large windows along the façade underscores the uniformity of the spaces behind. whereby the smallest dwelling consists of only one space with a single orientation. STUDENT HOUSING (GARCHING BEI mÜNCHEN.35a 35c 35b 0 2m DEPTH If the dwelling is made deeper. as long as they can be adequately supplied with natural light. 2005) > 3 ZONES DEEP The building consists of a sequence of identical spaces.

however. The living space is therefore the final destination in the dwelling and experiences less disruption from through traffic. ‘Residential Building’.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 36a Proposed situation: six dwellings together forming one block 36a > 3 ZONES DEEP AART A/S.31 31 This building is also discussed in Chapter 4. orientation and internal organization. 2006) 36b 98 0 2m This residential building by AART in Copenhagen incorporates dwellings of similar dimensions. and the entrance is located not in the façade but in the service zone. page 165. the dwelling is accessed from a gallery on the inner side of the block. . BIkUBEN STUDENT BUILDING (COPENHAGEN. under the heading ‘Block’. Here.

in addition to the entrance. since it too needs to be supplied with sufficient natural light. in a dwelling with double orientation on opposite sides. a second habitation space cannot be partitioned from the principal space along the depth. Carel Weeber positioned a living room across the full width of the rear façade and a bedroom in the zone opposite. The principal space is now safeguarded and can focus exclusively on its function as a living room. 1976–1979) In a dwelling with single orientation. 1 ZONE DEEP >1 ZONE WIDE 99 . kRUISSTRAAT/mOLSLAAN (DELFT. Given sufficient depth. it becomes possible to allocate one or more activities a space of their own in addition to the space for gathering. this zone can also accommodate the toilet and washing space. As sleeping takes up less space than gathering. In these dwellings for one. HOUSING. The cooking facilities are in open communication with the habitation space and at the same time provide a buffer against the entrance.37b 37a 0 2m CAREL WEEBER. however. in the darkest part of the dwelling. Storage in the form of closets forms the division between living and sleeping two-person households. This can be done.

1990) 1 ZONE DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE 100 With a standard ceiling height. The corridor also provides access to the space next to the entrance. the meter cupboard.and two-person households that OmA designed in part of this elongated slab on the IJplein in Amsterdam are accessed through a gallery. The middle of the dwelling is occupied by the facilities: a kitchen in open communication with the habitation space. Beyond this are a draught exclusion zone and a corridor that leads to the wide living room on the other side of the dwelling. IJPLEIN OOST III HOUSING (AmSTERDAm-NOORD. a toilet and a separate bathroom. On the top storey. This means that part of the narrow dwelling façade is already taken up by the entrance. behind it a storage area/laundry room and. which rises above the neighbouring residential buildings and affords a more open view. a zone is created in the middle where natural light penetration is not sufficient. etcetera. When a dwelling with double orientation is deeper than 10 m. The turning point for a dwelling with three zones is therefore a depth of 10 m. On the lower three storeys the living room is bordered by an exterior space. adequate natural light extends about 5 m from the façade into the dwelling. oriented to the southwest. The dwellings for one. toilet. accessed from the corridor. which serves as a bedroom. This is the obvious zone to locate spaces that require no natural light: bathroom.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 38a 38b 0 2m OmA. storage. the .

between the gallery and the bedroom. through the roof. or with an internal light well or patio. provides the same effect. 101 . This can be achieved with a side façade (in the case of triple orientation). the issue of natural light comes up again. On the rear side. The dwelling is shifted as a whole. The continuous façade of forward-shifted living rooms on the top storey runs like a connecting cornice across the entire length of the building. in relation to the dwellings below. A dwelling can also be divided into three zones at greater depths. as it were. the gallery. which is continuous only on this storey. while the vertical wiring and plumbing shaft can remain in the same place thanks to a clever redistribution of the facilities. A new habitation space along the depth can now be created only if natural light can be brought into the dwelling in an additional way. At depths greater than about 15 m. whereby the additional floor space can be allocated to any of the three zones.39a 39b 0 2m 1 ZONE DEEP > 2 ZONES WIDE living room is extended to the edge of the building envelope and the exterior space is situated as a roof terrace on the opposite side.

darkest zone. This is also where the toilet and bathroom are located. accessed through an internal stairwell and lift alongside a commercial space on the ground floor. APARTmENTS AND COmmERCIAL SPACE. the latter also accessible through a walk-in closet from the bedroom situated along the front façade. with the lift opening directly into the flat in the central. Herzog & de meuron designed a stack of three apartments and a maisonette. . The front section of the dwelling is divided into three zones. The section situated deeper in the dwelling receives light through an internal light shaft along which a narrow corridor links the kitchen and stairs with the rest of the flat.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 40a 40b 0 2m 2 ZONES DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE SINGLE ORIENTATION HERZOG & DE mEURON. 1993) 102 To fill a narrow. SCHÜTZENmATTSTRASSE (BASEL. deep lot in the midst of an existing line of urban façades.

cars befoul the public space and constant noise pollution invades our lives.33 2 ZONES DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE SINGLE ORIENTATION 103 . elaborating the patio arrangement into a much more nuanced residence. Habitation and sleeping space for parents and children. Chermayeff designed an urban group home in which six of these dwellings together fill one block within a residential quarter closed to automobiles. PATIO DWELLING (PROJECT. 1963) 41a In his patio plan for an urban group home. carefully imbedded among existing trees in an otherwise traditional leafy suburb. respectively. The design is a response to the rampant tendency. they are employed to exclude potential conflicts among the residents and with the outside world. Every space is accessible through a corridor that spans the full depth of the very elongated dwelling. Chermayeff did build his own house in New Haven in 1963. The plan was never implemented in this form. where nature has vanished.32 In an attempt to bring the human need for privacy back into the communal context of the city.41b 0 2m SERGE CHERmAYEFF. are located at the opposite ends of the house. towards far too open dwellings in the modern city. In the middle is the communal habitation space where the family come together. The nine doors along the corridor also serve as airlocks separating the different spheres of life within the dwellings. Chermayeff created a chain of habitation spaces and patios. in Chermayeff’s view. The patios serve as buffers between the private and the communal spaces and between the dwelling and the street.

1963). 33 Dick Van Gameren and Hans Ibelings. NY: Doubleday.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 42a 42b 0 2m 2 ZONES DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE SINGLE ORIENTATION 104 32 Serge Chermayeff and Christopher Alexander. Community and Privacy: Toward a New Architecture of Humanism (Garden City. Revisions of Space: A Manual for Architecture (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. . 2005).

1934) WIDTH If the dwelling is made wider. . as long as this leaves sufficient width inside the dwelling.’34 Interest was so great that Coates was immediately commissioned to design the Lawn Road Flats. eating and gathering all take place in the living space. is not the ultimate luxury but the perfection of service arrangements so as to reduce domestic obligations to the minimum. It was the first block of flats in Great Britain built in reinforced concrete. which is somewhat separated from 2 ZONES DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE DOUBLE ORIENTATION 105 . The flats consist of a wide. For such a person the multiplication of spaces. At the 1933 British Industrial Art Exhibition. LAWN ROAD FLATS (LONDON. According to the client. with a narrow strip alongside housing the bathroom. the preference is to use both façades as much as possible to accommodate daily use. which include 22 ‘minimum flats’. Jack Pritchard. Isokon’s owner. the façade surface area and façade length increase in direct proportion to the dwelling floor space. In the case of double orientation on opposite sides. unencumbered by possessions and with no roots to pull up. . such as the more expensive architecture usually provides. with the walls between flats lined on both sides with a thick layer of cork to minimize noise complaints.43b 0 2m 43a WELLS COATES. Sleeping. Facilities can therefore be positioned along a lateral boundary wall. dressing room and kitchen. the firm Isokon (for ‘isometric unit construction’) exhibited a model of a dwelling for young professionals designed by Canadian architect Wells Coates. this was intended for ‘a new type of man who likes not only to travel light but to live light . New spaces can be added when there is sufficient room along the façade. open zone as the living space.

washing) and activities that are more communal (gathering. this lateral span increases. the floors in vertically stacked housing traditionally distribute their load laterally. As the flats are fairly deep. whereby a distinction is made between activities that are more private (sleeping. the gallery side of the dwelling is relatively dark. Any such dwelling therefore must measure at least 3. eating. along which.07) ≈ 5. As the dwelling is made wider. On the opposite side. 34 Richard Carr. 2004). for the sake of privacy. greater widths are preferred for both . At a given point the dwelling becomes so wide that the distribution of downward force is better divided among two or more smaller spans.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 44b 44a 2 ZONES DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE DOUBLE ORIENTATION 106 0 2m the entrance by a wall and curtain in lieu of a draught exclusion zone. 94–99. This creates a structural zoning into two equal or unequal bays or bays: this is known as a two-bay dwelling. for instance.17 m in width between the walls separating the dwelling from any adjacent dwellings. cooking).3 + 1. towards the walls separating the dwellings.8 + wt (wall thickness ≈ 0. allowing a different pattern of use. In the Netherlands. so that the occupant need only move in his personal possessions. A zoning of activities can emerge.35 As previously along the depth. and a few flats include a balcony. a window across the full length of the dwelling façade provides natural light and a view. no façade openings have been made except for the entrance door.8 m. ‘Lawn Road Flats’. For comfort and convenience. and opted for privacy. Beyond a certain width. this makes it possible to allocate various activities a space of their own. a second habitation space can be created alongside the principal space. The architect had to weigh adequate privacy against well-lit space here. All necessary furniture is built-in. The flats are accessed from a gallery. Studio International Yearbook (New York: Studio Trust. 35 Dutch building regulations stipulate that the minimum width of any habitation space must be 1.

Their spatial organization. toilet. however.45a JAN RIETVELD. does not follow this sequence: the main habitation space is about one and a half bays wide. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING (AmSTERDAmSLOTERmEER. which serves as a bedroom and is accessed through the bathroom. 1955–1957) 45b spaces. which divide the dwelling into two (and in the larger flats three) equal bays. A space of exactly one bay was added to the larger two-room flats. while the entrance. bathroom and balcony together squeeze into half a bay. 0 2m The flats for single occupancy that Jan Rietveld designed for the housing cooperative ‘Westereind’ in 1955 are situated along either side of an internal access corridor and as a result have a single orientation. The structure consists of floors resting on evenly spaced pillars and girders. 3 ZONES DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE 107 .

the lateral span increases and this has to be economically divided. so that more spaces can be developed side by side. 46a. At the same time. the principles outlined above repeat themselves: the façade length increases. Finally.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 46c 46a 3 ZONES DEEP 2 ZONES WIDE 46b 108 As the width increases. the spaces have to be connected in a meaningful way. 46b Two dwellings with different configurations around the same core 46c Situation 0 2m .





(GIFU, 1994–1998)
The dwellings in this elongated and shallow
slab by kazuyo Sejima consist of a series
of spaces of identical width, separated by
load-bearing walls. The apartments vary in
their number of rooms and the way in which
these are linked: side by side or with a jump
to a higher or lower storey, creating a doubleheight bay. Every dwelling contains at least
a kitchen, a ‘Japanese room’ decorated
with simple, traditional furniture, and an
open-air terrace; the terraces give the
building uninterrupted views and alleviate
the massive scale of the slab. The flats are
accessed through a gallery, along which
continuous stairs adorn the building like
long ribbons. Internally, the spaces are
connected by a circulation route along the
façade, onto which all the spaces open.


Depth and Width
If the dwelling is made deeper as well as
wider, the principles outlined above are
applicable simultaneously. Various solutions
are now often possible, so that the decisions
of the designer can be focused more on
achieving a particular desired quality.
47c Floor plan of storey


DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling






48 Sketch of a seventeenthcentury farmhouse in Midhust,
Sussex. The quarters on
different floors are grouped
round stove and hearths along
the central chimney.
49 F.L. Wright, Ward W. Willits
House, 1901, Highland Park,
Illinois, floor plan of ground
floor. Living spaces spread out
in various directions from a
central cluster of open hearths.
50 S. Stevin (1584–1620),
schematic floor plan of an
optimum layout for a residence.
The voorsael in the centre is for
welcoming visitors and forms a
buffer for the private quarters
situated on either side.
51 A. Palladio, Villa Rotonda,
1566–1567, Vicenza. A centrally
positioned hall divides the house
into four quadrants. The hall is
oriented toward the house
and the surrounding landscape;
the other quarters are more

In these single-orientation dwellings the facilities zone situated deep within the dwelling
is also used to accommodate circulation between the spaces extending along the width
of the façade. The short corridor created as a result becomes the functional heart of the
home, from which the living space, two smaller (sleeping) spaces, the bathroom, toilet
and storage are accessed. The kitchen with adjacent storage is in open communication
with the living space. The three principal spaces are additionally connected through a
built-in exterior space, making a second route possible.
This also creates a clear zoning within this dwelling into an individual and a more
communal use of the dwelling. This partitioning is further reinforced by the structural
zoning of two equal bays into which the dwelling is divided: entrance, living room and
kitchen in the right-hand bay, with the more private activities situated behind the loadbearing wall in the left-hand part of the dwelling. Whereas in the dwelling discussed in
the preceding section partitioning is unrestricted by the lateral load structure spanning
its full width, here space is virtually entirely defined by the structural zoning: any other
partitioning hardly seems feasible.

Irene Cieraad (ed.), At
Home: An Anthropology of
Domestic Space (Syracuse:
Syracuse University Press,
1999), 54.


DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling


52b, 52c Different patterns of use







In these gallery-access flats in Rotterdam,
Arons & Gelauff attempted to realize
several requirements at the same time. For
the sake of privacy the façade on the
gallery side was kept virtually closed, to all
intents and purposes creating a single
orientation. This is therefore where the
facilities are situated, with the kitchen, in
open communication with the spacious
living room, nonetheless graced with a
window, so that the dwelling does feature
natural-light exposure and views on two
sides. The entrance is large enough for a
small vestibule, which provides access to
the living and sleeping spaces, the toilet,
storage and bathroom. The latter protrudes
rather inconveniently into the bedroom,
which as a result does have direct access
to the bathroom. The layout therefore
features a clear zoning into a private area
housing the bedroom and bathroom and a
more communal area in which the living room
and kitchen are situated. The suggested
location for a second bedroom, on the other
side of the living room, however, nullifies
this zoning. A direct link between the living
space and the first bedroom does give the
dwelling the option of a double route, with
a choice of different uses as a result.






This renovation project demonstrates that
the previously outlined principles are not
just applicable to rectangular dwellings in
new-build rectangular buildings. Because
the massive concrete walls of the two grain
silos limited their ability to cut out openings,
mVRDV/JJW arkitekter positioned the
dwellings around the outside of this wall,
accessed through galleries in the inside,
which was left open. This allows the dwellings
to benefit to the utmost from the beautiful
views, while the spatial character of the
industrial cylinders remains spectacularly
perceptible on the inside. The access running
along this is simultaneously a place for
encounter and contact.
In the single-orientation dwellings, the
facilities are located along the concrete silo
wall, on either side of the entrance. This is
in open communication with the principal
living space, so that the panoramic view
unfolds immediately upon coming in, a view
towards which the dwelling is focused with
its fully transparent façade. Beyond the
façade, around the building, is a zone that
provides every dwelling with a full-width
terrace. Additional spaces can be divided
from the principal living space using sliding



DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling







partitions. Although the sleeping space
created in this way is situated in the same
zone as the bathroom, no direct link is
created between the two; the route from
sleeping to washing runs through the sliding
doors and through the living room. The
architectural experience of a continuous
space along the façade has been favoured
over a zoning into individual and communal





(ROTTERDAm, 1938)
With a double orientation and a depth that
allows spaces to be positioned one behind
the other, increasing width offers a wide
variety in partitioning options. Important
spaces and facilities can now trade places
along the depth as well as along the width,
in accordance to the orientation of the
building to views and sun exposure.

After his first high-rise on the Parklaan and
the first tower block with gallery access, the
Bergpolder Building,36 Willem van Tijen
was commissioned to create another highprofile high-rise in Rotterdam-kralingen,
on the Plaslaan. The dwellings are similar
in layout but more spacious than in the
Bergpolder Building, as the ideal of highrises for the working class, still cherished at
the time, had proved unfeasible. The noise
level in the flats in the Bergpolder Building,
built using a steel skeleton, led to the use of
a concrete structure on the Plaslaan, with
the columns concealed in the walls
separating the flats.
The dwellings are based on a floor plan of
6.2 × 9 m, accessed through a gallery on
the northwest. A separate kitchen, storage
and toilet and a bathroom are situated on
either side of the entrance and corridor;
the bathroom is accessible on the other side
from the bedroom situated along the gallery.
On the southeast side is the living and eating
space, with a half-sunken exterior space
and a fine view over the kralingse Plas lake.
36 See the section on gallery access in the
‘Residential Building’ chapter, page 187.



DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling






(AmSTERDAm 2012)
To replace the existing end of a narrow city
block in the nineteenth-century expansion
ring of Amsterdam, Erik Wiersema (ADP
Architecten) designed a shallow building
layer enclosing a consequently larger inner
garden. On the ground floor, maisonettes
with small private gardens are situated along
the north side, the gardens bordering on a
communal inner garden for the apartments
for elderly residents situated in the south
The upper storeys on the north side house
relatively narrow and shallow apartments,
accessed from the garden façade through
broad galleries. In order to restrict internal
partitioning as little as possible in spite of
the limited dwelling size, the architect opted
for double orientation, by making the gallery
façade as transparent as possible. The
dwelling is divided along its width into a
narrow zone and a wide zone, whereby only
the entrance and bathroom/toilet are
assigned a fixed location in the narrow zone.
The rest of the flat can be partitioned in a
variety of ways: a front room, back room and
side room, a living room stretching from
façade to façade with an open kitchen and
bedroom, or an entirely open, L-shaped living
The gallery façade, thanks to folding glass
partitions, can even be fully opened. To
provide a modicum of privacy in relation to
the gallery, a raised zone has been installed
in front of this façade, as wide as the
folding partitions. As well as a buffer, this






is meant to provide residents on the upper
floors with a private place in the open air,
overlooking the communal garden.


DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling







While a double-orientation dwelling is deep
enough for three zones, the middle zone,
even at greater widths, is the one that
receives the least natural light, so that it is
where facilities tend to be situated. As this
zone gets wider as well, a certain amount
of discretion eventually emerges as to the
positioning of these facilities within the zone.

We have already discussed OmA’s dwellings
for one- to two-person households in the
elongated slab of the Oost III sectional plan
on the IJplein (see also page 96). The south
section of the same slab also incorporates
wider dwellings, accessed through a access
staircase cutting diagonally across the block
(see also the section in the next chapter
on dwelling access, ‘Staircase, page 183’).
On the top floor, this access staircase opens
onto the communal gallery, from which the
two- and three-room flats situated here
are accessed through the balcony.
In addition to the access landing, the
entrance vestibule and a sleeping space
are situated on the gallery side. The living
space and a second sleeping space are
located along the other façade. In the middle
zone, the facilities are situated between
the two bedrooms, accessed from a short








59a, 59b Floor plan of living
level and recessed mezzanine
59c Section of a dwelling with
mezzanine as balcony in the

corridor that links the two bedrooms with
each other and to the facilities. Behind the
corridor a set of kitchen units has been
positioned along the length, in open
communication with the living space. This
can now extend deep into the dwelling
across the full width and is only separated
from the entrance vestibule by a glass
partition. This comes visually close, in spite
of the internal partitioning mandated by
the client, to the desired openness of a
New York loft apartment.37
37 Bernard Leupen, IJplein. Een speurtocht naar
nieuwe compositorische middelen. Rem Koolhaas /
Office for Metropolitan Architecture (Rotterdam:
010 Publishers, 1989), 60.


DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling


(ROTTERDAm, 1985–1990)


As part of the regeneration of Rotterdam’s
Afrikaanderwijk area, Frits van Dongen
(de Architekten Cie.) designed a slab raised
off the ground on a site that formerly housed
three small perimeter blocks. The building
snakes diagonally across the site, on top
of urban facilities on the ground floor, and
has no explicit front or back: all sides are
oriented towards the urban surroundings.
The double-orientation dwellings are also
designed in such a way that they can be
equally directed in either direction. To achieve
this, a core of facilities has been situated
in the exact centre of the dwelling; there is

sufficient room on either side for a living
space or two sleeping spaces, each
communicating separately, past the core,
with the living room. This narrow side of
the core houses the cooking facilities; the
other narrow side accommodates the
wardrobe, storage and access to the toilet
and bathroom. Opposite this, in the middle,
is the entrance to the flat, which is accessed
from a gallery through a shared landing.
The gallery is mirrored by the continuous
balconies on the other façade; halfway down
the slab, the galleries and balconies switch

60a Double height in the living
room with a wall-to-wall opening
into the loggia
60c, 60d Floor plans and cross
sections of two bayonet
dwellings around the corridor




with three or five habitation spaces. a living room-kitchen – with or without sun exposure from both sides – in the middle bay or other variations. floor-to-ceiling sliding panels are used to keep out the sun and mask the demarcations between individual . instead. The dwellings are divided into three zones along their depth and are two to five zones wide. The solution was found in a far-reaching standardization of structural and finishing aspects. but combinations of spaces within the three-bay dwelling can create a living area along the front or rear façade. as publicly subsidized housing for the Gemeinnützige Eisenbahnersiedlungsgesellschaft. kitchen and toilet are accessible from both sides. Access to the dwelling is through a perpendicularly positioned entrance staircase. STRASSGANG (GRAZ. None of the habitation spaces seems naturally large enough to function as a selfcontained living room. one to four bedrooms can be created. respectively. mass-produced. whereby the structural elements were designed in such a way as to allow flexible use of the different dwellings. As a result. but at the same time there was unprecedented freedom of design in relation to the aesthetics of the suburban context of Graz and the as-yet unknown wishes of future users. 2004) 61a 2 STOREYS 122 The design of this residential building of three storeys and 27 dwellings is the result of a remarkable combination of conditions: it had to be completed with very minimal finances.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling RIEGLER RIEWE. in which the bathroom. As desired. on either side of the service zone. which takes up half a bay out of each dwelling. The dwellings have neither balconies nor private exterior spaces. dwellings with the same shell structure are suitable for a variety of combinations of occupants and habitation requirements. the openings in the façade can be opened down to the floor.

61b 61c 61d 123 .

Different sides of the core can be attuned to the desired use of the adjacent space. the decision of where to position the facilities – with the attendant implications for the course of wiring and plumbing when dwellings are linked horizontally and stacked vertically – plays a vital part in the way the spatial system of the dwelling can be experienced. In a certain . The core is accessible from all sides. When the dwelling is of sufficient depth and width to allow some discretion in partitioning. Concentrating the facilities in the middle of the dwellings makes it possible to freely organize the habitation spaces around them. making a separate route unnecessary.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 62a 62b THE CENTRE OF THE DWELLING: CORE OR SPACE? 62c 3 STOREYS 124 dwellings.

for instance.38 From the nineteenth-century onwards. as a remnant of the transition between inside and outside. this prominent space played a vital role in the transition between inside and outside. such an organization of the dwelling is comparable to the traditional organization of habitation spaces around a central fireplace or hearth. to a functional space that provided access to the other spaces in the dwelling. the hall was increasingly reduced. this was still the public portion of the house. A central habitation space.63a 63b 0 2m sense. and unpleasant odours and smoke were extracted through a communal chimney. occupants now move from all the spaces into the central space and out again. where the identification of visitors took place and people could tidy themselves up before entering the domain of the actual home. each with its own relationship to the facilities. The fire supplied heat and light to the surrounding spaces. SPLIT LEVEL 125 . the occupant’s calling card to the guests he received into his home. however. or it shrivelled down to nothing more than a draught exclusion zone. This space can be a short corridor or a vestibule. it was often used for cooking as well. In Western homes the hall was originally one of the most important spaces in the house. but it can also have greater qualities for habitation. Rather than moving around a closed core. The core divides the dwelling into different areas. can become the cornerstone of daily activities within the dwelling. linking all the other spaces. At the same time. An opposite approach is to create a space in the middle of the dwelling. in housing projects. before central heating and electricity came into the picture.

also incorporates sliding partitions. the outside of the core accommodates cooking facilities along the edge of the dining room. The spatial system of the dwelling can therefore be continually altered throughout the day by its occupants. The core housing the facilities is positioned slightly off-centre. The toilet and bathroom are housed inside the core.DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 64a 64b 0 2m DIAGONAL STACkING DUINkER VAN DER TORRE. DAPPERBUURT HOUSING (AmSTERDAm. which can be used to divide the dwelling into separate spaces as desired. The core. however. The dwelling entrance is located in a small vestibule in the corner of the dwelling. The spaces flow into one another freely around the core and are only visually divided by it. 1986–1988) 126 The principle of the dwelling arranged around a central core is clearly illustrated by margreet Duinker and machiel van der Torre in their project for 49 dwellings on the Wagenaarstraat and Tweede van Swindenstraat in the Dapperbuurt area in Amsterdam. The dwellings are accessed in groups of three through an external entryway with a small landing. so that spaces of varying dimensions are created around it. accommodating various activities. .

this leaves sufficient room on the kitchen side for a small table. use the same clever basic configuration. from which the dwellings can be divided in a wide variety of ways within the envelope of the residential building. toilet and meter cupboard.65a HANS kOLLHOFF. DIAGONAL STACkING 127 . The precise fine-tuning of the dimensions allows the living rooms and bedrooms to be positioned on either side. while communication is always possible around the core. however. with more than 150 different dwelling configurations. This core has been positioned exactly far enough away from the loadbearing wall to leave room for a corridor with doorways on either side. through the corridor or the kitchen. 1989–1994) 65b 65b Floor plans of ground floor and upper floors of an individual dwelling The regular arrangement of the façade of kollhoff’s massive-looking building on the kNSm Island in Amsterdam conceals a total of 304 dwellings. all accessed on one side. and the cooking facilities along the opposite long side. PIRAEUS (AmSTERDAm. This basic configuration consists of a core of facilities including a bathroom. an open-plan kitchen or a set of double doors into an adjacent space. A large proportion of these.

Here. the core contains only a bathroom. which incorporates the toilet. is left up to the occupants to decide. as the only fixed element. however. over the lifespan of the building the flat can be repeatedly partitioned in different ways and adapted to the changing needs of its occupants. .DWELLINGS / Spatial Organization of the Dwelling 23 M M 32 M30 M14 M17 M 12 M 02 66b M08 66a 66c 0 2m DOmUS ARCHITEkTER. FÆLLEDSHAVEN (COPENHAGENBOLIGSLANGEN. a core has been positioned in the centre of the dwelling. The rest of the organization of the flat. highlighting the position and configuration of individual dwellings 66c Floor plan of three floors of a dwelling around a corridor In the residential building designed by Domus in a suburb of Copenhagen. creating different sizes of rooms around it. 2006) COmPLEx STACkING 66b Schematic representation 128 of M building. The core. just as in the dwellings by Duinker Van der Torre. The core is again positioned off-centre. ‘frees’ the rest of the dwelling from constraints in organization. including the cooking facilities and any partition walls required.

In the vestibule. Children could play on the broad gallery along the third housing storey. This is located at the divide between the communal habitation area. Het Laagt (‘the low’). is a remarkable neighbourhood with street names like Het Breed (‘the wide’). and studio-flats were built especially for artists. the staircase was rotated a quarter turn and there was direct access from the kitchen to the stairs.161 dwellings were completed in 1972. giving it a linchpin function within the dwelling. 129 . is the toilet. Circulation between the private and the communal and between the dwelling and the outside world always takes place through the central vestibule. Bovenover (‘along the top’) and Benedenlangs (‘along the bottom’). and the more individual part of the dwelling. The buildings are situated as modernist slabs in a green setting and express Van Gool’s conviction that there must be a clear distinction between the world inside the building and the world outside. From the internal staircase. and the baker and milkman could make their deliveries sheltered from the elements by ‘jetways’ between the buildings. between the two zones of use. The experimental housing attracted many artistic and trendy residents. 1968) The high-rise residential district Plan Van Gool. with glass façades. Het Hoogt (‘the high’). where the living room and kitchen occupy the full depth of the flat. the dwelling is entered through a centrally situated vestibule. which would have essentially given the apartment a back door as well. At the time they were incredibly modern buildings. In an earlier phase of the plan. HET BREED AND ENVIRONS (AmSTERDAm.FRANS VAN GOOL. which accommodates three bedrooms and a bathroom. Its 1. on the edge of the Boven ’t IJ shopping centre in Amsterdam. unique floor plans and collective heating.

alongside the middle zone.DWELLINGS / Form of the Dwelling ALVAR AALTO. so that the spaces on either side can be linked to form a single space. this exterior space has been replaced by the central living space. in which all the surrounding activities come together. which links the other spaces in the dwelling. Here the centre of the dwelling is not a closed core. near Helsinki (see page 134). The dwelling is distributed across two bays. incorporating this into the dwelling as additional habitation space in the open air. There is still contact with the outside thanks to an exterior space pulled deep into the dwelling as a loggia. The apartments in this residential building by Alvar Aalto are also conceived around a central space. These spaces can each be subdivided into two smaller spaces as desired and can be separated from or connected with the vestibule with sliding partitions. whereby the central support takes the form of a joist resting on columns. The dimensions of the vestibule are enough to add not only circulation space but also spatial quality to the dwelling. while this circulation nonetheless remains connected spatially with the living room. creating a less rigid division of space and allowing the spaces to communicate diagonally as well. HANSAVIERTEL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING (BERLIN. a spacious vestibule in the centre of the flat. The dwellings are accessed two by two through a access staircase. as implemented for instance in his own home with studio in munkkiniemi. Liesbeth van der Pol designed a number of dwellings that represent the exact opposite in their spatial organization. . however. 1992) DETACHED HOUSE 130 A stone’s throw away from the previously discussed project by Duinker and van der Torre discussed on page 112. The facilities are situated on either side of this. There. A short corridor leads to the central space. rather than a place of passage. The spaces along both façades can be entered from the vestibule. 1957) LIESBETH VAN DER POL. the route within the dwelling should be interpreted the other way round: the space in the centre has become the final destination. The floor plans shows obvious similarities to Aldo’s concept of a courtyard or patio house. Aalto’s concept of a central space in which the phenomenon of dwelling comes together is in fact labelled with the German word Allraum. this is not simply a more generously proportioned vestibule or circulation space linking the most important habitation spaces: the central space has now been upgraded to the principal living space. Short structural wall sections form a subtle separation between the communal living area and the more private sphere of sleeping and washing. so that the entrance opens into the middle of the dwelling. but an open space. Here. Although the central space also provides access to the other spaces. PIETER VLAmINGSTRAAT (AmSTERDAm. the various sub-activities of dwelling are situated around a large exterior space. around which the secondary habitation spaces are grouped. In the vertically stacked dwellings of the Hansaviertel. In addition this joist is positioned diagonally.

New spaces can be added along the height when there is sufficient room for an additional storey. the façade surface area increases in direct proportion with the dwelling floor space.67b Main living level on first floor 67c Long section 67a 67b 67c HEIGHT If the dwelling is made taller. 131 . The façade length therefore increases only in increments. Higher ceilings allow natural light to penetrate deeper into the dwelling.

The floor of the lowest dwelling is half-sunken. the top four sharing a kitchen opening onto the roof terrace. Each block has four dwellings per storey. spatially and visually the dwelling remains a unified whole. . in which single-celled dwellings are accessed two by two through small foyers in the side of the building. and the living space situated lower down. This creates a division in the dwelling between the section situated deeper inside. 2003) The student housing complex on the Grote Bickersstraat in Amsterdam consists of five parallel blocks. 4 URBAN ALLEYWAYS (AmSTERDAm. opening onto the street-level terrace through double doors. accessible by a short flight of stairs in the narrow alleyways that separate the blocks. While these zones differ in use and experience. with the entrance and facilities including an open kitchen.DWELLINGS / Form of the Dwelling 68a 68b DETACHED HOUSE 132 FARO ARCHITECTEN.

where there is sufficient room for sleeping. which extends over the internal gallery as an overhanging balcony above the entrance and affords a glimpse of the exterior and of the interior common area. in open communication with the living space and the view. the habitation zone still has the sense of space afforded by the double height and the large window. A straight set of stairs leads to the mezzanine. but the clever placement of a mezzanine above the facilities and entrance zone made it possible to increase the usable space of the dwellings anyway. 69b DETACHED HOUSE 133 . This is just under the height needed for two full-fledged storeys. mIJNBOUWPLEIN STUDENT HOUSING (DELFT. The spaces are 5 m high and have been divided. A few of the dwellings feature an added space up here. following the existing distribution of windows. tall housing units. into narrow. 2010) The old research and laboratory facilities of Delft University of Technology’s former Laboratory for Engineering Physics now accommodate 99 student housing units and three commercial premises.69a kBnG. meanwhile.

after all. then leaving out part of the floor (an open vertical space or vide) can restore visual communication between the different levels. . for instance between the more public or communal and the more private or individual parts of the home. often it separates spaces upstairs and downstairs more than space-partitioning objects and walls do in a horizontal situation. requires more energy than going through a door. If a hard division is less desirable. This can be employed to create a marked division between different activities.DWELLINGS / Form of the Dwelling 70a 70b DETACHED HOUSE 134 An upper storey does more than increase floor space for habitation. Going up or down a flight of stairs.

In the most common dwelling type.26 m. with a ceiling height of only 2. the living room is linked with the parents’ bedroom.65 m wide. which can be experienced deep inside the dwelling. 1947–1952) The dwellings in Le Corbusier’s various Unités d’Habitation (marseille. the system of proportions developed by Le Corbusier: they are 24 m deep and 3. logically. they are sometimes referred to as ‘bayonet’ dwellings. UNITÉ D’HABITATION (mARSEILLE. Private and communal areas are clearly divided and logically sequenced. however. Briey-en-Forêt. The dimensions of the dwelling are derived 71b from the modulor. Nantes-Rezé. In either case. The other dwelling is entered on the top level. a problem that vanishes only with smaller occupancy combinations. with a bedroom for the parents in the recessed area and two spaces for studies or children’s bedrooms on the other side of the home. creating a double-height living space. The kitchen is situated just beyond the door. The upper level is recessed away from the two-storey façade. reuniting the living room and kitchen. A significant difference between the bayonet dwellings. but then the entrance is located on a sleeping level. intended for families. on opposite sides of the corridor is the location of the entrance within the organization of activities. SEmI-DETACHED DWELLING 135 . is situated one level down in the double-height space. The kitchen and the parental bedroom can trade places. the single orientation is resolved by organizing the dwelling over two levels: the additional level extends to the opposite façade across the full depth of the building. A flight of stairs leads to the upper level. The dwelling with its entrance on the lower level is entered through the living room and open kitchen.71a 71c LE CORBUSIER. This gives the dwellings of this type a particularly spacious feel. Two dwellings are therefore wrapped around the corridor: half a storey on either side and a full storey above or below. on the recessed level. the routing and organization of this dwelling are less convenient for the intended user. In order to retain the option of two rooms on the other side. overlooking the living room which. Because of the shape of their cross section. Berlin and Firminy) are accessed through a central corridor.

whose wide variety of dwelling types and sizes is simultaneously a reflection of the Swedish social-democratic ideals of the period. in which the various occupants can claim individual areas within the home. Eric Sigfrid Persson. byggmästare och uppfinnare (1986). such as families or group homes. With more than two storeys. 40 Ulla Hårde. PETERSTORP 3 (mALmÖRIBERSHUS.39 The most unique of the dwellings is a twostorey maisonette with a living area on three separate levels around a small vertical open space (vide). as well as the upper portion (dining room) of the living room. . moreover. which gives the dwelling a unique quality. This is part of the reason dwellings with multiple storeys are particularly popular for larger occupancy combinations. 74. the dwelling has two entrances: a main entrance on the lower habitation level and a service entrance on the level above. a more definite hierarchy emerges between the spaces that are close and rapidly accessible and those that are located further away inside the dwelling. 2010). 4 (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. standaard en ideaal. ‘Peterstorp 3’. 1938) ROW HOUSE 136 Innovative building entrepreneur and inventor Eric Sigfrid Persson commissioned the young architects Stig Dranger and David Helldén to design a residential building in the residential quarter of Ribershus. Inspired by recent housing exhibitions in Stuttgart (1927).DWELLINGS / Form of the Dwelling 72a 72b DAVID HELLDÉN & STIG DRANGER. as the patios and doors did in Chermayeff’s elongated ground-floor dwelling (see page 98). skånsk funktionalist. the activities within the dwelling are even more separated. Delft Architectural Studies on Housing. Accessed through foyer stairwells with a lift. Also on the upper level are two (bed)rooms and a bathroom for the occupants. in: De woningplattegrond. new edition (Malmö: Holmbergs. Stockholm (1930) and Paris (1937) they designed a building on a functional basis. no. 2008). which provides direct access to the kitchen and the servant’s bedroom (the dwelling was conceived for a rather wealthy occupant). accommodating nine storeys and a basement. It has a view of the coastline and the sea south-west of malmö. The different floors essentially provide a buffer between the various activities.40 39 Dick van Gameren. 52–79. Great spatial effect is achieved with a relatively small ‘loss’ in floor space for the vertical opening.

Visual communication from level to level becomes possible. which features a concrete roofed area at the end.72d 72c 72e ATELIER 5. The larger dwellings feature three storeys. 72b View from the kitchen in the courtyard on the north side 72c Ground floor and upper floor 72d Diagram of an ideal situation 72e Situation in the Weissenhofsiedlung. with a balcony and a view of the private garden and the valley. They are parallel to one another. it is the place where the various activities in the dwelling and outside come together. Stairs lead up to the children’s bedrooms and down to the parents’ bedrooms. A split-level dwelling often creates a linear sequence of activities. at the level of the footpath. The degree to which the levels are split can be used to reinforce some connections over others: if the levels are split in increments of a third of a storey rather than half a storey. and at the same time it insulates the two bedroom floors from each other. oriented to the south. Just beyond the door is the kitchen. the living room is situated further in. and thanks to the inclined terrain all have a view over the valley. for instance. Frankfurt 137 . The latter are situated next to a bathroom and flank the garden. offering shade and another view. 1955–1961) Five architects designed an idyllic residential community in raw concrete on a slope in the midst of woods and green hills. The deep. In routing as well as in function. SIEDLUNG HALEN (BERN. Splitting levels in relation to one another reduces the distances between activities and the division between levels. communal level between the two private areas. positioned two thirds of a storey away. narrow dwellings are grouped in rows along footpaths and a small communal square. reached successively along the internal access. with the entrance on the first floor. the connection between the first level and the second will be stronger than with the next. This places the middle.

The dwellings are arranged in rows. staggered two by two with access on alternating sides.41 In order to do this. 1941) ROW HOUSE 138 A fine example of a split-level dwelling is this design study by Gerrit Rietveld for row houses in an expansion plan for the city of Utrecht. 41 Gerrit Rietveld. commissioned by mrs Schröder. at the level of a courtyard. ‘Een nieuwe volkswoning’. across the street from the famed Rietveld-Schröder House. less than half a storey above the kitchen. The objective of the study was a design for ‘new public housing’: a spacious but affordable working-class dwelling. half-sunken and intended as a bicycle storage and workshop space. which is a mere 4 m wide.DWELLINGS / Form of the Dwelling 73a 73b 73c GERRIT RIETVELD. from the living room to the upper levels. de 8 en Opbouw. In addition. 9 (1941). Cater-cornered behind and above this is a spacious kitchen-diner. which opens directly into the living room from a landing. something Rietveld felt was an integral part of working-class life. Rietveld had built an early precursor to these ‘core dwellings’ in 1931. The living room is situated in the front. 122–127. he combined the corridor and stairs into one central spiral staircase that diagonally links the different spaces of the dwelling. These proved much more expensive than anticipated. . this affords the kitchen a view of the main entrance of the dwelling. creating an easy transition between the two. which house the parents’ bedroom with shower and above this two children’s bedrooms. so large-scale construction of this ‘new public housing’ never materialized. creating an extra-wide front garden. on the Erasmuslaan in Utrecht. CORE DWELLINGS (PROJECT. however. no. however. They were never implemented in this form. which Rietveld felt could only be achieved by dealing with space in the most efficient way possible. The lower space is in the front. There is a greater distance. The levels to the front and the rear of this staircase are therefore split in relation to each other.

73d 73a Diagram by West 8. . upper floors and roof. Floor plans of ground floor. Transformation of a standard row house into a patio dwelling 73d Four row houses in a back-to-bacl configuration.

This kind of interweaving entails a number of drawbacks. consisting of high-rises and row houses. the diagonal communication gives these dwellings an added spatial dimension. 1951–1956) APARTmENT 140 In addition to internal split levels. or the fact that groundconnected dwellings now share a common load-bearing structure and are therefore less self-contained. In addition. a fifth type was used in individual rows. The economy in access space this achieves gives the dwellings sufficient room for an extra study/bedroom on the ground floor and four spacious bedrooms on the first floor. In the klein Driene plan in Hengelo. can be the inspiration to opt for this arrangement. and on the other to include as much diversity as possible in the everyday environment of each resident. The idea was. This ‘vertical interlock’ type takes the form of row houses two bays wide. intended for the largest family units of up to a maximum of nine beds. kLEIN DRIENE (HENGELO. . the first floor of which is staggered one bay in relation to the ground floor. such as a larger contact surface between dwellings. with sufficient greenery and car-free playing space between the different housing blocks. on the one hand. the architecture practice Van den Broek & Bakema designed a residential area of 662 publicly subsidized dwellings in various configurations. a desire to provide differentiation among dwellings within a residential building. with a greater likelihood of noise penetration. to make economical construction possible by repeating the same dwelling types.DWELLINGS / Form of the Dwelling 74a VAN DEN BROEk & BAkEmA. dwellings in a residential building can be staggered or recessed in relation to one another. or to create other unique qualities.42 On either side of these six templates. Nevertheless. The result is a clustering of four different dwelling types in six visually distinctive groups (templates) of 91 dwellings.

LIESBETH VAN DER POL. the arrangement of the storeys actually deviated from this. Van der Pol developed the round buildings out of a frustration with the option of either quadrant dwellings. or urban villas. 75b Living and sleeping level in a maisonette 141 . Liesbeth van der Pol designed 12 round residential buildings. DRUm DWELLINGS (TWISkE-WEST. each housing seven groundconnected dwellings. 433. in which dwellings are not ground-connected. Due to the input of initial buyers during the design and implementation. van den Broek and J.B. 1993) On a spit of land amid the medieval landscape of perpendicular fields and ditches north of Amsterdam. ‘Woningbouw te Hengelo’. which always entail differences in orientation.74b 42 J. so that the landscape of long strips of land and water remains visible throughout. 20 (1960). no. In order to provide all the dwellings in this 74b Typical floor plan of a storey with four identical apartments. Bouwkundig Weekblad.H. Bakema. The buildings are situated as individual elements in the public space.

The dwellings have been wrapped around this structure in various ingenious ways. On a narrow strip of land between a metro line and a canal.DWELLINGS / Form of the Dwelling 75a 75b PLOT (BIG+JDS). The flats in the m building are accessed through corridors. which cleave one leg of the m on alternate stories. The combination of the various design elements leads to a great diversity in dwelling forms and types. eating or sleeping. the architecture practice PLOT designed a pair of buildings that incorporate a wide variety of dwellings and collective facilities. Van der Pol staggered the two levels one circle segment at a time: each dwelling is accessed from the inside of the building. (This building is also discussed on page 200 and 307.) . so that a double orientation. an extra-wide façade and/or double-height ceilings can be achieved in each dwelling. with an exclusive residential area filled with detached low-rise dwellings on the opposite side of the latter. The buildings are lifted off the ground and range from 11 storeys along the railway line to four storeys near the low-rise buildings. and then curves upward diagonally around the ‘drum’ structure.en slaapverdieping in een maisonnette mAISONETTE 142 water-blessed setting with a garden and yet allow each to enjoy the sun and the view in equal measure. 2006) 75b Woon. Vm BUILDING (COPENHAGEN-ØRESTAD. as the occupants see fit. The straight stairs that provide diagonal communication also separate the small spaces in which facilities are organized from the wide space along the façade on each storey. in a zigzag progression that gives the pair of buildings its name. has a garden along the outside façade. which can accommodate gathering.


DEtAChED hOuSE CLuStErED LOW-riSE rOW mAt urBAn viLLA infiLL SLAB block tower .

this configuration can be described geometrically. Based on the aforementioned geometric categorization. instead. 145 . This chapter begins by discussing the characteristics and qualities of various combinations of linking and stacking. whereby the simplest residential building consists of a single home.As more and more people want to live in the same place. If a vertical component is then added. Only then are dwellings fitted into this: stacked. line and plane formations of ground-connected dwellings. Even a complex building form can often be read as a combination of simpler forms and organizational principles. Because the residential building as a detached house coincides with the category of the detached house at the dwelling level. We then turn to the different ways of providing access to the dwellings. contextual (see Chapter 7. Linking dwellings width-wise and depthwise produces. it becomes necessary to link dwellings horizontally and at higher densities to stack them vertically as well. respectively. LinKinG AnD StACKinG In practice. we can distinguish the following categories at the level of the residential building: —DetachedHouse —Mat —Slab —ClusteredLow-Rise —UrbanVilla —Block —Row —Infill —Tower The characteristics of the various categories are discussed below using examples. linked and accessed as is most desirable in the given situation. Nevertheless. The ensemble of linked and stacked dwellings is now manifested as a shared volume: the residential building. Each of the volumes obtained in this way has its own logic in regard to the organization and access of the individual dwellings. a residential building is not usually designed based on the linking and stacking of a desired number of dwellings. In principle. plane and block formations of stacked dwellings result. volumes in line. the same principles can be identified in the building in its final form as in the theoretical series of geometric building volumes used here. ‘Context’) and aesthetic aspects commonly determine the form and shape of the building volume. we refer readers to its discussion in the section on the detached house in the preceding chapter. We call the way in which the individual dwellings are arranged and accessed within this the residential building configuration.

but not in any explicit direction. in combination with the relatively sizable open space around the building. These commonly semi-detached dwellings share a number of structural walls. in one of the open façades of the dwelling. but access is usually privately organized as well.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 01a CLuStErED LOW-riSE 146 This category includes various building volumes in which two or more groundconnected dwellings are linked. A communal entryway is possible. . but each is usually focused on the exterior space around it. The most important advantages of this configuration are the shared construction costs.

floor plans of ground floor and first floor 01c Part of the completed situation 01d rotation of the row house 01d 147 .01c 01b 01b cluster of publicly subsidized rental units.

with dwellings in the publicly subsidized rental sector as well as medium. lending the row a varied rhythm. in order to create lot sections of different sizes. deep row house a quarterturn produces a dwelling that communicates with the street and garden over an extended width. Double dividing walls and separate entrances afford each dwelling within the shared volume a substantial degree of privacy. façade composition. . the dwellings with the smallest exterior space have their bedrooms on the ground floor and a spacious open-plan kitchen and living room on the first floor. Arranging the dwellings in mirrored alternating formations allows the entrances to be grouped two by two. while a more private garden is located at the high-end buying market. those at either extremity end-of-row houses with triple orientation. As we noted in the section on the individual row house. which also creates different spaces at the front and the rear of the building. rotating the standard layout of the narrow. at the level of the individual dwelling or for larger sections of the building. staggered a little in relation to one another and shifted away from the centre. the other dwellings have their living space on the garden level and the sleeping quarters upstairs. material and finish. On the street side a small exterior space often serves as a buffer. Privacy is constrained when entrances and exterior spaces directly border the street or neighbouring properties. the dwellings in the middle of the line are double-orientation row houses. in various dimensions and combinations. StELLinGhOf (viJfhuiZEn. the dwellings are accessed parallel to the street through entrances in the front façade. 1998–2004) rOW 148 Wingender hovenier Architecten’s winning design in the multiple commission for the expansion of vijfhuizen is based on a strong relationship between the dwelling and the exterior space. A row terrace involves more than two groundconnected dwellings linked together in a line. offer plenty of options to arrive at a successful contemporary solution for the row. Solutions for these issues can be provided in the row design. the row can be broken up by staggering its elements. this dwelling is then linked. the row runs the risk of a loss of visual differentiation and identity when its repetition is too uniform. the publicly subsidized rental homes are grouped as groups of four corner dwellings in single volumes. Differentiations in volume.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 02a 02b WinGEnDEr hOvEniEr ArChitECtEn.

02c 02a Situation 02b Projecting front façades with covered entrance 02c cross section of a dwelling with a view of the dwellings behind 02d Floor plans of ground floor and upper floors 02d 0 2m 149 .

in view of the traffic noise. the entrance to the dwelling is sheltered under the living room on the first floor. with the section of the plan fanning out towards the surroundings on the left 03c Façade views of a number of rows 03d Floor plans and cross sections of six dwelling types included in the plan in the fragmented setting of a pre-Second World War neighbourhood of buildings dating from different eras. leaving a triangular plaza with trees at the front. providing a roof above the carport. the front and rear façades of the homes in rough-sawed cedar wood alternate with the dark brick of the side façades. the projection of the volume provides privacy for the house terrace flanking the kitchen. the façades of the sleeping storey have been kept solidly closed: a patio lined with glass partitions . A full-height window opens the living room across its entire width and wraps around the corner in the side façade. cut in two by a busy roadway. around which a one-way street provides access to the buildings. which also projects 3 m. urBAn hOmES (EinDhOvEn. 2000–2003) 03c rOW 150 03a Situation.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 03a 03b GrOSfELD ArChitECtEn. positioned half a storey above ground-level in a split-level configuration and looking out onto the open field between the residential building and the busy road. the rest of the composition and the choice of materials reinforce the sculptural quality of the block as a whole. the volume is positioned at an angle in relation to the surrounding streets. the individual dwellings are strikingly distinguishable in the block in that each projects 3 m from the next. the architects designed seven new-build ground-connected homes in an autonomous volume. At the rear. giving the block a highly serrated outline.

03d 151 .

thE hAGuE. At a higher level of scale. 1997–2002) 04a mAt 152 provides the necessary natural light here. the form and subdivision of the rows link each part of the neighbourhood with its wider environs.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking DiCK vAn GAmErEn ArChitECtEn. Each row of homes is shaped as a morphological unit with a pattern of continuous lines and consistent use of materials in the roof and façades. the folds in the building volumes allow a maximum number of dwellings to face the fringe of greenery and. these folds are echoed in the elaboration of the buildings. this design for 650 dwellings at the point of the De Singels subarea in the ypenburg suburban residential district in the hague is predicated on the connection of the district to its surroundings. SinGELS ii (yPEnBurG. which reinforce the dynamics of the subdivision with their continuous lines of eaves and roof peaks. . but open out on the other side towards the green waterside area on the point. giving each of the volumes an individual identity. differing choice of materials and alternating plantings and trees. the housing blocks are linked on one side to the rectilinear structure of the adjacent buildings. nonetheless concealing a wide variety of dwelling types. while the streets remain distinguishable from one another by their outlines. allow the green zone to reach far into the neighbourhood. conversely. this underscores the continuity of the exterior space.

accessed from the open ground level 153 04c .04b 04a the open space flows freely under the dwellings 04b Floor plan of the dwellings.

which in principle can be expanded width-wise as well as depth-wise. the deeper the dwellings are made. the dwellings can still be accessed privately from the street on either side of the building. the dwellings are accessible through an access route that connects them under. not only do the ‘hemmed-in’ dwellings lack views and natural light. the double-orientation row house turns. through or over the building to the public space. the less adequate the natural light exposure through the façade becomes. and a usually limited view is balanced out by a significant degree of privacy in each dwelling. into a back-to-back configuration with single orientations. further linking along the depth creates dwellings that no longer border the contours of the building volume.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 05a 05b mAt 154 When ground-connected dwellings are linked not only width-wise but also depth-wise. natural light penetration can be addressed. Structural solutions for this produce a ‘mat’ configuration. . additional infrastructure is needed to access them. in the most basic instance. so that additional light must be introduced with patios or skylights.

05c 05d 0 5m 05e 05b Situation of Nexus world Housing. with the two oMA residential blocks at bottom centre 05c cross section 05d Second floor 05e First floor 05f Ground level 05f 155 .

a vertical light shaft brings natural light into the habitation spaces on every floor. in which such themes as densification and the blending of functions play a significant role.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 06a PiEt BLOm. the dwellings are very introverted and not individually distinguishable. 184 connected dwellings are lifted off the ground on concrete columns. solid wall. is covered in white stones like a . supported by a high density of about 100 homes per hectare. originally intended for a city centre. narrow slits from top to bottom allow natural light to penetrate down to this access route. Diagonal inclined footpaths traverse each block at ground level and provide access to the dwelling entrances. grouped in a linkage of three by four in two autonomous volumes. inside each home. three basic types designed by Blom are combined into a total of five different dwelling types. the raised dwellings leave the ground level free for a lively urban environment where parking and communal facilities like shops could find a place. only small openings afford the outermost dwellings a glimpse of the exterior. was ultimately built in a suburban area. the public ground-level area connects the light yards with one another and with the adjacent buildings. nExuS WOrLD hOuSinG (fuKuOKA. this is an expression of Blom’s vision of ‘dwelling as a city rooftop’. the dwellings are linked horizontally around light yards of varying size and accessed from ground level by means of stairs. OmA. Closed off all round by a rough. the bottom of this light shaft. KASBAh (hEnGELO. 1991) OmA’s design for a client that wanted to introduce a ‘new urban lifestyle’ in Japan consists of 24 dwellings of three storeys each. directly behind the front door. 1973) urBAn viLLA 156 in this Piet Blom design inspired by north African housing communities. the architect hoped that the residents would come up with their own uses for this urban space once construction was complete. that a bustling urban environment failed to materialize and that the initially opened shops quickly closed down has been attributed to the fact that the design.

06b 06b Floor plan of ground floor and upper floor. and long section 157 .

the urban villa is a detached object. so that the façades of the dwellings grouped around this central vertical access channel are kept entirely free for habitation spaces. views and a substantial sense of space without sacrificing privacy. A continuous stairway leads to individual rooms on the first floor and communal habitation spaces on the top floor. there is no definite distinction between the front and the back. but the principle of communal access from the inside out is retained. the typology of the urban villa began to attract interest as a solution for inner cities approaching saturation in part thanks to studies presented in the 1970s by Oswald matthias ungers and hans Kollhoff. Like the urban housing blocks built around courtyards found in more southern parts of Europe. the vegetation-covered roofs arch in a unidirectional upward sequence. An essential characteristic of the urban villa is its morphological autonomy.1 the stacking of dwellings makes it possible to incorporate urban facilities in the bottom level. revitalizing the dynamism of the inner city.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 07a 07b infiLL 158 Zen garden. the urban villa is a distant descendant of the roman insula. unlike the more or less continuous row façade of the city block. Spatially. no screening between the publicly and more privately . a more affordable variant of the patrician villa. so that all the dwellings are ensured added natural light. the original access courtyard is gone. an eddy around which the urban space swirls. housing several families in a single building volume. where the open space spanning the full width of the dwelling and flanked by the exterior house terrace can be partitioned into various configurations with Japanese curtains and screens.

07d 07c 07e 0 5m 07a Situation 07c rear view from the wide terrace 07d long section 07e Floor plans of ground floor. first floor and higher floors 159 .

four apartments per storey are accessed from the inside through a lift and stairwell. ‘the Urban Villa – A Multi-Family Dwelling type’. in direct confrontation with the public street.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking situated exterior space: the urban villa stands exposed to the public environment in all directions. but green. AChSLEnGut hOuSinG (St GALLEn. Given the absence of an inner courtyard. any private exterior space is likely to be situated along the external façade of the dwelling.ovaska. Projecting floors around all the façades provide a shallow exterior space around the whole of each dwelling. Ungers. Cornell Summer Academy 77 (berlin series) (cologne: Studio Press for Architecture. eight free-standing building volumes in bright white concrete rise five storeys high. where space that is less dynamic. forms the context for these autonomous residential buildings. the blocks have been positioned to afford as many dwellings as possible a view of the lake below. SLAB 160 BAumSChLAGEr & EBErLE.M. Along the exterior. the urban villa is often built in more suburban and even rural settings. floor-to-ceiling sliding panels of frosted and transparent glass have been fitted. Although urban in origin. 2002) On a green slope in a suburb of St Gallen in Switzerland. kollhoff and A.F.A. making it easy to choose views or privacy. which widens towards the corners. H. . 1977). 1 o.

Amsterdam.08a rough sketch of the idea behind the Unité d’Habitation 08b Pendrecht. 1949–1959 08c the bijlmer. rotterdam. 1965–1972 08a 08b 08c 161 .

but rather are an element of a greater volume which is not covered by the same commission. in most cases. moreover.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 09a SLAB 162 this category includes housing construction projects that do not form a whole residential building in themselves. but it may also mean filling in a vacant lot sandwiched between adjacent buildings. and the façade rhythm of neighbouring buildings also guides the heights of the floors or the eaves. the project and the design of the new construction are self-contained. the limited volume of the new construction usually offers little financial manoeuvring room for variety. for instance in urban regeneration projects. the building alignment and the building height are predetermined factors. . but they are linked to the pre-existing built environment to a far greater degree than the design of free-standing residential buildings. yet these constraints often produce interesting solutions that lend a unique character to a previously less remarkable place. this may be the replacement of an existing section of a building.

ground floor to 163 sixth floor .09b 09c Sixth floor Fifth floor 09d Fourth floor 09e third floor Second floor First floor 09b long section 91c–91e cross section showing 09f the openings and different access principles of the building 91f Floor plans.

they communicate with the ground level by means of open stairs and a lift and afford a spectacular view on both open sides of the infill. 3. organized into ‘neighbourhoods’ 10b Floor plans of fourth and 164 fifth floors inspired by the densely packed and multifaceted buildings on the rue de l’Ourcq in Paris.5 and 7. . Philippe Gazeau designed an apartment block that stands out in many ways from the street wall in which it is inserted. so that the apartments can be accessed on both sides of every floor. in between. leaving room for a small café with a terrace on the pavement. as well as for the entrance to a parking garage underneath the building. the building is split in two over its full height and depth by a spacious and transparent entrance zone.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 10a 10b PhiLiPPE GAZEAu. creating in effect two building volumes.5 m wide. the building is set back from the street between the buildings on either side. 1993) 10c SLAB 10a Façade arrangement. Broad wooden platforms span the open zone on every storey. recessed along the depth of the block every other storey. APArtmEntS fOr POStAL EmPLOyEES (PAriS.

in principle. slabs of varying sizes were used to form residential ensembles that. Ground-breaking examples include (again) Le Corbusier’s unités d’habitation. the unité in firminy. far above the noise and pollution of the traffic or inner city. in its inner-city form. Originally inserted into the urban pattern of the old inner cities. an idea adopted all over the world. were a modernist answer to the saturated quarters of the inner city. A continuous wall of nineteenth-century buildings housing ground-level as well as walk-up flats can be seen. a colossal freestanding volume on a hilltop surrounded by woodland. neither did its widespread application as part of a more traditional urban pattern. as a simple slab. bringing the slab into further disrepute. the slab grew to become a crucial building block of modernist urban design. this gave the slab as a free-standing volume a poisonous reputation for several decades. result in the desired quality of urban life. the slab began making a BLOCK 165 . A notorious exponent is found in the – now largely demolished – slabs of the Bijlmer housing estate south-east of Amsterdam. where the ideal of serpentine slabs in a green park setting fell victim to issues of anonymity and of the manageability of the uncontrolled area at ground level. in the Pendrecht area in rotterdam. in particular. which implies the promise of light. air and space in the dwelling environment for everyone.11c 11a 11b 11a Fifth A slab isfloor created when dwellings linked in a 11b cross section horizontal line are also stacked vertically. goes back to the multistorey housing that emerged in the wake of industrialization. the slab fit the ideal of an urban design of separate volumes in a green park. Stacking dwellings in volumes in slab form allows a larger proportion of the ground level to remain unbuilt. repeated as templates. in the 1990s. the type. the construction of multistorey working-class housing marks the beginning of a widespread application of the slab as a volume in urban planning. makes its promise of liberated living in a green setting visible in a persuasive way. which as autonomous volumes lifted off the ground promise every occupant light and a view. as cheap walk-up and gallery-access apartment buildings in the (semi-)open and closed blocks of the post-war reconstruction period. Because of its size and its capacity to incorporate urban facilities.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 12a 12b BLOCK 166 comeback. Depending on size. but rather as an often unique and successful solution within a given situation. followed by access using a foyer and stairs. . no longer so much as a building block for an ideological urban design. virtually every type of access is applicable within the slab. in wide slabs of more than four storeys. sometimes supplemented by a lift. a gallery or corridor provides access to a large number of dwellings from a single vertical access channel. Street access is possible up to two or three storeys. including as a free-standing volume.

with dwellings around three recesses 12e Situation 12e 167 .12c 12d 12a entrance court 12b the building on the Haarlemmerplein 12c cross sections 12d Floor plan of upper storey.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Linking and Stacking 13a mvrDv. each with its own atmosphere and character. the stacking of the different ‘neighbourhoods’ is made visible by giving each its own façade cladding. while the access facilities of alternating galleries and corridors connect them along meandering paths with three vertical access channels. reducing the massive scale of the complex to diverse domains with individual characters. lifted off the ground on slab-like columns. access types and commercial spaces. to mark the 200. who at the time was working at OmA. in the façade. giving each area of the building a unique character and making alternate routes to the various dwellings possible. this residential building is pierced by two huge cavities so as not to entirely deprive the neighbourhood across the street of a view of the greenery behind the building.000th home built in the hague. SiLODAm (AmStErDAm. . LOt 25 (thE hAGuE. creating a stack of little ‘neighbourhoods’. in terms of appearance as well as organization. the dwellings vary not only in size and number of rooms. An open stairway with landings in one opening of the building and a lift in the other connect a gallery on the lowest residential level and two corridors higher up in the building with the ground level. under the supervision of Kees Christiaanse. 1988–1992) tOWEr 168 in 1989. the total of 17 different façade sections are a reference to stacked containers on a cargo ship. 1995–2002) KEES ChriStiAAnSE & Art ZAAiJEr. Within each residential domain. where a parking facility is incorporated underneath the edifice. in total. the design Christiaanse and Zaaijer implemented here is an edifice inspired by the unité d’habitation. the access has been given a unique finish and colour. similar dwelling types are organized around one access. this cosmopolitan residential and commercial building by mvrDv is set just above the water on concrete columns. it represents a combination of a wide variety of dwelling types. but also in height and number of floors. 45 dwellings in 11 different types are distributed over six storeys and accessed by a combination of access principles. a ‘housing festival’ was held on a strip of land 30 m wide along the Dedemsvaartweg. Situated in an open position at the end of a levee with panoramic views of the iJ waterway. in each case.

13b 13d 13a Situation 13b typical storey in a tower for the private sector 13c typical storey in a tower for publicly subsidized housing 13d the towers for the private sector 13e the towers for publicly subsidized housing 13c 13e .

StrEEt StAirCASE GALLEry COrriDOr Lift .

the building volume in block form can be seen as a stacking of the mat configuration or as an expansion of the slab along the depth. the block-form volume needs to be mutated through the use of openings or incisions so that a proper scale and sufficient façade space can be achieved for the dwellings it must accommodate. in a multistorey version this becomes practically impossible. While resolving issues of access and natural light penetration adequately in a mat configuration is already difficult. 171 .not to be confused with the city block (discussed in the following chapter). these are stacked residential buildings that can contain more than two dwellings across their width as well as along their depth.

this runs along the exterior of the building past the communal spaces. the building is free-standing on a plaza and is lifted off the ground on concrete slabs. 2006) in an effort to counter the loneliness and social isolation students can experience during their time at university. BiKuBEn StuDEnt hOStEL (COPEnhAGEn. the dwellings and communal facilities are stacked around the atrium. where a recessed façade allows additional natural light to penetrate the atrium and where interaction with the plaza predominates. whose varied incisions give it a lively and characteristic appearance. which provide open access to a central atrium. maximum privacy for the dwelling is combined with maximum interaction in the rest of the building. the dwellings flank a gallery situated along the outer façade but looking out onto the atrium. aart designed a collective residential building in which student dwellings are mixed with communal spaces and facilities. 172 . As a result.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access AArt A/S. the access route connecting the individual dwelling entrances with adjacent communal facilities in a double spiral.

three internal courtyards cut into the volume and provide the deep apartments with adequate natural light and a façade sheltered from the traffic noise. tall residences.DiCK vAn GAmErEn. 2004–2012) are accessed on each floor by internal galleries. hAArLEmmErPLEin hOuSinG (AmStErDAm. commercial spaces on the ground floor and a four-storey underground car park. on the north side of the seventeenth-century haarlemmerplein square on the western edge of Amsterdam’s city centre. the building shields the square from the railway line and a busy roadway and contains 70 apartments. which StrEEt 14 Stacked dwellings with 14 street access 173 . A loadbearing structure of parallel walls produces narrow apartments whose stacking is a reference to the seventeenth-century subdivision of narrow. the courtyard on the side facing the square forms the communal main entrance to the individual dwellings. the project consists of the replacement of a housing block demolished in the early 1970s.

in addition to the (stretcher-sized) lift. the great advantage of living in a tower – a free and unobstructed view – is best served by a great deal of open space around the tower. Dwellings in a tower have little connection left with the street or the immediate environs of the building. with a communal entrance at ground level. instead they are focused to a maximum extent on the views of the wider surroundings and the quality of life within the dwelling. these can be combined into a double-helix staircase structure. the dwellings often enjoy supplementary services. Communal spaces and facilities located elsewhere in the building can expand the residential domain inside the tower. and the dimensions of the structure and support elements at the base increase. As higher elevations are reached. the vast number of dwellings on a relatively small area of land makes a good parking solution an absolute necessity. As dwellings are kept clustered around this vertical access channel. a vertical building volume is created. Large exterior spaces can compensate for a potential sense of claustrophobia. towers are therefore often situated in strategic places with great views. On the other hand. vertical access with a lift makes it possible to stack dwellings up to very great heights. leaving gradually increasing amounts of space for dwellings. providing access to the different dwellings.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 15a StrEEt 174 15a the split-level solution produces 16 entrance doors side by side. additional lifts become necessary. although this is constrained by climactic conditions at high elevations. enclosed stairwells wrapped around each other. for reasons of safety. and a landing around the lift on each level where the individual dwelling entrances are located. in which the two staircases lead down in two separate. the use of residential towers allows for very high housing densities. a double evacuation route by means of enclosed staircases is mandatory in the netherlands. as in the urban villa. As the tower gets taller. varying from rubbish disposal to electronic ordering . the number of lifts and conduits can be reduced and the structure can taper off. on the water or as an iconic landmark in an urban design. Given their distance from the street.

15b 15c Ground floor First floor Second floor third floor Fourth floor roof 175 .

each with a loggia behind the façade as exterior space. if desired they can be enclosed in glass. On the site of the former Alfa romeo car factory in what was until recently an industrial zone around nuovo Portello. Dutch building regulations stipulate that dwellings more than 12. 2002–2007) StAirCASE 176 facilities for grocery deliveries. in the north-western section of milan. the higher the storey and the more tenuous the connection with the surrounding park. with triple orientation and surrounded by different exterior spaces projecting from the volume. Cino Zucchi designed a housing ensemble in five towers and three slabs. have access to a lift.5 m above ground level must be wheelchair-accessible – in other words. in the publicly subsidized buildings these provide access to three flats per storey.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access Ibid. two towers of publicly subsidized rental housing stand on either side of a diagonal axis linking the area with a large new park to the south and a nearby shopping centre to the north. 128.. the different towers have a comparable layout. the varying placement and dimensions of these projecting volumes reinforce the plasticity of the three towers. the larger and further projecting the exterior spaces become. . these loggias are staggered across the storeys and give the brick towers a sculptural façade. the other three towers contain apartments for the private sector and are grouped on one side of the axis in their own green setting. 3 4 CinO ZuCChi. in the private-sector towers. supplemented by a commercial building. organized around an internal core housing two lifts and a staircase. nuOvO POrtELLO (miLAn. which are positioned at slight angles to one another. the core provides access to two larger apartments per storey.

late nineteenth century 16b Nineteenth-century double townhouse.16a Standard floor plan for Ground floor First floor working-class flat in the Pijp area of Amsterdam. Amsterdam 17a Façade view of a building with a Haagse portiek 17b Gulden & Geldmaker.H. 18b J. the Hague 18a. residential building accessed by Haagse portiek. concertgebouw area. 1931–1934. Vroeselaan. rotterdam 16b 16a Ground floor 17a First floor Second floor 17b 18a 18b 177 . De eendracht housing. van den broek. 1915.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 19a DWELLinG ACCESS StAirCASE 178 Entering and leaving the dwelling takes place through the entrance. Stairs and lifts . As soon as dwellings are stacked. the location of the entrance has a significant impact on the organization of the spaces within the dwelling. For groundconnected dwellings this seems a simple matter: a doorway in a façade on the ground floor will suffice. additional facilities are needed to reach the higher dwellings. the organization of the spaces that provide access to it is no less important. Outside the dwelling. As the examples in the preceding chapter (‘Dwellings’) have shown. To begin with. the dwelling entrance must be reachable from the outside. These spaces form a daily part of the lives of the building’s occupants and are of great significance to the quality and the perception of the experience of dwelling.

third floor Second floor 19c First floor 19c Siza’s version of the 19b Haagse portiek 179 .

When dwellings are reached exclusively by means of stairs or a lift.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 20b 20a StAirCASE 180 transport people vertically to the upper storeys. identified by the way in which the individual dwelling is accessed: —Street The dwelling is directly accessible at ground level. . —AccessStaircase The dwelling is accessed through a communal staircase. We distinguish the following access types. this is called vertical access. while horizontal circulation routes inside or outside the building can link a greater number of dwellings to a communal vertical access channel. this is horizontal access. even if this connects at some point to a vertical access channel. —CentralLiftAccess The dwelling is accessed through a communal lift (and [emergency] stairs). We call the combined system of facilities that provide entry to the dwelling – in other words the connection from the front door of the building to the front door of the dwelling – the access. When the dwellings are lined along a gallery or corridor.

20c 20d 20a the revolving and sliding panels allow different uses of the dwelling. 181 . 20c Floor plan with apartments of different sizes on either side of the access staircase 20d the space can be further divided with optional revolving wall elements.

Where circulation zones run alongside a dwelling. and a certain level . where they run into one another and. not situated along the façade. how the collective area relates to the privacy of the individual dwelling is a vital consideration. This creates a collective domain shared by all the individual users. may spend time together. to use it as a space for collective habitation. It is no longer a private area. The design of the access creates conditions that invite people. privacy is constrained. —Corridor The dwelling is accessed through a communal horizontal circulation route inside the building. but in most cases it is not accessible to just anyone. StAirCASE 182 The access forms a zone between the dwelling and the public realm outside.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 21a 21b —Gallery The dwelling is accessed through a communal horizontal circulation route along the dwelling façades. to a greater or lesser degree. if they wish. At the same time.

21c cross section of the diagonal access stairway 21d First to fourth floors. the entrances to the dwellings on either side of the stairway are located in a different place on each floor. 183 . the stairway extends at an angle under the building and then turns back and leads up diagonally through the volume.21c 21d 21a Upward view of the stairway 21b From the entrance.

Although Ancient rome featured dwellings stacked in residential buildings. under the legal system of the middle Ages. the netherlands. retained a strong tradition of ground-connected dwellings. along which access was also situated. Like the insulae.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 22 Lift 184 of shielding is desirable. often with a semi-public workplace on the ground floor. the residential building reappeared in European cities like Paris. the great advantage of the individual front door on the street over other access principles is its association with the independence of the individual dwelling.2 this meant every dwelling was directly accessible from the street. the necessity to accommodate housing in stacked dwellings would only emerge in the wake of industrialization towards the end of the nineteenth century. and therefore some of its internal organization options. Berlin. these were arranged around communal inner courtyards. and there were no collective access facilities of any kind. helsinki and milan in the eighteenth century. Even in a row house with direct ground-level access from the street. In addition. so that access type and dwelling floor plan often come in pairs: the access staircase with a single-storey flat. this mode of construction fell into disuse in western parts of Europe after the fall of the Western roman Empire. however. the access often determines the placement of the entrance in the dwelling. the insulae. Each type of access comes with its own implications for privacy and for the place where the dwelling is entered. rights of citizenship in a city were limited to those who had their own home on a piece of the city’s land. the placement of the entrance is limited to a spot in the narrow façade. or a corridor with a ‘bayonet’ apartment. not having to share facilities with others . leading to the development and application of other types of access.

they are nevertheless grouped. A private exterior zone can be used as a buffer. and privacy suffers from the traffic of random passers-by. in relation to the other types of access. the tensions between the private and public are mediated in the area of transition between the dwelling and the street. Although there is a great variety of accesses at ground level and they are certainly not all situated on the street. Lift 185 . into one category. Direct street access entails an abrupt transition between the home and the public environment.23a 23b means no unwanted encounters or shared organization of maintenance and management. as can a recessed entrance or a raised groundfloor storey. which thus forms a collective area of transition between the street and the home. instead there is individual control and privacy in entering and leaving the dwelling. Dwellings can also be accessed at the rear through a sheltered square or courtyard.

the two bottom dwellings have a private garden at ground level. 1994–1998) Starting in 1994. this ground connection and the private exterior spaces associated with it were meant to encourage a shared commitment among all residents to the maintenance of the ground-level area. in Block 8 the entrances of all the dwellings are located at ground level and the gardens are accessible by means of stairs from the first floor. the dwelling next door features identical stairs and.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access nEutELinGS riEDiJK. Frame and Generic Space: A Study into the Changeable Dwelling Proceeding from the Permanent (rotterdam: 010 Publishers. half a storey up or down. Double staircase structures like this take up a lot of space. Spaces of different shapes in each dwelling are linked to this. their private stairs vault two storeys. the entrances are organized side by side on the first floor. represent an exploration of the flexibility of the traditional one up-one down arrangement. accessible by means of stairs from the adjacent pedestrian and bicycle path. Blocks 8 and 15. four dwellings accessed side by side each have a large living space. where their individual roof terraces are situated. one on top of the other. the façade then displays a ‘battery of doors’. the other two continue up to the top of the building. 2006). Almost immediately behind this is a flight of stairs leading up to the dwelling level. in addition to sustainable materials and substantial green exterior space. 126. but they do afford every home a private entrance. a total of 16 dwellings per block have their front doors side by side. 186 2 bernard leupen. was transformed into a car-free and environmentally friendly residential area under the supervision of Kees Christiaanse. Christiaanse commissioned the various architects to fit in as many groundconnected dwellings in the five-storey residential buildings as possible. on the western edge of the city centre. GWL SitE (AmStErDAm. the former site of the municipal water company (GWL) in Amsterdam. . behind which parallel stairs subsequently give each dwelling a different configuration. shown here. in Block 15. if the dwellings on the storey above also have direct street access. in a split-level configuration. GALLEry Private street access is valued so highly that even dwellings on upper storeys sometimes have a street-level front door. spreading across their full width and facing the four entrances. here the bottom dwellings duck under the entrance to their garden situated immediately alongside the façade. designed by neutelings riedijk.

France 25a. 29c Narkomfin building . Milinis. 24b J-b. Godin. 1859–1877. cross section including the Stroikom type F configuration. Familistère. brinkman. Moscow.Galerijwoning Zonering 24a 24b kleine ramen Afstand van gevel Galerij lager 27 25a 25b 28 26a 26b 29a 29b 29c 24a.A. Guise. 26b w. bergpolder building. 1919–1921. 2:3 cross section 29b M. 1928–1932. Spangen. Justus van effen block. Narkomfin building. van tijen. rotterdam 26a. 1933–1934. 25b M. Ginzburg & I. rotterdam 27 Design tricks for gallery flats 28 Gallery serving one or more floors 29a Stroikom type F.

[→ 16b] Giving the dwellings alternating mirror layouts makes it possible to expand the number of front doors in a shared niche. On each floor. with (poorly ventilated) box beds or a sleeping alcove and sometimes a tiny kitchen. two flats were accessed through an internal staircase that connected on the ground level with a hallway to the communal front door. the house is split into an upstairs and a downstairs dwelling. these small dwellings were stacked back to back within the familiar typology of the nineteenthcentury double-bay town house. usually single-orientation flats were built at the lowest possible cost. residential buildings of stacked dwellings began to be built in the netherlands as well. side by side in a shared ‘niche’ behind the façade wall. still a feature of many nineteenth-century middle-class districts in larger cities. [→ 16a] A more upscale variant on this emerged in the form of the stacked town house. through the addition of an extra staircase in the narrow bay. while the recessed front doors divide the house in two. . each spread over two storeys.3 One-room. this niche serves as the architectural articulation of a shared entrance: the suggestion of a single entryway for the town house as a whole is maintained. when housing the mass influx of workers migrating to the city in the wake of industrialization turned into an urgent problem. Both dwellings have their own front door on the street.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 30b 30a 30c GALLEry 188 in the late nineteenth century.

30d 30b the broad gallery of Nemausus 30c Plan of the access 30d cross section with balconies on the left and the gallery on the right 30e Floor plan of a maisonette 30e 189 .

in all of these instances there is still direct access from the street. if more than two dwellings positioned one on top of the other are accessed. giving this kind of access its characteristic appearance. Because of its widespread use in three-storey housing in the hague.b] this access has different implications on each storey for the location of the entrance and the form of the remaining floor space of the dwelling. while the bay with the en suite living room . the façade opening could now be constructed to span two storeys. this landing is for the front doors to the second and third residential level. this access type is also known in the netherlands as a Haagse portiek. leading to an enclosed landing one storey up. the separate flights of stairs take up an inconvenient amount of space. is confined to the service zones and bedrooms situated around the access. the next step in development was therefore the addition of a communal staircase in the façade opening.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 31a 31b GALLEry 190 while the same principle is also applicable to stacked apartments or combinations of apartments and maisonettes. the disruptive impact. [→ 17a. Whereas the dwellings on the ground floor are accessed individually. this means the dwellings positioned one on top of the other also vary in their organization. the latter accessed by means of an additional private staircase behind the front door. however. however.

31c 31d 31e 31a the internal double-height gallery 31c the cross section shows both double-height internal galleries 31d Floor plan of the dwellings alongside and above the gallery 31e Diagram of the access 191 .

regulations. this is compensated with sliding partitions and fold-away furniture. Although a ‘niche’ in the façade is not necessarily a feature. the moderne portiek is often characteristically discernible in the façade as a vertical band running from the ground floor to the top. keeping both façades free for habitation spaces. the search among functionalism-oriented architects for clarity and repetition led to a new type for vertical access. however. the rational separation of access from dwelling floor plan makes stacked dwellings accessible up to very significant heights. A communal front door provides access to a collective staircase that leads in two half flights to two apartments per storey. creating a dwelling that is open during the day and divided into separate rooms at night.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 32a 32b GALLEry 192 is identical on every storey.h. the resulting single-storey flat accessed via a entrance and stairs lacks the division between private and communal habitation space that another internal level can provide. the complex structure of the Haagse portiek began to conflict with the development of rational dwelling floor plans during the first half of the twentieth century. protect . in the netherlands the name portiek (‘portico’) has remained associated with this access principle. the placement of the entrance in the flat is the same on every floor and set deep in the flat. in the example by J. van den Broek shown here. the moderne portiek or ‘modern access staircase’. [→ 18a–b] in principle. with the horizontal façades of the apartments on either side.

alongside and above the deck .32c 32d 32a Diagram of the plan for Golden lane 32c the broad deck of robin 32e Hood Gardens 32d Diagram of the access 32e Floor plans of a section of the building with dwellings under.

the proportion of habitation space to access space becomes skewed. to reinforce the division into front and rear zones. Even in the ground-floor flat with its own access from the street. the living room and kitchen are located at the front. in which a hallway with a toilet and bathroom provides access to the remaining spaces. Sliding doors connect the two circuits as the occupants see fit. On every floor. in combination with small dwellings. the space under the ingeniously interlaced staircases is used for large storage spaces in each dwelling. unlike the usual urban regeneration floor plans in the netherlands at the time. with six front doors on the landing on the first storey. a narrow hallway leads first to the middle. the entrances open into the communal area in the middle of the dwelling. however. Portuguese architect Alvaro Siza vieira designed two buildings with a total of 106 dwellings that had to be suitable for occupants of diverse cultural backgrounds.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access occupants from having to climb endless flights of stairs by mandating a lift above a prescribed height. PEriOD AnD COmmA (thE hAGuE. Access via a staircase is economically advantageous in combination with relatively large apartments. maisonettes positioned at lower levels lead to double flights of stairs and great vertical distances between dwellings. in a cross-pollination of cultural integration. COrriDOr 194 ALvArO SiZA viEirA. and opting for a horizontal access is recommended. Siza developed flexible floor plans with separate circuits between the private and the communal areas of the home. sometimes topped by a maisonette. . and as a result a different access principle is usually chosen. while the bedrooms with individual access to the bathroom are situated on the quiet garden side. the access is inspired by the Haagse portiek. 1985–1989) As part of the urban regeneration of the multicultural Schilderswijk.4 Accessing two dwellings per storey with a lift is very costly.

1927. ol. exploded cross section of one part of the building 34 corridor serving one or more storeys 195 .A.33 34 33 A. competition entry for communal dwellings.

EStrADEnhAuS (BErLin. leaving the rest of the apartment open across its entire depth.8 m deep with a raised ceiling along the entire width of the flat. situated off-centre in the structure. it is this raised zone or estrade that gives the building its name. . which divide the floors into larger (108 m2) and smaller (79 m2) apartments. Along both façades. a vestibule or an open entrance area. Additional moveable wall elements are optional. revolving floor-to-ceiling wooden panels allow the connection to the different spaces in the service zone to be modified as needed. can be created simply by sliding or turning these panels. a special area has been demarcated by a podium 1. so that people can walk past the staircase on the ground floor to reach the lift. the combination of the stairwell and lift requires a deeper accommodation for the stairs.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 35a WOLfGAnG POPP. the open floor plan and the choice of access to the various service spaces means the way the dwelling can be used is not predetermined. various configurations like an open kitchen. the dwellings are accessed by staircase with a lift. the service spaces are housed in a narrow zone on either side of the access. the seven-storey building contains retail and office space as well as a total of 10 apartments in the private rental and buying market. 1998) COrriDOr 196 the Estradenhaus designed by Wolfgang Popp in Berlin can be seen as a contemporary reinterpretation of the block of walk-up flats with an access staircase. or even an open bathroom. in order to partition the open space into separate areas.

35a corridor in the Marseille Unité d’Habitation 35b Diagram of the access 35c the cross section shows the positions of the different corridors. 35d cross section of the ‘bayonet’ dwellings in the building 35b 35c 35d 197 .

the middle section features an internal access staircase. 36d the stairs that direct the split-level dwellings around the corridor 36f Diagram of the access 36b OmA. includes three different access types: the single.and doubleoccupancy units in the front section are accessed through a gallery. the architects designed a new structure of open blocks and urban villas. the whole of the staircase along every storey can be seen at a glance. and light reaches to the bottom of the stairs zone. there was already a plan from the city’s spatial planning department that called for a repetition of semi-open blocks of walk-up single-storey flats. As the flights of stairs are set in a line. which is lifted off the ground. grouped in facing pairs.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 36b cross section with the alternately spaced corridors lined by split-level dwellings 36c. and in the rear section the dwellings are accessed through a staircase running diagonally across the building. 1986) 36a COrriDOr 198 When the Office for metropolitan Architecture was selected as coordinating architect for the iJplein site in Amsterdamnoord. iJPLEin OOSt iii (AmStErDAm-nOOrD. At the same time.5 the building OmA itself elaborated. in which a variety of access types were used to create differentiation among the dwelling typologies and in the streetscape. open . to avoid a tedious succession of entrance lobbies and draw the iJ further into the residential area in a perceptual sense. the entrances.

36c 36e 36d 36f 199 .

IJ-plein. . 1989). 10. Een speurtocht naar nieuwe compositorische middelen. Rem Koolhaas / Office for Metropolitan Architecture (rotterdam: 010 Publishers.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING / Dwelling Access 37a 37b 37c COrriDOr 200 37a Floor plans of the fourth and fifth storeys. where the communal entrance is located. with alcoves and natural light 37c Diagram of the access into the dwelling in a different place on each floor. 5 bernard leupen. each with a corridor in a different part of the building 37b A corridor in the M building. A staircase in half-flights extending at an angle under the building leads to the ground level.

Comparing the different galleries comparing the different corridors 38a 39a 38b 39b 38c 39c 38d 39a Unité d’Habitation corridor. 38a bergpolder building gallery 38b Nemausus gallery 38c Honingerdijk gallery 38d robin Hood Gardens gallery Marseille 39b Hansaviertel residential building corridor. berlin 39c M building corridor. copenhagen 201 .



as is more often the case today. Every project. orientation and objectives. many configurations. by any means. The configuration of this urban ensemble determines the qualities that shape the dwelling condition. requires a new examination of the various possibilities a potential building site offers. define the relationships between inside and outside. To this end. these are explained in greater detail in terms of the history of their development and principles. such as views. Housing Prototypes. the urban ensemble can be filled in by several different architects. Every situation is different from the previous one. Online. but also the relationship between public. Moreover. Sherwood. while their connections to parking infrastructure. in dimensions. 1 Refers to the German Zeilen­bau. always at the expense of others. illustrated with a few examples. implemented or conceivable. usually applied to housing slabs several stories high. the penetration of natural light and noise glossary (accessed 28 September 2011). Even when an urban ensemble is designed and elaborated by a single designer. Obviously the categories listed above do not represent all the possible configurations of an urban ensemble. In principle. not the elaboration of the architectural design. see also R. a type commonly associated with functionalist / Neue­Sachlichkeit housing projects of the 1920’s beginning in Germany but used in many countries. we distinguish the following categories at the level of the urban ensemble: —­Villa­Park —­Ribbon­Development —­Perimeter­Block —­Semi-Open­Block —­Free-Standing­Object —­Open­Block —­Free­Composition —­Sun­Oriented­Parallel­Rows —­Superblock In the pages that follow. In order to select a suitable configuration for an intended residential programme and to make the best use of its qualities. collective and private domains and the degree of shielding between them. and the way in which they relate. Available HTTP: http://housingprototypes. The dimensions of the individual volumes.The environment in which we dwell is formed by an array of different residential buildings. therefore. This chapter aims to highlight some of the characteristic features of the types that can. The access principles in the various residential buildings determine the everyday use of the public space. do not fit into any of the categories above and perhaps cannot be identified according to one particular morphological typology. it is vital to recognize the specific qualities of a number of basic configurations. Every configuration has its own specific qualities. just as in the past individual dwellings or groups of dwellings inside the perimeter blocks were designed by different architects. the distinction between the urban ensemble and the residential building remains a crucial one. arranged in parallel rows in an East-West orientation with two-sided open-ended dwellings. urban amenities and green space can make or break the quality of a residential area. We should emphasize that this concerns the model of the urban ensemble. 205 . Every built environment has its own characters traits.

many now-unaffordable villas were demolished after the First world war. often featuring singlefamily homes with individual gardens. Their professions tied them to the city. op. In the Netherlands. which usually also means that many urban amenities are unavailable or accessible only by car. and laid the foundations for middle-class suburban housing in the centuries that followed. cit. the construction of railroads in particular. making the villa park configuration primarily suited to suburban areas. The rise of the middle class also found expression in the architecture of the new residences. 1986). This gentrification of countryside dwelling bears a kinship to the residents of today’s leafy suburbs commuting to work in the cities. Parallel to the development of villa parks. brought nature areas situated near the cities within reach. (note 1). not too far from city centres. Stimulated by Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities of Tomorrow (1902) and the garden city movement that followed. so that the subdivision of the parks could be redrawn and the land made available for sale once more. De verstedelijking van Nederland (Assen: Van Gorcum & Comp. in the necessary vicinity of the city and within the financial limitations of the urban middle class. Its major quality is living in a green and leafy setting. Some of these ‘garden villages’ were based on the same structure as the villa parks. the growth in population was mainly absorbed by smaller cities and towns. whereupon the development of villa parks – often modelled on british examples – accelerated between 1895 and 1914. 3 C. 2 Ibid. The growing demand could only be met by reducing the size of the lots. New forms of transport. the latter initially intended more for the middle class. the socialist ideal of dwelling in nature for the lower classes emerged. Areas of land that had hitherto been unsuitable for reclamation and agriculture were bought up by investment companies for little money and developed into residential areas of spacious lots in park-like settings. In contrast to the often neoclassical or Gothic Revival monumental country houses of the wealthy upper class. Only a tiny upper crust of industrialists could afford to spend a few months outside the city during the summer. George Devey and Philip webb were developed in a new style based on rural housing and building traditions.2 Industrialization only began to spread in the Netherlands towards the end of the nineteenth century. As a result. where the proximity of urban amenities compensated the less bucolic setting. a deliberate choice in the suburban neighbourhoods of exclusive villas. As they were usually unable to afford two homes. Jannes De Haan. Een onderzoek aan de hand van het villapark Duin en Daal te Bloemendaal 1897–1940 (Haarlem: Schuyt & Co. but whose private life unfolds in ‘the open countryside’.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Villa Park vIllA PARk 206 The villa park is characterized by a seemingly independent distribution of free-standing volumes in a commonly scenic setting. NV. The open spaces separating the volumes may be private property or publicly accessible. the desire to live in the country was constrained by the financial resources of an increasingly numerous but also less wealthy target market. several progressive factory owners and major industrialists developed working-class neighbourhoods in green settings. the workers in the smaller back streets and alleys.1 These developments first took place in Great britain. The floor plans they developed were revolutionary as well. Villaparken in Nederland. well-known villa parks around london include such districts as luxurious Hampstead Heath and bedford Park. 28. the ‘country houses’ by architects such as Richard Norman Shaw. 1961). on their own country estates.3 villa parks were created in numerous natural areas in the vicinity of railroads and stations. 10. Kruyt. 1 . parks within or on the outskirts of the city were soon developed as a response to the suburban villa parks: exclusive residential areas with large lots and a great deal of greenery. To keep wealthy residents in the city. The rise in the standard of living allowed the upper middle class to imitate the wealthy upper class and settle outside the city. The villa park offered the illusion of a pastoral existence.. for many years the only major industrial power in the world.S. Villaparken in Nederland. william Eden Nesfield. The great success of the villa parks rapidly drove up land prices. 4 De Haan. The villa park has its origins in the industrialization of the nineteenth century and is therefore linked to the rise of a new middle class of wealthy citizens. The sizable space of each dwelling is coupled with very low density. A system of socially homogeneous residential areas emerged. 15–19. and they initially resided in relatively mixed proximity with workingclass people in the same neighbourhood: the bourgeoisie in the more exclusive houses along a street or canal. This gave rise to the romantic ideal of the well-to-do gentleman who comes to town to do business. the influx of workers did not result in teeming cities of millions of people. except that a ‘villa’ now usually included more than one dwelling..4 In new residential areas too. these well-to-do people deserted the city. 73–90. which increasingly became the abode of the working class.

sales lithograph for the villa park Het Bloemendaalsche Park. in a villa park layout. 02 207 . Agneta Park. Zocher.L. Workers’ villas with up to four dwellings per volume. Delft. Ritter. 1884. 1882 02 L.01 01 J.P.

8 Ibid. but he was a fierce opponent of having roads and paths meander without reason. 48. land purchases made it possible to run a link to the Zomerzorgerlaan. whereupon the specially created property development venture N. He had great admiration for the unforced. with at the very top a summer house. copses from multiple sides and in multiple combinations. between the woods of the bloemendaalsche bos and the tall dunes. 1858) (reprint: Groningen: Foresta BV. To the north. (note 1). As a result it had little initial success and remained for a long time the only villa park in bloemendaal.D. alternating with wheat fields.L.L. modelled on the English ‘Picturesque Movement’.7 The result was a villa park that did justice to both parts of the term: a charming park landscape containing generously spaced lots for villas. Het bloemendaalsche Park. 1897–1914) vIllA PARk 208 The development and operation of villa parks in and around the town of bloemendaal is representative of the situation in the Netherlands during the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century. endeavouring to retain as many of Zocher’s scenic qualities as possible. binnenlandsche Exploitatie Maatschappij van Onroerende Goederen (‘De binnenlandsche’ for short) was able to acquire it in successive purchases in order to develop a villa park. 5 .. cit. J. the central vale has remained unbuilt. encircled by a semi-circular ring of dunes rising like an amphitheatre. Terwen (Gouda.6 Springer’s most important and most difficult challenge was the access to the area. 7 Ibid.. DuIN EN DAAl vIllA PARk (blOEMENDAAl. to the Overveen train station to the south.8 however. 76. and many of the area’s buildings are concealed by the abundant vegetation. elegant lines in Zocher’s design. Terwen. by 1895. lay the country estate Duin en Daal. op. just before a major economic recession. In the 1960s and 1970s. so that the area could be accessed from that direction as well. . from which one can see as far as Amsterdam on one side and out to the ships at sea on the other’. so that ‘one can see trees. The first of these. as it was surrounded on all sides by private estates. Springer laid new roads in the park. he felt that ‘roads . 1979).A. with running water in abundance. building density increased dramatically as a result of re-allotment. Immediately next to it. in a garden or in a park are only necessary to point the visitor toward the finest observation points’.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Villa Park 03a l. 46–47. the renowned landscape architect J. was founded in 1882. and the sale of lots and the construction of villas proceeded at a rapid pace until the First world war. . Except as a necessary evil for the sale of land lots for villas. which eroded the park’s original character.v. its heirs had let the estate fall into disuse. en beschreven door J. Het koningrijk der Nederlanden – voorgesteld in eene reeks van naar de natuur geteekende schilderachtige gezigten. purely for the sake of a pastoral style. SPRINGER. The roads could be slightly curved. The beauty of this villa park was appreciated by many of its contemporaries. 31–35. including a country house. in order to ensure commercial success. and the play of light and shadow can have greater impact’. 6 De Haan. Villaparken in Nederland. as well as by the still less than flourishing villa park Het bloemendaalsche Park to the southeast. The design was entrusted to the young but already renowned garden architect leonard Springer. After various negotiations and supplemental acquisitions. woodland and sea. via the Hoge Duin en Daalseweg. Duin en Daal was connected to the roadways of Het bloemendaalsche Park and. consisting of beautiful meadows. Zocher Jr had transformed the site into an Arcadian scenic park.5 In 1824. ‘one of the most picturesque country estates in the whole of the Netherlands.

03c 209 . Springer. The illustration shows a possible subdivision for villas in the wooded setting. Springer.03b 03a The villa park Duin en Daal at the beginning of the twentieth century 03b L.A. plan for Duin en Daal showing sold lots. The road with hairpin turns over the tall dunes was never built. sales lithograph for Zuid-Duin en Daal. 1897.A. circa 1905 03c L.

FlORIANDE ISlAND 5 (HOOFDDORP. bounded by ditches of virtually identical dimensions. The design brief contained a number of essential and potentially contradictory quality requirements.200 m2 in a slightly meandering loop. At the same time. consisting among other things of 12 parallel ‘islands’. in current Dutch parlance) on the west side of Hoofddorp. enabling the plan area as a whole to achieve a density of 11 dwellings per hectare. green amenities have been provided on the privately marketable land as well. The design rests on an avenue planted with native oaks on both sides.7 hectares. Originally a residential tower of 10 ‘stacked villas’ was planned in the southwest corner. The urban design by vluG & Partners for the ground-level area of Floriande’s Island 5 is an interesting illustration of how the ambitions and temptations of an old-fashioned villa park relate to the possibilities and mechanisms of today’s economy. laid out in imitation of the organic forms and the park-like character of the villa parks in bloemendaal and Aerdenhout. however. providing access to the 66 independent lots of 600 to 1. Each of these rectangles of land. To reinforce the visual ambiance of a villa park and to conceal the expected wide diversity in the unregulated architecture of the villas. in which each storey would be considered an independent lot to be developed as buyers saw fit. Planted embankments shield the lots on the outer sides of the plan area from the adjacent islands. This had to fit within a rigidly demarcated piece of land of about 7. In the narrow area inside the loop is a small park with footpaths and bicycle paths. has been built up according to an individual type of urban subdivision. In the course of the process. financial considerations dictated as large an area of privately marketable land as possible. which together with the trees represents the public green space. . The site had to be a villa park in which houses would be built free of building standards commission regulation. 2001–2009) vIllA PARk 210 Floriande is a large new-build residential district (a vinex district. The green amenities on private land were planted in the pre-building phase and are to be maintained by the city for the first five years following the completion of construction. this was implemented as a regular block of 20 apartments.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Villa Park vluG & PARTNERS. in the form of hedges of mixed vegetation along the property lines. meaning as little public space as possible.

04a 04b 04a Development along the Eikenlaan 04b Urban design for Floriande Island 5 211 .

perhaps even more today than in the past. the residential area Duinzicht. maximum gross building surface area and building heights. housing 60 luxury apartments.D. several apartment complexes are being developed. designed by DS landschapsarchitecten (dsla). additional regulations have been put in place in order to vouchsafe a subdued overall look. Springer. A redevelopment master plan was drawn up. The design of the residential area Duin en beek. Swimming pools and summer-houses are not permitted. situated in the east. This shows that the development of a villa park. but the exact implementation of these were left to be decided during the design phase. much of which was completed prior to the development and sale of the subareas (and prior to the current economic crisis). the land use plan for redevelopment into a villa park allowed one quarter less built square footage than in the site’s pre-redevelopment situation. dsla has based its design on the landscape characteristics of the different subareas of the site. significant sight lines and trees of which have been rediscovered and reused. Ever since the construction of the hospital in its corresponding park – both designed by J. The main building was stripped of its later extensions and renovated by Rapp + Rapp into a free-standing edifice (a buiten. The land use plan also stipulated requirements in terms of landscape quality. while the villas (both detached and semidetached) are set not along the roadway. with its curved lines. for instance. open central core in the publicly accessible park. tunnels drilled under ancient root systems for residential wiring and sewers. but of living in the dunes. Remarkably. Despite relatively small lots (300 to 350 m2) and partly thanks to the tall hedges and replanting of ‘Springer trees’ from elsewhere on the site. South of Duin en beek. The vegetation-rimmed lots on either side of a sand flat are positioned so that no view from any property is obstructed by any other buildings. until the care of psychiatric patients was gradually – and in 2002 definitively – relocated elsewhere. follow Springer’s style. on the edge of the dunes behind the old hospital. wooded banks and the contours of the dunes allow only fragmentary glimpses of the architecture. as well as tunnels to allow toads to safely cross under the new roads. A vast replanting programme was implemented. and the individual dwellings are being designed in close collaboration with a quality control team. From the roadway. in contrast to Duinzicht. is for individual development. the site had been entirely cut off from its surroundings. The twentieth-century hospital outbuildings on the rest of the site were removed. new water features excavated. The street patterns. because the plan here. including one destined for publicly subsidized housing.A. so that each can be approached from a different angle. is grafted onto the park Springer designed here. on the west side of a green. In order to reconnect the isolated area with its wider surroundings. a new villa park is currently under development. Over time many outbuildings and extensions were added. is based on the special qualities of the dune landscape. or Dutch country house) amid greenery. but in an autonomous grid. . A great deal of modern-day engineering know-how was needed to preserve existing ecological structures. Zocher Jr – in 1849. predicated on how the site looked in Zocher’s day. bREDERODE PARk (blOEMENDAAl 2003–) vIllA PARk 212 On the vast site of the former provincial psychiatric hospital on the north side of bloemendaal. remains an exclusive affair. For instance. as well as a park designed by l. The plan area as a whole rests on the design of the landscape. The objective is not the atmosphere of a park of villas.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Villa Park 05a DS lANDSCHAPSARCHITECTEN. an atmosphere of living in a meandering park has been created.

about 1910 05b Design for Brederode Park. hospital and outbuildings.05b 05a Plan of Meerenberg. including landscaping. sight lines and various residential areas 05c Meer en Berg land-use plan in 2004 05c 213 .

Since then. The natural. single-orientation buildings made the construction of roads. unplanned way this type of built environment develops means it can be found in diverse regions virtually across the entire world. This mode of construction is found along the arterial exit roads of many towns and villages and has often developed as a result of a gradual growth in the local population. Independent control over one’s own dwelling is coupled with the company of neighbours and a collective interest in the maintenance and use of the access road. The rather inefficient organization of far-flung. when many new residential districts were built and old residential districts modernized. but on the other hand in an easily accessible. following the line of the road or canal. 06 Characteristic ribbon development in the Krimpenerwaard area of South Holland . During the reconstruction period in Europe in the wake of the Second world war. At the same time. the existing ribbon developments attracted a great deal of criticism. As a result. New structures are added to the end of the existing series of building. The newer dwellings are situated further and further away from the (historic) village or town centre with its communal facilities. many existing ribbon developments have become part of the characteristic heritage of village and town conservation areas. while they are not part of an active strategy for design. sewers and cabling for electricity and television much more costly than in compactly designed residential areas. scenic and open setting.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Ribbon Development 06 RIbbON DEvElOPMENT 214 One of the earliest forms of built environment consists of detached dwellings set side by side along a roadway or canal. it is seldom employed as a planning strategy for the development of new residential areas. both with limited economic resources. they are an element of the urban design preconditions within which any new design must be created.

The homes. berkel en Rodenrijs was settled in the eleventh century when the marshy soil was made suitable for farming by digging small drainage ditches. to grow into a ribbon village lining several roads amid excavated expanses of water. which caused the settlement. separated by ditches that are a reference to the old polder landscape. when continuing subsidence had once again made the soil too wet. and the village’s ribbon development. east of the southern arterial exit road of the village of berkel en Rodenrijs in South Holland. bRO designed a new residential district. The urban design was partly based on two aspects of the area’s history: the system of waterways that typifies the old polders of berkel en Rodenrijs. Each of the islands has been filled in by a different architect. to create a suggestion of gradual. over time. of which the Rodenrijse Zoom is a part. with an alternation of basic-gable and crossgable roofs and brickwork that fits in with that of existing buildings. HET lINT (bERkEl EN RODENRIJS. Since its designation as a site for new development (vinex district) at the end of the twentieth century the village has undergone explosive growth. The urban design consists of several residential islands of varying shapes and sizes. historic growth. 2007–2010) Commissioned by bAM vastgoed. The sub-plan Het lint (‘the ribbon’) is filled in with 30 semi-detached dwellings and nine detached villas designed by Mulleners & Mulleners. the Rodenrijse Zoom. 07a 07b 07a Bird’s-eye view of new development in the Rodenrijse Zoom. are traditional in appearance. parallel to the existing ribbon development along the Rodenrijseweg 07b New houses in Het Lint 215 . by the fifteenth century. following the wishes of the client.bRO & MullENERS & MullENERS. The connection of the islands to the village was resolved by laying out a narrow strip of ribbon-development structures parallel to the existing ribbon development along the Rodenrijseweg. showing the sub-plan Het Lint along the top. In the eighteenth century the peat ran out and the land was drained to form polders. the inhabitants switched to cutting peat.

in many cities outside the Netherlands. while on the garden side a simpler and less formal façade mediates access to the garden or balconies. of the relationship between the quality of the dwelling and the quality of the city. a domain shielded by buildings. at the second berlin International building Exhibition. collective and public areas. at the start of the twentieth century. the dwellings have two front façades. Significant issues with the perimeter block centre on the orientation of the dwellings and the solutions for corners. The corners accommodated vertical access channels and well-conceived apartments. quiet and free of cars. the same structure was later filled by stacked housing as well.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Perimeter Block PERIMETER blOCk 216 The perimeter block is characteristic of the classic European city as it developed during and after the Middle Ages. In the 1980s. Another development in the perimeter block was the opening of the inner area to collective and even public use. The entrances to dwellings can be relocated here and the original rear façades can become formal front façades around a courtyard. in every project. This forces a re-examination. This led to a revival of the perimeter block throughout Europe. each individually accessed from the street and featuring a private garden in the sheltered inner area. the dimensions of the blocks and the transition from private to public in the Netherlands have been substantially different from those in neighbouring countries. Its essential feature is a continuous line of buildings along every side of the city block. The dwellings do not all receive equal sun exposure. starting in the eighteenth century. Spaciously proportioned ‘urban villas’ around semi-public inner courtyards were used to redefine the city street as a response to the open subdivision of the modern period. to the opening up of the block in favour of an urban design more focused on the quality of the dwelling: the open or semi-open block and parallel line development (see below). and by extension the relationship between private. linked to form a block containing many small light yards. while the open space inside the block is shielded from the activity of the city. apartment complexes were built around small inner courtyards. architect Rob krier led a reintroduction of the perimeter block. The issue of the corner and poor sun exposure led. because the street side is also a public side. the corner dwellings have little if any communication with the inner domain. For instance. the block continued to develop out of groundconnected row houses. 08a 08b . From the outset. The outer side of these buildings therefore defines the streets and public spaces. On the street side. let alone an exterior space in the sun. the dwellings are concealed behind a formal façade. as collective transitional zones between the city and the dwelling. Originally made up of linked row houses. Although perimeter blocks are part of virtually every European city. The access to each block takes place through these courtyards. a problem that is exacerbated in the corners. In the Netherlands. as it were. therefore. with all that this implies in terms of use and privacy. clear differences exist among them. Moreover.

08c 08d 08e 08a Schematic plan of a traditional Dutch city block. Amsterdam-IJburg. made up of individual row houses 08b Schematic plan of a traditional German city block. 1999– 217 . made up of apartment buildings with clustered entrances 08c City blocks in Berlin 08d City blocks in Barcelona 08e Diagram of the various ways the city blocks on Haveneiland (Harbour Island) have been filled.

Several parallel canals were dug around the old city centre to form a direct connection to the IJ waterway: the city’s expansion plan was directed at merchants and tradesmen whose stores or workshops were part of their homes. was part of the biggest new-build operation of its time: the Grachtengordel. 1625. where more modest tradesmen opened their shops. various perimeter blocks together define the street pattern of the city. PERIMETER blOCk 218 09b HERENGRACHT-kEIZERSGRACHT blOCk (AMSTERDAM 1614–1625) The traditional Dutch perimeter block is characterized by a continuous line of connected individual houses that together define the four sides of an area of land in a city or town. . In some places. the distance between two canals was enough to lay an additional back street between two blocks. van Berckenrode. as a deliberately applied urban building element. the idea was to build up the street side. the city’s now-famed ring of inner canals. This is where the mews were originally located. The division between the representative façades on the street sides and the quiet world of private gardens inside the perimeter blocks is clearly visible. Berkheyde. narrow gardens behind the line of buildings. is also seen as an adaptation of Simon Stevin’s ideal urban model. This model can be found in many places in the world in organically evolved medieval inner cities. In the 1614 expansion of Amsterdam. again accommodating smaller lots. The lots directly on the canals were intended for wealthier merchants and were larger than the lots lining the side streets. only their occupants have access. the model. conceived on a highly rational basis. to which. so that the public portion of daily life takes place on the outer side of the block. The rectangular plots of land left over were divided into lots and sold to accommodate housing. were gradually built up to the point of saturation. This plan. In virtually all cases. published around the same time – a rational. 1672. For the efficient transfer of goods. where the internal areas. the dwellings form the separation between the public side and the inner domain. in principle. Together. To this day. interconnected by cross-streets as well. quays and streets were built along all the canals. The canals were interlinked at strategic points. Each dwelling has its front door directly on the street. 09b Detail of the city map of Amsterdam by Balthasar Florisz. In order to sell as many lots as possible. with a wider area at the back. concealing long. those on the canals were made narrow and deep. orthogonal grid of streets and perimeter blocks – to the semicircular layout of Amsterdam. by buying several contiguous lots. and the main form of transport was over water. The individual uses of space in the separate lots of the perimeter block can easily be seen.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Perimeter Block 09a 09a View of the ‘Golden Bend’ (Gouden Bocht) of the Herengracht by Gerrit Adriaansz. due to a shortage of space. these green inner domains of the blocks remain hidden from passers-by. a prosperous merchant could have a wider and more imposing residence built.

The perimeter block is not actually closed: the inner area is directly accessible from the outside through various portals. a suburb of Copenhagen. The lower sections of the block contain maisonettes. playground equipment. the entire inner area has been laid out as a communal garden. with sandboxes. The basic configuration of the building is a perimeter block that takes up virtually the entire building site. The corners of the building accommodate collective functions. The continuous building shell shields a large inner domain from the public domain of the woodland park. who asked Mandrup to design a collective residential building of 54 self-contained dwellings with a number of communal functions and a collectively shared exterior space. benches.10a 10c 10b DORTE MANDRuP. The building slopes from two storeys on the east side to three on the west side and follows the direction of the site with a bend. outdoor cooking facilities and communal picnic tables. 10a Communal inner area. DENMARk. communal use of the inner area PERIMETER blOCk 219 . The dwellings. vegetable and herb gardens and lawns. of eight types in all. can all be accessed from the outside as well as the inside of the block. standing free among the trees. presents a different appearance from each side. These upper dwellings are accessible through outside staircases on the inner and outer façades that stick out diagonally from the façades and seem to anchor the building to the ground. like a communal area. so that the volume. storage facilities and guest quarters. Except for a narrow band of private patios along the inner façade. lANGE ENG (AlbERTSluND. consisting of eight egg-shaped sites for different types of residential construction in a newly planted forest. One of these sites was purchased by a collective of private clients. the taller sections contain apartments on the ground floor with maisonettes above. The project is part of Herstedlund. 2009) A modern-day example of a perimeter block in an entirely different setting is the lange Eng project by Danish architect Dorte Mandrup in Albertslund. imbedded in a landscape of fruit trees. a new scenic residential area under development. viewed from the low side 10b Outer façade on the high side 10c Plan of Lange Eng with a designed.

The inner domain is more easily accessible than in a perimeter block. possibly flanked by smaller private gardens behind the ground-floor dwellings. At the same time. The semi-open block does not present these issues: either not all of its sides are built up. which can provide the impetus to create a collective or semi-public garden here. dark and stuffy working-class dwellings of the inner cities. its configuration lends itself to the same overall urban layout as the perimeter block. while the quality of dwelling in or near the corners left even more to be desired. The semi-open block came out of the search by architects in the 1920s and 1930s for new alternatives to the often small.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Semi-Open Block 11a SEMI-OPEN blOCk 220 The semi-open block is an adaptation of the perimeter block. or it is transected in order to avoid poor orientation in problematic corners. The loss of privacy in the inner area is balanced by better views and better sun exposure for the three remaining sides. in which the sheltered nature of the inner domain is sacrificed by eliminating one of the four sides or by positioning the different sides separate from one another. instead of the problematic corner dwellings of the perimeter block. At the extremities of the u-shaped volume. . The standard urban structure of shallow perimeter blocks in working-class residential areas left at least one side with poor sun exposure. triple-orientation end dwellings are created. The missing side is usually oriented towards the sun or an adjacent urban space.

connected with the park. with underneath the suggestion for a whole series of open blocks along the park. These stairs also provide access to the basement and from there to the inner domain. 1934) 11a Situation. One of these blocks was designed by the firm of van den broek & bakema. a fence along the open side on the vroesenlaan makes it clear that the inner area is spatially. who were active in international debates on the improvement of housing conditions of the period. supporting three storeys of apartments. but not functionally. accessible through the basement. 221 . They developed a variant on the perimeter block in which only three sides of the block are built up and are separated from one another. none of the apartments has a direct connection to the inner area. see from the Vroesenpark 11c The cross section shows the relationship between the dwellings and the communal inner garden. w. discernable in the outer façade as fully glazed vertical elements that divide the block into segments. which is designed as a collective garden. The structure consists of a half-sunken basement with storage spaces and covered laundry and play areas. 11b De Eendracht housing block. Each dwelling does have a balcony that looks out onto the inner garden and the vroesenpark beyond it. As a result. The apartments are accessed two by two through entrances and stairs. DE EENDRACHT (ROTTERDAM.11b 11c vAN DEN bROEk & bAkEMA. so that the plan features no corner dwellings. The unbuilt side is situated to the southwest and – given that an ideal orientation in relation to sun exposure was not feasible within the urban design parameters – focused on the vroesenpark located in that direction. only one was implemented in this way.G. witteveen’s 1931 urban expansion plan for the north and northwest parts of Rotterdam called for a symmetrical pattern of perimeter blocks on either side of the Statenweg. Along the Statenweg the fully built side of the block fits into the symmetry of the urban ensemble. which is not publicly accessible.

a u-shaped residential complex was designed whose open side looks out onto the Entrepothaven harbour. A half-sunken car park is located under the building. Access to these dwellings varies from entrances and stairs to galleries and corridors.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Semi-Open Block 12a bATAvIA buIlDING. This is where the private terraces of the lower dwellings are located. as well as a garden with trees. A fence separates the open side of the block from the publicly accessible pedestrian area along the water of the harbour. from inside. as an urban lighting element. These feature a conservatory as exterior space. The u consists of a continuous sequence of buildings in which a great diversity in dwelling types has been achieved. FRITS vAN DONGEN (AMSTERDAM. large access staircasees are situated at the corners of the building. . the wooden folding panels of the conservatory can be opened fully. these work as windows onto the city. providing a welcoming entrance to the corridors and galleries. which serves as an ornamental garden for the apartments on the upper floors. conversely. Its wooden roof also forms the surface of the raised inner courtyard. 2000) SEMI-OPEN blOCk 222 On a former railroad yard in Amsterdam’s Eastern Harbour District. which also serves as a sound buffer. while at night they serve.

seen from the opposite bank of the water 12b Floor plan of the ground level. with the open corners 12c Transverse cross section showing parking garage and the garden deck 223 .12b 12c 12a The open side of the block.

Schwagenscheidt. For optimal sun exposure.5° (clockwise) from the north-south axis to a northeast-southwest axis. Open-block subdivision by E.9 A vital step in this direction was the development of the open block. At the back. with its dark corners and inherent orientation issues. an informal rear façade flanks a more privately situated zone with individual exterior spaces. May in two separate directions. when the average number of active hours per day is balanced against the number of hours of daylight. The architects and urban planners involved in the expansion plans for Frankfurt under the weimar Republic (1918–1933) came up with very definite ideas to meet this challenge. Frankfurt (1927). schematic plan for an ideal orientation of the open block 13b 13a OPEN blOCk 224 In the 1920s and 1930s. The group centred round Ernst May considered the orientation to the sun to be of the most crucial significance for housing quality. dwellings are positioned in two parallel terraces or slabs facing each other.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Open Block 13a Schematic plan of the Praunheim residential area. This was not so much a case of sunbathing in the garden as of the general health benefits that would come from sunlight penetrating directly into the habitation spaces. Jean-Charles Depaule and Philippe Panerai. both are set on the edges of the city block and define the public space on the street side. affordable dwellings based on rational principles. maximum sun exposure. May and W. In this. The perimeter block defined by the urban space. architects associated with the Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) developed alternatives to traditional urban design in perimeter blocks. this allows both of the dwelling spaces facing each other to receive equal. which gives the configuration its name. see also Jean Castex. The challenge of creating mass-scale public housing and the control of urban problems formed the driving force behind a grand quest for new ways of building high-quality. Urban Forms: The Death and Life of the Urban Block (Oxford: Architectural Press. The two remaining sides of the block are open. 2004). For a detailed study of the opening up of the traditional urban block into an open subdivision. 13b E. was dismissed to make way for a subdivision focused on the quality of the dwelling. de l’îlot à la barre (Marseille: Parenthèses. 1977). 9 . it was calculated that the best orientation for the open block could be achieved with a rotation of 22. original French edition: Formes Urbaines.

open configuration of city blocks in the early twentieth century is the Römerstadt area in the new expansion districts of Frankfurt am Main dubbed Das Neue Frankfurt. Römerstadt. flanked by gracefully curving apartment buildings.14a 14b 14c ERNST MAY. what makes Römerstadt different from other new areas like Praunheim and westhausen. which display a purer or perhaps more radical implementation of modernist principles. The dwellings on the north side have larger front gardens. the Praunheim residential area is in the background. which are elevated above the street thanks to subtle differences in height. Ideal orientation towards the sun. RÖMERSTADT (FRANkFuRT. 14b Street view in 2010: the various connections to the north and south sides of the street 14c Plan of the Römerstadt residential area 225 . is the way the residential area fits into the relief of the existing landscape. The hillside location affords the top floor of every dwelling a view of the Nidda valley over the dwellings situated lower down. prescribed by the designers themselves. the dwellings on opposite sides of the streets were designed differently: the dwellings on the south side are oriented towards their back gardens and feature only a small entrance zone. named after a nearby Roman archaeological site. lies curved on gently sloping hills along the Nidda River. 14a Bird’s-eye view of Römerstadt around 1930. demarcated by a little wall. creating a curved subdivision that was subsequently filled in with a structure of open blocks. A richly varied dwelling environment was created with relatively modest means. The street pattern follows these slopes. each marked by a block of flats. The area is divided in two by a larger main road. radiating footpaths lead to observation points at the edges of the residential area. 1927) One of the first and most convincing examples of the new. As a result. was thus subordinated here to the positioning in the landscape. employing systematic application and repetition to arrive at a composition full of subtlety and diversity. Architects and urban planners came from all over the world to see the developments Ernst May and his associates had achieved here. on the street side. Crossing these curved streets.

a sunken green playing field runs down to the open central zone along the ditch. in principle. the car parks and bands of green space alternate. Seen from the road. 2002) 15b OPEN blOCk 226 15a Plan 15b The collective inner area The vinex district of Floriande. where the communal green space is located. west of Hoofddorp. between the terraces. In the bands of green space. Heren 5 Architecten’s plan for Island 8 was named De Collectieve Tuin (‘the collective garden’). tapering zones of private terraces afford all the residents a view of the central garden. The end of each northerly blocks is bordered by a freestanding little block of flats with broad balconies facing the green space to its south. each with its own urban design. where a wide ditch splits the island in two. DE COllECTIEvE TuIN (HOOFDDORP. however. this is really more a semi-open block configuration. The blocks are set at staggered intervals on either side of the ditch. so that from a car park you have a view of the band of green space on the opposite side. immediately signalling that the designers had concentrated on the communal use of the exterior space. each grouped around its own car park and with its outer sides situated in an area of open greenery. a repetition of virtually identical open blocks has been arrayed.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Open Block 15a HEREN 5 ARCHITECTEN. The focus. Here. They both afford a view of a connecting greenbelt along the open side of the blocks. consists among other things of 12 parallel rectangular ‘islands’ separated by ditches. therefore. is on the inner side of the ring road. Its clear layout consists of a rectangular ring road leaving a strip of land on the outside where boundary structures are organized in small volumes. .

Schwagenscheidt. SuN ORIENTED PARAllEl ROwS 16a Schematic representation of the evolution from the perimeter block to a subdivision in open rows. where the exterior spaces of the dwellings occupy a private domain. May’s schematics to the Dutch city block. This has major implications for the organization of the block: there is no longer an inner area shielded from the street. according to E. Ernst May and walter Schwagenscheidt calculated an ideal orientation for this configuration as well.16c 16a 16b The next stage in the optimization of dwelling orientation was the development of a configuration in parallel lines. but are equally spaced one behind the other. May and W. from secondary access paths to mixed forms incorporating open and perimeter blocks. and the premise became the ideal situation of each dwelling. in a configuration than can be repeated endlessly according to rational principles. according to M. this time 22. The rows or slabs of parallel-linked dwellings no longer face one another in mirror formations. on a northwest-southeast axis. this optimization of the dwelling turned the traditional organization of the city on its head and introduced new issues of privacy. This represented a definitive abandonment of the block as an organizational entity to mediate between the private and the public. schematic plan for an ideal orientation of parallel-line development 227 . while the service spaces. bringing some nuance into the open-row subdivision of parallel lines. every row is approached from the same side.5° in the other direction. and often the entrances as well. as in the configuration of the open block. The habitation spaces of all the dwellings face the afternoon sun in the southwest. are housed in the northeast-facing zones. As a result. In principle. in order to reconcile the ideal of the optimally oriented dwelling with the quality of the public space and the need for privacy. Many variants have been developed and implemented since. May 16b Application of E. The private side of one row flanks the public access way of the next. all with the same orientation. Risselada 16c E.

differences in height and refined detailing at the smaller scale ensure that the district. accessed by four perpendicular streets. An opportunity presented itself in the development of the westhausen residential area. For reasons of economy and efficiency. the district consists of seven groups of nine of these rows. also northwest of Frankfurt. seems less rigid and has remained popular with residents. SuN ORIENTED PARAllEl ROwS 228 ERNST MAY. In the middle. independent layer of footpaths and open spaces. . This configuration could now be repeated ad infinitum within a framework of perpendicular access roads. The composition. in the traditional city these had been closely linked – and still were. to give all dwellings maximum sun exposure. green zones run perpendicular to the rows between two access roads. the designers around Ernst May dared to implement an even more radical break with classical urban design. set at right angles to the parallel line development pattern. The urban design unity now consisted of a row of seven dwellings with an access path and public green space on the northeast side and private gardens on the southwest side. A revolutionary innovation for the time was to separate the dwellings from the street pattern. SIEDluNG wESTHAuSEN (FRANkFuRT. without any loss of quality for the individual dwellings.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Sun Oriented Parallel Rows 17c 17a 17b 17a Plan of the residential area 17b Plan of a block with six dwellings and a circulation corridor 17c Bird’s-eye view of Westhausen in 1932. a configuration could be designed based on a theory and calculation of ideal orientation. in mirrored pairs and always with southwest-facing living rooms. The pattern of rows is situated on a slight incline. In westhausen the rows of dwellings are perpendicular to the streets. In westhausen. as well as identical floor plans. even in openblock configurations. which led to two dwellings to be set higher in each row. and they are accessed by a new. 1929) Following the successful application of the new urban design principles of open blocks in places like Praunheim and Römerstadt. The district is bordered by a composition of taller buildings. some of the high-rises have not yet been built. Here. every row of dwellings was built in an identical way. in spite of its high degree of repetition.

Each of the four sections features a communal green zone as a collective garden in its centre. Dutch. These gardens connect the neighbourhood visually with the Ringvaartplas lake situated to its south. RINGvAARTPlASbuuRTOOST (ROTTERDAM-PRINSENlAND. The solution chosen shows a clear affinity with the garden cities of the early modernist era. The rows seem to vary in length at random and are slightly rotated in relation to one another. Siedlung westhausen in particular. Mecanoo faced the challenge of designing 550 more or less identical dwellings with enough variations and differences to stimulate a sense of community. six streets divide the neighbourhood into more or less equal areas of land.18a 18b SuN ORIENTED PARAllEl ROwS MECANOO. transplanted to the soil of a Dutch polder. each collective garden has its own planting theme: French. creating a playful variety of directions and intermediate areas. Japanese and English. 1993) For a new residential neighbourhood in the Prinsenland area of Rotterdam. Four slabs of six storeys shield the neighbourhood from the major arterial road running alongside. between two streets. in which short rows of dwellings have been set perpendicular to the streets. between the slabs. 229 .

In this. however. he championed an urban design involving tall residential buildings set as free-standing volumes in a green environment. with his unités d’Habitation. by le Corbusier’s ideas for the Cité Radieuse. but also in urban plans for cities like Paris and Saint-Dié. this space quickly clogs up as a sorely needed car park. dwellings are elevated above the traffic noise and abundantly provided with light and views. Although his ideological plans called for a repetition of such volumes in an immense open area. at the beginning of the twentieth century. Other benefits of the free-standing object include dwellings well-supplied with natural light and situated away from city noise. as well as the high density that can be achieved.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Free-Standing Objects 19 The ideal of a free-standing building rendered in Le Corbusier’s sketch for the Unité d’habitation FREE-STANDING ObJECTS 230 A different answer to the pollution and poor living conditions of the traditional inner city was significantly influenced. often in an urban setting. the projects that were implemented were built as single free-standing volumes. The free-standing volume in the form of a slab or tower. This urban space can be put to use as a park or square with public facilities. often also leaves more room at the public ground level than an open or perimeter block configuration. If no other solution is provided. in an urban context. while the ground level is left free for parking and other open-air facilities. .

visible from the arterial roads leading out of Madrid. 2005) In a suburb northeast of Madrid. MIRADOR. MvRDv and blanca lleó designed a tall and striking residential building as a response to the monotonous housing blocks of this area. linked around the elevated communal plaza. As a result. SANCHINARRO (MADRID. affords panoramic views of the surrounding area and the mountains further on. Instead of a perimeterblock structure. 20b 231 . The building houses 165 apartments. grouped in various sizes and types in separately identifiable. with a little imagination. it can be seen as a perimeter block set on its side. A plaza in the opening. a vertical slab of 22 storeys was chosen. with a huge opening cut into it at a height of 40 m. For its architects. accessible to all occupants. the edifice seems to be literally made up of a stack of smaller buildings. the building was also meant as a beacon for the new expansion districts. smaller building sections.20a MvRDv & blANCA llEÓ.

URBAN ENSEMBLE / Free Composition 21a 21b ÉMIlE AIllAuD. interconnected. The residential areas are composed of various types of residential buildings. and definitely the individual dwellings. often shielded from the commotion and noise of traffic. serpentine slabs as recurring elements. the greater whole of the urban ensemble can be seen as a free composition of residential buildings. where the absence of private gardens is compensated by the quality of a larger-scale facility for all the residents. which he called grands ensembles. The positions of the separate residential buildings form open spaces within the city. Here a serpentine block forms the northwest boundary of a publicly accessible green park. with a unique atmosphere. In the latter half of the twentieth century. underscores the position of the buildings as autonomous volumes. the scale is definitely urban. blocks or towers together form a larger compositional entity. lA CITE DE l’AbREuvOIR (PARIS-bObIGNY. 1960) 21c FREE COMPOSITION 232 when free-standing volumes such as slabs. with these compositions. . An evocative example of his work can be found in bobigny. The ground-level area between the volumes is often a collective or even public space. The residential buildings themselves. with star-shaped and cylindrical towers and long. In spite of the vast quantity of open green space. The composition of their façades. in which the individual dwellings are not discernible. French architect Émile Aillaud designed and built a number of residential areas that share strong similarities and are illustrative of his vision of a successful dwelling environment. a suburb northeast of Paris. were subordinate to this. in which several star-shaped and cylindrical towers seem to have been set at random. a green residential park its residents could enjoy together. Aillaud aimed above all to create a pleasing and attractive urban exterior space.

which produced ingenious layouts. A few old buildings and a water tower serve as historic reference points in the district. 14 little residential blocks four to five storeys tall have been set in a free configuration in a green park. within its outline. A tall. These have been designed by different architects. which despite a density of 100 dwellings per hectare retains a relaxed and open character. Thick hedges around the gardens provide privacy and reinforce the green character of the area. The dwellings either have a private garden at ground level or can make use of garden allotments situated elsewhere in the plan area. 1998) On the former site of the municipal water company (Gwl) kCAP designed a car-free and environmentally friendly residential area in collaboration with west 8. with the stipulation that as many dwellings as possible should be accessed at ground level. Gwl SITE (AMSTERDAM. 22c FREE COMPOSITION 22a Aerial photograph of the GWL site 22b. 22c Subdivision principle and diagram of connections between buildings and communal exterior space 233 . meandering slab shields the area from the busy traffic on the Haarlemmerweg and the adjacent industrial activity. in a zone forming a transition between the perimeter blocks of the city centre and the industrial estates to its west.22b 22a kCAP & wEST 8. The slab climbs from four storeys in the south to nine storeys in the north and houses about 57 per cent of the dwellings.

JuSTuS vAN EFFEN blOCk (ROTTERDAM-SPANGEN.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Superblock 23b MICHIEl bRINkMAN. while the structures on the edges form a clear separation from the greater urban space. he connected the outer building structures across the street to form a superblock. Two goods lift initially allowed the milkman to make his deliveries door to door with his cart. Supplementary structures inside the block divide the whole into a complex sequence of inner courtyards. 1922) 23a SuPERblOCk 234 In some instances the scale of a housing project is such that the design of a residential building encompasses several urban lots. collective and public areas often emerges. The privacy of the area can be increased by putting up barriers between the street and the inner space. in effect creating different building sections connected across the street. Instead of a traditional layout of several perimeter blocks with public outer sides and private inner courtyards. brinkman designed a wide gallery that runs along all the sides of the block and connects its various parts. contributing to the liveliness of the inner domain. within the complex a fascinating interaction between private. To provide access to the single-bay maisonettes above. In order to reinforce this public character. the inner part of which was now publicly accessible. and the urban pattern of circulation links and public space is continued within it. The dwellings on the ground level and first floor are apartments spanning two naves. These dwellings also have a private garden in the inner area. Michiel brinkman designed a residential complex in four storeys on either side of the Justus van Effenstraat. In spite of the public network of streets. he also located the dwelling entrances on the inner side of the block. . In the Spangen area of Rotterdam. each with its own front door directly on the street. or by extending the structures into the block along the street. the access to public space through private dwellings creates an inner area that makes people feel like someone else’s guests. For the residents this urban space is an everyday extension of their dwelling. linked by the public street that continues beyond the other side of the block.

which is the front and which is the rear façade is not pre-determined. His plan consists of perimeter blocks in a square formation. and krier himself designed the structures spanning the streets in the central section. creating an enclosed domain in their midst. As a result. a mixture of dwelling types and the intensification of the use of exterior spaces through the application of gardens. The government provided support for underground parking. and neither is the use the occupant should make of the spaces. The four perimeter blocks have four to five storeys and their contours follow the street pattern. The blocks are built of brick on the outside. RITTERSTRASSE (bERlIN. SuPERblOCk 235 . but the walls facing their various inner gardens are clad in light-coloured stucco. with bright yellow accents here and there. loggias and conservatories.24b 24a 24c 24b Situation 24c Partial plan for the Ritterstrasse project. so that they vary in shape and size. luxemburg architect Rob krier won the competition for the development of an area north of the Ritterstrasse in berlin with a plan centred on repairing the traditional city. crossed at this point by a route for pedestrians and bicycles. the use of passive solar energy. One of these routes is a public roadway. 1983) In 1977. with dwelling floor plans drawn in 24d Long section 24d ROb kRIER. connected at the corners where they meet. around which the various sleeping and living spaces are arranged. The blocks were filled in by several young architects. For this he developed dwelling floor plans with a large vestibule as a central space for gathering. at the intersection of two public routes.

which was filmed in the complex. Mario De Renzi designed a residential complex on the viale XXI Aprile featuring a wide variety of dwelling types. The building encompasses several city blocks and contains a total of 442 dwellings. p 157–173. 25c Inner courtyard with the glassed-in stairwells . a street cuts through the inner courtyards of the complex. two or three dwellings are clustered around communal stairwells with a lift. suitable to different target customers and incomes. in which collective routes and spaces are tightly connected visually both inside and outside. Commissioned by the Federici company. which remains a unified whole thanks to structures that span the street. ‘Tre edifici residenziali degli anni ’20 e ’30 a Roma di Mario De Renzi’.10 A suggestion of what it was like to live in the building at the time is given in Ettore Scola’s famous film Una giornata particolare (1977) with Sophia loren and Marcello Mastroianni. each forming a double S. the Fascist regime in Rome developed an incentive programme for high-density multistorey housing in the inner cities. 2009). 70 shops. in: Milena Farina (ed. Two building sections. Studi sulla casa Urbana – sperimentazioni e temi di progetto (Rome: Gangemi. to ease an acute housing shortage for the growing working class. On each storey. 25a Floor plan of ground level 25b. 10 Jana Kuhnle. 1937) SuPERblOCk 236 Around the 1930s. At the transition between the two sections. are positioned in a mirror formation. a parking garage and a 1600-seat cinema. They also reinforce the communal character of the edifice.). the semi-circular and fully glassed-in landings of which give the courtyards a monumental vertical articulation. so that the structure enfolds a varied system of inner courtyards and at the same time avoids forming a solid street wall on its outer sides.URBAN ENSEMBLE / Superblock 25b 25a 25c MARIO DE RENZI. CASE CONvENZIONATE FEDERICI (ROME.



It must therefore meet different requirements. making it very different from the perception of the theatre. At the end of the day. Rhythm and proportion are important ingredients here: they turn a residential building into an experience. The relationships between inside and outside. the ceramic tiles beneath the natural stone counter where the cooking is done. into architecture. the town hall or the office. galleries. staircases and even summer-houses. about arranging them. the French windows in the load-bearing façade. on the other hand. the context. structures. The perception of a space and its finishing changes in the act of dwelling. or between the dwelling condition and the garden. How to handle this comes under the tectonics of housing as well. the glass brick in the tiled bathroom. On the one hand. The finishing of the rooms and the materials used for this acquire their meaning in the act of dwelling: the wooden floor with the thick carpet. This repetition of elements or of entire dwellings is primarily expressed in the façade. façade systems. its beauty. The Norwegian architect Christian Norberg-Schulz defines dwelling as identifying with a place. the quality of the building in its context. 239 . 1 Christian Norberg-Schulz. architectural quality still revolves around Vitruvius’s three points: durability. evokes the engineering of the building. Besides tectonics. it is about the control of all of these elements and the way in which they are put together to arrive at the composition of the residential building. Yet architectural quality is a broader concept. Another issue comes into play in housing. the weathered timber on the balcony where we have a drink in the sun. meaning and emotion. The term tectonics often. Duplication of the same programme as well as the production method of the dwellings and the configuration of the components and elements that make up these dwellings can easily result in repetition on a mass scale. 1979). itself a part of the façade. the street and the landscape all play a key role in identifying with the place. and in particular mass housing: repetition. but tectonics is first and foremost about the architectural and aesthetic quality of this engineering. Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture (New York: Rizzoli.There are various reasons to devote a chapter to the tectonics of the residential building in a book on housing design. architecture is all about combining materials and components. it is about common construction methods. and erroneously.1 This includes identifying with one’s surroundings. In short. that is the façade. It is governed in no small measure by that part of the home that mediates between the inside and outside. the cladding of the rooms in which our private activities take place. Engineering certainly comes into it. Identifying with the dwelling is largely governed by what encases the dwelling condition: the interior. it also encompasses the quality of the spatial arrangement in relation to the building’s purpose. as well as the entrance. as well as with the object in which dwelling actually takes place: the home.

1843–1852) the German art historian Karl Bötticher deploys the twin concepts of Kernform (the core form) and Kunstform (the art form). FOUR LAYERS 240 To further explore the tectonics of the residential building. feeling. 7. This relationship between the appearance of something that is built and our emotional experience of it is governed by its own dialectic. personal way – experience.3 The German architecture historian Fritz Neumeyer takes this one step further by linking creation with the perception of the art form. by the meanings that we read into a building. stands for the wooden structures of the original temples.5 Perception and experience are bridged. we recognize. and in particular an individual dwelling. Über Tektonik. 1995).2 Other authors have described the concept as a kind of mediator between creation and outward form or that which brings about form. In Die Tektoniek der Hellenen (The Tectonics of the Hellenes. Über Tektonik in der Baukunst (Braunschweig: Vieweg. cit. The Eyes functionality and beauty. in: Kollhoff. Depending on what we know or have experienced before. The composition of each of these layers and their relationship to . We do not experience everything that is technically or structurally feasible and that might be useful as pleasant or even beautiful – and vice versa. in the analysis of the Greek temple for example. Semper defines the concept in his book Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten (Style in the Technical and the Tectonic Arts. hearing and so forth – also shapes our perception. but the non-visual – smelling. Finnish architect Juhani Pallasmaa draws our attention to this in his book with the illuminating title The Eyes of the Skin.). is mediated by perception. Visual perception is paramount. 4 Fritz Neumeyer.4 Neumeyer’s statement captures the relationship between creation and perception. planklike elements into a rigid system’. (note 2).TECTONICS / Four Layers 2 Hans Kollhoff (ed. ‘Tektonik: Das Schauspiel der Objectivität und die Wahrheit der Architekturschauspiels’. in which the core form. to a significant extent. 1993). 4. we have classified its constitutive elements into four groups or layers. 1860–1863) as ‘the art of assembling stiff. The word tectonics comes from the Greek word tecton. between the order of the building and the structure of our perception. The nineteenth-century architect and theorist Gottfried Semper saw tectonics as the art of assembling. We ‘read’ the façade and the cladding of the rooms. 5 Juhani Pallasmaa. 3 Kenneth Frampton. whereas the art form refers to their artistic representation. op. Our experience of a building. Studies in Tectonic Culture (Cambridge. MA: MIT Press. The core (essence) of the concept ‘tectonics’ refers to the mysterious relationship between the creation and the visible expression or perception of things (objects) and concerns the relationship between the order of the built form and the structure of our perception. 55. interpret and – in our own. meaning carpenter or builder.

is not part of the building itself and should not be seen as one of the material layers. energy. roof and belly). 3 The scenery of the indoor space (cladding. inner doors and walls. load-bearing walls. however. structural floors). trusses. among others:6 1 The structure (columns. 2 The skin (cladding of the façade. walls and ceilings). The aforementioned four layers are the subject of this chapter. the site. 1996). Frame and Generic Space: A Study into the Changeable Dwelling Proceeding from the services scenery skin structure site 01 Four layers that together define the dwelling 241 . the finishing of floors. information and fresh air and include the appliances and rooms associated with these tasks. The site. The scenery arranges and defines the space. The structure transfers the building load down to the foundation. the building is in a particular location. Needless to say. 4 The services (pipes and ducts. 6 Bernard Leupen. appliances and other facilities). Francis Duffy [→ 01] and Stewart Brand. Adolf Loos. Our classification is based on the writings of Gottfried Semper. The skin separates the inside from the outside and presents the building to the outside world. The services control the supply and drainage of water. of the Skin (London: Academy another determines the tectonics of the building and hence its architecture. beams.

4 TEKTONIEK / tektoniek / Draagconstructie MOnOLith / MOnOLith Load-Bearing Façade Load-Bearing Dividing Wall. MOnOLith / SkELEtOn Load-Bearing Dividing Wall Load-Bearing Façade SkELEtOn / MOnOLith Dom-ino skeleton Reticulated Structure SkELEtOn / SkELEtOn 3d-skeleton Box Structure 02 Basic types of structure .

13. cit. 243 . ses principes et son goût. The skeleton construction. 7 Antoine Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy. dates back to the primitive hut. 8 In Der Stil in den technische und tektonische Künsten (Kollhoff. This classification is therefore a theoretical one. op. as found in medieval timber houses. as the example of Adolf Loos’s design for Haus Moller suggests. Monolithic construction returns in monumental stone buildings. Deplazes. Gottfried Semper describes the Caribbean hut at the Great Exhibition of 1851. 9 Andrea E. until the nineteenth century this was the most common method of construction for monumental edifices throughout most of Europe. transl. Über Tektonik. The particular configuration of the structure has a significant impact on the spatial organization within a building. floors. The eighteenth-century French architecture theorist Antoine Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy identifies two main principles underlying the structure of buildings: the monolithic method of construction and the skeleton-like structure. In brick and block building especially (construction using large or small blocks such as bricks. considérée dans son origine. 26–32. Structures: A Handbook. 2006). we can identify the following combinations: Monolith / Monolith — Load-bearing façade — Load-bearing dividing wall and solid floor — Box structure Monolith / Skeleton — Load-bearing façade — Load-bearing dividing wall Skeleton / Monolith — Dom-ino skeleton — Reticulated structure Skeleton / Skeleton — 3-D skeleton Permanent (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.H.StRUCtURE When we talk about the tectonics of the structure in housing we are referring to the configuration of walls. in theory these solutions can always be traced back to a few types of structural system.9 Based on these two principles.7 Both methods have their own history. Assuming that the walls and floors can each have their own construction principle. 29). et comparée sous les mêmes rapports à l’Architecture Grecque (Paris. G.8 The monolithic construction can be traced back to primitive stone dwellings such as the grotto and the trulli in southern Italy. In fact. Processes. or combinations of the two. the subject of Semper’s analysis in Der Stil in den technische und tektonische Künsten. Swiss architect Andrea Deplazes makes a similar distinction between ‘solid versus filigree’ in his hefty handbook Constructing Architecture. sand-lime bricks or natural stone). Although variations and combinations can prompt new and unique solutions in each project. 1785). columns and beams that transfer loads down to the foundation or that ensure the stability of the building. De l’Architecture Égyptienne. Söffker (Basel: Birkhäuser. 2005). (note 2). intermediate forms are possible. [← 02] A residential building can be built according to one of these construction principles. Constructing Architecture: Materials. we can identify the following types in contemporary house building: monolith and skeleton.

TECTONICS / Structure 03 244 04 .

indeed. in the most consistent examples all the load-bearing elements are made of the same material. 1996–1997) is also quite homogenous in its use of materials.MOnOLith / MOnOLith the monolithic structure is characterized by a unity between the load-bearing and dividing elements. but the herzog & De Meuron house in Leymen (France. 03 Herzog & de Meuron. monolithic structures are still possible in this day and age. Leymen. private house. A traditional example would be the trulli in southern italy. Walls are both load-bearing and dividing. the example shows that with the use of thick insulating concrete. France 04 Monolith: trulli in southern italy 245 .

then the sun-oriented façade must be load-bearing as well. storage spaces and. in one instance.TECTONICS / Structure 05a DkV ARChitECtEn. wedged between the water and the railway tracks. . because both the installation of the services and the construction as a whole are based on a standard grid. the standard storey accommodates two apartments which have been divided into two linear areas. especially for housing. kOP VAn hAVEnDiEP (LELYStAD. the open-plan kitchens. enabling different layouts. these openings were fitted with glass doors that provide access to the balcony as well as plenty of sunlight and a view. western side of the building. the service ducts. in the corner. Such a façade is the ideal load-bearing façade. one apartment occupies an entire floor. the designers started from the premise that none of the living spaces could face the tracks. Because the noise levels at this location beside the tracks are extremely high. only an unorthodox solution would do. the façade on this side would have to be a ‘blind façade’: a façade without windows that open. the sun and the view are on the quiet. this has been achieved by constructing this façade with a series of slabs with large openings that accommodate generously proportioned French windows. the structure can also be described as follows: the front façade. a lift and stairwell. Attached to these slabs are beams that support the floor. But if the blind façade is load-bearing. Situated on either side of this core are the bathrooms and toilets. which can therefore be extremely open. like the rear. 2004) MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Façade 246 the housing block designed by DkV is situated at the tip of the havendiep waterway. consists of a large concrete wall with a series of large vertical openings. halfway along the track side we find the building’s vertical access system. the area on the sunlit western side of the building can be freely adapted. the storeys of the building are arranged in a straight line. the combination of the longitudinal structure and the load-bearing façades – the latter is unusual in Dutch housing – has created a great deal of flexibility.

05b 05c 05b Regular floor plan 05c Analytical drawing 247 .

which Manuel de las Casas has highlighted in his composition. Because insulation on the inside requires great care. 198 DWELLinGS. this reverse façade system is most common in countries with a meticulous construction track record. this and the perfectly balanced proportions have turned a simple idea into an impressive project. where it is known as Plattenbau. recent housing project based on this principle was designed by Manuel de las Casas in Madrid. such as Switzerland. because the insulation has been applied on the inside of the walls. 1996) MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Façade 248 System building is a method of building in which the structure is made of large. was widely used in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc. the large prefabricated concrete elements remain visible. developed among others by the French company Coignet.TECTONICS / Structure 06a MAnUEL DE LAS CASAS. MARQUÉS DE LA VALDAViA (MADRiD. giving the building its typical semiprefabricated look. the prefabricated elements can be displayed on the outside. storeyheight prefabricated concrete elements. this system. . An interesting. the seams between the elements form a pattern. By reversing the package. in this project.

06b 06a Analysis of prefabricated concrete structure 249 .

. Amsterdam. 250 one of the examples of where tunnel-form construction was applied during the post-war reconstruction period.TECTONICS / Structure 07 08 07 tunnel-form principle 08 Bijlmermeer.

thus bringing a home in a high-rise with a view of the horizon and surrounded by green space within everybody’s reach. Because the formwork is heated it can be removed after a few days. it has also become easier to make the openings in the wall between two tunnels wider than a single door. [← 08] tunnel formwork involves a fixed-moment connection between walls and floors. the following examples demonstrate that within the strict discipline of tunnel-form construction there is still some flexibility in building design. tunnel-form construction allowed the ideas of Ludwig hilberseimer and CiAM – the large-scale duplication of the ideal dwelling – to be implemented. — the concrete load-bearing wall and floor comply with noise regulations. the implementation of this idea would meet with less appreciation than the many ideologues. — Smooth walls and ceilings. at least up to a point. [← 07] in the tunnel-form system. the floor and wall constitute one monolithic whole. the whole is cast in situ. the main difference between these archetypal monolithic structures and the modern tunnelform method is that the latter produces a fixed-moment structure. — Creates a single type of space (tunnel). tunnel-form construction originated in the desire for rationalization and industrialization in post-Second World War housing. — Rapid output (the formwork can be removed after a few days). for example. Entire floors can be cast in one go using standard steel formworks. in the end. but this monolithic structure can be punctured both horizontally and vertically for windows. load-bearing walls tend to be rigidly tied to horizontal floor slabs. the entire process can be done in two production runs of five tunnel bays. As the ultimate monolithic structure.MOnOLith/MOnOLith LOAD-BEARinG DiViDinG WALL AnD SOLiD FLOOR The Tunnel-Form Structure A common building method based on the monolith/monolith principle with load-bearing party wall is tunnel-form construction. the disadvantages of tunnel-form construction include: — Only suitable for highly repetitive construction. the tunnel can be seen as an extension of the monolithic structures with domes. hence our special attention to the tectonics of this building method. a clear span direction. for example. unlike their stacked counterparts. which then form a monolithic whole. the advantages of tunnel-form construction are: — Cost-savings on large production runs. — Demands great uniformity. lifts and stairs. tunnelform construction remains the dominant method of production for structures in housing in the netherlands. A span of over 7 m. however: there must be enough wall and floor left to ensure an even load transfer. 251 . is quite easy to achieve nowadays. giving designers the freedom to choose their preferred layout. architects and builders had anticipated at the time. planners. this fixedmoment connection gives tunnel structures. such as the aforementioned trulli and the loam houses of the Mexican pueblos. it can be seen as a kind of minimalism: playing with the basic unit of the tunnel’s standard dimensions. these punctures are subject to restrictions. — the concrete load-bearing wall and floor comply with safety regulations regarding fire compartmentation. doors. — Rigid structure. MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Dividing Wall and Solid Floor Some of these disadvantages can be overcome with the necessary know-how and clever uses of the tunnel-form system.

Rudy Uytenhaak alternates the tunnel with partially unfilled zones. if so desired. the fifth dwelling is on the west side and has a patio for the car. a secondary construction inserted between the tunnel-form structural walls. secondary. tunnel with intermediate Space 252 the use of cut-aways in the floor slabs – which is also done for stairwells – makes it possible to realize entire vides in tunnel-form systems. it also enables the creation of double-height rooms. hOUSinG BORnEO-EiLAnD (AMStERDAM. four of which are served by a small courtyard that can be entered from the east side.TECTONICS / Structure 09a RUDY UYtEnhAAk. thus creating an extremely complex fabric of dwellings. 2000) MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Dividing Wall. the dwellings all have a large terrace on the second floor. in his project on Borneo island in Amsterdam’s Eastern harbour District. five dwellings are interlinked. For every two bays. lighter and more flexible floors can be inserted into these double-height rooms to create interesting and transformable structures. 09b Analysis of the structure including tunnels and open zones 09c Floor plan .

09b 09c 253 .

they divide the block’s central open space into two stepped spaces: a patio that widens towards the top and an indoor space that tapers towards the top and forms the access staircase. Particularly striking are the three façade-to-façade apartments. Placed diagonally above one another. where the tunnel has been rotated 90 degrees. 10b . tunnel with intermediate Space 254 Botania. these window walls are topped by a large steel section to absorb the load (see detail 10b). even its ends. the main reason for the different method of construction is that these apartments are entirely open on one side. this project showcases the possibilities of tunnel-form construction. which are part of the tunnel-form system of the block’s long sides. in Amsterdam’s historic city centre. each 33 m long. At first sight.TECTONICS / Structure 10a DE ARChitEktEn CiE. the 33-m dwellings that stretch from façade to façade appear to be made of tunnel elements as well. the open parts are fitted with glass fronts that provide access to large roof terraces. the 40 apartments are grouped ingeniously around the spacious access staircase. accommodates a wide range of luxury apartment types. Most of the building is composed of tunnel elements. FRitS VAn DOnGEn. But while this is true for the extremities of these apartments. the middle part was built using a steel skeleton. BOtAniA RESiDEntiAL BUiLDinG (AMStERDAM. 2002) MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Dividing Wall. the brick façades with white and dark-green window frames allude to the city’s old canal houses.

10a Cross section of the 10c façade-to-façade apartments 10b Detail of the structure of the façade-to-façade apartments 10c interior of the cross-block apartment 10d Floor plan of second storey 10e Floor plan of fourth storey 10d 10e 255 .

TECTONICS / Structure 11b 11a nEUtELinGS RiEDiJk ARChitECtEn. A west-facing balcony stretches across the entire length of the living room. the interweaving of the homes invites comparison with neutelings Riedijk’s Panorama dwellings in huizen (see Chapter 2. the first-floor living room straddles two bays with a relatively narrow width of 4. is a large roof terrace. ‘typology’. Parallel to this room. the other dwelling has a large living room on the second floor. One dwelling has a large living room on the first floor. in fact. page 53).2 m each. this width was created using a large cut-away in the structural wall. perpendicular to the street. SPOREnBURG hOUSinG (AMStERDAM. and on the neighbours’ roof. 1995) MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Dividing Wall. these cut-aways can be made big enough to allow rooms to be built across two bays. parallel to the street and partially above the neighbours’ carport. . tunnel with transverse Space 256 it is also possible to use inserts in the formwork to create cut-aways for doors and windows. this is what neutelings Riedijk architecten did on the Sporenburg peninsula. the result of this intervention is a puzzle of dwellings.

Second floor First floor 11a Front elevation 11b Analysis of the structure Ground floor 11c 257 .

TECTONICS / Structure 12 13 14 258 12 Services flooring or apartment flooring 13 Wing-flooring slab system 14 inFRA+ flooring system .

rigid designs that enable larger spans. the range of floor systems is particularly extensive. the familiar wideslab flooring is a good example of this type. Whereas the wide-slab flooring only provides the flexibility to arrange the ducting before or during construction. the infra+ flooring also provides flexibility in use. the first is a floor made of a thin prefabricated subfloor and reinforcement joists. move ducting (see also Uytenhaak’s La Fenêtre. a brief look is useful. the following criteria play a role in the choice of floor system: — Mode of construction (dry or wet assembly) — Span — Flexible installation of ducts for plumbing and wiring — Sound insulation — Efficiency — Flexibility MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Dividing Wall. the light top flooring can be hacked away quite easily to install ducting. the ducting is poured into the compression layer at the same time.FLOOR tYPE intERLUDE: BEtWEEn tUnnEL-FORM AnD PREFAB Alongside the widely used tunnel-form system and prefabrication with large elements (see below). the services flooring is a good example. sufficient weight per square metre. this is often covered in situ by a structural layer. on the other hand. the building sector has come up with two different solutions. the second solution comprises floors made of a structural layer topped by a nonstructural layer of lighter foamed concrete. When these wide-slab floorings are made. the infra+ flooring. 259 . there are all kinds of hybrid construction systems in use in house building. while the infra+ flooring is a contemporary variation of it. 278). Prefab tunnel Elements Many new flooring systems seek to strike a balance between light. that is to say. this type of flooring also allows adjustment to the service ducts. space for ducting in the floor and sufficient sound insulation. leaves space between the steel joists to install and. Although the focus of this book is not on construction techniques. if necessary. p.

iL RiGO hOUSinG (CORCiAnO. the idea is that a developer constructs the shell. 1978) MOnOLith/MOnOLith Load-Bearing Dividing Wall. 10 toshio nakamura. A+U (March 1989).TECTONICS / Structure 15a 15b REnZO PiAnO. 104–113. . the stacking receives even more emphasis on the outside because the end window walls are recessed 1. Even the finishing of the links between the concrete elements is a prominent feature of the interior. A floor can be installed in this 6-m high room using light open-web steel joists and small prefabricated floor slabs. ‘Renzo Piano Building Workshop 1964–1988’.2 m from the end of the tunnel.11 the resulting tunnel is 6 m wide and 6 m high on the inside. turning the top elements upside-down results in a tall and freely subdivisible space. the project was informed by the idea that it is relatively easy to produce a cheap shell with a prefabricated structure. the two U-shaped elements that make up the shell are visible on both the inside and the outside and clearly articulated. after which the occupants can install the floors and window walls at their own discretion. 11 Consider for instance the design that Le Corbusier submitted in 1964 for the competition for the Palais des Congrès in Strasbourg.10 the shell of the building designed by Piano is made of floor-to-ceiling prefabricated U-shaped concrete elements that are stacked on top of one another. itALY. Prefab tunnel Elements 260 the housing project by italian architect Renzo Piano in Corciano-il Rigo near Perugia is a remarkable project with a tunnel-form structure. the open-web steel joists are connected to a section attached to the U-shaped elements 3 m above the floor.

15b Assembly of the prefabricated tunnel-form elements and the prefab flooring elements 15c Axonometrics 15c 261 .15a.

a bit like stacking matchboxes. One of the few buildings to have been designed according to this principle is Moshe Safdie’s habitat ’67 in Montreal. all the boxes were designed with their position in the stack in mind. which is then formed by the adjacent box or the box on top.TECTONICS / Structure 16a MOShE SAFDiE. the floor spans in two directions. such as slabs and towers. hABitAt ’67 (MOntREAL. this arresting stacked development attracted a great deal of attention and was seen as a fine alternative to the many familiar forms of stacked housing. 1967) MOnOLith/MOnOLith Box Structure 262 in the box system all the walls are loadbearing. the dwellings in the habitat project were prefabricated as boxes and lifted into place. this may sound simple enough. to prevent this. Another problem is the fact that in this kind of stack the structure is doubled. a ‘two-way slab’. these are not proper boxes. it was built as a model for the housing of the future at the World Exhibition site in Montreal in 1967. those at the top only themselves. each has one missing part. the roofs and the balconies were either added as separate elements or formed by the dwelling above. in actual fact. . but complications set in as a result of the various forces that the box has to absorb. the boxes at the bottom have to carry the entire building. in more or less square spaces.

16b 16a Analysis of the structure 16b Stacking of the dwellings 263 .

TECTONICS / Structure 17 264 17 Wooden skeleton of a medieval house .

but bound by the limitations of the materials used. Because the front and rear façades were not load-bearing. the dividing wall became a so-called structural wall. Unlike the walls. unlike a stacked wall. which transferred the load down to the foundation. the dimensions and the span (bay size) are largely determined by the structural possibilities of the materials used. its vertical position is free. they could be fitted with large openings. the narrow lot made it possible to have beams parallel to the front façade spanning the dividing walls. MOnOLith / SkELEtOn Load-Bearing Dividing Wall Monolith / Skeleton. the stability of the load-bearing wall depends on the material used: a reinforced concrete wall can be tied rigidly. the only restriction here is the slenderness ratio of the load-bearing wall. the walls dividing dwellings have been made of masonry. Load-Bearing Dividing Wall Since the seventeenth century. Many people see the archetypal building as a kind of ‘stack’. 265 . more specifically a stack of bricks that are more durable when fired than as clay. the walls are relatively closed and space-defining. Openings in the walls are possible. the position of the wall. the installation of the floor slabs is subject to fewer restrictions. As long as the floor has a clear span. which will therefore be restricted in height. resulting in the characteristic Dutch townhouses with large and numerous windows. the loadbearing dividing wall between two houses has been the structural principle of urban development in the netherlands [← 17].MOnOLith / SkELEtOn the third type of structure consists of loadbearing walls with beams supporting the floors. Since the great city fires in the sixteenth century. in this method of construction.

this method of construction makes it possible to create rooms with different heights. haus Moller. All the walls of a detached house such as the one shown here are façades. 1927–1928) 18a MOnOLith / SkELEtOn Load-Bearing Façade Load-Bearing Dividing Wall With relative freedom in the placement of the floors it becomes possible to create all kinds of interesting spatial relationships.TECTONICS / Structure ADOLF LOOS.12 in haus Moller this produces a wealth of spatial relationships in which the many facets of urban dwelling can be played out against the backdrop of the bustling metropolis Vienna. hAUS MOLLER (ViEnnA. Loos used this type of construction to realize his beautiful spatial designs. known as the Raumplan. that of the structure with load-bearing façades and that of the structure with load-bearing party walls. making the façade load-bearing by definition. the load partially spans the corner here. Split levels. while part of the side wall adds strength. this is why we decided to include both pictograms here. the basic structure of haus Moller consists of load-bearing stone walls combined with timber floor joists. the load-bearing walls are made of brick.). . 12 See also Max Risselada (ed. Raumplan versus Plan Libre (new York: Rizzoli. designed by Adolf Loos. vides and even sloping floor decks are among the possibilities. in this kind of stacked construction it is often difficult to pinpoint where the load-bearing function of the brickwork ends and where it merely serves as a partition between inside and outside. 1987). is a fine example of this.

18b 18a Front elevation 18b Analysis of the structure 267 .

Dom-ino principle 20 F.TECTONICS / Structure 19 20 268 19 Le Corbusier. reinforced concrete principle . Hennebique.

he assumed that this technique would enable rapid and efficient house building. — the skeleton is poured in situ without complex formwork. 23. Oeuvre complète de 1946–1952: Le Corbusier et Pierre Jeanneret. the partition walls.13 the Dom-ino principle can be summarized in the following four points: — the structure is independent from the final layout. doors and windows. [← 20] When Le Corbusier opted for reinforced concrete. can be placed anywhere within the open-floor plan.14 SkELEtOn / MOnOLith Dom-ino skeleton Reticulated Structure 13 Le Corbusier developed the Dom-ino principle to facilitate the rapid reconstruction of Flemish towns and villages devastated in the First World War. however. the Dom-ino house is based on a standard reinforced concrete skeleton according to the hennebique system. Boesiger. 14 W. vol 2 (Zurich: Artemis. so that the preferred horizontal relationships can be achieved. [← 19] the Dom-ino principle features rigid floor slabs supported by columns. 1964). can be done by another contractor. 269 . such as standard wardrobes. the floor slabs determine the overall structure here and cannot be adapted very easily. — the production of the fittings and fixtures.SkELEtOn / MOnOLith Dom-ino Skeleton this type of structure owes its name to Le Corbusier’s Maison Dom-ino (1914). — A company can manufacture the structure in situ and on demand.

to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. water and sewage pipes have been worked into the lowered floor of the galleries and the corridors. 1994) SkELEtOn / MOnOLith Dom-ino skeleton 270 ducts have been integrated in the raised floor inside the dwellings. it of reinforced concrete is quite exceptional incorporates environmentally friendly features and integrates vegetation on the given contemporary fire safety and noise roof and in the façades. with floors and columns made of concrete. in that respect. the floors have been partially lowered or raised to accommodate the service ducts. however. the longevity of the insulation standards. for example. next building has been extended by separating 21 is a unique project. so far no residents have come next 21 was built as the housing of the future for the Japanese Osaka Gas Company. the dividing walls between the dwellings are part of the infill kit. the designers opted for a main structure based on the Dom-ino principle. the electric wiring. forward with plans for major modifications.TECTONICS / Structure 21a YOSitikA UtiDA AnD ShU-kO-ShA ARCh. have been separated from the main structure. to achieve maximum flexibility on each floor. Support and infill have been constructed in such a way that the joint structure and adjacent dwellings will not be affected by any alterations to the individual units. the ventilation system has been concealed behind the lowered ceiling of the dwellings and the smaller pipes and . the support from the internal layout. Osaka Gas has actually made adjustments to some flats. JAPAn. the building is an experiment in the field of the use of a Dom-ino skeleton with dividing walls between dwellings that are not made energy and water management. the service ducts. & URBAn DESiGn StUDiO. nEXt 21 (OSAkA. But unlike the Dom-ino skeleton.

21b 21c 21b Ground-level and first- storey floor plans 21c Analysis of the concrete skeleton 271 .

in this kind of construction the load is not absorbed by vertical columns but by a crisscross pattern of columns or beams. by Xaveer de Geyter on the Chassé site in Breda. 2007). was built using a load-bearing grid. Because this network can be made relatively lightweight. the open floor plan offers great flexibility. these panels have been stacked diagonally.15 the principle is used in housing as well. the result is a building with load-bearing as well as transparent façades that can support large floor slabs without columns. speaks of a reticulated structure. Cecil Balmond. in this case a concrete grid.TECTONICS / Structure 22a XAVEER DE GEYtER. With the load-bearing line in the façade. Angling the load-bearing elements and interlinking them in several directions produces a rigid surface. in his Frontiers of Architecture 1 (Humlebæk: Louisiana Museum of Modern Art. it is transparent enough to be placed in the façade. more closed façades are built in the same way. ChASSÉ PARk APARtMEntS (BREDA. 2001) SkELEtOn / MOnOLith Reticulated Structure 272 in recent years we are seeing more and more buildings with a reticulated structure. the reticulated structure appears to be confined to the south side. 15 . this grid is positioned immediately behind the façade. however. the other. albeit that the reticulated load paths have been concealed in the rectangular cladding panels. One of the residential buildings in the project shown here.

22b 22b High-rise floor plan 22c Analytical drawing 0 22c 2m 273 .

TECTONICS / Structure 23 25 24 274 .

if it is built as an open. the half-timbered house emerged in the late Middle Ages in north-West Europe. 275 . [← 23] A more recent example. especially around the major river deltas. 25 R. all of which shape our perception. the primitive hut. Like their common ancestor. you name it. the structure of these houses therefore leaves an indelible impression. both the space-defining walls and. this house was built using a steel skeleton: steel i-beams as columns with lattice girders on top. to a certain degree. stone or timber infill and the tiled roof on the other. the floors can be positioned freely. and the skin made of the clay. heavy main and secondary beams against the ceiling. is the house that Ray and Charles Eames designed for themselves (Santa Monica. albeit in steel. eames. and Ch. corbel stones. [← 24–25] the skeleton is covered with standard cladding. roof trusses. buttresses. the skeleton as structuring principle is palpable throughout these houses: timber columns in the wall. threedimensional skeleton. these houses are made up of two separate layers: the structure consisting of the timber skeleton on the one hand. on the right the axonometrics of the structure. the floors and roof panels are made of profiled sheets for extra rigidity. 3d-skeleton 23 Farmhouse in Lower Saxony 24.SkELEtOn / SkELEtOn SkELEtOn / SkELEtOn 3-D Skeleton the skeleton construction consists of a three-dimensional skeleton made of beams and columns. 1945–1950). Santa Monica. private house. 1945–1950.

op. which Le Corbusier had first explored in the Maison Dom-ino. it was then covered with the same type of flooring as in the other storeys. (note 6). the Unité features a thin fire-resistant flooring layer. differently linked dwelling types. the concrete skeleton of the Unité in Marseille provides three-dimensional freedom.16 Le Corbusier managed to implement several of his ideas in this Unité. 154 ff. OASE 37/38 (1994). in theory. which Le Corbusier exploits to design various. the floors tend to be poured at the same time as the skeleton.TECTONICS / Structure 26a LE CORBUSiER. a nursery school. for example. 17 the Unité is one of the few examples of a 3-D concrete skeleton used in housing. As this is too thin to support habitation. the separation between skeleton and internal layout. Frame and Generic Space. shops. 1947) SkELEtOn / SkELEtOn 3d-skeleton 276 After the Second World War. Le Corbusier’s study of mass housing edifices resulted in the Unité d’habitation. the individual apartments have been placed within this concrete skeleton. the double-height living quarters and the pilotis were first used in the Maison Citrohan. the structure of the apartments themselves consists of steel i-beams and light box girders. Every three storeys. For sound insulation and fire safety reasons. a residential building accommodating 321 apartments. a hotel and a fitness centre. cit. engel. 17 Leupen. ‘Veertig jaar Unité d’habitation een nieuwe formule voor stedelijkheid’. 16 H. returns in the separation between the carcass of the skeleton and the production of the individual housing unit in the Unité. UnitÉ D’hABitAtiOn (MARSEiLLE. the main structure of the Unité consists of a gigantic concrete skeleton cast in situ. 26b Concrete skeleton during construction . 32–67.

26b .

TECTONICS / Structure 27a Steel skeleton during construction 27b infra+ flooring during construction 27c initial design of seventh floor. however. this type of top flooring is difficult to remove. however. in the case of La Fenêtre it was decided to use a top flooring layer made of steel dovetail sheeting (Lewis sheeting) covered with a sand cement top flooring layer. most notably on the 23rd floor. in practice. for instance for a new apartment layout. in theory. more flexible layout 27a RUDY UYtEnhAAk. wedged between a busy street and the Dutch national Archives. 18 Huub Smeets et al. the structural skeleton forms the framework within which the walls and floors separate the dwellings from one another. however. these i-beams are then covered with a top flooring layer. Because the initial design was based on a tunnel-form concrete skeleton. a prefabricated flooring system that consists of a concrete subfloor with steel i-beams for reinforcement. not just because of the small site. but also because steel is easier to dismantle and reuse if necessary. the service ducts can also be inserted through the oval opening in the i-beam and installed across the length of the i-beam. the resulting package should provide sufficient sound insulation for use in housing. . 1998–2005) SkELEtOn / SkELEtOn 3d-skeleton 278 On a narrow plot. the architect soon decided to use a steel skeleton. LA FEnÊtRE (thE hAGUE. this flexibility has not been exploited. As in the Unité. the site of La Fenêtre was extremely tight. this layout has been abandoned in a few places. tunnel system shown in secondary colour 27d Definitive design of 23rd floor. the designer opted for this system because the client objected to changes to the flooring after completion..18 in a steel skeleton. where the zoning is less rigid. the distinction between load-bearing and dividing elements is absolute. it should be possible to remove the top flooring at a later date to adjust the service ducts. La Fenêtre Den Haag (Maastricht: Vesteda architectuur. 2007). 12. the cavity between the infra+ flooring and the top flooring offers space to tuck away a flexible set of pipes and ducts. a route for slow-moving (pedestrian and bicycle) traffic had been planned to run underneath the building. the floors were made using the infra+ system. Depending on the quality and weight of this top flooring. as the re-laying of the top floor by non-professionals could result in noise seepage. the definitive design still features the typical tunnel-form floor plan with parallel walls. the steel skeleton creates an open floor plan with plenty of flexibility for installing partitions and service ducts. to complicate matters even further.

27b 27c 27d 0 7.5 m 279 .

however. transfer the load down to the foundation. as they do in a traditional house with stone walls and timber floor joists. the first two floors of the building are made of timber. Secondary beams support the floor slabs. At the rear of the building a large wall built with chunks of natural stone – alluding to the old garden walls in the area – ensures stability. On the building’s third floor. it does not have to be fire-proofed and can therefore be left showing. Large main beams constitute the main span between the wall and the columns. the timber skeleton makes way for a steel skeleton. some of which are partly visible as the beautiful. Because this skeleton supports only the roof. their decision was inspired by the old timber sheds in the courtyard of this housing block. 28a entrance on courtyard 28b Ground floor and first floor 28c Cross section 28d Analytical drawing . slender cigar-shaped wooden columns facing the courtyard while the others are concealed within the wall. making this timber skeleton a three-dimensional skeleton. 1988) SkELEtOn / SkELEtOn 3d-skeleton 280 herzog & De Meuron opted for a timber structure in their design for six dwellings around a courtyard on hebelstrasse in Basel. hEBELStRASSE 11 hOUSinG (BASEL.TECTONICS / Structure 28a hERZOG & DE MEUROn. the structure is not made entirely of wood: only the floors and part of the main structure are. A series of support columns.

28b 28c 28d 281 .


we refer to it as the façade. vapour barrier. Sometimes the skin. substructures. while also presenting the building to the outside world. the belly of the building. 283 . insulation. such as a glass pane. The skin comprises the arrangement of all those materials and elements that define the separation between inside and outside. etcetera. All of these constellations will be discussed in this part of the chapter. Sometimes this is a single layer. and sometimes it is a complex package with inner and outer cladding. somewhat expressively. on top or at the side of the building. We can also break the skin down into the skin underneath. If the skin is a more or less vertical plane. If it covers the top of the building we speak of the roof and if it encloses or bounds the underside of a building we call it. is actually a complex spatial system in which physical and spatial dividing lines do not coincide.Skin The skin separates the inside from the outside. as it is in a roof. contrary to what the word suggests.

TECTONICS / Skin SINGLE LAYER MULTI LAYER MASS GRiD MASS GRiD MASS / MASS GRiD / GRiD MASS / GRiD GRiD / MASS 29 284 29 Matrix of six façade types .

The matrix diagram on page 284 represents all of these combinations. with each layer fulfilling a different task. The following examples illustrate the different positions within the matrix.the Façade — Mass — Grid — Mass/Mass — Grid/Grid — Mass/Grid — Grid/Mass Like the structure. which is made of a skeleton and sealed with a transparent or opaque sheet-like material. (note 9). The various layers can be both monolithic and membrane-like. Constructing Architecture. op. 13. Because few materials can meet all of these requirements.19 The contemporary façade serves a multitude of functions.and water-proof. 19 Deplazes. and the membrane-like façade (the ‘grid’). insulate against noise and heat and be wind. there are two basic façade types: the monolithic wall (the ‘mass’) made of a single material. façades are increasingly made of different materials with different properties. 285 . It has to transfer load. cit.

An admixture makes the concrete lighter while adding extra insulation properties. at 50 cm. who specialize in unusual methods of construction. . that is to be load-bearing. insulating. with their free composition expressing their subordination to the main material: the insulating concrete. MEULi (St GALLEn. SWitZERLAnD. Bearth & Deplazes. these walls are made of a specially prepared concrete and. Small windows have been inserted for light and a view.TECTONICS / Skin 30 BEARth & DEPLAZES. the walls are a part of the structure. built the house with thick concrete walls. thick enough to be insulating. watertight and windproof. hOUSE. the special concrete meets most of the requirements of a façade. 2001) MASS 286 Meuli in Switzerland is home to a private house with façades made of a single material. its architects.

2001) 31a 31a Vertical façade detail For Gert Wingårdh. thanks to the use of insulating concrete in the thick façade. lower apartment building. no extra insulation is needed. Like the ground-level floor.. Building Bo01 consists of two parts.31b GERt WinGÅRDh. the courtyard immediately behind the fortress accommodates the second. discussed above. Sweden. this is reflected in the generous window openings that Gert Wingårdh has introduced. the base of the apartment building is clad in limestone. it looks out across the Sundet. the façades of this building are made of a lightweight concrete brick.20 he drew on natural materials and sturdy building techniques to design a residential building for the building exhibition ‘BO01’ in Malmö. MASS 287 . is a prominent part of a residential neighbourhood designed by klas tham. with the tallest part like a fortress screening the adjacent neighbourhood with its narrow pedestrian streets from the raw sea wind. the strait between the north Sea and the Baltic Sea. BO01 (MALMÖ. durability means first and foremost solidity. Time-Based Architecture (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. which is to last hundreds of years. 2005). in contrast to the house in Meuli. 20 Bernard Leupen et al. the façade here is not load-bearing. the residential building.

the way it does in traditional mass housing. these two stone-like materials envelop a layer of insulation material. it does support itself. Given the staggered pattern of the openings in the façade. the façade is not part of the main structure and only supports itself. this sandwich with a stone-like material on either side is typical of prefab elements. Although the façade is not part of the main structure. which are also dividing walls. With the sandwich panels placed in a checkerboard pattern. ÆBLELUnDEn (COPEnhAGEn. the load lines run straight down. 2008) MASS / MASS 288 the façades of this building are made of prefabricated concrete sandwich (layered) panels. the external leaf includes brick. the prefabricated standard floor elements are parallel to the façade and have been fixed to the structural walls. this means that less lost space (cut-away material) has to be transported by road.TECTONICS / Skin 32b 32a VAnDkUnStEn. the architect has opted for a prefabricated sandwich panel to create a stony exterior with brick panels. 32a Façade structure principle: prefabricated panels stacked in a checkerboard pattern with vertical load lines 32b Rendering of western façade . the large openings are created by open spaces between the elements instead of cut-aways in the elements themselves. the façade could be constructed using relatively small prefab elements. creating a vivid picture. the façade has a puzzle-like pattern. it also means that the façade no longer reflects the individual housing units. the openings for windows and balcony doors and the balconies themselves are staggered.

### 33a 33b MECAnOO. imbuing the façade with a degree of layeredness. GRiD 33b Vertical detail of south façade 289 . a housing exhibition with an environmental focus in Stuttgart. 1989–1993) house 13 formed a part of the internationale Garten Ausstellung. the winter garden and the living quarters are separated by a single-glazed folding partition. this wall was cast in situ as a stabilizing wall. the two short sides have been treated differently: the rear. the tunnel-form structure. is closed. the glass front contains rotating elements so that the winter garden behind it can be opened across its entire width. the closed sides with load-bearing walls are punctured in a few places by a door. which faces northeast across a communal garden. while the park-oriented rear elevation is clad in zinc with underlying insulation. it is a good example of an apartment block with a single-layer façade. has three closed sides and one open side. hOUSE 13 (StUttGARt. a small window or just a tiny hole closed off with a glass brick. the side walls are clad in façade insulation and plaster. the timber window frames on each floor are fitted with insulating glass. cast in situ. the sun-facing open side is enclosed with a continuous glass front.

making it look quite abstract. 1996) 34a GRiD / GRiD 290 in some multilayered façades the external layer is not the waterproof and windproof layer. instead of mounting the shutters in the usual way in the window recesses. in others it serves as a sun blind or privacy measure. this was the inspiration for herzog & De Meuron when they chose the façade cladding for their housing project on the Rue des Suisses in Paris. such an ‘outer skin’ is purely aesthetic. the windows of traditional houses in Europe are fitted with shutters to keep out either the sun or the cold. the perforated steel shutters admit filtered light. When the shutters are opened. When closed. 34e Vertical cross sections of front façade and side façade behind building with wooden roll-down shutters hERZOG & DE MEUROn. the windows appear and the façade displays an alternating open-and-closed pattern. in some cases. in many Dutch canalside houses. in France we find shutters with horizontal tilted slats that admit some light and air during the day. the shutters are on the inside of the windows. When closed. RUE DES SUiSSES (PARiS. herzog & De Meuron fit them as a kind of net curtain 50 centimetres in front of the climate-proof façade. such shutters were sometimes made of metal.TECTONICS / Skin 34b. 34c Metal shutters 34d. . in French boulevard blocks from the early twentieth century. herzog & De Meuron fitted an outer skin that alludes to the traditional shutters found in various forms of European housing. these shutters can be folded away in an alcove in the wall beside the ‘window seat’. while houses in colder regions have closed shutters with the sole aim of keeping out the cold. this smooth façade covers the entire building. A balustrade turns the narrow strip between the window and the shutter into a Juliet balcony.

34b 34c 34e 291 34d .

Because the piers are alternated with the openings with the French doors. one of which is the kind of ‘external skin’ we saw in the previous project. the façade. the doors are alternated with closed walls clad on the outside with multiplex with insulation underneath. the first thing one notices are the sliding panels that provide shelter on the balconies. kOP VAn hAVEnDiEP (LELYStAD. . the façade of this building is indeed load-bearing. at first sight.TECTONICS / Skin 35a DkV ARChitECtEn. but its layered composition conceals the structure. these wide piers constitute the load-bearing façade. Sets of double French doors give access to these balconies. does not appear to be a part of the main structure. 2004) MASS / GRiD GRiD / MASS 292 35a Façade fragment with the continuous load-bearing façade surface clearly visible around the windows 35b Vertical cross section of south façade the kop van havendiep was discussed under the section on structures as an example of a load-bearing façade. the façade therefore consists of a mass on the inside and a grid on the outside – a grid made of two layers.

35b 293 .

Unité d’habitation. roof with children’s paddling pool 36 38 37 .TECTONICS / Skin 36 Mansard roofs in Paris 37 Detail of a mansard roof 38 Le Corbusier. Marseille.

suitable for storing household or commercial goods. and because many modern architects have preferred the abstraction of the smooth plane to the ceramic tile. Their solution was the flat roof. which soon became the standard of modern housing. Modern or not. In the Netherlands a flat roof is well and truly flat.the Roof Forms of Roofs The sloping roof plane – the pitched roof especially – is an archetypal roof form in the northern climate zone. dormer windows provide the necessary light and increase the standing room. a lot of post-Second World War stacked housing is topped with a pitched roof with a gentle slope of 15 degrees. This gave rise to the idea of the fifth façade. the roof was no longer just the top of a building. The roof deserves as much attention as the façade composition. These mansard roofs top many nineteenthcentury buildings in Paris. but also something that was looked out upon (from an even taller building). By the end of the twentieth century. Modern architects saw the attic – with or without a mansard roof – as second-rate living space. because the roofs were usually not weatherboarded. It can be covered with grass or moss. let alone on a flat roof. the walls are extended. a buffer zone. Because part of the roof surface is too steep for tiles. the roof on top of stacked housing fell into disuse. There are minor regional differences in the adherence to the dogma of the flat roof. The attic did not always stay dry. Once roofs were fitted with boarding and later with insulation as well. Originally such roofs were not insulated. which is ecologically friendly and 295 . with a wink and a nod to tradition. as the roof of the Unité in Marseille illustrates. Taken one step further. To achieve the desired rectilinear building shape. Le Corbusier saw the flat roof as an opportunity for reclaiming space for roof terraces and children’s playgrounds. In Germany. The desire to increase the effective floor area in the attic inspired French architect François Mansart to develop roofs with cantilever trusses. The Fifth Façade Because tiles cannot be used on a gently sloping roof. This form of roof – usually covered with tiles – is good at keeping out rain and snow. zinc cladding is used. Underneath the often attractive roof structures would be the attic. Designers in Scandinavia are less radical. the flat roof tends to have a substantial slope of some 10 degrees. the roof is viewed as a landscape. the attic became a habitable space. mastic or rubberlike roofing is the most obvious solution. With the emergence of modern architecture at the start of the twentieth century. A pitch of one degree takes care of the necessary drainage. In this case.

TECTONICS / Skin 39 Grass roof that can be walked on 40 Grass roof of a norwegian house 39 40 296 .

insulating at the same time. 297 .

The following examples cover the most important roof forms and their specific tectonics. thanks to modern techniques such as the computer-controlled production of roof trusses or the construction of curved panels using sprayed concrete.TECTONICS / Skin 41b 41a Vertical cross section SLOPinG ROOF 298 The roof can now also be curved or undulating. We identify the following three roof forms: — Sloping roof — Flat roof — Curved roof . The 1990s introduced special roof forms in housing.

41c third to sixth floor ninth floor Second floor eighth floor First floor Seventh floor 299 .

ROOiE DOnDERS (ALMERE. to create the pitched roof. under which unusual living spaces are situated. right up to the rafters. these rafters are supported by timber purlins. to further emphasize the striking quality of the three residential buildings in Almere. the building has been topped with a huge pitched roof. the purlins are topped by 16 mm of underlayment and insulation. steel rafters have been placed on the tunnelformed structural walls. the Rooie Donders (‘red rascals’) derive their powerful impact from the systematic use of the colour red and the sloping roofs. it is interesting to think that the distinctive shape of the space underneath the roof is particularly appreciated these days. the roof is covered with plastic roofing in the same colour red as the façade’s corrugated steel sheeting. Liesbeth van der Pol decided to fit the residential buildings on the Aakweg in Almere with sloping roofs.TECTONICS / Skin 42a LiESBEth VAn DER POL. . 1998) FLAt ROOF 300 to achieve a distinctive and expressive building shape. For the lower roof surfaces the purlins have been placed directly on the concrete structural walls that are cut slantwise. it means that this expressive shape is interesting both outside and inside. they have been clad in red corrugated sheeting.

42a Proposed roof landscape 42b Details of roof 41b 301 .

the form of the housing blocks follows these landscape features. car parking and plenty of outdoor space. CiBOGA SitE (GROninGEn. Unfortunately. to realize a substantial number of homes. Part of the programme has been accommodated beneath sloping terraces and other surfaces.TECTONICS / Skin 43 S333. 2003) CURVED ROOF 302 43 Curved roof made of sprayed concrete the form of the development of Schots 1 and Schots 2 on the Ciboga site in Groningen originated in the desire for an open development on the one hand and a complex programme on the other (see also Chapter 7. Most of the roofs here are flat. ‘Context’. supermarkets. the actual implementation of this roof landscape was sacrificed in order to cut costs. resulting in a red-and-green composition of planes. architecture firm S333 created a large urban landscape. Some of the roofs were conceived as grass roofs and some were to be covered in gravel. Flat and sloping roofs with special vegetation define the place where the residential development ends and the landscape continues. 366). together with shops. p. . the initial plan was to use different types of roofing to create a varied roof landscape. SChOtS 1 AnD SChOtS 2.

the colliding waves increase the view of the sky from the living area. Underneath these domes are the 303 . a world of possibilities opens up – aided by the computer as well as new construction techniques such as sprayed concrete. to provide the introverted homes with a glimpse of the sky – the horizon is well and truly out of the picture – the flat roof is slit and curled upwards. nEXUS WORLD hOUSinG (FUkUOkA. When flat is no longer obligatory.44a 44b REM kOOLhAAS/OMA. as it were. 1991) CURVED ROOF 44b Cross section At the close of the twentieth century many architects seemed to have shaken off the modernist dogma of the flat roof. Rem koolhaas chose to give the roof of the patio housing at nexus World in Fukuoka an undulating line. JAPAn. in between the concrete waves the odd glimpse of a small grass roof is visible.

TECTONICS / Skin 304 45 .

the belly of the building is made of béton brut (raw concrete) and forms a part of the heavy structure that must bear the load of the 17-storey building. 305 . 45 Underside of the Unité d’habitation on pilotis.‘contemplation rooms’ of the homes.

ÎLOt CAnDiE. 46b Façade detail of the projecting wozoco dwellings showing one of the structure’s heavy i-beams. . 1992) 306 46a the projecting dwellings are timber-clad on all sides.TECTONICS / The Belly 46b 46a BELLY MASSiMiLiAnO FUkSAS. PASSAGE RUE SAint BERnARD (PARiS. When. however. Fuksas has not only clad the roof in zinc. the timber boards are fixed to a grid. in the late 1980s. work space and sports facilities – he used the form of the wave to bind all the different elements together. the timber siding is rabbeted and continues on the underside with long boards. the entire wave has been made of zinc. Following the traditional Parisian mansard roof. he was commissioned to design an entire perimeter block in the 11th arrondissement in Paris as part of urban regeneration efforts – a block containing housing. he also uses it on some of the façades. italian Massimiliano Fuksas is another architect who has turned to waves.

First of all. the underside or the ‘belly’ of the building becomes visible. there BELLY 307 . placed on pilotis as in Le Corbusier’s Unité. This raises the question: What material is used for this underside? Is the cladding extended or will a new material be introduced? Cladding of the underside of residential buildings introduces two problems.47a the Belly 47b 47a Vertical detail woth prefabricated concrete lintel clad in brick strips 47b Concrete lintel clad in brick strips There where the building ends at the bottom. because these parts of the building are hidden from view. But as soon as housing blocks are pierced by a pedestrian way. something special begins: a cellar or an unusual kind of floor. We are generally not aware of this. or given overhangs.


is usually a dwelling on the floor above the underside to be clad,
which means that this floor needs proper insulation – preferably on
the underside of the floor. Insulation material is not very nice to
look at, so one option would be to use sheet material for a proper
The second problem stems in part from the first and has to do with
attaching the materials. Attaching a cladding material such as brick
or natural stone to the underside of a horizontal surface is not easy.
Whereas the bricklayers of the Amsterdam School did not hesitate
to extend brickwork on the underside of projecting bay windows,
sticking brick to the underside is no longer an option when
insulation materials have been used. The use of such heavy
materials on the underside of a building calls for special methods of
securing them. It is often better to opt for lighter sheet-like material.









in the late 1990s, Rotterdam-based
architectural firm MVRDV designed a
remarkable residential care home (in Dutch
a woon-zorgcomplex or wozoco). to comply
with the planning conditions of Cornelis van
Eesteren’s famed 1935 urban expansion
plan for the Westelijke tuinsteden (a ‘garden
city’ expansion district in the west of
Amsterdam, ultimately built in the 1950s
and 1960s), MVRDV decided to suspend
some of the dwellings from the building.
the firm was thus able to achieve the
required number of dwellings within the

48 Haussmann interior
49 Pieter de Hooch, interior of

an seventeenth-century home
50 Front room, Herengracht
168, Amsterdam. Wall hangings
painted by Jacob de Wit
(figures) and isaac Moucheron
(landscape) (1738–1734).



51 A. Loos, Haus Moller,
1927–1928, Vienna, interior

plan envelope. the projecting homes were
attached to the load-bearing walls of the
high-rise using a steel skeleton and were
timber-clad on all sides. this timber panelling
has been continued on the underside of
the projecting dwellings, so that they look
like large wooden chests.




52 H.P. Berlage, Villa Henny,
1898, the Hague, interior
53 A. Warners, private house,
noordwijk aan Zee, interior





if the cladding consists of brick, as it does
in this housing block in Amsterdam’s
Eastern harbour District, there is another
problem to contend with: capping the
external wall leaf. in principle, a steel corner
profile attached to the underlying floor will
suffice. the disadvantage: the steel
corner profile will be visible on the
underside. Designers may want to keep
the detailing ‘simple’ here by extending the
brick to the underside. this is what Diener
& Diener did at their residential buildings
on the knSM island. however, this
seemingly simple solution calls for a
special detail.
A slender reinforced concrete lintel has
been attached to the adjacent floor using
steel anchor plates. this concrete lintel is
clad in brick strips, making it look as if the
brick continues down to the bottom.

The scenery divides and defines
the space. The scenery consists
of the cladding of the walls, of
interior doors, floors, walls and
ceilings. In private houses
before 1600, the structure
(stone walls or timber skeleton)
was directly visible. The space
was defined by unrefined
materials such as the oak
boards and beams of the ceiling,
timber boards or flagstones on
the floor and rammed earth or
brick walls.
Between 1600 and 1800 the
interior underwent a major
transformation. In the
Netherlands in the seventeenth
century, builders started
covering masonry walls with
whitewash. The ceiling beams
disappeared under fine
suspended plaster ceilings. In
the eighteenth century, a new
generation of artists began to
specialize in the decorating,
painting and sculpting of
interiors. Jacob de Wit was one



54 interior with parquet strip

of the period’s best-known
painters, renowned for the socalled witjes: small paintings in
medallions above doors. With
the introduction of paintings
and sculptures the scenery
acquired its own visual imagery.
Fabric was stretched across the
walls and painted. The lower
part of the wall was covered in
exquisite panelling, so-called
wainscoting, to prevent damage
to the fragile fabric covers.







in the nineteenth century, the scenery
developed into the standard cladding of the
bourgeois house. All the dwellings on the
boulevards designed by Georges-Eugène
haussmann in Paris were fitted with parquet
flooring, wooden wainscoting and stucco
ceilings. the scenery was more or less
elaborate in accordance with the residents’
social status.


in his text ‘Das Prinzip der Bekleidung’
(‘the Principle of Cladding’), Adolf Loos
described the relationship between the
scenery as the definition of the space and
the structure.21
Loos’s argument was informed by the needs
of the occupant. it is the occupant who wants
a soft and warm environment: carpets.22 in
Loos’s view, the structure is of secondary
importance, necessary to keep the scenery
in place.

56 interior with solid wooden

21 Adolf Loos, ‘Das Prinzip der Bekleidung’ (1898),
Sämtliche Schriften (Vienna/Munich: Verlag Herold,
1962), 105. See also Adolf Loos, ‘the Priciple of
Cladding’ in: Spoken into the Void: Collected Essays
1897–1900 (Cambridge, MA: opposition Books,
Mit Press, 1982), 66–69.
22 it is not surprising that Loos reached this
conclusion in 1898, because by that time he was
working almost exclusively on designs for new
interiors in existing private houses, such as the
design for the apartment for Leopold Lange (1901)
and his wife’s bedroom (1903).



the space was defined by load-bearing brick walls. the interior becomes increasingly makeshift. the structure retains heat. in mass housing with masonry walls and timber floor joists the scenery usually consists of timber flooring and plastered walls. the definition of space coincided with the structure. this new perspective in architecture appeared to spell the end. as in many parts of southern Europe where vaulted floor structures are common. at least for the time being. Berlage and Victor horta were designing buildings in which. newer. the non-load-bearing inner wall (the new scenery) becomes indispensable for the definition of space. For the time being.P. in countries where the floor slabs have traditionally been made of stone-like structures. finishing with stone-like materials on a stone structure has the necessary cooling effect. [53] the architect appears to . in a warm climate. in post-Second World War stacked mass housing.TECTONICS / Scenery BERLAGE 57 SCEnERY 316 At the time when Loos was pronouncing autonomous scenery to be the foundation of architecture. the timber flooring is made of either floorboards – a structural top layer – or an extra finishing layer of a good quality wood: parquet. Both in Berlage’s Villa henny (1898) and horta’s own house (1898–1901). on the contrary. indeed ceramic tiles or marble are widely used in these regions. because with the application of new concrete or steel skeletons. more delicately finished building materials such as glazed brick and finely wrought iron beams made it possible to integrate the scenery and the structure. a stone-like finishing of the floor makes sense. h. of the scenery as an autonomous layer. this development had an immense impact on the Moderns. but warms up more slowly during the day.

however. in mass housing the interior ceases to be the domain of the architect and passes to the housing corporation instead. the bare concrete is covered with a thin layer of plaster to form a ground for wallpaper. whereas anybody can install a rebated door in no time. in many parts of Europe the architect is SCEnERY 317 .58 have withdrawn entirely. it is too timeconsuming to have a carpenter hang the flush-mounted door. while the concrete floor is given a thin finishing layer as a ground for modern and hygienic materials such as linoleum. the flush-mounted door is exchanged for an often ugly rebated door with rounded plastic finishing. in the netherlands this is taken to such an extreme that even the type of window skeleton and interior door is prescribed by the housing corporation.

. Below are a few examples that illustrate this trend.TECTONICS / Scenery 59 SCEnERY 59 interior with wall decoration 318 by François Seigneur now regaining control over the interior of mass housing.



2004) the Billigere Boliger (‘cheaper houses’) by Juul & Frost were designed as cheap and flexible starter homes for young people and families. a parquet floor. which were handed over as empty shells. 9. so that future rearrangements of the apartment layout will not result in strange grooves or cracks in the floor. 1969).JUUL & FROSt. is quite unusual. the flooring was relatively cheap thanks to a seemingly roundabout method of procurement. DEnMARk. BiLLiGERE BOLiGER (kØGE. the homes. The Architecture of the WellTempered Environment (Oxford: Architectural Press. Partition walls and kitchen units will be placed on this solid wooden floor. the timber was cut in Poland and then shipped to China for processing. have wall-to-wall parquet flooring. the choice of flooring in this project. 24 Reyner Banham. 321 .

the floor is made partially of wood and partially of stone: large norwegian slate tiles for the kitchen and a wooden parquet floor for the living quarters. 2003) SERViCES 322 in the centre of Copenhagen we find a fine example of a high-quality interior finish. all the furniture is perfectly matched. decorated by Danish interior designer hanne kjærholm. hAnnE kJÆRhOLM. determining not just the scenery but the furnishings as well. She chose her materials and furniture very carefully. intERiOR. the sink area of the kitchen has been fitted with a large granite worktop.TECTONICS / Services 60 husband. LØVEnBORG (COPEnhAGEn. the designer has left her mark throughout the apartment. the Danish School of Architecture has a guest accommodation in a 1906 Jugendstil building on the Vesterbrogade. while the cooking area with built-in appliances has been finished in stainless steel. All its pieces are crafted by – who else – Poul kjærholm. hanne’s 60 Roof structure with ventilation pipes . Finally.

painted or bush hammered. colour. in this project. Alvar Aalto’s copper banister is a good example of both expression and the relationship between hygiene and tactility. transparency. become all shiny due to the oil 61 Duct with clearly articulated light switch SERViCES 323 . Surfaces can be either polished or lacquered. Durability was the guiding principle here. heat conductivity. Copper door handles. noise absorption and smell (parquet. wood. previously discussed for its façade. for example. etcetera). Wingårdh used a hard-wearing interior with a wooden staircase. the same is true of the kitchen. and the solid wooden staircase and banister exude solidity. but thanks to its exclusivity copper’s hygienic properties have acquired additional connotations of luxury. aging and patina. Such non-visual aspects of architecture are the topic of Juhani Pallasmaa’s aforementioned book from 1996. The Eyes of the Skin. natural or treated finishing lend material an articulated expression. Finally. a brief look at the function and meaning of materials in terms of tactility. Different senses can be targeted through reflection. moisture. the copper kills off any bacteria on the hands. stone.61 ALVAR AALtO. in which large wooden cabinets and a solid stainless steel worktop stand out. 2001) As part of Malmö’s urban expansion along the Sundet. Aspects such as texture. hygiene and presence. beeswax. BO01 (MALMÖ. BAniStER GERt WinGÅRDh. Swedish architect Gert Wingårdh designed a quayside housing project.

When. the wooden floor. the pressing of aluminium sheeting into a three-dimensional product creates smooth transitions. in 1939. but door handles made of ivory. the architects associated with the Amsterdam School liked to use wood for handrails. . because it is oilier and therefore slides better. Door handles tend to be made of stainless steel or chromed metal. this concept is extremely different from the customary bathroom design using stone flooring (terrazzo or tiles) and tiled walls. in terms of tactility (touch) and acoustics especially. But the question is how the consumer experiences such an aluminium space. he assumed that bathrooms would become ready-made industrial products. Alvar Aalto designed leather door handles and handrails to make them more pleasant to the touch. Buckminster Fuller decided to make the Dymaxion bathroom of aluminium. Bakelite or wood feel warmer. solid stone steps – all combine functional and representational qualities with their place in the scenery. DYMAXiOn BAthROOM (1939) 324 on the skin of people’s hands and acquire a lovely patina. straight from the factory.TECTONICS / Services 62a Floor plan 62b Model 62c Cross section 62a 62b 62c SERViCE CORE RiChARD BUCkMinStER FULLER. marble wainscoting.

the scenery as added layer was left out completely. You have SERViCE ZOnE 325 . nouvel referred to the scenery of haussmann’s boulevard housing in Paris: ‘if you live in a haussmann. with this difference that we are not talking about refined glazed brick here. the idea underlying the project was: ‘A good dwelling is a large dwelling. the structural materials determine the interior. Jean nouvel’s project in nîmes can be seen as an extreme example of the bare interior associated with mass housing. instead. all the ceilings will have mouldings and plaster. A return to Berlage. while on the other it marks the reintroduction of decoration in mass housing. As a result. nEMAUSUS (nÎMES. nouvel used this basic level of finishing as the foundation for a new form of decoration. Responding to criticism of this new form of decoration. he invited artist François Seigneur to paint the walls. Seigneur introduced lines and shading that emphasize the imperfections of the poured concrete.63b 63a 63c JEAn nOUVEL. 1987) 63a Ground floor and first floor 63b exploded axonometrics 63c Axonometrics of Heiwo dwelling with annex On the one hand. straight from the formwork and including rock pockets.’ Applied to publicly subsidized housing this meant: efficient and cost-effective building. but unfinished concrete.

252 (September 1987). de qui ?’.TECTONICS / Services 64a 64b 64c SERViCE ZOnE 326 64a View of the façade from the inside out 64b Apartment floor plan with sanitary facilities along the façade 64c Cross section the right not to like them. but seldom the right to remove them.’23 Lionel Duroy. ‘Liberté. L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui. 10. no. 23 .

Banham laments the fact that the services that provide comfort in buildings are not a subject of architectural history. floors 7–10 65b Standard storey. in our definition the services layer incorporates all those issues associated with the supply and drainage of energy. The services layer can be subdivided into three different sets. bathroom and toilet. such as the kitchen. However. water. floors 1–4 65c nieuw Australië 65d Axonometrics of the dwelling with flooring system and ducting thE FLOOR AS SERViCE ZOnE 327 . and the 65a Floor plans for new construction. this only becomes interesting from an architectural perspective when these pipes and ducts. Secondly. information. the pipes and ducts for the supply and drainage of energy. one of the most important requirements that a building must satisfy is a ‘welltempered environment’. the appliances associated with these pipes and ducts that control the supply or drainage or that require energy.24 And when they do become a topic of discussion. we are citing Banham to bring a frequently neglected layer to our readers’ attention: the services. To start with. air and water. Although we are not really concerned with the well-tempered environment here.65a 65c 65d 65b SERViCES In the eyes of the English architecture critic Reyner Banham. The services do more than just climatize the indoor spaces. they are included in the chapter on technology. In the introduction to his book. the dedicated rooms for these facilities and appliances. Whereas Banham focuses mainly on heating and air conditioning. Thirdly. air and information.

328 . require special adjustments to the spaces where we find these appliances. This is why these spaces require special finishing and detailing.TECTONICS / Services 66a 66b DUCtinG in A COLUMn appliances associated with them. such as bathrooms and kitchens.

residential 66c View from street level 66d Roof structure with dwellings. floors 1–3 66b Fourth storey.66a office storey. note the columns with ventilation shafts 66c 66d 329 .


culture. say. can prompt an architect to take a different approach and lead to regional differences in the built environment. This chapter seeks to provide the necessary tools for looking at. houses in Groningen used to be different from those in. It allows us to read the existing situation as a map. it is ultimately up to the architect to decide how to respond to the context. the pattern of links. Landkaartmos en andere beschouwingen over landschap (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. These six aspects will be explored in more detail below. Limburg and Zeeland. Physical Context (according to Sijmons) — Substratum. all of which. have an effect on our built and natural environments: 1 Dirk Sijmons. Substratum and Geology We need a proper understanding of the substratum on which we build and live. the different forms of built development and settlement. Whereas the substratum in the Netherlands is seemingly always flat and level and the bearing capacity of higher ground in. And although legislation plays an important role. among other things. But designing for a particular context also depends on other local factors: the climate as well as the political and cultural context. ASPECTS OF CONTEXT In 1997. — Networks. people have built their houses with materials that were locally available. 2002). political situation and landscape. At the same time there is a tendency to harmonize national and international legislation. building on local knowledge. Likewise. customs and traditions. say. or the geological patterns of soil and water conditions. or even Drenthe. 333 . ‘reading’ and responding to the context. widely used and familiar. Architects are increasingly operating on an international platform and inclined to impose their ideas on the various contexts they are working in. which is barely a stone’s throw away. put together from layers of physical patterns.1 He identified three layers. so that we know both the bearing capacity of the soil and substratum as well as the morphology of that substratum. Differences in climate. — Occupation. Traditionally. This tripartite division is a useful starting point for an analysis of the physical context of a new design location. on their own level and within their own specific time span.In the south of France houses have a different appearance and layout compared to those in Ireland. in an attempt to structure the spatial planning field in the Netherlands. Dirk Sijmons introduced a model for government policy.

. . 2002. Left: layers of the urban street plan according to Heeling et al.CONTEXT / Aspects of Context Use Buildings Public space Urban street plan Stacking of ‘layers’ – Transformation – The designed structure – Spontaneous growth – The architectural landscape – The cultural landscape – The natural landscape 01 Territory 01 Diagram showing the layered 334 nature of the context. Right: from natural landscape to buildings and their transformation.

However. clay or rock. For example. where available. Such maps show the differences in water level in various waterways. this information is unfortunately not available for urban areas. rail networks and flight paths. this type of information must be supplemented with exploratory drilling. above all. secondary or tertiary rock. Soil maps give an impression of the substratum’s top few feet. A 50-cm disparity in what appears to be a flat polder can lead to entirely different design ideas. such as those in the east and south of the country. are not only useful for the farming industry. all relevant information must be collected with the help of soil maps. irrigated. in other countries it can be primary. Geological maps provide information about deeper layers and. Moreover.France and Scandinavia always allows building without extra foundations. peat. which provide information about the types of soil in the top layer. In urban areas these aspects can be difficult to pinpoint. A view of a lake. An old riverbed in rocky terrain can have disastrous consequences if it goes undetected. The geological map shows us whether the substratum contains sand. geomorphological maps. while differences in level can inspire special solutions. the reality is often different. Such maps. it tells us whether we are dealing with sea or river clay. To start with. Finally. The lines include the roads. navigable rivers and waterways. Networks and Links To some extent urban agglomerations can be read as networks composed of lines and nodes. In the Netherlands these kinds of maps tend to cover the hillier areas. because so many original landscape elements are covered by a carpet of buildings. The nodes include the slip roads. of links and access points to those links. For building purposes it is particularly interesting to know at what depth we will find the right substratum for the foundation. Needless to say. many important aspects of the geological and landscape context can be mapped. ports. the form and nature of the substratum and the surrounding landscape are often a source of inspiration. areas rich in water benefit from a groundwater level map. show the substratum’s composition. geological maps and. or connections between the various kinds of links. These differences determine whether the surrounding area must be drained or. But with a few relatively simple tools and. on the contrary. stations. while also indicating the origins of these layers. dale or brook adds value to the design. in combination with cross sections. As the name suggests. 335 . While in the Netherlands this tends to be the Pleistocene sand deposit. for example in a polder. a geomorphological map combines geological information with the form (morphology) of the land. a good eye.

Book I. in southern Iran. Cold winds are disagreeable. Chapter 6 02.2 2 Vitruvius. They will be properly laid out if foresight is employed to exclude the winds from the alleys. The wind is blown into the house through a damp cellar. with remarks of the winds The town being fortified. . moist winds unhealthy.CONTEXT / Aspects of Context 02 03 Vitruvius on the directions of the streets. The Ten Books on Architecture. creating a natural air conditioning. 03 Wind catchers on top of 336 dwellings in Yazd. the next step is the apportionment of house lots within the wall and the laying out of streets and alleys with regard to climatic conditions. avoid mistakes in this matter and beware of the common experience of many communities. therefore. We must. hot winds enervating.

ventilation. by contrast. humidity and temperature – or. we find steeper slopes with interlocking tiles that provide proper water drainage. and so forth. Roofs in Mediterranean countries need little more than a gentle slope with Roman tiles. To start with. on closer inspection. ranging from screening from the sun and wind to orientation towards the sun or prevailing wind direction to generate more warmth. the elements have had a determining effect on house construction. precipitation. can be reduced to familiar principles. we have to look at the structure of those parts of town: its orientations. In southern Iran. different spaces.bus and tram stops. In northern countries. additional. Its form is often the outcome of the application of previously used design principles or types. a set of objects and spaces. on the other hand. such as the number of decibels produced and pollution caused by the link. Sometimes the extreme cold requires special provisions. which. in other circumstances the heat. But an urban fragment can be seen as an organism. transport axes. In dry southern regions the wind is used to cool the house. Protection from the sun. etcetera. In the section ‘Analysis and Design’ we will look at this in more detail. for example. we need to learn more about its morphology and typology. Settlement and Built Development To understand the form and organization of the surrounding built development. Any possible risks (transport of hazardous goods. for instance by noise or particulates? By mapping these networks and nodes. This requires analysis of the neighbouring parts of town. The neighbouring urban fragments often appear to be entirely random. houses are fitted with windcatchers. for insance) must also be recorded. The design of a new housing project must consider the project’s location in relation to the urban network. what is the site’s potential within the urban network? Is the location next to a busy metro station or only served by a bus twice a day? What could the site’s relation to the network mean for the creation of functions other than living? But also: To what extent could the project be hindered by these networks. the capture and retention of these – has prompted a variety of constructions. in which case we speak of urban plan types. How accessible is the future project. A thorough analysis can produce a better understanding of the underlying structure of the urban development. wind. towers that 337 . In some cases. invisible information will be necessary. Climate Of old. the city can be made readable. park & ride facilities and airports.

a bedroom facing east is probably a good choice wherever you are. provided the necessary shading is in place. [← 02–03] A south-facing kitchen is probably not a good idea in the northern hemisphere. while the side with the living room – and any adjacent outdoor areas (garden or balcony) – was to have sun for most of the day (see also Chapter 5. Whereas in sheltered areas precipitation will be more or less vertical or oblique if it is windy. especially in major commissions. we need to understand the balance of power. directly elected. where water basins cool the air before it is brought up into the living areas. However. Ernst May and Walter Schwagenscheidt propagated an orientation which would give the bedroom side of the house enough sun to ensure a beneficial effect. Building in large open areas or near the sea requires special attention to weather extremes. what is the position of the client and of local government. Because politics are an important factor. Who are we dealing with. height or colour scheme. This calls for extra attention to detail when positioning residential blocks and streets. During the cold season the conservatory adds passive solar energy. will often refer to their electoral mandate to try to influence proceedings. In France. page 224–225). But more often than not the client. When it is windy in the city. which in those days was less about enjoying the sun than about its effects on hygiene. project developer or housing corporation will call the shots. A different aspect can influence a room’s depth. Larger urban developments increasingly draw on the services of a so-called supervisor. mayors.CONTEXT / Aspects of Context channel the wind via an ingenious system down to the cellar. it actually keeps out the heat. in open spaces the rain will be horizontal in heavy winds. a gale is blowing up on the coast. while in summer. ‘Urban Ensemble’. an architect-planner who has not only drawn up the masterplan. People perceive and experience being in a north-facing room very differently from being in a south-facing one. The architects and planners who were involved in the expansion of Frankfurt in the 1920s and 1930s had very pronounced ideas about this. who is in charge? In the Netherlands the municipal alderman for spatial planning or public works usually plays a key role in major commissions. A south-facing conservatory can have a pleasant buffer effect. The orientation also plays a role in the way the residential blocks are positioned. but . How is the street laid out in relation to the prevailing wind direction? What effect do high-rises have on the microclimate around a building? 338 Political Context The architect’s sphere of activity is subject to political forces. The CIAM functionalists propagated good sun exposure.

of hope for a better future? Can society be described as forward-looking. After these earlier cultures went into decline or left the site.e. It is crucial for an architect to find out what political forces might impact on any given project. town or site. when the likes of Ernst May developed new social housing concepts. Over time. Some cultural aspects are of a more local nature or associated with the site of the new project. meant to put the city on the map? – or is it part of a comprehensive urban redevelopment informed by sociodemographic rather than architectural concerns (the redevelopment of a post-Second World War neighbourhood. in dialogue with the architects of the sub-plans. As a rule. i. town or site — Significance of the region. how? Cultural Context In addition to political circumstances. A city tends to draw on the services on a supervisor when it has particularly ambitious plans for a new development. the foundation for 339 . as in Frankfurt towards the end of the 1920s. Is the cultural climate of the location progressive or conservative? Is there a sense of great cultural optimism.who. or is there a sense of nostalgia. different cultures have settled in the area earmarked for design. but more often than not he or she is not free to choose between avant-garde and bourgeois traditions. the city council’s executive committee. These include: — Language. also tries to keep track of the overall picture during the implementation. for example)? Is the project prompted by infrastructure modernization and implemented at the expense of an old neighbourhood (for example the construction of the Amsterdam metro system in the 1970s) or is it prompted by the transformation of a part of town into a business district (such as the office district near Brussels-North station)? A key question here is: Should the architect choose sides in such political and conflict-ridden processes and if so. for instance. the supervisor answers to the local political leaders. cultural values and the overall cultural climate play an important role in the realization of a project. of wanting to go back to the row housing of the 1930s? Of course the architect plays a role in this. often historically determined — Dwelling culture The cultural stratification of the site plays a role too. they became what we can describe as the compost. dialect — Local rituals — History of the region. Is the project part of large-scale urban ambitions – is it.

The many suburban developments of the twentieth century have an entirely different configuration of buildings. intensity of use and age lends colour to the differences between neighbourhoods and urban fragments. have at our disposal within a given context and commission with which to add to or change the built environment? The built context can be seen as a complex. Above or below the streets and squares we find the technical infrastructure. however. what does the city consist of? And what means do we. as in the old city centres. By analogy with the layers we have used in Chapter 6. ‘Tectonics’. Before delving deeper into the various techniques for analysing the existing development. The result is an archaeology of lost cultures that have left traces in the built environment. technical infrastructure — Occupation buildings design of the public space programme: what functions are available? 340 These layers can be present in varying combinations. Sometimes buildings form a street frontage together and are joined up into residential blocks. Here they are separate elements . in both the immediate surroundings and further afield. we can identify the following layers here: — Substratum. that such an analysis of the context does not imply an unambiguous position on contextualism. or. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Incisive analysis of the adjacent built environment. It should be noted. Differences in architectural style. For our purposes we have further subdivided the aspects ‘networks’ and ‘occupation’. cycle paths. degree of obsolescence. It is up to the designer to decide what to do with the conclusions of these analyses and what choices to make on the basis of these conclusions. etc. It encompasses the three aforementioned aspects outlined by Sijmons. more generally. as designers. is crucial for good housing design.CONTEXT / Analysis and Design new developments. we would like to raise two issues: What does the existing built environment consist of. multilayered system. The spaces between the blocks form streets and squares that provide access. densities and manifestations. soil — Networks access: roads. The challenge is to read the meanings that these earlier cultures have carved into the open spaces and buildings.

04 04 Comparison of the structure of Amsterdam’s city centre with that of Amsterdam-Zuidoost. Bijlmermeer. buildings. whereas in the Bijlmermeer district they are more or less autonomous. From the top: urban green space. roads. 341 . In the city centre these three layers all have a similar structure.

if so. access. Complete adjustment to or assimilation with one’s surroundings is an illusion. the building mass. detailing. New times demand new techniques which in turn lead to new materials and details.CONTEXT / Analysis and Design or else clusters or ensembles on a continuous foundation: the urban field. articulation. . the greater the difference between all these. form. The longer the time lapse between the existing and the new development. what it looks like. this is a matter of interpretation. the use of materials or the detailing? Does he adjust to the neighbours on the left or right or to the surroundings in general? The latter case raises the question: What is typical for the broader physical context? The construction of a new property along a canal in Amsterdam could raise the question of whether there is such a thing as a typical Amsterdam canalside house and. the composition. DESIGN TOOLS 342 The tools with which the architect can shape the brief are many. use of materials. façade structure. But they can do this within the freedom offered by the land use plan and those supervising the master plan. position of the entrance. As we noted earlier. etcetera. The first question here is: Why opt for contrast? Again. What is the context of the design. what choices are being made and why? The answers to these questions will have to reflect all of these facets of the building: its position. composition. What appears to be the simplest strategy of adjustment involves many different choices. This also applies – probably even more so – to the designer who seeks a contrast with the surroundings. Likewise. building inspectors and other quality assurance agents. This is obviously a truism that requires some elaboration. among them supervisors. does he adjust the programme. the building height. what choices can a designer make? In principle. An adjusted design raises the question: adjusted to what? If the architect adjusts the building to its surroundings. opt for contrast or steer a middle course between these two extremes. architects can decide how to deal with these differences after contextual analysis. the following strategies are possible: he can adjust to the surroundings. volume. Access and infrastructure choose the line of least resistance here and form an autonomous fabric that bears no relation to the fabric underlying the buildings. an architect of considerable standing will often have (or take) more room for manoeuvre than a less experienced counterpart. So provided he has the freedom. An architect will have to develop an eye for all of these differences in order to arrive at a beautiful and solid design.

Architectural Tools When it comes to the architectural elaboration of the block or building the opportunities for articulating a relationship with the surroundings are almost infinite. at different levels of scale and ranging from powerful statements to subtle nuances. as does the public-private distribution of property: are there any public squares or parks. 343 . the grain. The experience of the building up close is determined in part by the materiality and expressiveness of the façades and. geometry and articulation of the building volumes and the positioning of the buildings within the block. should this lead to better. history or culture of a place. form. Even the detail of a connection can say something about the relationship with the built environment. or are most of the properties privately owned? Although the programme is often predetermined. three projects are examined as examples of the application of the various design tools. In the following pages.The overview below is far from exhaustive. squares and residential blocks. more beautiful solutions. the direction. put forward other proposals. designers of new housing projects have a combination of programmatic. The intended density. measured per square metre and in homes per hectare. there is the differentiation of the various side walls and façades. Programmatic Tools The choice of dwelling size and dwelling types and the degree of variation in them says something about the intended target group. decorative layers and elements. neighbourhood or city. Depending on the potential of each individual location and brief. the fabric of streets. rhythm and profile of the streets. whether the new residents fit in with the neighbours or differ from them to add variety or bring about a change. where relevant. morphological and architectural tools at their disposal. it remains important to cast a critical eye over it and. At the level of the design as a whole. articulation of the building mass and the dimensions and arrangement of façade surfaces and openings. communally managed spaces. plays a key role in shaping the urban fabric. Morphological Tools This category covers all the different components of the urban design: the urban plan type within the urban fragment.

served by an internal corridor. 1985) 344 By stacking different dwelling types Girard has put her own stamp on the composition of this residential block. . The façade parallel to the Bassin de la Villette accommodates apartments.CONTEXT / Design Tools 05 EDITH GIRARD. Its two upper floors contain gallery-access maisonettes that top the block like a colourful cornice. BASSIN DE LA VILLETTE (PARIS. The block at right angles to the canal is made up of maisonettes of the Unité type.

this early design by Herman Hertzberger for a student hall of residence raises the question what a block inspired by Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation is doing in Amsterdam’s city centre. it becomes apparent that Hertzberger has linked the morphologies of two different contexts. WEESPERSTRAAT STUDENT HOUSING (AMSTERDAM. however. and this is extended to the wide fourth-floor gallery. 345 .06 HERMAN HERTZBERGER. On closer inspection. Whereas the tall building on the Weesperstraat is in step with the rhythm of the large office blocks on the east side of the street. The roof terrace at the corner of the hall of residence is the same height as the adjacent canalside houses. 1959–1966) At first sight. Another special detail of the way the hall complements the buildings on the Nieuwe Keizersgracht is the strongly articulated eaves line of the small pavilion on the roof terrace. its corner complements the buildings on the Nieuwe Keizersgracht.

while the zinc roofing has been transformed into a large zinc box that contains an entire floor (see also Chapter 6. on the corner. ‘Tectonics’. the windows are different. This architecture – including the fenestration – returns in Fuksas’s design. a structure of whitewashed façades. page 00). For example. at the entrance to the building. Fuksas combines adjustment to the existing architecture with an entirely unique form. orthogonal windows. The architecture of the block bears a great resemblance to the existing late nineteenth-century architecture.CONTEXT / Design Tools 07 MASSIMILIANO FUKSAS. . PASSAGE RUE SAINT BERNARD (PARIS 1992–1996) 346 In his infill block. albeit with a twist. designed for the 11th arrondissement in Paris. zinc roofing and open fronts at street level (see left on the photograph). ÎLOT CANDIE.

With a bit of help and interpretation. Finally. we are devoting a separate section to it. The pattern of built development can be so chaotic as to defy any kind of meaningful conclusion about the relationship between the urban plan type and the city’s actual form. Careful consideration of the details and the style of the buildings will ultimately yield some cohesion. the typological study of urban fragments boils down to the reduction of the object under analysis. There may be a number of different causes for this ambiguity. linkage. a plan type can be described as a system consisting of two or more layers. We could be dealing with a strict and balanced relationship between dwelling and lot type. a drastic reduction of the fragment may be needed to reveal it. Not every city or village expansion will readily submit to typological analysis. What matters is that we have a reference against which to set the erosions. the relationship 347 . it may be necessary to remodel the indistinct urban patterns into a more regular pattern. that is to say. appearances are often deceptive. In the example of the Concertgebouw neighbourhood in AmsterdamZuid. ‘Residential Building’. but that need not be a problem. green spaces. an essential part of the plan type has been left out so as to make the end product unintelligible. This reconstructed regular version will often be hypothetical. transformations and ruptures. we can find a well thought-out design concept in the most chaotic parts of the city. a plan type that was realized at a later date may have more or less eliminated the earlier plan type (see page 204). Unskilled use of plan types may have resulted in a barely recognizable version or else the concept may have been left unfinished. To distil the applied plan types. Ultimately these analyses are all about recognizing the underlying structures and urban configurations (see also Chapter 4. this type of analysis could be a fun introduction to such a history. once our eyes are opened. this remodelling did not have to be very comprehensive. Typological Analysis As with dwelling types. block layout type and urban plan type (roads. But again. The problem with typological analysis of urban fragments is that it requires a thorough knowledge of the history of the urban design to assess whether a certain part of town contains any fascinating elements. At the same time. because the plan type had been implemented fairly rigidly. page 143).TYPOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Because a proper typological and morphological analysis is crucial to a good design. Sometimes the design has been partially realized or else fundamentally changed at a later date. As outlined above. Given the fact that the plan type that governed the urban fragment is not always immediately apparent.

while some plan types are ill-considered or badly understood. including the book Lecture d’une ville: Versailles. perhaps the only thing we can say about a particular part of town is that the plan type consists of a spaghetti of roads.CONTEXT / Typological and Morphological Analysis between city and landscape). The village’s basic structure is nothing other than a linear succession of this type and directly reflects its specific form. At the end of this section. [→ 08–09] 3 Jean Castex et al. In the example of the ribbon villages developed along roads in rural areas of parallel fields. This method of morphological analysis has been inspired by the likes of Jean Castex. after which the third level. [← 10] 348 Transformations Deliberate erosion of a plan concept by superimposing a new concept is a common occurrence in city centres.3 In these studies. Castex and his associates link typological analyses at building level with the analysis of urban fabrics and urban plan types. we will discuss a few other methodologies. — Change in direction: how has this been dealt with in relation to the two colliding fragments? Omissions In many cases essential parts of a plan have never been implemented (the boulevard between Station Zuid and the Rijksacademie in Berlage’s Plan Zuid of 1915. Alternatively. for example). 1980). sprinkled with random property. That is why the analysis must start with the typology of dwelling and lot (linkage). Lecture d’un ville: Versailles (Paris: Moniteur. In such a case. We can identify the following types of erosion: Connections — Ruptures (where the influence of two adjoining parts of town is felt). whose work includes a number of influential studies of the form of the city. industrial estate).. the analysis is aimed at identifying any regularity in and erosions of the urban pattern. railway and motorway. Morphological Analysis The city’s actual form can be described as the outcome of a series of erosions of the typological diagram. the urban plan. Morphological analysis may seem like an attempt to reconstruct the design process of the part of town in question. the typology of house/business and lot can be determined quite easily. can be described in relation to the first two. in many cases the typological analysis will have to be carried through to the next level. It is often helpful to illustrate the typological features in several complementary drawings. On the contrary. — Barriers (canal. In some situations a typological analysis on this scale will suffice. However. but that is emphatically not its intention. . block level (block pattern).

with at bottom left a magnified detail and at bottom right a constructed regular version of the urban plan type 09 Typological analysis of the Concertgebouw area in Amsterdam in which the various detail sections have been pulled apart. so that the plan types upon which they are based are made visible .08 08 Typological analysis of the 09 Concertgebouw area in Amsterdam.

Plan Zuid showing the Station Zuid-Rijksacademie axis. Berlage.CONTEXT / Typological and Morphological Analysis 10 350 10 H. .P.

like tourists do. coincidence or lucky accidents. the landscaping. By reducing the urban fabric to this blackand-white ‘figure and ground’ pattern. next to Le Corbusier’s design for Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. This method casts the city as a text that has been amended. In their day-to-day. continuous structure. Dynamic city The morphological analysis discussed above focuses first and foremost on static buildings. orientation and recognition will always be linked to a limited number of spatial elements within the urban fabric.000. As the examples of Copenhagen and Breda demonstrate. American theoretician Colin Rowe4 drew the buildings as black volumes (figure) against an empty background (ground). [→ 14–15] Morphological Analysis of the Modern. even on the detailed scale of 1:20. edited and added to over a long period of time. This step allows us to determine our position vis-à-vis the spatial structure of the city and/or the landscape. depending on the way the city is used. requires a thematic reduction of its topography. the water. Analysis of the morphology of the city on a larger scale. [→ 11–13] ‘Figure-ground’ To arrive at a better understanding of the morphology of the city. the solitary buildings emerge as separate elements against the large urban field with roads and green spaces. and especially the new city. without taking the movement of and through 4 Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter. in everyday use the architectural features of a space do play a role in how its structure is memorized. and in particular those elements that define its structure. Which elements these are will vary. In the latter image. These architectural features include: the form of the space. but tend to be more or less oblivious to them (it can be a fascinating experience to suddenly be a tourist in one’s own city again. Nonetheless. a series of essential elements has taken shape as a result of deliberate design interventions. Collage City (Cambridge. Combined with the analysis of the historical development. casual use of an area. over time. which has a traditional. Rowe placed the city of Parma. It is possible to make a reduction drawing of an urban development plan by only highlighting the structuring elements at the various stages of development.comparison between different stages of the plan (available from the municipal archives or planning agency) should clarify matters. 351 . residents do not gawp at the highlights. he was able to highlight the difference between the traditional city with its perimeter blocks and the modern city with its autonomous objects. the form of buildings and objects. Trying to identify the structuring elements of the city or landscape is one way of ascertaining the spatial cohesion of a particular area. Ultimately. for example when we show foreign visitors around). this can produce a clear picture of the way in which. MA: MIT Press. a reduction drawing can be quite clear. In the example here.

Rowe. 13 Morphological analysis of Copenhagen. figure-and-ground plan of Parma. 14 C. 1984 15 C. 1984 . left. a reduction of the topography in which all buildings are indicated. figure-and-ground plan of Le Corbusier’s Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. in which the topography has been reducted to the contours of the most significant urban spaces. This reduction method can be seen as derived from the figure-and-ground analyses.CONTEXT / Typological and Morphological Analysis 11 13 352 12 11. Rowe. The buildings that serve as landmarks are indicated. 12 Morphological analysis of Breda.

14 15 353 .

Cullen’s ‘serial vision’ from 354 The Concise Townscape.CONTEXT / Typological and Morphological Analysis 16 16 G. 1961 .

The Image of the City (Cambridge. starting with a Rowe-style figure-and-ground map. [→ 17] According to Lynch. The Image of the City. buildings and coastlines — ‘districts’: urban fragments. To understand the strip. His object of study encompassed three very different cities: Boston. is the result of many years of research. MA: 355 . 1960). a mental construct of their surroundings. the ‘decorated shed’ represents architecture in which the exterior bears no relation to the interior. residents understand their complex surroundings through what he labels ‘mental maps’. Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown describe and analyse the ‘non-city’ Las Vegas. Whereas the ‘duck’ represents modern architecture that tries hard to express the function of the building.the city into account. Venturi and Scott Brown posit a distinction between the ‘decorated shed’ and the ‘duck’. [← 16] Kevin Lynch focuses on the modern city with opaque patterns. etceter with a distinct character — ‘nodes’: focal points. The image shows the experience of space and motion. sites — ‘landmarks’: important objects that function as reference points in the city Lynch’s collection City Sense and City Design includes a ‘mental map’ in which he recreates its dynamic perception as experienced from inside a car. 1984). a pedestrian. Venturi and Scott Brown draw a series of diagrammatic maps. They then draw a negative of this map. 1990). shifting the emphasis to the unbuilt spaces. neighbourhoods. in: The Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch (Cambridge. Jersey City and Los Angeles. The 1960s and 1970s saw the development of a number of analytical methods that looked at the city from other perspectives. a city whose appearance is first and foremost determined by ephemeral objects such as giant billboards and vast car parks. junctions. [→ 18] In Learning from Las Vegas. MA: MIT Press. tracks and other routes along which people travel — ‘edges’: borders such as walls.6 It shows the sequence of impressions of the ‘motion space’ along a planned highway through the city. MA: MIT Press. Learning from Las Vegas (Cambridge. In his book The Concise Townscape Gordon Cullen adopts a series of changing perspectives (‘serial vision’) to define the visual perception along certain routes.7 They use the ‘Las Vegas Strip’ as a metaphor for the everyday and the ugly. The subsequent series depicts only the asphalt. Their conclusion is that in a city such as Las Vegas (ephemeral) images have a much greater impact on perception than the architectural form. 7 Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown. He is particularly interested in the perception of the old city from the slow progression of. say. 6 Kevin Lynch. 5 Kevin Lynch. City Sense and City Design. Lynch’s most famous work.5 These mental maps contain five elements: — ‘paths’: streets. pavements.

Lynch. 1960 18 K. representation of the sequence of impressions of the ‘motion space’ along a planned motorway through the city 18 .CONTEXT / Typological and Morphological Analysis 17 356 17 K. ‘The visual form of Los Angeles’. Lynch.

datascaping baed on the sound pressure level in housing. Venturi and D. 1977 20 The ‘decorated shed’ and the ‘duck’ 21 MVRDV. Scott 21 Brown. 1998 . map of the Las Vegas Strip.19 20 19 R.

CONTEXT / The Brief uncultivated land. cars. illumination and written texts visible from the car. ceremonial places such as wedding chapels. 8 This part of the text draws 358 . [→ 19–20] MIT Press. 1977).

data on levels of sound pressure. Sources of geographical information include: digital maps. air quality and noise levels. plant and animal life per square kilometre. GIS has three practical functions: — the digitization of large amounts of topographical data. One example is the map of Europe that OMA used in the development of Euralille. [← 21] THE BRIEF The urban design is an important contextual aspect and element of the architect’s brief. aerial photographs. also as a tool with which to manipulate data and make design choices. With the help of this method. a brief look at more recent techniques for documenting the context. Architecture firms such as OMA and MVRDV use GIS to process and manipulate contextual data. so-called geo-information. these regulations can also offer a certain degree of freedom and provide an arena where the urban planning agency or supervisor and architect enter into a discussion to arrive at a good solution. data is processed in such a way as to produce a possible new building design.GIS and Datascaping Finally. composition of the population. maps and 3D representations. GIS is used not only to present and analyse data but. better known as datascaping. In this process. densities. — contextual output such as plans. height maps. or in other words: form follows data. The arrival of the high-speed rail link will transform the face of Europe. they can give information a place on a map before linking it spatially. process. while some distances will be reduced. Datascaping literally means designing on the basis of data. However. For example. known collectively as geographical information systems (GIS). the planning regulations for a particular location include the legally binding rules set out in the land use plan. Because the systems contain spatial information. To begin with. as with OMA and MVRDV. — the development of a relational database. manage. land use. other areas will seem further away. the planning agency or supervisor 359 .8 A geographical information system makes it possible to store. particulates and the penetration of natural light can be converted into building volumes. analyse and present spatial data or information about geographical objects. GIS lends itself extremely well to organizing the multilayered analytical models described at the start of this chapter. On this map the distances within Europe were expressed in temporal units.

All traces of the past have been rubbed out. Because of poor soil conditions a foundation on piles is a necessity in large parts of the western and northern Netherlands. giving the designers carte blanche. We find a similar scenario in most Dutch polders. water courses. In the 1970s. growth or water courses. canals and the reservoir canals that drain away the rising water and precipitation to the pumping stations so as to keep the polder dry. which tend to harbour lots of traces of the past: old buildings or fragments of buildings. It is an entirely different story in redevelopment areas. True to the spirit of the word. Everything here is designed. It is impossible to build on the poor substratum. farms and cities.and early twentieth-century . especially those in the former Zuiderzee. even the departures from the norm and the quasi-randomness. a clean slate without any clues. Soil consolidation is needed to prepare this ground for building. The only thing that really matters here is the drainage system: ditches. everything has been dreamt up at the drawing table. The appropriate method for this is the application of a thick layer of sand. Urban regeneration took place in many large European cities. erases the landscape’s original structure and morphology. Many of the areas earmarked for urban expansion are former peat fields. where every last trace of the past has been erased and is often covered by a layer of sand. quay walls. After reclamation the virginal seabed emerges. and so forth. In large areas this is done by rainbowing sand: sand is dredged up from another location and transported in liquid form through thick pipes. Often the soil is not just unsuitable for building. this mathematical polder structure dictates the position of roads. leaving the designer with few starting points for his new housing design. ancient trees. there are no references to substratum. Tabula rasa locations are literally ‘empty’ areas. This kind of location offers the architect few starting points in terms of size. entire neighbourhoods and districts were improved or else demolished and replaced. The tabula rasa location is quite common in the Netherlands. for two reasons: soil conditions and impoldering. Only the underlying substratum of sand provides sufficient support. but also too soft for paving or planting green spaces and gardens. Likewise.CONTEXT / The Brief 360 enjoys the backing of politicians. adjacent buildings and the landscape loom larger. categorized according to the type of location and the planning tools specified in the town plan. which consists for the most part of thick peat formation and other weak substances. with nineteenth. fields. Like a strict Mondrian. The locations are subdivided into two main groups: tabula rasa locations and redevelopment areas. especially through rainbowing. The application of sand. nothing is organic or accidental. In this part of the chapter we will look at the different kinds of briefs. direction or scale.

this chapter also contains a classification based on planning tools. especially those employed in the land use plan. If this principle is applied in combination with a maximum building height and maximum building depth. Zoning The concept of zoning comes from American urban planning and specifies a zone for the development. In addition to the distinction between a tabula rasa and a restructuring project we can make a distinction based on the level of planning. as were many nineteenth-century neighbourhoods. These areas were transformed into residential neighbourhoods. the line or more accurately the plane that specifies the position of the building. the historic ring of canals in the centre of Amsterdam. from neighbourhood level via the block or sub-plan to the infill of one or more properties in a larger context. Building Line One of the oldest planning tools in Dutch town planning is the building line or alignment. The following decade saw the rise of a new form of urban restructuring. These descriptions are referred to as the ‘planning framework’(see matrix on page 363). given overhauls. The presence of older buildings. The restructuring of old industrial sites. industrial monuments and hard boundaries provides interesting contexts for new neighbourhoods or districts. was planned on this basis. as is often the case. in particular.housing. The Grachtengordel. Planning Tools Sector Plan A land use planning method in which only the function and perhaps the density is specified. Finally. which was considered too rigid. In the Netherlands in the 1970s and 1980s it was a common response to the plan masse (see below). As a rule this tool is applied only to continuous façades in urban areas. business districts. some restructuring projects are so immense that they acquire the nature of a tabula rasa. That said. parks and other urban facilities. the plane that must be materialized. ports and railway yards freed up large areas close to urban territory. In principle this tool is always 361 . it avoids making any kind of statement about form. Each task at a particular level will have its own character. In some cases the local planning controls have been described in more detail with the help of the town plan. it is referred to as a ‘zoning envelope’.

is defined within which the building must be realized. a single gap in an existing block is nearly always subject to detailed regulations. The city image . The zoning will often prescribe a recessed plane that guarantees enough daylight at street level. Plan Masse In contrast to the zoning envelope. say.CONTEXT / The Brief combined with a land use plan. We are referring here to the ‘city image plan’ and the negotiation model. It also defines the angle at which the building must recede to allow sufficient light in the street. such as a building line. 362 City Image Plan The city image plan is not an independent planning tool. The zoning envelope is the tool with which cities with many high-rise buildings. the plan masse defines a volume for the new building. Planning Tools Involving a Supervisor Besides the planning tools discussed above. there are two other tools in which inspection by a building standards commission and/or a supervisor plays a role. Where possible we have tried to select a project for each type of brief. such as New York. infill projects based on sector plans are very thin on the ground. For example. Zoning Envelope We speak of a ‘zoning envelope’ when the zoning is supplemented with three-dimensional rules that exceed the prescription of a maximum number of floors. In this system a so-called envelope. as well as regulations concerning the gutter height. but more of a supplement to one of the aforementioned tools. zoning envelope or plan masse. but it can also be found in many European land use plans. While not the maximum volume. are regulated. The concept of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) plays an important role in the specification of the envelope. by Hendrik Petrus Berlage to determine the form of the buildings of Plan Zuid in the south of Amsterdam. The infill of. The FAR expresses the floor area divided by the building’s surface area. Unlike the building line. Zoning is the foundation of the American urban plan. In the Netherlands this tool was used on a large scale. The diagram in Figure 17 groups the types of briefs according to location and planning tool. it defines the form of the building. an imaginary volume. but this does not make sense for all combinations. the position of the window frames (the reveal) and the cladding. for instance. zoning indicates the area where you are allowed to build instead of where you have to build.

area URBAN PLANNING METHODOLOGY housing block or sub-plan area interpretation SECTOR PLAN p. 372 p. In the project discussions that follow. 364 BUILDING LINE p. p. we describe how the designers interpreted the brief. including sample plans. what sort of brief was involved and what set of tools was employed to determine the urban planning conditions. 378 Matrix of housing briefs. 366 ZONING ENVELOPE PLAN MASSE p. 376 p. 367 ZONING p. 370 p. we indicate. 374 363 . as much as possible. 368 p. In addition.

CONTEXT / The Brief 23a 23b SECTOR PLAN 23c 23a Central square 23b Articulated façade openings 23c Competition plan by Cino 364 Zucchi 23d Original situation 23e Current situation .

The next section is devoted to the analysis of a wide variety of projects. in part. in a range of contexts with different local planning controls. The negotiation model is 365 . it has no control over the design and layout of that public space. but it can be influential as part of the aesthetic control bill. through the negotiations between the plan supervisor and the architects of the various sub-plans.23d plan dictates the appearance of the urban space and buildings. also tends to supplement one of the other tools. however. there is a planning tool that we have called the negotiation model. is that whereas the committee has a say in building applications and hence the buildings bordering the public space. The design and layout and furnishing of the public space are a matter for the municipal authorities. One problem. The development and detailing of the urban design comes about. 23e common in new developments. material and rhythm. The city image plan has no legal validity. This model. We will describe the context and planning controls for each project and indicate how each design responds to them. including the colour. Negotiation Model Finally. in which the plan takes shape through the constant interaction between the planner and supervisor. It gives the building standards commission an instrument with which to control the aesthetic quality of urban space.

The restoration and conversion of the long former industrial building was done in cooperation with Pietro Nicoline. Here and there the island is bisected by north-south canals. The urban space here opens up towards the south and the lagoon and part of it has been turned into a small park. The brief for the 3-hectare area stipulated the following: 150 homes. the site of the original fan-shaped factory was given a different interpretation. allowing all the designers to give free reign to their visions. The Italian architect Cino Zucchi beat five colleagues to win the competition. There was no land use plan for this archetypal restructuring area. Contrary to Zucchi’s wishes. CAMPO JUNGHANS (VENICE. The bridge takes us to the central square between the school. In Zucchi’s plan its shape returns in the form of a theatre. The absence of a formal planning framework for this new neighbourhood provided an ideal competition project. Because there were no formal guidelines for the new design other than the programme. Giudecca is an elongated island south of Venice. 1998–2003) ZONING 366 In 1995 a closed competition was held for the redevelopment of the former industrial estate of watch manufacturer Junghans on the Venetian island of Giudecca. water. the canals bend while the former factory buildings fan out to the tip of the island. The entire plan is characterized by an archetypal Venetian mix of narrow streets. Its north side is accessed by a long quay with a series of narrow alleyways perpendicular to it with wide but shallow buildings. 40 urban facilities and small commercial spaces. . 160 student flats and a theatre with rehearsal rooms. and the block-shaped buildings or urban villas. In his competition plan Zucchi leaves some of the existing buildings intact. This structure has been disrupted on the site of the Junghans factories. The centre of the fan had been home to the old factory headquarters. Here. the theatre and one of the long residential blocks. bridges and open spaces with views of the vast lagoon. The fanshaped factory makes way for a series of long. Its façade openings are clearly articulated through wide frames. only a programme and of course the existing buildings. one of the five architects who entered the competition. close to the bridge that provides access to the main part of the neighbourhood. narrow blocks that tend to be accessed by small stairwells. the planning framework can be described as a sector plan. For the most part.CONTEXT / The Brief 24a 24b CINO ZUCCHI. including the monumental school along the canal and an oblong industrial building at right angles to the island’s structure. narrow housing blocks. Most of the housing has been developed by Zucchi in collaboration with others. He situated a striking block of the latter type at a corner where two canals meet. Zucchi uses two types of housing that are typical of Venice: the long.

designed a layout for the Ciboga site consisting of 11 schotsen or floes. ‘green’ role. a playground and a glass arbour. 1998–2002) In northeast Groningen. a police station. The plan defines the contours (zoning) of the splotches (floes) to be built on.25 S333. But while a high urban density is required here. Groningen is now experimenting with buildings that cater to urban lifestyles while also including communal spaces. The blocks accommodate a great variety of dwelling types (ranging from live-work units to a large five-storey mansion). CIBOGA SITE. relatively neutral façades that fit well in BUILDING LINE 367 . In 1992. SCHOTS 1 AND SCHOTS 2 (GRONINGEN. a mixed-use project has been realized on the site of a former gasworks called the Ciboga site (from Circus-. the area is also part of the city’s ecological infrastructure. winter. Maarten Schmitt. For the northern-most floes. freight and gasworks site’). The Ciboga site is set within the nineteenthcentury city ramparts. spaces have been developed that can be managed well in the long term and also accommodate a varied urban life. giving the public and semi-public areas as well as the many private gardens and patios an important. One of the benefits of twentieth-century mass housing was that it provided for both collective amenities and infrastructure.500 m² of shops and services is required. which was won by architecture firm S333 architecten. it has a strategic location for housing. The schots concept that S333 developed for the Europan location has a strong urban design component: large urban blocks with smooth. but includes few formal specifications.en gasfabriekterrein. The blocks are part of Groningen’s ecological corridor. led by Jonathan Woodroffe. developed Schots 1 and Schots 2 with the aforementioned local planning conditions in mind. The schots design can be characterized as a zoning plan. two supermarkets. Groningen’s urban planner at the time. situated on the edge of the city centre. 2002) PLANNING FRAMEWORK: CIBOGA SITE (GRONINGEN. the plan does include functional requirements regarding density and mixed use. the number of dwellings to be realized has been set at 150. boden. urban landscape. meaning ‘circus. while a total of 4. The two S333-designed blocks consist of meandering rows on a continuous green. the Ciboga site was the location for the Europan competition. Inspired by British examples. Schots 1 and Schots 2. roof and patio gardens. This advantage was at risk of being lost as a result of the privatization of house building in the 1990s. However. S333.

CONTEXT / The Brief 26a ZONING ENVELOPE 368 the urban context. gently sloping landscape in the internal courtyard. The traditional sequence of public. muted and colourful hues. square. But the concept stands out for its landscaping too. The use of different kinds of glass has introduced a great degree of variation in transparency and reflection. with dwellings sporting floor-to-ceiling windows. . they have been treated as two separate entities. however. Schots 2 is clad in cedar wood panels and has a distinctive. which rises incrementally from street level to the first-floor entrances. The two floes by S333 share urban and landscape features as well as an underground car park. semi-public and private (outdoor) space and the related set of street. Schots 1 is robust and has higher sections and a glass façade. internal courtyard and front and back garden have been replaced by a continuous landscape with indistinct transitions. Architecturally.

p. 63 26c Detail of the zoning map around the The Porter House site 369 . 2006. New York City Department of City Planning.26b 26c 26b Zoning envelope of zones C6–2A.

The top floor is slightly recessed and. AMSTEL 270 RESIDENCE (AMSTERDAM. Last. in the seventeenth century. these elements go back to the late- medieval house in Amsterdam. it has been raised slightly above street level.CONTEXT / The Brief 27a CEES DAM IN COLLABORATION WITH KAREL BODON. a building line is not so much a line as a plane. The only part beyond the building line that may be built on is the pavement. but certainly not least. A monumental doorstep provides access to both the office and the private house above. Because the lower floor is the main floor. it is the plane that must be built. the front elevation of a canal house in Amsterdam has been topped by a cornice. but it is also publicly accessible. the architects have integrated all of these traditional features in quite a remarkable way. Behind this front we find a double-height entrance hall with a mezzanine. This area is part of the house and may be used for access steps. but it also imposes limits on recessed elements. Since the Middle Ages. closed façades with one large window in between. while a detailed land use plan specifies the permitted functions. The upper storeys often have more closed façades consisting of brickwork with windows. with its narrow vertical window arrangement evokes associations with the eighteenthcentury cornice. . the building line has been the organizing principle for street frontage in Amsterdam. for instance. this elevation is asymmetrical. Again. where business was conducted on the ground floor. In fact. of the ring of concentric canals. In this new house along the Amstel. On the ground floor a double-height window wall has been constructed using large I-beams. A building line not only stipulates that no part of the building may project beyond this line. Since the development. Since the eighteenth-century. an imaginary plane that specifies the position of the façade. Amsterdam’s city centre has strict building standards. 1988) ZONING ENVELOPE 370 On the banks of the Amstel River in Amsterdam stands a striking house – striking because it is a remarkable reinterpretation of the canalside house. people in Amsterdam have had rights to the strip of ground in front of their house. doorsteps and cellar entrances. Another typical feature of the canal house is the large open front on the ground floor and perhaps a mezzanine. unless clearly closed off by a fence. In contrast to the traditional canalside elevation. there are maximum building heights and building depths for each lot. The upper storeys have large. As well as the building line.

27b 27a Final composition of the urban design. with the three little towers at bottom right 27b The slender towers with detached lift shaft 371 .

9 ‘C’ stands for Commercial and ‘2a’ permits mixed use. the façade was made of prefabricated elements with steel cladding. which means that the gross floor area here can be six times the surface area. Here. category C6-2A from the New York City zoning handbook is in force [→ 22c].0. 2006. where the meat-processing industry was traditionally based.CONTEXT / The Brief 28a 28a V building balconies 28b The slope of the building is visible 28c Imaginary envelope within which PLOT developed the building (l) and transformation of the proposed row subdivision 28d Urban plan for Ørestad. to ensure sufficient light in the street. building height chart. SHoP Architects has realized an extension on top of an existing building. Architecture practice SHoP made clever use of the rules by pushing the new building volume back. 2002) At the corner of Ninth Avenue and 14th Street in New York. The New York City zoning handbook also stipulates a number of rules on building height and recessed building lines. 9 Department of City Planning. which used to house a meat-packing business. To create additional homes. has been converted into a residential building with offices on the lower floors. See secondary colour. something that is permitted under zoning. ZONING ENVELOPE 372 SHOP ARCHITECTS. . the designers made the most of the maximum building volume permissible. In this way. they managed to create the maximum possible volume. New York City. THE PORTER HOUSE (NEW YORK. Thanks to its façade pattern and dark colour the new block fits in well with the sturdy brownstone buildings that are such a distinctive feature of the neighbourhood. The permitted FAR is 6. The project is part of the transformation of Manhattan’s former Meatpacking District. has been transformed into a modern residential neighbourhood with lots of galleries. bars and restaurants. To facilitate rapid construction at this busy location and to limit the weight of the new block. at the corner of Ninth Avenue and 14th Street. This area west of The Village. The zoning law is a legal instrument that specifies the so-called ‘zoning envelope’ (the description of the maximum building volume). as laid down in the ‘zoning law’. trendy furniture shops. The existing building.

28b Number of storeys and building height Border of the site 8 storeys. in borderzone 6–12 storeys 373 28d . in borderzone 8 storeys 12 storeys. in borderzone 6–8 storeys 28c 8 storeys.

page 289). Mecanoo had been allocated a lot somewhere halfway down this wall. 25b type was based on The standard dwelling the ‘troika’ or three-point access system: a central stairwell with lift providing access to three dwellings per floor. . With hindsight it is doubtful whether the project is genuinely sustainable. The abstract façades reinforce the object-like character of the towers. The theme of the international garden show was sustainability. The other three are all closed. save for a few carefully chosen windows and balconies that enhance the composition. where the intervention would not disrupt the principles of the master plan but would enrich it instead. When homes or parts of them can be attached or detached. With the building’s components pulled apart. central staircase. what remained were slender stacks of residential units. the neighbourhood’s green spaces can snake through the composition. The exploded ‘troika’ block contains 13 small apartments and three maisonettes. ranging from energysaving single-family homes to flexible dwellings for new forms of cohabitation. and linked to a similarly free-standing transparent lift shaft via slender bridges. Separate units can be combined with the help of the spiral staircases inside the towers. The separate components were then regrouped in a composition made up of three free-standing towers. Mecanoo pulled apart this typically German ‘troika’ structure. 1989–1993) PLAN MASSE / BUILDING LINE 374 A more idiosyncratic interpretation of the zoning envelope can be found in Mecanoo’s design for the House 13 project in Stuttgart (see also Chapter 6.CONTEXT / The Brief MECANOO. Each of the towers has one glass façade. Mecanoo saw this challenge as an opportunity to explore the possibilities of linkage. House 13 was part of the Internationale Gartenschau in Stuttgart in 1993 (IGA). HOUSE 13 (STUTTGART. after some negotiation Mecanoo’s lot was moved to the top of the block. ‘Tectonics’. Stripped of the traditional. Pulling apart the building volume and distributing it across three small towers has resulted in an adverse relationship between floor and façade surface and will certainly have a negative effect on energy use. the resulting rearrangement will lead to ever new uses. varying in height. The idea was that every participating architect would develop a small section of this wall. In an attempt to achieve greater freedom. both vertically and horizontally. The starting point was an envelope that defined a wall that closed off an existing block. In this project Mecanoo sought sustainability in flexibility and the linkage of dwellings. Because this exploded ‘troika’ block did not fit within the specified envelope. Under the heading ‘responsible approaches to nature’ several architects were invited to design experimental ecological homes.

29a 29b 29a Design sketch for the Victorieplein 29b Plan of buildings on the Victorieplein 375 .

is divided across the two blocks. whereas the M block features Unité-inspired access corridors. as does the M building. they embarked on the commission. The total number of 209 houses. VM BUILDING (COPENHAGEN-ØRESTAD. met at OMA in Rotterdam. The master plan proposed a layout with two parallel lines. Not only are they spread across several floors.10 The tabula rasa context of Ørestad did not immediately suggest any particular architectural expression. Inexperienced but brimming with ideas. including some for private ownership. led to a plan with two different blocks. The anticipated residents (the pioneers of Ørestad. emphasizing the fact that the central corridor is more than just a means of access. Again. Because of the block’s zigzag structure the central corridors are short and illuminated from both ends of the building. but they also make audacious horizontal movements (see also pages 120 and 196). This intervention created diagonal sight lines. The modification of the blocks and its step-by-step illustration are reminiscent of the adjustments with which Hans Kollhoff put his own stamp on Jo Coenen’s proposed building mass for the Piraeus building on KNSM Island in Amsterdam.CONTEXT / The Brief 30a PLOT (BIG + JDS). a new neighbourhood called Ørestad is being built. But most experimental of all are the dwellings themselves. The site is wedged between the metro line and lowrise development with a lot of bungalows. The beautiful. among them many urban professionals) were the ideal target group for this experiment. sloping down in height from 12 storeys along the metro line to six adjacent to the low-rise buildings. . The homes designed in Copenhagen are directly inspired by Le Corbusier’s bayonet-shaped flat in the Unité. Piraeus. 10 Maurits Klaren (ed. PLOT’s founders. a Dane. To underline this statement. An ultramodern metro links the urban area with the heart of the capital. Een woongebouw van Kollhoff (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers. on the island of Amager. broad central corridors contain recesses. Each has its own access system and a unique character. giving the residents no view but that of one another. But the combination of new urban development and a youthful architecture practice led to an explosion of ideas. triangular balconies of the V building are thrust into the air like knives.). the planning tool used here is best described as zoning with a maximum number of storeys. The V block is accessed by galleries on the north side. The building would become a showcase of new ways of living. PLOT questioned the proposed parallel-line layout. as if to display these new dwelling concepts to the world. the sharp. a comparison with Piraeus presents itself. and Bjarke Ingels. giving the development its name. De Smedt and Ingels opted for extremely transparent façades with large expanses of glass. Manipulation of the blocks. The bright colours are meant to stress the festive character of such encounters. although the Danish versions have undergone a further transformation. The V building features 40 different dwelling types. In the architects’ view these corridors are communal spaces where residents can meet. Julien De Smedt. carried out in a number of steps. Finally. 2006) PLAN MASSE 376 South of Copenhagen. 1994). The relatively new architecture practice PLOT was commissioned to design the first housing block. a V-shaped and an Mshaped one. Although these planning regulations can be translated into an envelope. a Belgian. Set foot in the various homes and you will find a true smorgasbord of types. as Kollhoff accommodated 135 different dwellings there. criticizing in particular its face-to-face positioning.

30b Ground floor Second floor Ground floor South elevation Cross section 30c 30c Floor plans. cross section and elevations 377 .

To achieve architectural unity.P. BERLAGE. The square is part of the celebrated Plan Zuid. And as if that was not enough. as was usual at the time. Berlage. VICTORIEPLEIN (AMSTERDAM. Plan Zuid is remarkable for its architectural unity.25 m. The designers were free to do as they saw fit within the following programme: — The construction of eight three-room flats.25 m and. — A maximum of five storeys. It did not restrict itself to defining the building line and the maximum building height. diagrams of the new façade composition were drawn up in collaboration with the city architect. the master plan for Plan Zuid drew on new tools. gutter heights and roof slopes and supported by fine aerial perspectives of the building shapes. 1993) PLANNING FRAMEWORK: H. 11 four-room flats and one six-room flat. part of the north side of the Victorieplein in Amsterdam-Zuid was demolished because of poor foundations. which are partially integrated in horizontal strips.P. 75 years after Plan Zuid was designed. In the right-hand corner the balconies gave way to recessed balconies to ensure the best possible . The flats have large balconies facing the square. Instead it relied on the plan masse: a precise specification of the form of the blocks that the architects were to develop.CONTEXT / The Brief 31a Planning stipulations for the Oost IIIa sub-plan 31b Oost III sub-plan 31a DKV. which was developed under the supervision of H.11 The local planning conditions had changed too. — Maximum building height: 16. which was established in the master plan and reinforced as a product of the close collaboration between the supervisor and the architects. Rotterdam-based architecture firm DKV won the closed competition and designed a five-storey building. a closed competition was held for a design to replace a few buildings within this master plan. The architectural form of the project was described through specification of the profiles. Woningbedrijf Amsterdam. Most of the buildings are in the style of the Amsterdam School. in places. the next four have an access gallery on the north side. The circumstances were very different when. the client. 17. lending the façade a strong and horizontal articulation. PLAN ZUID (AMSTERDAM. 1920–1940) PLAN MASSE 378 In the early 1990s. The building line was maintained. — A maximum distance of 15 m between the front and rear façades. deliberately opted for ‘unassimilated infill’. Realizing that a city continues to develop. but there was no longer a specified building mass or façade composition. The lower floor can be accessed from the street.

the largest of the islands. It is not a clean break with the past.31b connection with the adjacent building. IJBURG SUB-PLAN 23B1 (AMSTERDAM. Pouw. is filled with elongated blocks of an average 90 m deep. the master plan includes a programmatic trick: the programme for each block is so extensive that it cannot possibly be realized by 379 . 2. but a refreshing take on the original Plan Zuid. IJBURG BLOCK 23 (AMSTERDAM 1996–) A new residential district has been created on a number of artificial islands in the IJmeer. 11 L. who develops the block with two other architects. ‘Voorwoord’. The flats themselves have been rotated in relation to the front façade. Each block has a coordinating architect. Haveneiland. The resulting tabula rasa provides the foundation for a master plan with a gridpattern layout. which ranges from 10 to 15 m. east of Amsterdam. 1990). 2006) PLANNING FRAMEWORK: DE ARCHITEKTEN CIE. To ensure that the blocks look varied enough.. At the island level of planning the building line has been fixed. niet aangepast inpassen (Amsterdam: Woningbedrijf Amsterdam. In some places ‘accents’ of up to 24 m are permitted. IJburg has two levels of planning: island level and block level. DICK VAN GAMEREN ARCHITECTEN. as well as the maximum building height. because the plan’s continuous lines have been preserved. with DKV following the orientation of the adjacent building to the west. comparable in size to the blocks in the seventeenthcentury ring of concentric canals in Amsterdam’s city centre. The result can be described as a contemporary interpretation of Berlage’s dominant plan. in: Victorieplein. This angle of rotation has been partially absorbed by the large balconies.


Now that we have discussed the various aspects of housing design,
this final chapter presents the design process in its entirety, using
three different projects. Aspects from earlier chapters relevant to
each of these projects will come into play, and they will be discussed
as a whole, in contrast to the preceding chapters. In addition, we
will provide insight into the different steps involved and into the
choices made by the designers.
In describing these processes we concentrate on broad outlines.
The standard professional literature in this field usually features
merely a description of the outcome of the process: the definitive
design. Yet what makes the study of the design process interesting
is the way it reveals the winding roads designers travel in order
to reach their goal. A final design may look crystal-clear and selfevident, but it turns out many steps were needed to achieve its
apparent simplicity and its ‘self-evident’ solution. To get to the
ultimate solution, quite a few obstacles need to be overcome and
a number of – shall we say – little inventions cooked up. The more
experienced the designer, the more sure-footed the approach to the
process. At the same time, experienced designers will set their sights
higher and venture down new, unexplored avenues. We have seen
the process take whimsical detours even with well-established
This chapter does not aim to prescribe a standard procedure for
the design process. Although in principle the design process begins
with a commissioning client, a programme of requirements and a
location, the process can start in many different ways. The housing
project Le Medi in Rotterdam, for instance, only had an initiator at
the outset; the client, the location and the architect were still to be
found. After several changes of line-up, the location was finally
chosen. Once a client, a programme of requirements and a location
are in place, you can concentrate on producing the preliminary
and definitive designs, but even then there is no set formula for
arriving at a successful plan.
Anyone who has visited different architecture offices knows that
every practice has its own approach and way of working. There are
practices that base their work on the choice of a particular dwelling
type, and practices that start by defining the form, the volume and
the plasticity or materiality of the residential building. One will
focus on type; another may work based on the concept or on the
urban space. Differences in working methods are also partly the
result of differences in culture and geography.
For many years in the Netherlands – in particular during the
reconstruction period in the aftermath of the Second World


THE DESIGN PROCESS / Starting Point of the Proces




01 Michel Kagan, Cité
d’artistes (Paris, 1990),
first-storey floor plan
02 Jean Nouvel, Nemausus
(Nîmes, 1985–1987), gallery

War – the dwelling type was of primary importance. Once a type
was properly developed and conceived, it could be repeated into
horizontal links and vertical stacks in order to produce a housing
block, a division of lots and a street pattern. This emphasis on
dwelling typology in the Netherlands resulted, from the 1980s
onward, in a display of genuine virtuosity in the linking and
stacking of various dwelling types. Architecture firms such as
Mecanoo, DKV, Neutelings Riedijk and MVRDV are prime
exponents of this. But we also find it in the Piraeus housing
project in Amsterdam, designed by German architect Hans
Kollhoff in collaboration with Delft-trained architect Christian
Rapp (see page 313 ff.). Nor was virtuosity in the linking and
stacking of dwellings limited to the Netherlands. The Danish
practice PLOT (later BIG and JDS) demonstrates a complex
combination of types in the VM project in Copenhagen we
discussed earlier (see pages 128 and 373). In this its founders
reveal their Dutch connections: both once worked at OMA in
In post-war France, with its tradition of grands ensembles, the
starting point of the design process has often been the morphology
of the ensemble. If we look at the work of French architect Emile
Aillaud we see first a composition of different, often free-form blocks
and towers (see page 318). The dwelling design then follows, more
or less as a matter of routine, the contours of the block. An extreme
example of this approach is Michel Kagan’s Cité d’Artistes in
Paris. Three building blocks – a cube, a cylinder and a prism –
linked by a communal gallery, form an ensemble of studio-flats. [←
01–02] Kagan manages to design interesting studio-flats inside each of
these primary shapes. Curiously enough, the flats inside the
difficult shapes, the cylinder and the prism, look more self-evident
than those inside the cube.
In his design for the Îlot Candie (also in Paris), Italian architect
Massimiliano Fuksas starts with a concept for the materiality of
the skin: zinc and whitewash (see page 303). The choice of these
materials, so characteristic of Paris, leads him to wrap the entire
complex inside one huge wave of zinc. We see a comparable
approach in Jean Nouvel’s design for the Nemausus in Nîmes
(see page 318). Here the concept first guides the materiality of
the project and then the entire structure, the dwelling type, the
stacking, the linking and the access. Nouvel’s concept is as simple
as it is effective. ‘A good dwelling is a large dwelling,’ he said.
This raised the inevitable question: How do you create as large a
dwelling as possible in publicly subsidized housing? The answer:
By building as cheaply and as efficiently as possible.
How does Nouvel do this? First with a rational load-bearing


THE DESIGN PROCESS / Forms of Commission

structure, namely a tunnel-form concrete skeleton. Secondly by
using mass-produced façades, stairways and galleries. In the
Nemausus this led him to choose aluminium façade cladding,
using standard garage doors in order to allow the flats to be opened
up as much as possible in the summer. Steel mass-produced stairs
and galleries, also clad in aluminium, provide access. The use of
maisonettes saves on dwelling access. The maisonettes make it
possible to run a gallery on every other storey only: as many front
doors as possible per metre of gallery. Finally, the balconies are
constructed in exactly the same way as the galleries.
Whatever the starting point, all aspects will eventually come up
and have to be balanced with one another. If you start with
materiality, the design of the individual dwelling still has to be
addressed at some point. If the dwelling is the starting point,
then sooner or later the skin, the façade and the roof come up
for discussion, and if you begin with the urban space, you will
also have to reach a conclusion about the dwelling, the building
volume, the dwelling access and the skin. The starting point is
merely the beginning of a complex process in which all these
aspects have to be brought into balance. Nevertheless, the starting
point of the design process will often determine the character of
the design.


Forms of Commission
Then there are the various commission situations within which the
design is created. Normally, a commission is assigned directly to a
single architecture firm. Sometimes a study is first commissioned
from one or more practices, in order to investigate the possibilities
for a new type or a complex location. Witness, for example, the
many studies that preceded the designs for the Borneo Sporenburg
area in Amsterdam’s Eastern Harbour District.
It can happen that the process begins with a ‘multiple commission’,
whereby a number of firms are asked to submit a design proposal.
Open competitions are also used quite regularly in housing
construction. The most famous and most popular are the Europan
competitions: design competitions for young architects (under 40
years of age) organized every two years in various locations
distributed across many European countries. For many renowned
architects, this has been the stepping stone to the founding of their
own practice.
And finally this caveat: the design process can unfold in
unexpected ways. Anything can change over the course of the
process. In the first place, the commission may change: the
programme of requirements may be altered, from rental to buyingmarket units

or from large to small dwellings, for instance. The location may
change; the budget, the completion deadline, the land use plan,
but also the architect or the client may be replaced. And in the
worst-case scenario the project is simply cancelled: no money, no
market, contaminated soil, a lawsuit . . .
Using three projects that differ from one another in a number of
ways, we will now demonstrate how the process can unfold in reallife practice. The first residential complex, Hans Kollhoff’s Piraeus,
is the oldest of the three. Its design process is interesting in two
aspects. First there is the adaptation Kollhoff applies to the envelope
spelled out in Jo Coenen’s urban design; secondly, the way in
which the dwellings are stacked and linked in cohesion with the
access is a textbook example of what we have dubbed the rules
of combination. You might say Piraeus is a typical example of a
virtuoso exercise in dwelling typology.
The second project is an ensemble of three small tower blocks in
the Logements PLUS sub-plan by Badia Berger architectes in the
Quartier Massena in Paris, following an urban design by Christian
de Portzamparc. In this design process the emphasis is on the
interaction between the interpretation of the architects and the
evolution of the urban design.
The third project, Geurst & Schulze’s Le Medi in Rotterdam,
is also a superblock, but of an entirely different kind – condensed
low-rise construction in an urban regeneration area – and with a
different design process. Here, ethnic and cultural motivations
play an important role in the design process; moreover, the start of
this process is marked by numerous uncertainties and changes.
304 dwellings, including 22 dual-use (work/residence) dwellings
The Challenge
In March 1994 a striking residential building reached completion
in Amsterdam’s Eastern Harbour District. This residential building
is part of the redevelopment of the KNSM Island, a manmade
peninsula where the Royal Netherlands Steamship Company
(KNSM) used to be based. The Piraeus block, designed by Berlin
architect Hans Kollhoff, forms a crucial link in Jo Coenen’s urban
design for the KNSM Island.
This urban design – a plan masse – called for two identical, massive
blocks on the south side of the KNSM Island. The building mass
for both elongated blocks was specified. In this plan masse the
two enormous blocks were planned with a cylindrical element and
a round public space in the middle, a configuration comparable to
Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Altes Museum in Berlin. Belgian architect



Bruno Albert implemented the easternmost block in keeping with
Coenen’s urban design. On the site of the western block, however,
there remained an old harbour building, whose occupants – squatters
– had successfully campaigned for its preservation. Coenen’s urban
design consequently incorporated the building as a disruption to the
central cylinder.
Initially, the programme for Piraeus was a standard housing
programme for its time. The urban design stipulated the usual 80
per cent for three- and four-room flats, with the leftover space to
be filled with larger and smaller dwellings. In itself not exactly an
earth-shattering programme. Over the course of the process,
however, there was a shift towards a more complex differentiation
in dwellings. One of the reasons for this was the idea of exploiting
the varying qualities that could emerge as a result of the urban
structure. This afforded the opportunity to make room for new
insights into housing construction and public housing practice,
which ultimately produced unique results in the elaboration of the
dwelling types.


Interpretation of the Specified Building Mass
From the moment Hans Kollhoff was designated the architect of
Piraeus, he questioned the urban design. While Kollhoff felt Coenen’s
plan was a positive starting point for the creation of a massive
block, the proposed mass presented too many issues to develop
successful dwellings; the mass was also far from ideal for the angle
of light and sun exposure of the rear dwellings and the courtyard.
In addition, there was the contradiction between the formal
perimeter block with a central courtyard and the block’s position
on the waterfront. These considerations and the need to preserve
an old harbour building on the site of the cylinder were sufficient
reason for Kollhoff to put the specified building mass up for
discussion. Through an interesting process, various options were
explored, in an effort both to preserve the old edifice and to provide
proper sun exposure for the northern section of the block.
Once the basic form for the block was set, an elaboration phase
followed: kneading and sculpting this basic form to achieve the
final result. [→ 05a–c] This phase ran parallel to the development of
the dwelling types and the ‘filling’ of the block with dwellings.
In this process of sculpting and kneading, two crucial openings
were made in the block: a wedge-shaped incursion in the middle
created the necessary space for the preserved harbour building and
afforded the flats in the rear a view of the water. Where the wedgeshaped opening protrudes into the block, it creates an opening that
connects the area in the rear, along the KNSM-laan, with the
waterfront. There was a small park at the western end of the block,
designed by landscape architect Mien Ruys. A massive portal on

Piraeus (Amsterdam.03 03 Jo Coenen. urban design (1989) and modified urban design (1994) for the KNSM Island 04 Hans Kollhoff. 1989–1994) 04 389 .

THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 05a Piraeus 05a Studies of block form in relation to existing buildings 05b Studies into the block form in a model 05c Studies of block form in relation to views and sun exposure 05b .

05c 391 .

he was able to research complex Dutch housing construction regulations and he was the one who communicated with local authorities. Because Rapp speaks Dutch. The Dwelling Type For Piraeus. Their bays. Neither the client nor Amsterdam’s municipal department of public housing liked the idea: they did not want flats with multiple floors. now had to find alternatives. was never questioned. ways of keeping construction costs down still had to be found. The 5. the ceiling height of 2. . In order to stay within budget (a tight one. 5. the top of the block was sliced off at an angle.6 m and a narrow bay of 2. Unfortunately the drawings of these studies have since been lost. and the slopes of the roof were directed inward. a little extra height is definitely a welcome deviation from the norm. 392 The design of the flats is predicated on tunnel-form construction. Finally. This German architect. At the time this was 10 per cent more than the norm – 10 per cent extra for the architecture! In the process of developing the dwelling types. Kollhoff had great difficulty accepting this rejection. however.1 m wide and 13 m deep. [→ 06a–c] There was a budget of 100. Kollhoff and Rapp initially wanted to develop split-level flats. Janshaven harbour head in Rotterdam. who had trained in Delft.8 m. Curiously enough. exceptional for the time. Rapp. They felt this would be a good solution for the top storeys.6 m bay was enough to accommodate a corridor. were turned into the basic type for Piraeus.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects the west side of the block allows the renovated park to flow into the western courtyard. Christian Rapp played an important role in the elaboration of the dwellings.000 guilders per flat. with centrally positioned bathroom and toilet (the ‘wet core’) and kitchen areas. The dwellings were developed after the basic form of the building had been set. Given the sizable depth of the flats. To achieve this. specifically in their floor plans for the building on the St. by Kollhoff’s standards) the ratio of internal volume to façade area was adjusted. the form of the building predominated. The basic type is based on a broad bay of 5. directly below the angled roof. Their organization into three zones with the ‘wet core’ in the centre made this tricky. the flats were made 16 m deep. was working with Kollhoff at the time.8 m. who was better acquainted with the specific character of Dutch housing construction. in order to produce the best possible natural light incidence and sun exposure. He found the solution in the work of DKV architecten.

Janshaven harbour head served as a model. 06b Piraeus basic dwelling floor plan 07 Piraeus north façade with access staircases for the lower four storeys.06a 06a DKV’s building on the 06b 07 St. 393 . on the left the glassed-in galleries and on the right the galleries carved out of the main body of the building.

however. in addition. such as one. such as corridors or galleries. a slotting element that made the required three.4 m maximum). In order to provide the required ventilation. In the case of narrow dwellings (5. Kollhoff had previously used winter rooms in his housing project on the Luisenplatz in Berlin (1988). the following rule applied in the early 1990s: provide access to as many housing units as possible with the least possible access space. J. require such rooms to be ventilated to such a degree that they lose their function as buffers – when it is freezing outside it is also freezing in the winter room. These are rules (some unwritten. A unique aspect of this basic type was the conservatory or winter room. linking of and access to dwellings possible. the ratio of dwelling surface to access improves.8 m a lift was required. it allowed two bedrooms to fit side by side. The filling of the block took place according to the applicable rules of combination for housing construction. 394 The Configuration of the Dwellings and the Building As we noted. apartments are accessed by means of a central access staircase. This rule means that in residential buildings in which apartment doors are less than 10.P. this meant the designers ‘filled’ the pre-determined basic form of the block with dwellings based on a basic type. an unheated room encased in single glazing that serves as a buffer between the inside and outside.8 m bay afforded room in various configurations for an entrance vestibule and stairs. Kloos’s Dijkgraafplein in Amsterdam-Osdorp and Frans van Gool’s Buikslotermeer in Amsterdam-Noord (see page 115). this is where narrow dwellings (maisonettes and one. Briefly summarized. stacking. As dwellings increase in size. a slit for air was cut around the winter room’s steel frame.or two-room flats and maisonettes. a gallery access can be more efficient. The efficiency of the gallery or corridor can also be increased by having it provide access to more than one storey. Dutch building regulations.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects a bathroom and a central kitchen counter area with plenty of room to move about. this bay also served as an ‘interlock bay’. In practice. Above 10.8 m above ground level (the ‘lift limit’). as in projects like the Smithsons’ Robin Hood Gardens in London (see page 192).or two-room flats) are situated. the form of the building took precedence over the development of the dwelling floor plan. . designers opt for horizontal access at this height. Because horizontal access becomes more efficient the more dwellings per metre along its length. The 2. some stipulated in building ordinances) intended to produce the most efficient arrangement.and fourroom dwellings possible. This can be achieved by means of stairs. To minimize the number of lifts.

but one glance at the cross section is enough to reveal that what we simply call ‘filling with the basic type’ is a great deal more complex in practice [→ 08]. Where the gallery cuts into the block. 395 . galleries run along the courtyard side of the block to provide access to the dwellings via the short perpendicular sections. the more efficient the dwelling design. Furthermore it is unpleasant to have to climb two flights of stairs to get to the next front door. Maisonettes with entrance stairs leading down are also located here. east and west façades and the two connecting sections lining the courtyards. The upper of these two galleries provides access via a staircase to unique maisonettes situated under the sloping roof. Up to this point the configuration is straightforward. In concrete terms this meant that access for Piraeus was organized as follows: the lower four storeys are accessed through an entrence and stairs – this applies to the entire south façade as well as to the lower four storeys of the north. different types of galleries were used: galleries along the façade and galleries that run immediately behind the line of the façade.and four-room flats. These latter galleries are. The dwellings above are accessed through a gallery on the north side. with the top gallery set further back into the block (see cross section).and four-room flats are situated along these access staircases. as it did here. A maximum number of standard three. From these same stairwells. Without going into too much detail we do want to highlight a few elements. carved out of the volume of the block. in a manner of speaking. In general this produces deeper dwellings. The galleries are accessible by means of generously proportioned stairwells with lifts located at either end of the north façade of the block. This gallery type has an additional. or three-room flats with an ‘interlock bay’). it is generally true that the smaller the façade area. comparable to the standard flats accessed by the entrances and stairs. inside the dwelling as well as in the access staircase. unusual variant: two galleries. Consequently the dwellings on this gallery are smaller (two-room flats. situating maisonettes on a central entrance stairwell is not recommended: this results in double stairways. in particular the different kinds of galleries. These galleries provide access to standard three. Equally out of economic considerations. it no longer leaves space for two rooms side by side along the north façade. That said. the space under the sloping roofs and finally the dwellings in the ‘junctions’ of the block. one above the other. In order to produce different dwelling types. The galleries beyond the façade line are encased in an enormous glass box on the north façade.It should be noted that different rules apply today.

with incision into east façade . As you move higher in the block. along with all transformations and deformations along the edges and at the corners. the standard floor plans become fewer and the dwellings become more complex. axonometrics viewed from below. The basic floor plans are identifiable.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 08 09 Piraeus 10 08 Second-storey floor plan. 09 North elevation cross section. 10 Eastern end. This floor plan shows part of the selection of dwelling types.

sketch of Amsterdam canal façade. 11b Span with Vierendeel truss Portal with twice as many columns as necessary 12 Hans Kollhoff.11a 11b 12 11a. with comments 397 .

Of much greater interest. The main load-bearing structure features two noteworthy elements that reveal a great deal about his attitude towards tectonics. which was constructed like a Vierendeel truss. part of the block seems to flow effortlessly across the portal. thanks to the added height and angled ceiling offered here. are the deviations in the loadbearing structure and the way Kollhoff addressed them. but also at the corners of the building – these often include studio space. Oddly enough. An additional incision was made into the eastern end of the block. and it was largely designed accordingly. or 14 m. Nevertheless. In order to anchor this truss. At the level of the façade this block spans five half-bays. the galleries were suspended in a glass case on the north façade or carved out of the block. as though they were flats in the old city centre. and the plasticity of the west façade was reinforced by the addition of projecting balconies. The flats were apparently too deep for tunnel-form construction and presented too many deviations. one above the other. it was the contractor who ultimately balked at the idea. 398 Tectonics and MaterialityTectonics has always been a vital aspect of architecture for Kollhoff. with a bend inside the dwelling. This can be identified in the general floor plan as a large dot on the balcony of one of the . The dwellings under the sloping roofs are unusually spacious. together provide access to four and a half storeys. [→ 09] Unique dwelling types are created not only under the angled roof. the two galleries. both in terms of the span itself and of its seating on top of the dwellings below. the form of the block itself was further refined and its plasticity increased.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects As a result. In the Piraeus residential building his attention to tectonics comes to the fore in a variety of ways and is particularly discernible in the block’s elaboration and detailing. that is to say a huge slab with holes cut out for windows. however. a column over half a metre in diameter was installed. the building’s floor plans still reveal the characteristic structure of tunnel-form construction. the introduction to the ‘Tectonics’ chapter makes a reference to one of his texts. The dwellings at the angled corners are given a unique spatial development. The solution was found in a load-bearing façade. The brief stipulated that the building was to be built using tunnel-form concrete construction. supported by the two perpendicular blocks protruding under it. It does not take much engineering insight to realize that the tunnel-form structure originally intended would have presented significant problems for this span. Indeed. In the process of filling the block with dwellings. First there is the huge wedge-shaped breach with a portal in the middle of the block. At this point.

along the canals in Amsterdam’s city centre. 399 . Leupen. where the little park designed by Mien Ruys flows into the courtyard. When it came to the materiality of the building Kollhoff was inspired on the one hand by the industrial architecture of docklands and on the other by traditional Dutch housing architecture as found. are a testament to this. pavements of natural stone and carefully applied brickwork. 1 Symposium to mark the end of Rem Koolhaas’s appointment as a visiting professor at the Faculty of Architecture of Delft University of Technology in 1990. for instance. such as thin wooden window frames and slap-dash lead flashings. They are there for the sake of tectonic expression. in this case no less than four and half bays (about 25 m) wide. directly on natural stone. then make it a true entrance. it is this brick that gives the building its aura of vast scale and massive industry. Only half of them are actually positioned under a bearing wall. Painstaking studies done by Kollhoff. which makes the portal feasible. This argument also served as a guiding thread in the design of Piraeus.). to impart the feeling that the load of the block on top of them is being kept securely in place. At the same time. What we find here are not Vierendeel trusses but a forest of columns four storeys high. How the structure actually fits together is of lesser importance to him. with façade compositions and complementary details such as solidly proportioned wooden door and window frames. and ed. Grafe (intr. If you are going to make an entrance. But it is also clear from his lecture at the symposium ‘How Modern is Dutch Architecture?’ in 1990. especially when they are built in sturdy dark brick. Where this façade reaches the ground. The architect’s sketches show that he was concerned about the materiality of the building at an early stage of the design process.1 in which Kollhoff argued that current Dutch modern housing architecture was sloppy in its detailing. If you place a timber façade underneath masonry. Even his choice of hard-fired North German brick fits in with this narrative. no fussing about with lead flashing. Hoe modern is de Nederlandse architectuur (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Here too there is a huge opening. He illustrated his argument with a series of slides of canal houses and Amsterdam School architecture contrasted with housing architecture details from the 1970s. make it good and solid. 24 in all – it definitely looks reassuring. show that it is really resting on the ground. as though it could support the whole building. [← 08] In Kollhoff’s conception of tectonics the structure has to look selfevident and strong. 1990). We find an even more significant example at the western end. W. A whole forest of columns: rows of three. and that means that the other half are not supporting anything. Stacking one block on top of another seems solid. see also B. Deen and C. This effect is further reinforced by the use of the slender steel frames.flats. every half bay.

main entrance 15 Sketch and construction of the black timber fronts at the foot of the south façade for the commercial premises in the plinth course of the building .THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 13 14 Piraeus 400 13 Steel sliding-cantilever windows of the winter rooms 14 North façade.

15a 15b 401 .

which gives this mega-form a trustworthy appearance. ‘The Massena Quarter’. [ ← 12.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects with their ingenious sliding-cantilever windows. → 13–16] 2 B. that close off the conservatories or winter rooms on the south façade. 402 . Time-based Architecture International (June 2009). In every instance there is craftsmanship in the detailing. 53. Leupen.

studies into the open block and zoning rules 17 Christian de Portzamparc. Quartier Massena urban design 17 .16 16 Christian de Portzamparc.

THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 18 19a 404 .

19b.19b 19d 19c 20a Logements PLUS 18 Studies of the building mass within the prescribed envelope 19a. 20b Study for the floor plan in relation to the façade 20b 405 . 19d Trial model 20a. 19c.

THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects Logements PLUS. . . is famed among other things as the location of Dominique Perrault’s Bibliothèque Nationale de France (1996). however. this quarter is in turn part of the great urban transformation zone on the left bank of the Seine. The focus is on the concept of the open block.2 In the Quartier Massena. to the unknown. but by the articulation of the two. on the other he recognizes the strictness of the form of the public space. [→ 16–17] Rules and Freedom The blocks are circumscribed by a system of rules based on the zoning envelope principle. This zone between the Seine and the railroad tracks. 30 to 40 per cent open space is required. need not follow the contours of the envelope. De Portzamparc’s objective was ‘to open the city to fickleness. This is a reaction to the perimeter block. Urban Design The urban design is the realization of studies De Portzamparc conducted in the 1970s and 1980s. the urban space is defined neither by the form of the blocks nor by the design of the street. An intelligent ‘zoning’ system that occasionally functions as a building line is meant to enable the quarter to effect an interaction among different architectures. [→ 18–19] 406 The Design The Logements PLUS are the result of a competition. and in fact partly over these tracks. 2008) (competition 2003 – completion 2008) 46 dwellings Logements PLUS by the Badia Berger architecture practice is part of the Quartier Massena in Paris. In contrast to the Modern Movement’s response to the perimeter block. Badia Berger architectes used the freedom granted them by the urban design rules to create what they call ‘an urban landscape . This ensures uninterrupted views and sun exposure. In the Massena Quarter an additional rule was set: depending on the location of the block. Designed by French architect Christian de Portzamparc. Badia Berger’s design is an implementation within the prescribed envelope and its . In contrast to the plan masse. in which a successful balance between density and housing quality is achieved’. which always entails problems of orientation and sun exposure for the dwellings. to variety. zoning stipulates a maximum allowable volume. however. what De Portzamparc did is bring back the street. In the open block concept De Portzamparc combines two contradictory principles: on the one hand he uses the freedom of the free-standing block. the architect of the building. to the future’. Badia Berger architectes (Paris.

especially. means there is sunlight in these rooms for the greater part of the day. Thanks to the slender building volumes.8 times the land area. These rules allowed a great deal of freedom. This implies a very high density. At the top of the towers there are unique flats with extra-high ceilings under a sloping roof. → 21–23] The apartments were designed to create a spatial continuity in relation to the façades. and even three in the tallest tower. To maximize views and sun exposure the volumes were also made as slender and as tall as possible. This creates walls along the street. The tallest and most slender tower has two flats per storey. The slender 11-storey tower benefited from extra attention during the process.or four-room type. In the more block-like towers with ‘troikas’. but they simultaneously placed the designers before a complex puzzle. which meant the allowable floor space was 4. exactly as De Portzamparc envisioned. something that is no longer permitted under current regulations for high-rise construction in the Netherlands. The apartments were of the three.8. In this implementation process the building masses were designed first. Within the rules of the land use plan and within the given land area this produced three little tower blocks of nine and 11 storeys.attendant rules. Badia Berger positioned the building volumes at the corners and along the edges of the site as much as possible. In principle. the lot upon which Badia Berger were building was subject to a building coefficient factor of 4. comparable to the highest densities in Paris. The rules of the urban design were a determinant factor in the design of the building masses. [← 20. and the dwelling floor plans were worked out afterwards. The Apartments As we said. the access is located in the middle and separate from the façade. This double or triple orientation gives the apartments a lot of light and ample views. Here we see that the rules naturally lead to the street being formed as a space. the towers were filled with the usual Parisian dwelling types with central access. The spatial relationship between the kitchen and living room. to which two or three apartments are connected. The two nine-storey towers are ‘troikas’ (three dwellings linked to one central access). [← 19] One limitation on this was the usual dwelling type applied in new constructions in Paris: access through a central stairwell and lift. the flats have two façades. The architects checked the sun exposure and the views both during the competition process and during the implementation. The orientation on three 407 . Its situation across the narrow (11 m) street from the Faculty of Biology of the Université Paris Diderot is the least favourable. In order to create the required open space needed for views and sun exposure.

22b Façade studies 23 Street view 24 One of the towers 25 Tower façade studies 23 22b .THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 21 22a Logements PLUS 408 21 Apartment floor plans 22a.

14a 24 25 409 .

The openings in the block let passers-by share in the enjoyment of the communal and private spaces in the block. Le Medi workshop results (Amsterdam. A double façade zone creates more distance and privacy in relation to the faculty building. in things like the courtyards and private gardens within the block. Een procesverslag. [→ 24] 3 Y. but at higher levels as well. with its open spaces. van Dael. designed by Elisabeth Guilhem. using 1:100 test models.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects sides compensates for a lot. roof gardens and alternating façades. were continually tested as to their cohesion and interaction with the surroundings. Le Medi. The façade elements that define this double façade zone are graced by a special ornamentation inspired by ripe vines. as mentioned above. ERA Bouw and Woonbron. The façades that look out onto the public space are white and flat. in contrast to the brightly coloured façades that line the inner courtyards. During the design process the effects of the block. 2008). through its double façade. Le Medi. het beste van twee werelden. and the façade of this block was given a special treatment. The open. 410 The Courtyard and Private Garden We find the urban landscape Badia and Berger aimed to create. . At the same time the little tower. also gives something back to the biologists. 2002). 4 XS2N and One Architecture. green spaces are located not just on the ground. A communal and a private roof terrace make the urban landscape complete. Van droom naar realiteit (Rotterdam: Com Wonen.

through renovation. At the time Idrissi was running a successful restaurant on the Kop van Zuid and dreamt of a residential neighbourhood in which the influences of Rotterdam’s various cultures would be perceptible.Le Medi. which was organized by the architecture firms One Architecture from Amsterdam and XS2N from Eindhoven. Hassani Idrissi. with an idea. as well as. Their goal was ‘to complete a project that would enable Rotterdam to demonstrate that diversity is also significant for the physical habitat’. including 18 with gardens Initiative In describing the design process of Le Medi we delve deeper into the run-up to the process. . with a hierarchy from public to semi-public. management and use of materials. programme. . The toolbox. growth potential of the dwellings. the Delfshaven submunicipal council’s alderman for public housing and an urban designer from the municipal administration. Geurst & Schulze (Rotterdam. location or architect. a set of methodological concepts to implement their ideas. Growth takes places from the inside out. A team was formed. elevation and condensation . is divided into architecture.4 Urban Design Toolbox The Moroccan city is made up of a number of introverted. To give an impression of the toolbox. which was given the working title ‘Le Medi’. we quote a few passages from it below. . . implementation 2007–2008) 98 dwellings. that incorporate the public space and are otherwise accessed internally through narrow alleys and cul-desacs. dimensions and materials. use of space.3 In late 2001 the parties decided to undertake a study trip to Morocco. [→ 27] The XS2N and One Architecture practices drew this up. There was only an enthusiastic Rotterdam businessman of Moroccan origin. 411 . Toolbox On the way they came up with the idea of developing a ‘toolbox’. at the start of this project there was as yet no client. 2008) (design 2004–2006. At the end of a search for potential commissioning clients Idrissi found the housing corporation WoonbronMaasoevers (later shortened to Woonbron). including the corporation’s director of innovation & strategic advice and its director of housing. often walled elements . The constants highlighted during the trip were the following: rapport with the private and the public. Unusually. The initiative group wanted to find out which elements in Arab architecture and which modes of dwelling in Morocco were particularly noteworthy and might be applicable to the Dutch situation. urban design. among others.

THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 26 27 412 26 Bospolder-Tussendijken historical morphological analysis 27 Findings of the urban design survey by One Architecture and XS2N and their adaptation into the Geurst & Schulze master plan 28 Bospolder-Tussendijken spatial organization analysis 28 .

. . . both in the dwelling. and in open sites. The use of water symbolizes life. etcetera. The separation of traffic flows for family.000 run-down dwellings in this area and replace them with 675 mainly owner-occupied homes with parking facilities. so the WoonbronMaasoevers housing corporation’s Le Medi plan was a welcome positive impulse for the area. collective private commissions. Clear differentiation between the public and the private is reflected in the separation between the public space and the building sites. the corporation De Combinatie and the 413 . very appealing . there was still one problem: there was no location. In Search of a Location Now that the idea of what the Le Medi project would look like was slowly beginning to take shape. The cooling features of certain materials such as mosaic. . .Architecture Toolbox A very clear difference between the Dutch and the Moroccan dwelling is the way it deals with the public and the private and its relationship with the climate . These plans were set down in a covenant the city had signed with the corporation De Combinatie. ERA Bouw was selected. Materials Toolbox One of the primary principles in Arab Islamic architecture is the ornamentation of buildings . From the outset the initiative group had set its sights on the Bospolder-Tussendijken area in Delfshaven. it was decided an experienced construction firm and developer should be involved even at this early stage. in relation to the hot climate. friends and visitors or man/woman. This form of management is also discernible in the Moroccan grid city. . parents / children. . The city planned to invest mainly in the exterior environment. To give the whole project more clout. Privacy (also) finds expression in the multiple use of dual traffic flows. . . . The ‘Schippersbuurt’ neighbourhood seemed to present the best potential for a location. which was active in Bospolder-Tussendijken. The city already had plans in 1999 to demolish 1. where family life unfolds . The decorative themes and principles are not linked to a particular type of building or object: they are applicable to buildings and objects of all periods and types . natural stone and water make their use. Management Toolbox In Morocco we find many gradations of what we now call ‘private commissions’. So there were ultimately three commissioning clients involved in the development of Le Medi: the housing corporation WoonbronMaasoevers. The dwelling is oriented inward towards the patio.

. the corporations and ERA Bouw decided to find an agency with more experience for the master plan. A selection process found the architecture practice Geurst & Schulze to be the best candidates. cit. the makers of the toolbox. As a result. This element was directly connected to the enclosed space. to start with. the unique enclosed space. The context of the area had two primary aspects: on the one hand there was the physical context. and on the other hand there was the social and cultural context. the choice was clearly for blending and cross-pollination of cultures as a concept for a regenerating metropolis. De Combinatie and ERA Bouw decided to further develop Le Medi based on the toolbox. [← 5 Van Dael. Le Medi. Simply put. an inner plaza with water. but the selection of the designer and supervisor of the urban design. It was now time to develop a master plan for the area. These included. Geurst & Schulze would incorporate both the toolbox and the findings of the urban design survey in their plans. Master Plan WoonbronMaasoevers. A third element was dubbed the Ramblas. op. This was not limited to the district – a socially and economically deprived area with a number of problems – the area was also part of a greater sociocultural system. 28] The urban design surveys by XS2N and One Architecture brought out four vital elements that were adopted by Geurst & Schulze. Following a historical morphological analysis and research into the spatial organization of BospolderTussendijken. but it was also clear who the clients were. the master plan for the Schippersbuurt area. By then. the outlining of the master plan could now begin. 22. to conduct an urban design survey. Finally there was the repeated row of urban villas forming a transition between the area and the park zone. At Le Medi. To be clear: what we are talking about here is not the selection of an architect for the design of Le Medi. The findings of these surveys. with its many dilapidated dwellings. and given the complex brief. (note 3). To begin with they asked One Architecture and XS2N. not only was a location planned. 414 26. This raised the underlying political question of how to deal with different cultures in the city.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects construction firm ERA Bouw. the decaying nineteenth. the choice was either to adapt to Dutch culture (whatever that may be) or mix. however. cluttered spatial structure and sparse public space.and early twentieth-century district of Bospolder-Tussendijken. a broad street with a lot of greenery that links the centre of Bospolder-Tussendijken with the park zone on the former railroad yard. The second element was the portal. did not entirely correspond with what the clients had envisioned for the area.

29 Le Medi 29 Bospolder-Tussendijken master plan. Schippersbuurt 30 Studies into variants for Le Medi block for the master plan 31 Studies into dwelling expansion possibilities for the master plan 32 Façade studies for Le Medi block for the master plan 30 32 31 415 .

Finally. In contrast to the Ramblas as outlined in the survey. Com Wonen (the former De Combinatie) and ERA Bouw opted – and how could they not – for Geurst & Schulze. through renovation. As evidenced by the detailed elaborations they produced. Portals provided access to the inner world of the block. starting from a basic element that serves to partly define the ‘city wall’. Many of the themes from the toolbox found their way into this. [→ 30] Growth Potential of the Dwelling One theme from the toolbox is the focus of special attention in the master plan: ‘Growth takes places from the inside out.’ Inspired by Le Corbusier’s famed Obus plan for Algiers (1930–1932) Geurst & Schulze outlined how the dwellings. as subsequent events would prove. Korteknie Stuhlmacher . the special element with water features (inner world) and even an element that mediates the relationship between public and private (veranda). [← 27] Geurst & Schulze paid particular attention to the Le Medi block in the master plan. Geurst & Schulze presented three additional variants for Le Medi.5 Based on these virtually irreconcilable requirements. this diagonal street connects better with the planned park entrance.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects All of these elements were given a place in the master plan. The clients were looking for a ‘practice with guts that would dare to use ornamentation and colour. but also a practice with a predilection for the sleek and modern’. The ‘Ramblas’ was translated into the upgrading of one of the existing broader streets. of which the One Architecture sketches shown here provide only a glimpse. and yet it took many rough drafts to arrive at this result. The Le Medi complex began to take shape as a walled city block. Everything fell into place: it seems so simple. The series of proposals concludes with a representation of the entire block as they envisioned it at that time. [→ 31] 416 Architect Selection Once the master plan was ready and the concept for Le Medi had been received positively by the press and the public. We see the walled enclosure. Of particular interest in this regard are their proposals in which their idea of Le Medi is presented as an analysis of all the elements. the issue of selecting an architect for Le Medi arose. elevation and condensation. with two inner plazas and water features. could expand backwards and upwards. they found this unique element extremely appealing – not entirely without reason. the expansion options for the dwellings (growth). the transition zone of urban villas was incorporated into the master plan. The interesting aspect of this proposal is that it makes a statement both about typology and about style.

36. 37 preliminary design. maquette.33 34 Le Medi 33 Variants for preliminary design 34 Inner world full of colour. plan and Alhambra projection 35 36 37 417 . central space with veranda and water feature 35 Analysis of preliminary design: all the elements find their way back in.

The informal rear sides of the dwellings opened out onto what was supposed to be a formal space. the master plan served as an aesthetic quality plan. which incorporated suggestions about façades and agreements about visually distinctive elements. 418 This is why Geurst & Schulze. proved adaptable into a design into which all of the . Building lines determined the location of the street walls. The Plan Once Geurst & Schulze were assigned the commission. Moreover. however. The veranda planned here did not sufficiently resolve these issues. [→ 33] Yet the third proposal. One of the two courts created as a result was to become the special place with a water feature. which was considered more private. The problem with this proposal was the mixing of front and rear sides. In none of the three. an additional street was drawn across the block. As previously noted. In the end they produced seven alternative types for the plan. parking possibilities and dwelling type. The initial proposals from the master plan only defined boundary structures and a special central area. so that what was behind the line of building alignment had to meet a number of conditions. To this end they first went back one step in the design process. As architects. to increase density. like the walled enclosure with portals and the space with special access? All three proposals did feature a space with an area marked in blue – water. In the studies. all recognizable by their centrally situated entrance and the bay window placed above it. The urban design instrument employed was the building line. the urban design pre-conditions were determined by their own master plan. Geurst & Schulze had to elaborate Le Medi within the framework that had been outlined. An urban design supervisor was appointed to ensure all of this would be implemented successfully. this role was filled by Geurst & Schulze as well. did this produce a convincing picture. went back to a city block subdivision with dimensions derived from the original street pattern. from the point of view of privacy as well as of security.THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects architecten were asked to help conceptualize variants in the dwelling types. The contours of Le Medi were set as a building line. In addition. with some expert refinement. such as density. this front-and-back issue also meant a mixing of public and private. The informal rear side. An undesirable situation. in the initial phase of the final design process. within these contours there was still a great deal to do. But what remained of all those elements related to the toolbox. This master plan started by defining the public spaces. These subdivision studies featured open blocks with a clear division between private and public. bordered on the central public space with the water feature.

In practice this means that in low-rise. We see these dimensions come back with a vengeance 419 .elements were able to be included in equilibrium. The proportions of this space are inspired by one of the main courtyards of the Alhambra (see fig. An important factor here is the city of Rotterdam’s stipulation that in urban regeneration areas with limited on-street parking. the beautiful discarded ideas can still find a place in the new composition – but don’t count on that. Risks. It is possible to work from the larger whole down to the details. the courage to abandon your beautiful ideas: ‘kill your darlings’ – darlings that stand in the way of a more beautiful and more successful plan. If you know how large and particularly how deep the dwelling can be. particularly articulated in the main entrance off the ‘Ramblas’. Even the veranda around the central space made it back into the final version of the project. In the final design we see that all the elements have found their way back in. In Geurst & Schulze’s analysis of their own plan. for instance. new constructions must incorporate parking facilities. That takes courage. 00). Parking under the dwelling has incontrovertible implications for the dimensions of the dwelling. shown here. parking has to be accommodated in garages under a large proportion of the inner premises and even partly under the dwellings themselves. [→ 34–37] Spatial Organization of the Dwelling Le Medi is a clear example of a plan based on a conception of dwelling culture and public spaces.4 m. high-density buildings. In such an approach. This produces a familiar calculation: 2. are deftly demarcated by boundary buildings filled with unique dwelling types. The small open blocks. the design of the dwelling risks becoming the tail end of the process. We discuss the expansion options for the dwellings in the section on the development of dwelling types. The great thing about design is that sometimes you get to a higher level via a detour or by taking a step back. The passages incorporate portal-like elements. Put another way. graced by a small water feature. simultaneously solving the issue of the public and the private. is positioned so that is almost touches the edge of the block. if you’re lucky. The central inner space. Sometimes. Here it serves as a filter between the public life in the central space and the front sides of the dwellings that surround it. as in this case. you can get quite far by using the dwelling as raw material. making it just possible to catch a glimpse of this inner world from the outside. in this case the dwelling. they once again demonstrate how all the elements have been given a place in the block.7 by 2 m equals a dwelling bay size of 5. because this is not inevitable. the optimal width of the parking spaces dictates the dwelling’s bay dimensions. as long as you have sufficient experience with these details.

nl/dewoningen/ ?page=woonplanner 39 Studies for the spatial organization of the dwellings 40 Dwelling. basic floor plan and cross section 41 Korteknie Stuhlmacher dwelling floor plans .THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 38 420 38 Screenshot of the website http://www.lemedi.

39 40 41 .

THE DESIGN PROCESS / Three Projects 42 43 Le Medi 422 41 Reference image for masonry work 43 Street view 44 Entrance portal into the estate 44 .

and to find earthy materials on the other. the central arrangement more or less locks down the plan: you enter via a large vestibule. In designing the façade. in Korteknie Stuhlmacher’s view. you are left with about 3. The stairs lead to the upper floor. The difference is mainly on the ground-floor level: whereas the dwellings by Geurst & Schulze are entered from the left or right side. from more public to very private. The façades overlooking public spaces. If you want a staircase as well as a corridor or a landing. The home was conceived as an empty shell. are relatively closed. you need a small hallway or landing. for privacy inside the dwelling for example. Korteknie Stuhlmacher opted for a more formal arrangement. which can be filled in many different ways as its occupants see fit. reserved for the family. was more in keeping with Mediterranean dwelling culture. and the façades that line the inner premises. These dwellings were also developed using the 5. The living room located up here is extended across the entire width of the front façade and features a bay window. The proposals shown here show various layout options – variants made possible by the application of the empty-shell principle. This was a spatial organization that. A size of 5. there was an effort to achieve a Mediterranean ornamentation on the one hand. so that this level can serve as guest quarters. These are the dwellings designed by the Korteknie Stuhlmacher practice. There was also a clear distinction between the façades that form the boundaries of the block. The façades that form the block’s walled enclosure feature an earth-toned brick – 423 . in which the house features a hierarchy of spaces. Future residents were able to communicate their preferences by going to the website www. [→ 38–40] In seven places we find a somewhat divergent dwelling type. in particular the outside of the block. The ground floor also includes a bedroom and and configuring their own variant within the allowable parameters. and therefore must underscore the idea of a walled enclosure. to vouchsafe the seclusion of the block and the privacy of its occupants.4 m is unwieldy for the dwelling once a staircase needs to be introduced.4 m bay size.into the dwelling proposals shown here.5 m for the living room. This asymmetrical approach makes it difficult to fit a room alongside the entrance. positioning the entrance in the middle. [→ 41] Tectonics and Materiality Geurst & Schulze began working on the external appearance of Le Medi when they were still developing the master plan. The living room can be extended across the whole dwelling width along the façade. Even the toolbox was explicit about the façade and the material. In this dwelling the vestibule fills the role of a space for welcoming visitors. but if you are not willing to access the upstairs through the living room.lemedi.



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The former category consists of concrete analyses of residential buildings in conjunction with the urban tissue. but the method has a general applicability. Beyond this. In their composition these books are reminiscent of old architecture treatises. Some publications include detailed figures (number of dwellings. This is followed by a more or less dated collection of projects. is a product of the Venetian school.) for each project. These publications do not usually rise above the level of a collection of plans as examples. Any typological classification is absent from these examples of housing plans. etc.. ‘Cluster Houses’ and ‘Apartments’. the emphasis in Hellmuth Sting’s Grundriss Wohnungsbau (Housing Floor Plan) is much more on the construction of a classification system. Multiple analytical drawings show how a particular section of the city has been composed of residential edifices and how the types applied were transformed and deformed.1 Grundriss Wohnungsbau (1975) In contrast to the publications just discussed. access to the dwelling is the linchpin of stacked housing. 433 . 1986). ‘Row Houses’. Most provide a historical introduction on the evolution of mass housing. housing density. According to Sting. This method is primarily crucial for the analysis of existing projects and locations (see also Chapter 7. He employs a categorization based on dwelling access. This book. The examples in these analyses are always specific. In these analyses. or else it lies in the selection of the plans as a whole. These examples are divided into categories with great precision and detail. as evidenced by titles like ‘Wohnhochhäuser’.Publications on Dwelling Typology Countless books have been published on dwelling typology. La casa Veneziana nella storia della città (Venice: Marsilio. 2005). ‘Context’). Atlas of the Dutch Urban Block (Bussum: Thoth. Sting opens with a general introduction in which he sets out his method and goes on to provide examples of residential buildings. naturally. One of the finest publications in this vein is La casa Veneziana nella storia della città. A fine Dutch example in this genre is Susanne Komossa et al. In these typological analyses the focus is instead on the way types are applied in a concrete situation. Sting attempts to construct a conclusive and universal system that 1 Paola Maretto. Dwelling access has an impact on the dwelling floor plan on the one hand and on the stacking and linking of the dwellings on the other. the emphasis is on the development of the city in relation to the types used. guiding the reader along a series of its milestones. however. but there is no attempt to construct a comprehensive dwelling typology. selected by the authors. two groups of publications on dwelling typology merit closer attention: publications based on Italian and French research into typology and urban morphology and German and American publications that aim to provide an overview of dwelling typology in an encyclopaedic fashion.

unlike living nature. buildings – and therefore dwellings – do not reproduce. New buildings and dwellings are ‘born’ almost every day. Sherwood draws clear divisions among typological levels. Sherwood proposes a typology based on the placement of a dwelling within the block (‘single-orientation unit’ and ‘double-orientation unit’) and a typology based on dwelling access.” In the absence of clear design determinants. 434 Modern Housing Prototypes (1978) In the introduction to his beautifully illustrated Modern Housing Prototypes. There are no genetic lines progressing according to Mendel’s laws. that during the period when many of the variables are unknown. it has been argued that analogous reference might give design insight . that “truly quantifiable criteria always leave choices for the designer to make. and to avoid purely intuitive guessing. p. a classification of buildings can never be exhaustive: it has to be an adaptable system capable of continually absorbing new and unforeseen properties. Roger Sherwood sets out what he sees as the purpose of dwelling typology. . he is compelled to resort to stranger and stranger concepts in order to group all sorts of divergent dwelling floor plans into one category. summarized as follows: .BIBLIOGRAPHY / Publications on Dwelling Typology can accommodate any conceivable property. Sherwood affirms the necessity of a typology for design: ‘Various writers have suggested that it is never possible to state all the dimensions of a problem. Designers interpret experiences and existing types according to their views on architecture and housing and adapt existing types according their interpretations of the programme and the situation. In contrast with Sting. The second part of the book contains a series of international projects for which Sherwood employs a typology based on characteristics at the level of the urban ensemble (from ‘detached and semi-detached housing’ to ‘towers’).2 Sherwood’s introduction also includes a framework for a typology of dwelling. 1. MA: Harvard University Press. While Category 1. 1978). . Sting tries to compile a ‘flora à la Linnaeus’ for residential buildings. Alluding to the debate waged by Alan Colquhoun with the first generation of computer-aided-design architects. but new residential buildings are created through the intervention of the deliberate actions of an architect. The complexity and versatility of today’s housing production would seem to doom such an approach to failure. but applies them more loosely. It just so happens that. sometimes even carelessly. [→­01] 2 Roger Sherwood. a “typology of forms” might be used as a simulative technique to clarify the problem’.1 is still clearly expounded in Sting’s typology. Modern Housing Prototypes (Cambridge. Precisely because new kinds of buildings and dwellings are added to the existing repertoire every day. He relies to a significant degree on Sting’s categories.

435 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY / Publications on Dwelling Typology 436 01 Typological­diagrams .

The book opens with an introduction by Hellmuth Sting in which the typology used by both authors is explained. open-ended Level 2: Building Types: The Private Access — Corridor buildings — Single-loaded corridor system — Double-loaded corridor systems — Double-loaded split-level systems Level 3: Detached and semi-detached housing (described using a number of ‘prototypes’) — Row housing — Party-wall housing — Block housing — Slabs — Towers The appeal of this book lies in its presentation of the prototype projects. Grundrissatlas/Floor Plan Atlas (1994) A more recent publication of significance is Friederike Schneider’s Grundrissatlas/Floor Plan Atlas.Level 1: Unit Types — Single-orientation unit — Double-orientation unit — Double-orientation unit. low-rise Each category is subdivided according to position in the configuration of the urban design. For ‘multi-storey housing’ this is as follows: — Block-defining structures — Urban infill — Corner buildings — Firewall buildings — Urban villas — Freestanding structures — Residential towers — Terrace houses 437 . — Multi-storey housing — Single-family housing — High-density. These plans are arranged in three categories according to the stacking and organization of the dwellings. every project features beautiful axonometrics showing the structure of the building in relation to the dwelling and the access. followed by an extensive section featuring plans as examples. In addition to photographs and floor plans.

which can be seen as the realization of Le Corbusier’s lotissement à alvéoles (‘honeycomb housing’. Sometimes new plans are painstaking adaptations of never-built projects of the past. 1925). as in MVRDV’s Mirador residential building (2005) in Madrid-Sanchinarro. They are transformed and referenced. plans from different periods are set side by side. such as access staircase or gallery access.BIBLIOGRAPHY / Publications on Dwelling Typology — Space-enclosing structures The projects are extensively documented. Classic examples often serve as sources for new developments. The plans are classified according to block form and cross section. In each chapter. for instance. The projects are all essentially represented on the same scale. the grouping method and . distributed across eight chapters differentiated by the form of the block and a group with complex cross sections. perforated blocks and ensembles are discussed. is as follows: — Perimeter blocks — Slabs and walls — Towers — Perforated blocks — Ensembles — Stepped blocks — Groundscrapers and ‘mat’ plans — Classic and recent designs — Urban villas — Blocks with a complex cross section 438 The book uses icons for the block form and for the access type. The icons representing the block form. J. which simplifies comparison. van Zwol presents over 70 residential edifices. and towers. like the perforated blocks with stacked exterior spaces. often with drawings produced especially for the book. displaying a number of aspects. The latest edition features a sizable reference sheet listing all the typological characteristics of the plans. revealing the connections between the old and new plans. Another example of transformation is Denys Lasdun’s project for clustered towers in Bethnal Green (1955) and Mecanoo’s towers in Stuttgart (1993). Classics like Johannes Duiker’s Nirwana Building as well as more recent plans are discussed. A nice detail is the ruler included to measure the plans. This makes the book a useful tool during the design process. All the plans are listed in a matrix at the back of the book. Het woongebouw (2009) In Het woongebouw (The Residential Building). There is a group of plans featuring a complex cross section. The grouping of the plans.


­262 Brand.­160. 75.­122.­150.­383.­104.­198.­144–146. 348 CePeZed 82.­117. 205. 125.­222.­44. 112 Duinker Van der Torre 83.­89 Banham.­216.­403.­130.­376.­374 Berlin 25. 288.­165 Billigere Boliger 313 block see city block Bloemdaalsche Park 207.­68. 372. 45. 270.­235.­276 Domus Architekter 114 Domus Demain 326 Dranger. 367 Borneo Island 138. P.­361.­201. 227.­406 De Renzi.­187.­174.­119. X.­283.­351. 433.­327.­222.­212.­327. 248 De Portzamparc. 217.­387–389 Coignet 248 Colquhoun. 134.­231. 246.­233.­410­ Amsterdam School 305. 236 De Smedt.­276.­160 171–201.­112.­ 305–307 Benjamin.­255.­106.­83–85.­116.­378. M.­84. S.­182.­136.­26. 190 De Eendracht 177. 310. K. K. J. 184.­187. 108.­168. 180.­162. 186. 49.­48.­218.­386 Bosch. M. 387 Albertslund 219 Alexander.­164.­222. 25 De las Casas.­351.­42. semi-open 182.­286 detached house 73.­188. 318.­194.­348.­406. A.­437 –.­387. G.­172.­252. 361. 117.­402.­434.­251. 367 Dance Theatre 40.­341 Bijvoet.­38.­87. 403.­68.­376 De Bruijn.­106. 345.­224.­234.­216. J. 41–44. 354. perimeter­48.­228. M. A. J.­306.­140. 41.­115.­222. 387. 216. 152 BO01 287.­374.­305.­344.­176. 434 concept 33.­166.­57 Copenhagen 94.­133.­204. 303.­240.­186. 85.­107.­224–228.­221 De Geyter.­374.­180.­437 Duin en Beek 212 Duin en Daal 208.­385.­170–172.­339. 158.­150. Chr.­338 Ciboga site 300.­78.­185. 98.­328.­347.­399 apartment 23. 214.­50.­386.­360.­300.­190.­45.­113.­222 Baumschlager & Eberle 156 bayonet dwelling 120.­80. B.­376.­347. É. 218 Berlage.­352 Brederode Park 212. 321 Barcelona 217 Basel 97.­see also Liesbeth van der Pol Dom-ino skeleton 55.­201 Berkel en Rodenrijs 215 Berkheyde.­366.­117. 365.­156.­141.­379 Cité d’artiste 384.­327. 97.­107.­434 dwelling type 10. P.­418.­177. 190.­49.A.­224.­416 bungalow 372 Campo Junghans 365 Case Convenzionate Federici 236 Castex.­408. 210.­242.­407 Ban.­166. 402.­217. 80.­166.­45.­83.­325 Chareau.­316 AART a/s 94. R.­107.­53.­339. 241 Duiker. 142.­233–235.­44. 317.­347.­221.­204.­140. 140.­243.­406. 323 Chassé Park 272 Chermayeff.­350.­138.­145 building line 158.­254. 310 De Klerk. 48.­370. 129–135.­399.­25 Bergpolder Building 105.­205.­100.­366.­38.­197 Bayreuth 42–44.­368.P. 366. A.­165.­156. 402. 50.­389.­102.­435­ Crystal Palace 184 Cullen. R.­254.­397.­210. 172.­216–222.­92.­205.­314.­416 –.­349. 342.­385. 96–98.­124 Chicago 24 Chicago 24 Christiaanse.­376.­402. M.­385.­50.­292. J.­156.­236.­201.­394. S. perforated 437 –. 217.­207.­208 Bloemendaal 206­–208.­312.­287.­307.­282. G. 160. 23. Het 115 Briey-en-Forêt 120 Brinkman.­161. 309. 99 Coenen. 192.­256. 379. 40.­164.­126. 29 Bern 124 Bethnal Green 437 BIG see PLOT Bijlmer 160.­82–84. 222.­164. W. C. M.­113. open 182.­96. 136. G.­250.­392.­112.­165.­100.­394 Berman. Shigeru 88.­230. 394.­360.­37.­58. 402.­44. 126. W. 246.­344. B. 317 Building Code (Bouwbesluit) 71 building configuration 45.­119–121.­236.­367. 370.­120. 111.­142. 316.­216.­385 Albert. 79. 392.­38. 367.­266 Deutsche Werkbund 136 Devey. closed 160 –.­385 –.­374.­225.­221. J.­372.­216.­278.INDEX Aalto. 186. F.­280. 243. 311.­272.­268–270.­374.­116.­372.­351. 272 De Hooch. .­276.­344.­326.­46 Bearth & Deplazes 286 Bedford Park 206 belly 241. P. 379.­250. 173. H.­219. 102.­140–142. 185. 252.­219.­44.­78. 258. 206 Diener & Diener 307 DKV Architecten 84.­127. P. Stig 122 drum dwellings 127 DS Landschapsarchitecten 212 Duffy.­121. 385 Corciano 260 corridor 44.­385–387.­433.­108. 361.­212 Blom. 20 Boston 355 Botania 254 Bötticher.­120.­388. G.­341.­235. 135.­165 ADP Architecten­106 Æblelunden 288 Aerdenhout 210 Agneta Park 207 Aillaud. 231.­209 Duinker.­135. 240 box structure 242.­161.­254.­114.­43 datascaping 357. see also flat Argan.­42.­84.­310 Deir-el-Medina 69 Delft 80. stepped 437­ classification 37.­413.­213 Breed. 115. 243.­107.­372.­142.­105.­358 de Architekten Cie.­361. H.­385 Cité Radieuse 230 city block 32. K.­280 Bassin de la Villette 344 Batavia 102. 394.­227.­352.­234 BRO 215 Brussels 339 Buckminster Fuller.­49 Aristotle 19 Arons & Gelauff 103 Atelier 5 124 Autopon 142 Badia Berger Architects 387. M.­220.­138.­221.­95. 224. Chr.­307.­79 Almere 298 Amsterdam 25.­366.­355 Dam.­393 Dok Architecten 58.­118.­see also KCAP CIAM 27.­181.­55.­44.­200.­246.­366. 37.­49. 204.C.­352. 232.­226 –.­57.­129. 53.­117.­342. 217.­328.­see also typology clustered low-rise 144–146 Coates.­231.­392.­194–201. 174.­315 Bodon. 241 Breda 272.­106. 323 Bikuben Student Hostel 94.­61.­116 Duinzicht 212 dwelling access 45.­414 concept of type 37.­57.­372.­196. 372 De Wit.­41.­215. 162.­152.­101.­114.­360.­188.­410.­402.­392 Deplazes. 128.­314.­208.­372.­66.­225.

82 Hansaviertel 117.­423 Köther & Salman Architecten 138 Krier.­see also apartement –.­160.­262.­31 Highland Park (IIl.­45–47.­338. 186 Frankfurt 27. 328 Festspielhaus 42.­78.­42.P.­306.­230 Fuksas.­101. 29. 268. 49.­176. 275­ Eastern Harbour District 138.­394 Howard.­359 Glashochhaus 30 Glessner House 24 Godin. 184. 314 Kjærholm.­360.­234. 427. 351. 196. F. 379 Grosfeld Architecten 148 groundscraper 437 Guilhem.­ 285–287.­228. 114–116.­186–192. 40.­119.­278 Lange Eng 219 Lange. H.­388. H. Yves 326 Lleó.­292.­325 Helldén. E. 162.­414.­345.­39.­165.­272.­385.­46 figure and ground 351. H. 171.­see also K.­266.­268.­370 Housing Act (Woningwet) 71 housing block see city block housing unit 45.­290. 406 Linnaeus.­194. M. 410 IJburg 217.­265.­398 441 . 97.­312 house see detached house. 140.­152 Hennebique.­423 loadbearing wall. E.­see also OMA Kop van Havendiep 246.­172.­33.­385.­406.­225. 407 Guise 186. F.­407.­145. 186.­437 gallery flat 187 gallery-access apartment 103. 216.­398.­276.­414.­328.­180. N.­119.­105–108.­97.­160 flat 42.­385 grass roof see roof. Blanca 231 load-bearing structure 48.­48.­419 Giedion.­42–44.­379 Îlot Candie 303.­392.­180.­168.­256 Idrissi.­68. S. 166. Karl 25 Eindhoven 148. single-storey flat 176.J.­136. Ph. and Ch. J. 115. 437 Lawn Road Flats 99 Le Corbusier 31.­270. vegetation covered Graz 84.­226. 303. E.­385 infill 144.­371.­419 dwelling typology 9.­53. 37.­173.­433.­45 Estradenhaus 180 Euralille 358 Europan 366.­284.­387.­84. 333.­107.­434 Lion. R. 370.­252.­99–101. 50.) 110 Hilberseimer.­406.­233.­200. 394. 245. R.­323.­246.­45 geology 333 Geurst & Schulze 387.­392.­374.­416. 307. 132 Farnsworth House 132 FARO Architecten 118 Fausto.­418.­134.­57.­292 Lewis sheeting 278 Leymen 245 lift 45.­339 Frankfurt kitchen 75.­385.­52 Kaufmann.­239.­235 Kulka.­160.­196.­187 Girard.­53.­171.­285.­387.­41.­113. H. 38. H. Christiaanse Kernform 240 Kitagata Apartment Building 101 Kjærholm.­399.­93.A.­218. 292. 131 Kunstform 240 Kurokawa.­54.­160.­386.­185.­132.­103.­73.­83.­186.­170. 387 Ehn.­182. M.­96.­365.­306. access 105.­194. V. row house House 13 289.­346. B. 394 KNSM Island 113.­192.­222.­160. E.­438 Dymaxion 317 Eames.­193 Good Living Foundation (Stichting Goed Wonen) 31 grands ensembles 232.­187 Gulden & Geldmaker 177 GWL site­174.372. J-B. 158 Gemini Residence 104 Genoa 40.­21 Heiwo house 82. – structure 82.­140.­386.­88.­77. 122 Helsinki 117.­394.­ 384–386.­357 Lasdun.­173 Hengelo 126. P. 206 Huizen 53. 33.­42.­187 Golden Lane 192. 31 Gifu 101 Ginzburg.­372.­128. 19.­414. 326 Lelystad 246.­201.­182. 205.­386­ façade 285–294 Fælledshaven 114 Familistère 186. D. 182 Floor Area Ratio (FAR) 361 Floriande 210.­55.­366. 345 Herzog & de Meuron 97. E.­378.­122.­302.­318 Haveneiland 217.­385 kasbah 15.­372.­411 Groningen 300.­241–281.­398.­269 Heren 5 Architecten 226 Hertzberger. G-E. 186.­134.­394.­335. 187.­379.­344 Garching bei München 93 Gazeau.­376.­168. 68.­311 Haus Müller 130.­61. 302.­389 Kobe 88 Køge 313 Kollhoff.­251.­355 Fink+Jocher 93 Firminy 120. 224.­376.­137 free-standing objects 204.­246. 142.­182 – Oost III sectional plan 107.­276.­434 Dwellingbase 437.­385 Fukuoka 154.­388. 312.­260.­297.­186. 186.­300.­270. M.­132 Haussmann.­307. H. 275.­295.­226 Fourier.­333. 344 GIS 358. 372 Ingwersen & De Geus 142 insula 156. 126. S.­416. 32 KBnG 119 KCAP 185.­374.­198.­75. 314 Klein Driene 126 Kloos. 230.­201 Haus Baensch 133 Haus Moller 243.­212.­280. 288.­55.­420. 413.­295. 394. 282.­186 Java Island 138. 395.­88.­73. M.­40.­395. 99.­322.­410 Essen 40.­170. 234.­361. 384. L. 385. Leopold 311 Las Vegas 355. 113. D.­419.­141.­160.­142. 397–399 Koolhaas.­105–108. 56. 251 Holl.­289.­374 Ingels.­182.­269.­226 Hoogkade 307 Hoogwerf 307 Horta. 294.­387–389.­346.­102. 282. 379. 352.­383.­385.­212.­392.­395.­109 grid 82.­289. 310. C.­346.­345.­156.­352.­372. 418.­302 gallery 84.­185 JDS see PLOT Jersey City 355 JJW Arkitekter 104 Jugendstil 314 Justus van Effen Block 187.­236. 158.­187 Farnsworth.­77.­376 Heidegger.­43. V. R.­234 Juul & Frost 313 Kagan.­17 Kasbah 152 Kassel 50.­138.­290 Het Lint 215 Heynen.­186.­387.­233 Habitat ’67 262 Habraken.­87.­372. Kisho 92 La Cité de l’Abreuvoir 232 La Fenêtre 259.­120.­437 Le Medi 383.­101.­211.­379.­158.­379 – Block 23B1 376 IJplein 96. Ch.­94.­396.­292 Korteknie Stuhlmacher 414.­225.­137.­378.­131.­41 Hoofddorp 210.­129.­156.­ 176–178.­103.­84.­394 –.­305.­184.­344.­162.­410–423 Leclerq.

­300.­125 Rietveld.­122. J.I.­98.­136.­295.­295.­28.­135.­227.­387. 125.­186. A. 194. 394 Loos.­302 Pendrecht 160.­201.­248 Maison Alba 324 Maison Citrohan 276 Maison de verre 323 Maison Dom-ino 269.­287. 189.­435 Prouvé. 298. 41. 348. G. 40.­172.­158.­300.­372.­216.­358.­437 Modern Movement 29.­187. 19 Rome 173.­385.­284–288.­32.­158.­187 Moucheron. 91.­394. A.­107.­394 Rodchenko. L. 99.­225.­384. I.­146. J.­379.­135.­322 mass 282.­295.­148. G.­356­ Madrid 231. Chr.­411.­374.­370. M.­243. D.­311.­120. E.­132.­272 ribbon development 204.­406 –. flat 132.­192.­109 Rietveld.­142. 434 Mendeleev. 384.­189.­384.A. 339 Rowe. 38.­289.­269.­187 Mirador 231.­148.­216.­376. 256. 122 Perugia 260 Pesman. 423 One Architecture 410.­23.­142.­160. S.­186.­225.­83.­184.­96.­295. 236 mat 48.­224.­186.­210.­148.­216.­363.­406 Parma 351. A.­352. 355.­172. 221. 33. 241.­406. 344. 387. E. 37.­350.­80 Munkkiniemi 117. E. 220. 194.­387. 328 patio 97.­395.­385 New Haven 98 New York 107. 68 Neumeyer.­227. sloping 282. 186.­370. Kiyoyuki 66 Noordwijk aan Zee 312 Norberg-Schulz.­190.­138.­306.­347-349 Plan Zuid 348.J.­184.­46. J.­192.­176.­343.­44 Rotterdam 25. 402–409 London 79. Il 260 Risselada. 389. D.­395 Malmö 122.­103.­188.­392 Rapp+Rapp 212 Raumplan 130.­318.­361. 30.­31.L.­144. M. E. 31.P.­53. J.­437 Nishihara. curved 282.­142. A-C.­87.­135 Phalanstère 186 Piano. J. 388 Mastroianni. D.­318.S.­385 Plussenburgh.­297. M.­136.­323.­161 Period and Comma 178 Perrault.­355 Ruys. pitched 295. J.­292. 410. Chr. vegetation-covered 154.­347.­295. W. 45 prototype 73.­234. 297.­372.­137 Palais des Congrès 260 Palladio.­134­ MVRDV 104.­298 –.­351.­152. 374.­402 Montreal 262 morphological analysis 347–358.­140. 146–148.­232.­219. 154.­352 Passarelli.­412.INDEX Logements PLUS 387. 256 Paris 25. 184 Oud. 130 Municipal Orphanage 79.­295.­366.­402. 385. 346. 31 Meuli (St Gallen) 286.) 132 Plaslaan Building 105 PLOT (BIG+JDS) 128.­302 –. 260 Piraeus 113. 358.­196.­276 maisonette 45. 154.­361. 402 Persson.­234.­434. 186.­195 OMA 40.­150.­435 OSA 194 Osaka 270 Otis.­103. 365 Nieuw Australië 84. 310 Mulleners & Mulleners 215 Müller. 137.H.E.­100.­42. 180 Porter House.­266 reticulated structure 242. 219 mansard see roof Mansart.­372.­302 Nicoline.­234.­156.­383.­406.­44. C.­402 Quatremère de Quincy.­282.­186.­303 –.­413 Moscow 27. A.­385.­194.­93–97.­131.­162.­221.­379.­243 Rapp.­355 SANAA 101 Santa Monica 275 . 240.­418 row 48.­73.­378.­196.­127–130. 303.­227.­54.­106.­296. 205. 24 Riegler Riewe 84.­228.­214.­385.­168.­302.­237.­136 Milan 42.­126.­155.­385 Nirwana apartment 140. M.­27. F.­338.­122. 240 Neutelings Riedijk Architecten 53.­372.­231. 239 Nouvel. 140.­136.­152. 136.­43.­ 102–108.­434.­136–139.­310. 228.­369 Prague 130 Pritchard. 368 Next 21 270 Nexus World Housing 154. W.­87.­357.­376.­206.­176. 100 Rietveld-Schröder House 125 Rigo.­42. 155.­137.­385 Nesfield. 412–414 orientation 31.­214. 295 Marqués de la Valdavia 248 Marseille 120.­328 roof 295–303 –.­97.­276. 33.­73.­437 Meerenberg 213 Mendel.­54. 207 Robin Hood Gardens 192.­196.­385.­312 Loren.­148.­138.­398 S333 300.­224 Panorama houses 53.­220.­294.­290.­437 Nagakin Capsule Tower 92 Nantes 120 Narkomfin 186.­138.­228. 193.­182.­187 Natal 108 Nemausus 188.­356 lot 97.­168.­411 patio housing 98.­141. 136.­173.­338. 318. mansard 294. H.­110 Pallasmaa.­229.­98. 230. 200.­402 plan type 337. 156. 233. 37.­297.­108. K.­205. 136. P. 374.­386.­152.­117. 407 Rooie Donders 298 Rossi.­370.­290. 227 Ritter.­339 Mecanoo 229.­164. R.­385.­387. 376.­197.­224.­366 Safdie. 303 –.­165.­315 Mandrup.­344. 243. 387–401 plan masse 360.G.­385 Nuovo Portello 168 Office for Metropolitan Architecture see OMA Ol.­378.­372.­327 Nîmes 188.­406 lot typeo 347 Løvenborg 314 low-rise see clustered lowrise Lynch.­236.­99.­352.­413 row house 53. 139.­302. 385.­294. 324 Quartier Massena 379. F.­418.­177. 262 Saint-Dié-des-Vosges 230.­318. Ph. I.­384.­419 proscenium arch 42. 201. 374 Plano (Ill.­361. 152. 416. 227. A. 306.­174. 402.­201.­392. 129.­316 Panerai. 161. L. E.­106.­129.­33.­61. 206 Neues Bauen 136 Neufert.­302. J. 38 Mendelsohn. F. J. De 103 Poissy 56 Popp.­367.­254. The 368.­215 Richardson.­287 Midhust 110 Mies van der Rohe. 300. 105.­130–132. 351. 236 Los Angeles 355. 99 privacy 15. 252.­152–155 May.­266.­173 Milinis.­173.­99.

370.­385.­347. 308–318. 306 Van Eyck. 75. B.­311 Vienna Secession 31 Vijfhuizen 146 Villa Henny 312 villa park 204–213 Villa Rotonda 110 Villa Savoye 56 Vitruvius 239.­73. 224.­115.F. 112­ Van Dongen.­386 Springer.­372 Urban Alleyways 118 urban block see city block urban configuration 34.L.­187 structure.­42.­43. 177 Van den Broek & Bakema 126. D. 363. 206 Weeber. 168. 312 Webb.­254. R.H.­170. 72.­205.­187 Van Zwol.­374 Woodroffe.­414. M.­75.­198.­262.­198.­423 –. 229–233.­144.­336 VLUG & Partners 210 VM building 128.­431.­412.­368.­312 Tokyo 92 tower 22.­216. 137 West 8 138. C.­49. 227.­96. T.­306.­254.­145.­210. 95 Weissenhofsiedlung 136. 156.­241.­174. 116.­364.­209. 30 Teatro Carlo Felice 40.­139.­437 –. J. 77.­289.­392 Sporenburg 256. 183.­372. 366 wozoco 306 Wright.N.­241.­324. 106 Wingårdh. G. 280.­125.­435.­77.­101.­278.­378.­150. R.­108. 372. K. 134. 271.­168.­340 Silodam 164 Silvy.­204. R. 171.­402.­276.­154.­298 Van der Torre. H. F. 437 Utida.­394 Van Tijen. 74 Stellinghof 146 Stevin.­218 Sting. foyer stairwell 122 Stam. A.­144.­107. entrance staircase 109 –.­366 Schröder.­219. 42 Warners.­369.­139. access staircase 50.­413. J. O.­42 terraced house see row house Tham. B.­142. 125 Schütte-Lihotzky. 115.­402. C. 239. 162 Zocher Jr.­58.­44. 176–183.­194.­278.F.­385 VMX Architects 376 Wagner. 437 Vandkunsten 288 Venice 365. 419 443 . 156 Unité d’habitation 120. 102–104. 11.­148.­92.­357 sector plan 360.­312.D. M.­157.­200. 234–236. 180–182.­160–165.­294.­198.­136. G.A. 21 Taut.­127.­315 Wingender Hovenier Architecten 146 Woningbedrijf Amsterdam 327.­370.­222.­185.­56. entrance stairwell 394 –.­266. F. 207.­278.­168. 53. S.­182.­379.­ 50–52.­322.­186. 102.­212 zoning 74. 230.­48.­243.­194.­52.­105. R. 48.­372. collective stairwell 142. 186. 78–80 Van Gameren. K. 259.­246.­125.­368–370.­57 Spatial planning department Amsterdam 182.­419 Venturi.­142.­406.­140.­145. 156.­378 Seigneur. G. D.­77 Schwagenscheidt. 208. W.­168.­176. 65.­376 Van Gool. Ph. E. 176–178. 166. D.­37. M. C.­232.­295.­105.­360.­315.­186. 178 skeleton 55.­172.­238 Scola.P. A.­162. 228.­276.­266. A.­221 Van der Pol.­322.­365. 240. type of 55. J.­227. 140 Wiersema.­368.­406. 333.­387. 379. R. W.­141.­51 Ungers. 324 Singels II 150 Siza Vieira. 433–435 Stockholm 122 Strasbourg 260 Strassgang 109 street 173–175 Stroikom 186. M.­198.­434 ShoP Architects 368 Shu-Ko-Sha Architectural & Urban Design Studio 270 Siedlung Halen 124 Siedlung Praunheim 224. Ettore 236 Scott Brown. 376. 201.­385. 55. 107.­262. F.­ 227–229 superblock 48.­378. 74.­433 typological series 50. communal staircase 176 stairway 14.­370.­265 Stuttgart 122. Kazuyo 101 semi-detached dwelling see detached house Semper. A.­169.­347 urban villa 127.­see also Dom–ino–skelet skin 283–306 slab) 48. 206 Sherwood.­344. access stairway 183 stairwell 50.­198.­413 Yasd 336 Ypenburg 150 Zaaijer.­57.­130. 225.M. L.­275.­116. F.­357 Versailles 348 Vicenza 110 Vienna 25.­45.­370.­408.­236. 246.­212 Zocher. J. A.­100.­205. 385. 110.­366. 218 Van den Broek. 287. 339. Yositika 270 Utrecht 125 Uytenhaak.­236 –.­252.­192. 176.­437 transformation 9.­394 spatial configuration 10.­48.­228 Siedlung Römerstadt 225. 208.­78.­264–266. 105. 42–44. 395. 168.­403 zoning envelope 360. 387 Schmitt.­233 Westelijke Tuinsteden 306 Wiebenga.­363.­394 –. 365.­144.­212 St Gallen 156. 242. 318 Sejima.­365. 355. en P.­321–328 Shaw. 305.­48.­230.­171.­180.­197. 437 Smithson.­196.­45. V.­435.­334.­326 Scharoun.­361. 150.­379 split-level 83.­80–82. 115. H. 372.­97.­252.­205.­378 Tatlin. 355. 145.­278 Van Berckenrode.­286 Stadttheater Essen 40.­309. 434. 402 zoning plan 366 Zucchi.­173.­229 Sijmons.­360. 160–162.­168.­162. 287 The Hague 40.­108.­243 service elements 10.­372. F. 228 Siedlung Westhausen 225. 437 Twiske-West 127 Two-without-one-roof 135 type see concept of type typological analysis 50 347–349. 110 XS2N 410.­309.­393–395.­378. 133 Schinkel.­387 tabula rasa 359. 363–365. L.­345.­75. 222 Van Eesteren.­44 scenery 45.­418 –. 435 Schöne Aussicht 50. 361.­285.­337.­52 Schots 1 and 2 300.­435. 366 Schneider.­42 staircase 22. 88. J. 325.­216.­437 sun oriented parallel rows 136.­107. 269–272.­204.­46.­190.SAR 81.­224.­82 Scala 42.­361.­135. L.



p.­b­Mozas 2007 43a­photo: B.­b. 2005. p. p. p. Sedighi en A. TU Delft b­Leupen 1989. London 2002. 23 14b­photo: B. 182 08­Heynen 2005. 207 61a-d­Persson Collection city archive Malmö 62a–c­Van Zwol 1993 63a. p. 690 17a­Wal 1938.­b­Gemeentelijke Dienst Volkshuisvesting 1970. van Zweeden URBAN­ENSEMBLE 01 Noord-Hollands Archief 02­Bijlsma en Groenland2006 .­b­Grinberg 1977.­b­Chermayeff 1963 37a. Mooij 33b­Van Duin and Leupen 1982. TU Delft 55c­Gemeentelijke Dienst Volkshuisvesting 1970. 32 16b­Zantkuijl 1993.Mooij 40b­Kloos 2000 41a.­b­Architectural Review 1934. 130 10­Heynen 2005. 47­Leupen et al. Leupen 30c­drawings: M. p. Luna. p. van Zweeden 37a­Mozas 2007 37b­photo: B.­e­Van Zwol 1993 30b­photo: B. February 2007 14­Komossa 2002 15a. p. p. 98 16­Ligtelijn 1999 p. p.­b­Mozas 2007 55a­photo: B. 181 33a­photo: H. Sedighi and A. p. van Zweeden 38a–d­drawings: M. 97 22­drawings: J. Sedighi and A. Zondag 29a–c­Palmboom 1979 30a. Sedighi and A. p. p. p. Mooij 57a–c­Weitz en Friedenberg 1957 58a­photo: H. 193 16­Sting 1975. 73 07­J. p. Leupen 09­Pevsner 1976. 75 23­Leupen 2006 24­Leupen 2006 25­Leupen et al. 172 20­Leupen 2006 21­Back 1991 22­Michel 1989.­d­Leupen 1989. 21 02­Oliver 2003. Mooij 35b­drawings: M.­b­Mozas 2007 42a. Leupen 60c­Boesiger 1953. 143 26­Leupen. p. 17 13­Smithson 1967 14­Alexander 1997 p. p. TU Delft 21b­photo: H. van Zweeden 35c.­b­Molema 1989 75a­photo: S. 900. p. p.­c. Leupen 68b­Wilms Floet 2005 69a. 73 06­Oliver 2003. Kaal 05a­photo: H. 75 10a­Zantkuijl 1993. 622–626 15 Ligtelijn 1999 p. p. 56 04­Oliver 2003. 94 17b­Komossa 2002 18a. Sussex (GB) 50­Van den Heuvel 2005. Prague 67b. 56 03­Oliver 2003. 11–12 DWELLINGS 01 Smithson 1994 02­Nishihara 1968 03­Nishihara 1968 04­Benevolo 1991 05­Menzel 1994 06­Menzel 1994 07­Woonkeur 2007 08­Sherwood 1979 09­Vreeze 1993. 96 35a–c­Herzog & de Meuron Architects 36a. p. 2005. 2 38a.­b­Klaren 1994 53c­photo: H. p. nr. Linnaeus 02­Holl 1982.­b­Blundell Jones 1995 70a.­b­Van den Broek en Bakema 1960 65a.­b­Dok Architecten 66a­Mozas 2007 66b­drawings: M. Leupen 09b–f­Christiaanse 2003 10a–c­Van Zwol 1993 11a–c­Mozas 2007. 23 12a­photo: B. 18 12a–e­Dick van Gameren Architects 13a–e­Domus nr.­c­Van Zwol 1993 04b­photo: S. p. Zondag 28­drawings: J.A. 42 56a.­b­Mozas 2007. Zondag 23a. 92 40a­photo: H.A. van Zweeden 66c­PLOT 67a­Villa Müller Museum. 97 46a–c­de Architekten Cie. 260 13a­photo: B. p. nr. Kawano 05b–f­Van Zwol 1993 06a­photo: H. Mooij 19b Van Zwol 1993 20a–d­Leupen et al.­d­dRO Amsterdam 2003 73c­photo: H. p. p. Leupen 12b­Lüchinger 1987.Burggraaf 75b­Gemeentelijke Dienst Volkshuisvesting 1970 RESIDENTIAL­BUILDING 01a–d­Mozas 2004 02a–d­Grosfeld van der Velde architecten 03a–d­Dick van Gameren Architects 04a. p. 30 27­DKV Architects 28­DKV Architects 29­Shigeru Ban 31a.­76 TYPOLOGY 01­C. 2006.­c­Risselada 1991 68a­photo: J. 325 51­Leupen 1993. p. p.­b­El Croquis 1998.­d. Leupen 55b­Photografische Dienst Faculty Architecture.­b­dRO Amsterdam 2003 24a. p. 726 11­Maretto 1986.­b­Grinberg 1977 19a. 48 34a­photo: H. van Zweeden 39a–c­drawings: M.A. 4/5 34­drawings: J. Sedighi and A.­b­Mozas 2007. Mooij 06b­Mozas 2004 07a–e­Leupen 2002 08a­Van Zwol 1993 08b­Stedenbouwkundige Dienst Rotterdam 08c­dRO Amsterdam 09a­photo: B.Leupen 43b­Van Tijen 1938 44a. p. Sedighi and A. p.Mooij 58b­Kloos 2000 59a–d­Ontwerpgroep MYJ.A. Mooij 60b­photo: B.­d­Van Zwol 1993 36a­Sherwood 1978 36b–e­Van Zwol 1993 36f­drawings: M. 87 07­photo: B. 166 17­Heyning 1969 18­Lüchinger 1987 p. p.Leupen 15a-b­Dok architects 15c­Leupen 2002. p. van Zweeden 33­CA 1927. 26 39a.­b­Rietveld 1941 64a. p.­c­Leupen 1989.ILLUSTRATION CREDITS DWELLING 01­Oliver 2003. p. p.A.­b­photo: H. Mooij 54a. Mooij 34b. 11 03­OMA 06­Pevsner 1976. 191 53a.J. van Zweeden 32a­Leupen 2002 32b. 75–76 26a.­b­ADP Architects Amsterdam 45a­Photografische Dienst Faculty Architecture. 34 52a–c­Leupen 2002. nr. 297 10­Das Neue Frankfurt 1926–1927 11­Das Neue Frankfurt 1926–1927 12­Priemus 1970. 143 48­Weald & Downland Open Air Museum.A.­p. 2005 21a­Photografische Dienst Faculty Architecture. Leupen 37c­drawings: M. 193 32a. p. Mooij 74a. p.Sedighi and A. 706 10b­Zantkuijl 1993.­b­Grinberg 1977. 200 09­Heynen 2005. p.­e­Van Zwol 1993 32d­drawings: M. 125 27­drawings: J.­c photo: H.A. Sedighi en A. Zondag 35a­photo: H. Mooij 15c­Komossa 2002 16a­Grinberg 1977. Sedighi and A. Mooij 21c.­b­Benevolo 1991. The Prado. p. p.A. 130 11­Leupen­2002. 192 b­photo: H.­c­Leupen 2002. p. van Zweeden 31a–d­Van Zwol 1993 31e­drawings: M. p. 62 05­Oliver 2003.­b­Pallasmaa 2003 71a–c­Brouwers 1991 72a–e­Pommer en Otto 1991 73a.A. Leupen 13b­Wortmann 1997 13c–e­Wortmann 1997 14a­Boesiger 1964. 84 19­Leupen 2002 p. The Hague 60a­photo: H. p. p. 810 25a.

119 62­Huber en Steinegger 1971 p. p.58 26a­photo: B. Leupen 41a­Dok Architects 41b­photo: B. p. 39 Geurst & Schulze 40 Geurst & Schulze 41­Korteknie en Stuhlmacher 42­photo: B. 109 18b­Leupen et al. cronache e storia. p. Leupen 61­Futagawa et al. p. Leupen 33b­Mecanoo Architects 34a–c­photo:­B. 192 15a–c­Dini 1983. Leupen 41c­Dok Architects 42a. 101 26a­photo: B. 33 19­Venturi and Scott Brown 1977. 87 13­Geurtsen en Bos 1981.­b­S333 Architecture +Urbanism 44a­Fuksas 1994 44b­photo: B.b­Badia Berger 21­­Badia Berger 22a. Leupen 45­photo: B. p. p. 218 04­Müller en Vogel 1976. p. Mooij 12b. 1993. p 14 02­photo: B. Leupen 23c-e­Cino Zucchi 24a­S333 Architecture+ Urbanism 24b­photo: J. p.c­de Architekten Cie.b Ibelings 1999 19 Van Zwol 1993 20a. 1988. p. Leupen 37­Vriend 1961. p. Leupen 08­Geurtsen et al. 1982 09­Geurtsen et al. 501 23a. 63 27­Mecanoo Architetcs 28a­photo: B. 23 07 Nieuwenhuizen et al. 1973.­b­Mozas 2004 21a–c­Van Zwol 1993 22 KCAP 23a­Grinberg 1977. 2005. Wageningen UR Library. 10–11 30a­photo: B. p. 48 14­Rowe and Koetter 1984. Leupen 28b. p. 13a­Das Neue Frankfurt 13b­drawings: B. p. p. 193 11c­Neutelings en Riedijk 2004. p. 2 24a–d­Van Zwol 2009 25a–c­Kuhnle 2009 TECTONICS 03­Ursprung 2005.lemedi. p. special collections 04a. Bitter 25­Lootsma 1989. Momen 04 analysis drawing B. Momen 03­photo: S. Leupen 25­Badia Berger 26­Badia Berger 27­Geurst & Schulze 28­Geurst & Schulze 29­Geurst & Schulze 30 Geurst & Schulze 31­Geurst & Schulze 32 Geurst & Schulze 33­Geurst & Schulze 34­photo: Geurst & Schulze 35 Geurst & Schulze 36 Geurst & Schulze 37 Geurst & Schulze 38­www. 5 21­Maas. 105.­b­Bijlsma en Groenland 2006 16c­drawings: B. 156 08­Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening Amsterdam 09a­photo: B.1991. Leupen 28b. p. Leupen 22b­XDGA 23­Müller and Vogel 1976. 130 51­photo: Photografische Dienst. p. Leupen 15a Kollhoff Berlin 15b­photo: B. p. 11a­Neutelings en Riedijk 2004. 29 06b­Miranda 1997.b­Priemus 1970 17­Zantkuijl 1993. p. p.­e­Herzog & de Meuron Architects 35a­photo: R. Leupen 05a-c­Kollhoff Berlin 06a­DKV Architecten 06b Kollhoff Berlin 07­Kollhoff Berlin 08­Kollhoff Berlin 09­Kollhoff Berlin 10 Kollhoff Berlin 11a.­c photo: Tom Avermaete / Eva Storgaard 11a–c­Van Zwol 2009 12a­photo: H. Leupen 17a-c­Das Neue Frankfurt 18a. Leupen 06­photo B. 2005. Leupen 09c­R. Leupen 32a. Leupen 14a­Das Neue Frankfurt 14b­photo: H. Leupen 43 photo: B. 47 30­photo: H. 500. Mooij 31a­Wingårdh architechts 31b­photo: B. 294 38­photo: B. p. 22 08e Ibelings 1999 09­Abrahamse 2010 10a­Dorte Mandrup Arkitekter 10b.b photo: B. p. Leupen 34d. 204 18a Risselada 1987. Leupen 16­Christian de Portzamparc 17­Christian de Portzamparc 18 Badia Berger 19a-d Badia Berger 20­a. Leupen 447 .­b­BAM Vastgoed 08a. Leupen 46b­MVRDV 47a­photo: B. 122 21a photo: Y.­c­Department of City Planning 2006. p.­c­Mateo 1989.­b­Bijlsma en Groenland 2006 08c. 75 23b­Grinberg 1977.03a-c Springer Collectie. Leupen 26b­Herbst 1955 27­a–d­Rudy Uytenhaak Architecten 28a­photo: B. p.38 05a­photo: R.b Badia Berger 23­photo: B. p. 2005. p. 59 63­CPZED 64­Yves Lion 65­DKV 66­a-d L’Architettura. ’t Hart 05b­DKV Architects 06a­Miranda 1997.b­photo: B. Leupen 57­photo: R. 2000. TU Delft 53­Van Tijen 1954 54­photo: B. 157 left: Heeling et al. 2002 02­photo: S. p. 113. Leupen 30b­Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening Amsterdam 30c­Dick van Gameren Architects 31a OMA 31b­photo: B. 115 19­Boesiger 1964.b­VLUG & Partners 05a-b­­DS Landschapsarchitecten 05c Gemeente Bloemendaal 06­photo: M. 1982.­c­BIG Architects d­Københavns Kommunes Planorientering. 106 16a.62 16­Cullen 1961. Lokalplan nr. Mooij 14c­Das Neue Frankfurt 16a. p. Leupen 07­photo B. ’t Hart 35b­DKV Architects 36­photo: B. Leupen 26b. Leupen 05­photo B. 507 and 512 CONTEXT 01­right: Leupen et al. p. Leupen 44­photo: B.­b­Vandkunsten 33a­photo: B. 309 29a­DKV Architects 29b­Pouw 1990. Leupen 24­photo: B.63 15­Rowe and Koetter 1984. Leupen 14­photo: B. Klijmij 07a. 61 11­Geurtsen et al. p. 207 59­Duroy 1987 60­photo: B. Uytenhaak 58­Krausse 1999. 178 22a­photo: B. p. p. 1982 10­Heeling. p. Faculty Architecture. Rijs and Koek 1998.. Leupen 47b­Diener&Diener Spies et al. Cuperus 21b­Leupen et al. Meyer and Westrik 2002. p. 1993. Leupen THE­DESIGN­PROCESS 01 l’Architecture D’Aujoud’hui 1992. Leupen 12­Kollhoff Berlin 13­photo: B. Leupen 46a­photo: B.­d Komossa 2011. Leupen 03­Jo Coenen 04­photo: B. 23 20­Frampton 1995. 17 17 Lynch 1960. 1965 #8 p. Uytenhaak Architecten 10 de Architecten CIE.

Chair of Housing Design. fax +1 212 627 9484.  All rights reserved. In addition. orders@artdata. Tine van Wel and Josh Finklea) Lithography and Printing: Drukkerij Slinger. or transmitted in any form or by any means. London W4 5HB. www. photocopying. recording or Available in North. electronic.naipublishers. with a summary in English.. c/o Pictoright Amsterdam Although every effort was made to find the copyright holders for the illustrations used. Rotterdam. tel +1 212 627 1999. mechanical. 50 Cunnington Street. at the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology. een speurtocht naar nieuwe compositorische middelen (‘IJ-plein: A Search for New Compositional Methods’. NAi Publishers © 2011 NAi Publishers. visual arts and related disciplines. and from 2006 to 2007 he was a visiting professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. South and Central America through Artbook | D. For works of visual artists affiliated with a CISAC-organization the copyrights have been settled with Pictoright in Amsterdam. NAi Publishers is an internationally orientated publisher specialized in developing.CREDITS This book was made possible in part by the generous support of The Netherlands Architecture Fund. Interested parties are requested to contact NAi Publishers. He is the co-editor of the publication series DASH (Delft Architectural Studies on Housing) and writes regularly for professional journals in the Netherlands and abroad. Robert Nottrot. Faculty of Architecture. in 010 Publishers. 12 Bell Industrial Estate. fax +44 208 742 2319. NY 10013-1507. New York. Annemarie van den Berg. it has not been possible to trace them all. Authors: Bernard Leupen and Harald Mooij With the cooperation of: Birgit Jürgenhake. stored in a retrieval system. both published by 010 Publishers. Alkmaar Publisher: Marcel Witvoet. producing and distributing books on architecture. Rudy Uytenhaak and John Zondag Academic Reference: JIA Beisi. He is also the author of the book IJ-plein. . 3012 JR Rotterdam. He was the organizer of the symposia ‘Whether Europe’ and ‘How Modern is Dutch Architecture’. Harald Mooij is an architect in Amsterdam and serves as a professor and researcher in the Architecture Department. he was the coordinating editor of the journal Time-based Architecture International from 2006 to 2010. The Netherlands. and editor of the book Hoe modern is de Nederlandse architectuur (‘How Modern is Dutch Architecture’. tel +44 208 747 Available in the United Kingdom and Ireland through Art Data. 1989) and Frame and Generic Space (2006). © 2011. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1990). 155 Sixth Avenue 2nd Floor. dap@dapinc. No part of this publication may be Printed and bound in the Netherlands ISBN 978-90-5662-826-0 Bernard Leupen was a professor with the Faculty of Architecture at the Delft University of Technology.A. the Department of Architecture. until 2008.P. Schools of Architecture. Mauritsweg 23. Sigrid Loch and Roger Sherwood Drawings: Mohamad Ali Sedighi and Alexander van Zweeden Copy editing: D’Laine Camp Translation: Pierre Bouvier and Laura Vroomen Design: Studio Joost Grootens (Joost Grootens. Delft University of Technology and the Open Access Fund of the Delft University of Technology. Architecture Department.

V 246 292 374 327 114 Fink+Jocher 93 Fuksas 303 Gameren. Van 376 Gazeau 158 Geyter. Van den 126 Broek & Bakema. Van d 128. De Herzog & de Meuron 280 Herzog & de Meuron 290 Ingwersen en De Geus 142 Juul & Frost 313 KBnG 119 KCAP 185 KCAP 233 Le Corbusier 196 Le Corbusier 322 Lion & Leclercq Loos 130 Loos 266 Loos 311 Dorte Ma 326 219 Mulleners & Mulleners 215 MVRDV en JJW arkitekter 104 MVRDV 164 MVRDV 231 MVRDV 306 Neutelings Riedijk Architects 174 Neuteling Architects OMA 378 Oud 136 Pesman 135 Piano 260 PLOT (BIG + JDS) PLOT (BIG + JDS) Pol. Erik 106 Wingårdh 287 Wingårdh . Riegler 109 Safdie 262 Scharoun 133 Siza 178 368 Uytenhaak 252 Vandkunsten 288 Vlug & Partners 210 Weeber 95 Wiersema. 372 200 Sejima 101 ShoP Architects Rietveld. Van 166 Gameren. Van den 221 Bruijn. J 100 Riewe. Van 102 Dongen. Émile 232 Atelier 5 103 Broek & Bakema. Van 150 Gameren. Van den 198 Broek & Bakema.Aalto 117 Aalto 134 Aalto 316 Aarons & Gelauff AART a/s 94 Aillaud. De 190 Buckminster Fuller 317 Casas. De las 248 Cepezed 3 DKV Architects DKV Architects DKV Architects DKV Architects Domus Architecter Dongen.

Van 105 Uytenhaak 278 315 Smithson.A. Ernst 228 120. 387 May. Van 115 307 DS Landschapsarchitecten 212 Duiker 140 Duinker van der Torre 112 FARO Architects Fausto & Passarelli 118 328 Grosfeld Architects Haussmann 310 Helldén & Dranger 122 Heren 5 Architects 226 Herzog & de Meuron 97 Köther en Salman Architects 138 Krier. Ernst 225 Kollhoff 113. Gerrit 236 125 Tijen. 278 Mecanoo 370 Mies van der Rohe 132 s Riedijk s 256 Nouvel 188 Nouvel 318 OMA 96 OMA 107 OMA 182 OMA 302 der 116 Pol. L. Cino 365 . CiBoGaterrein 366 Wingender Hovenier Architects 146 Yositika Utida & Shu-Ko-Sha 270 Zucchi. Van 254 Gool. Van der 298 Popp 180 Prouvê & Alba 324 Renzi. 208 S333 300 S333. Van der 127 Pol. Rob 235 Kurokawa 92 Le Corbusier Mecanoo 229 Mecanoo 289 148 3 ndrup Kjærholm 314 May.124 325 Baumschlager & Eberle 156 Bearth & Deplazes Chareau & Bijvoet Chermayeff 98 Berlage 312 Blom 152 Bouwblok Herengracht 218 Brinkman & Effenblok 234 Christiaanse 162 Coates 99 Dam & Bodon 367 Diener & Diener 286 323 Van 108 e 272 Dongen. Cino 168 Zucchi. Mario de Rietveld. Alison & Peter 192 Springer.

With regard to the tectonics of residential construction. such as stacked developments. Rotterdam www. It is indispensable for students. from the 9 789056 628260 . space and how it is experienced. The manual pays considerable attention to the relationship between the domestic floor plan. The primary focus is on residential construction in larger entities.naipublishers. ranging from large-scale tabula rasa plans to the infill of a gap in an urban elevation. depth. the supporting structure. It provides the tools necessary to analyse the context of residential construction. lecturers and professionals in the field of residential construction In association with the Faculty of Architecture’s Chair of Architecture and Dwelling. Delft University of Technology Successful reference work now available in English Printed and bound in the Netherlands ISBN 978-90-5662-826-0 NAi Publishers. access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. The book is richly illustrated with many recent plans from the Netherlands and abroad. in each case considering the consequences of the choice of material and form for the space and the living experience. this manual is also useful when designing in low densities and even for the design of an individual house or villa. the scenography and the service elements are dealt with in turn. Because of its wide-ranging approach to the theme. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically.This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. the envelope. stacking.

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