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Module 5

Module 5

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ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH

Support Materials and Exercises for

GRAMMAR: PART I
Parts of Speech

FALL 1998

PARTS OF SPEECH

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The following persons have contributed to the development of this learning material: Content and Structure: Curriculum Developer(s)

Leslie Childs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Curriculum Content Expert New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . . . . Bathurst

Project Supervision/Co-ordination:

Angela Acott-Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Co-ordinator New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

Kay Curtis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literacy Co-ordinator New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

This document is available full-text on the World Wide Web thanks to the National Adult Literacy Database. http://www.nald.ca/CLR/search/ The financial support for this learning materials project was provided by the National Literacy Secretariat of Human Resources Development Canada. Fall 1998

This support module may be used with BAU-ENG 6.5,Parts of Speech, and IAUENG 2.1 Parts of Speech.
BAU-ENG 6.5 OBJECTIVE Upon successful completion of this unit, the learner will be able to 1. identify the eight parts of speech in simple sentences. 2. explain the function of each part of speech. TEACHING POINTS Noun 1 2 3 4 Pronoun 5 6 Verb 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Adjective 14 15 16 17 18 19 common and proper singular and plural possessive nouns (with ‘s) used to name people, places, things personal, indefinite, interrogative use to replace nouns identify verbs and verb phrases (e.g. walk, walks, walked, is walking, has walked, has been walking, etc .) singular and plural forms of “to be” (present, past, future) singular and plural forms of “to have” (present, past, future) use of basic verb tenses (past, present, future) principal parts of common irregular verbs uses to express action and state of being used to describe nouns and pronouns comparison of adjectives use of “er” ending to compare two things use of “est” ending to compare two or more things use of “more” and “most” with longer adjectives comparison of irregular adjectives e.g. good, better, best Level 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 PARTS OF SPEECH

Adverb 20 21 22 used to describe verbs: where. how. when. quickly.g. how much usually end in “ly” comparison of adverbs: e. why. more quickly. . horror. or other strong emotions 3/4 3/4 5/6 5/6 5/6 3/4 Preposition Conjunction Interjection 23 24 25 Learners should be encouraged to use their own writing as well as traditional exercises to identify parts of speech. most quickly used to show space and time relationship between nouns used to join complete thoughts used to express surprise.

therefore. who. future) perfect (past. reciprocal. an.g. etc. demonstrative. never). because. indefinite reflexive. the) Comparison of adjectives: regular and irregular Types: regular (“ly”) & irregular negative (e. boys’ and Charles’ Types: personal (gender. which. emphatic relative Type: action & linking helping (auxiliary) & main = verb phrase active & passive voice Principal parts: regular & irregular Tense: simple (past.g.1 PARTS OF SPEECH OBJECTIVES Upon successful completion of this unit.) subordinate conjunction: (e. present. present. yet. when. future) perfect progressive (past.. TEACHING POINTS Lev el Nouns (naming) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Types: common & proper concrete & abstract singular & plural possessive (with boy’s. present. person. Comparison of adverbs: regular & irregular Types: simple & compound (e. not only/but also) conjunctive adverb (e. for. neither/nor.g. nor. in/in front of) Types: co-ordinate (and. or. case) interrogative.IAU-ENG 2. quantitative (e. if. but. 2. not.g. so) correlative (either/or.g.) 7 7 7 Pronoun (naming) Verb (stating: action/existence) 7 7 7 8 8/9 7 7 9 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8/9 9 Adjective (describing) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Adverb (describing) Preposition(joining) Conjunction(joining) . etc.g. number. identify the eight parts of speech in written and oral communications. relative pronoun (e. future) progressive (past. describe the function of each part of speech. that. the learner will be able to 1. thus. future) Types: common & proper demonstrative articles (a. present.

.Interjection 30 expressing horror. Practice sentences can be found in every grammar text. in newspapers and magazines. 7 Practice is the key to developing mastery of this objective. Learners should develop a “hands-on” approach to identifying parts of speech by regularly using their own writing as a source of practice material. surprise. as well as in the learner’s own writing. etc.

11. The accompanying Practice Booklet contains exercises and an answer key in support of specific teaching points. Alternate support materials may be appropriate.5. however. Where possible. so that a wider variety of source materials are accessible to them.Parts of Speech. 10. Sections of this module marked with an asterisk (*) should be completed by learners wanting to complete the BAU-ENG 6. Practice is essential to mastery of parts of speech. 12. presents information and exercises to accompany the objectives of BAU-ENG 6. 8. those sections marked with an asterisk should be reviewed. 4. Additional resource materials may be required for those wanting more information on this topic or for those needing more practice mastering certain areas.1. newspapers. 6. and novels as a source for practice sentences. Do NOT write in this module. Parts of Speech and IAU-ENG 2. 7.NOTE TO FACILITATORS AND LEARNERS: 1. be used to practice identifying a variety of parts of speech. Learners should be familiar with these. Parts of the Sentence. Many exercises may. The real purpose for learning grammar is to help learner write and speak as effectively as possible. Learners working in IAU-ENG should complete all sections of this module. If they have previously completed the BAU-ENG programme. 2. 9. Facilitators are free to use any support materials appropriate to their learners’ needs. Learners should be very familiar with the parts of speech before they attempt Module 6. Please make your notes and complete the exercises in your own notebooks so that other learners may also use these booklets. 5.5 objectives. magazines. Learners will benefit from using their own writing. The first grammar module. 3.. Parts of Speech. Grammar terms are not always consistent. . this module indicates alternate terminology and ways of handling specific grammar situations.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 42 47 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . 1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adjectives . . . 4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time.1 GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH I INTRODUCTION• This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. sang. Like many dictionary definitions. they learned the names of things (vocabulary). The etymology of “syntax” shows it meanings “putting together”. the different forms of a word (sings. A. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk. this makes grammar sound more difficult than it really is. speak. their arrangement in phrases and sentences (syntax2). WHAT IS GRAMMAR?• Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology1). 1 The root word “morph” means form. they are using their knowledge of grammar. songs). and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. write. 2 . Look at this picture. and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted. sung. singing. or listen. Whenever people read. Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. and their classification based on their function (parts of speech).

you may make a few mistakes. 2. including a possible employer. That wouldn’t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. the action throw.2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. it probably include the word ball. 1. Whatever you wrote. Speaking and writing correctly are very important. you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). The man is throwing the ball. You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. Usually the first impression someone. Here’s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use . Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive. You might even have written 3. First. In fact. has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. and a word that meant a man. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. You see you really do know lots about grammar! B. you saw the picture. Finally. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. You certainly didn’t write Ball throwing man the the is. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR?• Although you do write “good sentences” most of the time. you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence.

. (tells about an action. The eight parts of speech are noun pronoun verb adjective adverb preposition conjunction interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to correct them.adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF. and your true abilities may go unrecognized.3 the language. He ran fast so he wouldn’t be late. C.. the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn’t have much “schooling” or else isn’t very good at expressing him/herself. Because some words can be used in several different ways. The system of classifying words based on their function is known as the parts of speech. you may be unfairly judged. some people say “He sure done good!” or “He should of went to the dance” or “Hunters didn’t shoot a big amount of deer this year.” While the meaning is very clear. look at these sentences. (names a thing.noun) . Unless you correct those errors in grammar. For example. or classifications. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. (describes how he ran. WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH?• Although English has hundreds of thousands of words. For example. every one can be placed into at least one of eight groups.....verb) Their fast lasted for three days. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech).

4 The word “fast” is spelled the same. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE PLACES: THINGS: ANIMALS: OBJECTS: SUBSTANCES: ACTIONS: MEASURES: QUALITIES: cashier province cat fork iron (a) race kilogram happiness Carol New Brunswick Dalmatian television air (the) dance centimetre honesty boys lake bug car gold (the) hits day beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence. Paul is a noun that names a person. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. The naming word that comes after them is probably a noun. places and things are called nouns. the. NOUNS• Words that name people. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH• A. The following table lists a variety of nouns. Sometimes nouns appear without these little words. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of the sentence. an. but it functions differently in each sentence. Can you find 10 nouns in this picture? . and most sentences contain several nouns. Children name people continent names a thing Africa names a place lions names a thing.

PRONOUNS• Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. In this sample sentence. Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key. For example. and sentence) because the writer’s/speaker’s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. What did you buy from them? Write a sentence about this picture. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. B. and things) that have already been mentioned.5 Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences. The candy that we gave them was made last year. . you. you should do more exercises from other textbooks. (e. The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town.g. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year. think of a noun it could replace. reader. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader. Use pronouns instead of nouns. If you made more than one or two mistakes. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. it isn’t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. “I want you to read this again. and this are pronouns. She saw it when they bought it. and Fredericton is the capital of this province. places. For each pronoun printed in bold type.” The words I. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog. Everybody was glad when it was over.

Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. 12. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not. The word walked became will walk. they are verbs. We will walk to the store tomorrow.. Who bought those from you? Fill it up. Verb phrases3 may have up to five words. We planted them. Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs. 11.. 14. A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. Many signed up. 3 Phrase. 13. If you need more practice. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future.a group of words that belong together. but few were chosen. never. therefore. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. always. . Verbs may consist of one word. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. 9. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself. please. Verbs usually tell about an action. For example. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed. but the birds ate everything. one of the main parts of every sentence.6 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. 15. VERBS• The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves. C. 10.

and were used in a sentence between two nouns. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York. Paul can do anything. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives. Complete Exercises 5. I have never seen anything like that before. our father was a millwright.7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. house. D. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. The runner flew down the race track. I have finished the laundry. you use nouns like girl. The farmer used all the water in his pond. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. old. She is beautiful and talented. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present. My sister is a nurse. are. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. The dog was chasing its tail. I am a teacher. blue. or tree. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. When you find the words am. was. is. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. They were always honest. Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. . 6. My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more. you add “detail” words in front of the noun like little. ADJECTIVES• To talk or write about a person place or thing. rich.

changes. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is. or alters the meaning of another word. The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room.8 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. The second adds the adjective blue. the white. I have a small dark blue car. In other words. The third sentence adds even more details. carefree child some tall. Your boss tells you. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here’s another way of thinking of adjectives. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. Therefore. cool. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person. . new. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a large group. as only six of the women are tall. puffy clouds a happy. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. Other adjectives like shiny. “the tall. I have a blue car. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. only that I have one. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. an adjective limits. blond woman with the red dress”. changes. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives. The group of words “with the red dress” is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. “Give this piece of paper to the woman”. A modifier is a word that limits. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader “see” your car in his/her mind’s eye. I have a car. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said “the tall woman”.

This book belongs to Pete. and Ted bought that Chevy. Either is correct. others called them adjectives. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use as adjectives and pronouns. This belongs to Pete. and those. this modifies the proper noun Ford. that. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns. The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. as in this car. . these. The words this. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. These are demonstrative adjectives. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. Adjectives also tell how many.9 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). these. I have the blue car. and those houses. several candies. In the second sentence. Such adjectives include this.so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind’s eye. that coat. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils. those are Ted’s. (pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives. that. those pencils are Ted’s. Compare the meaning of these two sentences. as in many people. that modifies the proper noun Chevy. an) and definite articles (the). and four children. I have a blue car. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. these boots. The nouns they “stand for” or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence.

and cold day. kitchen. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees. articles are also adjectives . Glass. couple of dollars. . and an.a. kitchen. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. that building. this restaurant. as in many days. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. Used in the following ways. bad taste. new clothes. however. many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye. an adjective tells what kind. the. or school. as in old man. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. an adjective tells how many. as in those books. Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives.10 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L L L L L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. and two cities. there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. these computers. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. A good “trick” to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify. if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass. and school are usually nouns. few hours. an adjective tells which one or ones.

Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences. .11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture. Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Underline all the adjectives you used.

you can add something in front of the adjective. change. He is driving away. How is he driving? Where is he driving? When is he driving? 2. or alter the words they modify.12 E. or when he is driving. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS• He is driving. ADVERBS• You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. the noun sunset is described as beautiful. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. that word is called an adverb. When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. The campers saw a beautiful sunset. What part of speech is the word beautiful. where he is driving. Adverbs limit. He is driving quickly. Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. He is driving now. If an adverb is added. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. . or to what extent it was beautiful. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. you will find out how he is driving. 1. If you want to tell how beautiful it was.

WORDS ENDING IN “LY”• Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective. The dog ate quickly. . we can find out how quickly the dog ate. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs. ADJECTIVE bright easy soft full careful quick *first. extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3. By adding another adverb. change ll to l *first. as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly.13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives. change y to i ADD -LY brightly easily softly fully carefully quickly ADVERB * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word.

but they are not verbs. The train arrived early. you learned that some small words can be found in the middle of verb phrases.14 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS• Some words can only be used as adverbs. A list of these words follows. 4 usually an adverb . and learn to recognize them in sentences. He will never tell another lie. (adverb) It was an early train. (adverb) Penny drives fast. well4 quite very almost always usually often surely not never so (He was so happy.) In the section on verb phrases. Eric will not shop on Sundays.can be an adjective to describe a person's health . (adverb) A student is late. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The only way to remember these words is to memorize them. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. I have often wondered about the moon. Three examples of such words are early. (adjective) There is a late student. and late. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. (adjective) Penny is a fast driver. never as adjectives. Those words are adverbs. He was always asking questions. fast.

PREPOSITIONS• Preposition are joining words. place. Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions. The girl walked into the building. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb. preposition Time: after Place: under Ownership: of + + + + noun or pronoun the party the table our town = prepositional phrase = (after the party) = (under the table) = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. . are called prepositional adverb phrases. The girl walked near the building. The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked. in what way. In each sentence above. or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building. therefore. The girl walked to the building. when. The girl walked behind the building. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. which are used to show a time.15 F. Adverb phrases can also be used to tell how. sometimes called connectives. The girl walked beside the building. telling where she walked. The girl walked through the building. Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit. these prepositional phrases. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb “walked” by telling where she walked. Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. called prepositional phrases.

The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible. The books in that bag are yours. . they are called prepositional adjective phrases. In each example above. They rented the house on the corner. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun. Here are some common prepositions: about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. Because these phrases function as adjectives. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans.16 Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. The colour of that paint is just right.

For the purpose of this module. or clauses5. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions.. CONJUNCTIONS• Conjunctions. or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma. Conjunctions are used to join words.17 G. Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh. but does it tell you at what time? No. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. Clauses are “mini-sentences stuck into ‘real’ sentences” and which need special joining words (conjunctions) to attach them. INTERJECTIONS• Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. Conjunctions can be found in any position in a sentence except the very end. 5 . like prepositions. the word itself doesn’t add any new information. phrases. Before you can really understand clauses. Part of the Sentence. An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. it burned quickly ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. Unlike all the other parts of speech. H. no! Never! Fantastic! No! Oh! Ouch! Fabulous! Ah! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. are also joining words or connectives. What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. It can be an actual word. Look at these examples. those that are left over are probably conjunctions. When lightning struck the old barn. the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence. you will need to work through Module 6.

I am totally lost. And joins two nouns. ù ù ù ù verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. I am a little confused about parts of speech. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? I understand parts of speech.18 Joe and Mike followed the young cub. Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet. what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section? ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ . ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. but they ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro could not catch it. I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly. but joins two complete ideas.

Proper nouns are always capitalized.19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. herd. speed. committee. girl. brain. province. Examples: waiter. seen. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). car. place. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. and city. On the other hand. place or thing in general is called a common noun. Nouns like table. swiftness. faith Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS• A word which names a person. New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). tasted. Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). Examples: honesty. friendship. audience. panel. six committees. member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. cloud. COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people. beauty. 3. car. they are categorized as abstract nouns. places and things. flock. 2. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt. it is called a concrete noun. Examples: team. dog. and Ottawa (the name of a particular city). CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS• If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. height. 1. crowd. jury. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning. house. sky are concrete nouns. heard or touched. or thing in a sentence. house. pride. or the only. Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. . Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee. When a word names a particular. A.

however. In the first sentence. food. so he needed a huge amount of grain. everyone agreed on one decision. The team are buying new uniforms. Examples: meat. The team is buying new uniforms. equipment. land. chairs. miles. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. steaks. Mass nouns. bracelets. In the second case. dollars. jewellery.20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). 4. clothing. and are. an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count) some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage. the jury is acting as a single unit. The jury are stating their opinions. furniture. The jury is announcing its decision. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. and there are many different opinions. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself. The farmer bought a large number of cows. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. money. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. Do Exercise 19. therefore called count nouns. In the second set of examples. are similar to collective nouns. gold. . timber. each juror is acting as an individual. Here are two examples that illustrate this point. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples.

1. Libby’s front teeth Eva’s big smile Greg’s tiny nose . However. B. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town. A possessive noun shows ownership. Spelling.and exceptions for the exceptions. or that something is part of something else. 2.21 His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. referring to more than one. explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals. SINGULAR AND PLURAL• Nouns may be singular referring to one. there are exceptions to every rule . We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture. Module 4. or plural. They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (’). POSSESSIVE NOUNS• Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns. FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence. belonging. Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun. Most nouns change their form by adding “s” when they are plural.

Jesus' parables .the neighbour's car . be guided by the way you say the word Possessive Form add an apostrophe (') plus s to the noun Examples . add an apostrophe plus “s” .the ladies’ room . it shows that several . it indicates that one person owns the item. add only an apostrophe If a noun is plural.my boss's approval .oxen's hooves .New Brunswick's art .22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions If a noun is singular and does not end in “s” If a noun is singular and ends in “s”.John Hastings' store . If it follows the plural form of the noun.women's wear .if adding an extra “s” would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce.witnesses' story .children's toys .witness's description .if a new syllable is formed in the pronunciation of the possessive.Gloria's career . and already has an s at the end add only an apostrophe (') If a noun is plural and does not end in “s” add apostrophe (') s Now examine the following phrases: the boy’s bicycles the boys’ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun.Mary Parsons' garden .Phillips' farm .the Jones' party .librarians' club .the child's toys .students' lounge .Doris's store .men's choir .Dennis's car .

Now examine these phrases: the lady’s room the ladies’ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below.23 people own it. Babies’ grandfather is correct The books’ covers is correct . How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends’ house. so the house is owned by two or more friends. Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies’ grandfather the baby’s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books’ covers are different colours. Look at the word with the apostrophe. Examine these phrases. The book’s covers are different colours. It was already plural before the apostrophe was added.

3. 4. Then. If both nouns are possessive. Mary and Susan’s mother arrived yesterday. 2. For example. each one owns a separate thing. The above sentence contains 3 possessives.24 Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s). Here’s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale. Examine the following sentence. The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects. and 24 in the Practice Booklet. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. ." However. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1. create a rule to explain what you found. You should have written something like this: “When two or more people “own” something together. Only one is acceptable. Do Exercises 22. you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last. 23.” 5. it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement. Mary’s and Susan’s houses are on the same street. A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale. such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence.

It is black and white. and less repetitive. Our cat never scratches. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. What’s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. using pronouns to replace some nouns. it sounds more natural and interesting. two brothers. and three sisters love our cat. It is for you! . The following paragraph contains no pronouns. It purrs a lot. We call our cat Spot. Our cat is black and white. Our cat has a long black tail. Spot likes to play. Our cat’s name is Spot. Our cat’s body is mostly white. and it never scratches. Our cat’s name is Spot. Our cat has four black paws. TYPES OF PRONOUNS• Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence. My mother.25 IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS• Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. Everyone in our family loves the cat. It has a long black tail. Our cat likes to play. my father. Our cat purrs a lot.

He. objects. his she. my. your. them. theirs they. they. his. male girl. actions. These Personal Pronouns I. our. her. she. female plants. yours 3rd person he. obviously the “most important person(s)” in the message. the words we. mine we. us. theirs. them. him. and case. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. woman. his she. it are singular forms. she. our. person. you. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. Pronouns are also grouped by person. gender. and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. her. your. their CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: your name your name and the names of other people the name of someone else you are addressing boy. mine Plural we. them. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. my. they are plural. hers it. me. ours you. you. Person 1st person Singular I. ours. us. me. The grammar term number means singular or plural. him. substances. your. their. hers it. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. The pronouns I. its . it. their. yours he. man.26 PERSONAL PRONOUNS• Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. he. A. theirs 2nd person you. yours they. you. its.

----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. ours their. explains case in greater detail. Module 6. In English. and she.) If. yours his. him. animals. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. The pronouns he. Mary is standing by the door. you. you is used to designate a group of people. Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. etc. Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership. actress. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants. on the other hand. hers. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to. hers show feminine gender. it is considered plural (Class. aviator. they. theirs whose. That coat belongs to Mary. regardless of gender. her. aviatrix. Grammar: Part 2. my. I want you to be on time. plural pronouns. . Mary is standing by the door. his show masculine gender. mine your. (I want you to close the door. and inanimate objects which are singular. its. That coat is hers. The sentence could be rewritten. his her.27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. That is her coat.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. are used to replace plural nouns. --our. then it is considered singular. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. actor. we. OR Mary is standing by the door.

Examine these sentences and learn the difference. Their apartment will be for rent when they’re transferred to Saint John. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you. . a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking. It’s always funny when the dog chases its tail. the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. therefore. we/us. not present at the time of speaking. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. The pronouns. The words it’s. Me rushed into the house. and they’re are not possessive pronouns. It should read I rushed into the house. they are contractions of it is. Both pronouns replace People. he/him. and they are. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. The sentence should be corrected. you can test the sentence above by reading it. Here’s another common error in pronoun selection. but they should match. you are. however. Of course. The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. she/her. The people referred to in this sentence are . do not match. you’re. they/them is to test the pronoun alone. 1. You’re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. using only the pronoun.28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. but they must be present. The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. PRONOUN SELECTION• What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. For instance. You know that does not look right or sound right. (I/me. My mother and me rushed into the house.

make. Many people make this mistake. Mr. Yous is not a word. Mr. Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them. you can hear and see that this is not correct. The next two examples show a very common error. Smith gave to letter to only one person. The pronoun me is the correct form. . Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. Just as in the example above. but be careful when you are speaking. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. even well-educated ones. Look at this sentence. You can find the error by imagining that Mr. the pronoun you is the correct choice. Do Exercises 30. This sentence may look and sound correct. 31.29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is “I”. heard often in speech. When speaking to one OR more than one person. Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print. Smith gave I three letters to mail. and the sentence should be corrected like this. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. Mr. 32.

PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS• Margaret rode her bike to the mall. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic. employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. OR An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. The noun “Margaret” is the antecedent of the pronoun “her”. in other words. In this sentence. .30 2. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing. Read this sentence. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. Make both words plural. or make them both singular. the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. teacher. person. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their. who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. student. etc.) is male or female. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct.

The pronoun everybody is singular. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely. or she/he. They went to Tahiti. When referring to everybody. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing. When you proofread your own writing. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark’s apartment yesterday. Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay. The reader doesn’t know who his refers to because the writer hasn’t mentioned anyone else. How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al’s apartment yesterday. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. B. it is an called an indefinite pronoun. the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. The sentence is not clear. the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet. everybody is a pronoun. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to . the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS• In the following sentence. you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents.31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. use a singular pronoun like he/his. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent..

Even though it may sound “right” because you have heard it so often. Other singular indefinite pronouns include any anybody anything anyone everyone everything everybody either neither another everything everyone each nobody no one none nothing somebody someone something A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. it is NOT correct. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped.32 replace everybody. few some many . Plural indefinite pronouns include: several all both Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet.

Give her the books. . Pies is the antecedent of those. Such a horse is hard to find. Take them. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. Give her the book. If you cannot find the antecedent. use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. Eat those. Take his coat and hat. Singular this that such Plural these those such Use this and these to point out something close to you. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. but I gave those to Mary. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. these. Give her this. (e. Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. I know that you are honest.33 C. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. that. Eat that. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. the words are not demonstrative pronouns.g. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this. Pie is the antecedent of that. and those are demonstrative pronouns. Give her these. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) I sold some cakes.

The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. himself. For example. wouldn’t pass judgement on him. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns6 look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. themselves Examples: You. himself. . Can you find the word “themself”? Can you explain why not? E. Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. are better able to answer that question. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself. use the plural form yourselves. I fixed the car myself. yourself.34 D. itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves. In other words. you might say. yourself. myself. Players. Andy. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves. yourselves. Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. Although it may sound and look correct. herself. herself. yourself. there is no such word as “themself”. but if it refers to a group. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. you must be careful not to push yourself too far. 6 Some grammar texts call this group “intensive pronouns”. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the “receiver” of the action is the same person as the “doer”. if someone does something to himself or herself. use the singular form yourself. Check the dictionary. If the sentence is directed to one person. watch yourselves out there on the field today. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. or I. yourselves.

The term “clause” really means extra bits of 7 Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly. If they are not used to ask a question. G. Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. you often start with an interrogative pronoun. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. one another. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence. Interrogative pronouns: who7. whom. The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi. that in many sentences. CDs or tapes? What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who. 8 . Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly. Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet. which. they are not interrogative pronouns. which. what Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best. We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale. whom8 whose. H.35 F. She taught her children to help one another. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS• When you ask a question about someone or something.

....to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank........... Relative pronouns: who...... whoever... expressed in a special way.. We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock........ and 42 in the Practice Booklet.... 41... Do Review Exercises 40... Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail. The teacher whom you met trained in France.......to refer to things that............ I almost forgot that it was your birthday........... ..... Module 6.. The driver who didn’t stop got a ticket.. The driver that stopped didn’t get a ticket........ whomever........ whom........to refer to people which......... I saw the television program which was banned in the States.36 information in a sentence...

He caught the ball easily. She thought about what she had done. TYPES OF VERBS• A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. one of the main parts of every sentence. such as The children ran after the dog. ACTION VERBS• Most verbs are action verbs.37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS• The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. In fact. That accounted for his absence. David decided to move to Woodstock. Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. Underline the verbs you used. a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. They realized their mistake. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. The horse jumped the fence. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. A. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. The rose grew very quickly. . 1. She drives very carefully when it’s snowing.

John is tired. the writer’s state of being is as a student. You will be successful. He was a good friend. Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action. and the sentence means that “I” = “a student”. I am a student.38 2. STATE OF BEING VERBS• A very small number of verbs express a state of being. I ate the apple. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here. In other words. This is one way to use a “state of being” or “linking verb. You are hungry. As well. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer’s state of being and “happy” describes how the writer is feeling. Sherri is an accountant. A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am is are have been are Compare these sentences. Module 6. They show that something or somebody exists. was were has been will be become (all forms) being be had been will have been seem (all forms) . not a linking verb. I am happy. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. The dog was friendly. They were unhappy. On the other hand. I and apple do not refer to the same thing. We were scared. These non-action verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. This is the second use of the “state of being” or “linking verb”. In the second sentence. The verb ate is an action verb.

He felt the water before he jumped in. something that can really happen or that is observable.) The smoke smelled stronger now. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs. they are considered to be action verbs. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. 46. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word. Tom grew 3 inches last year. Here are the most common ones. The music sounded perfect in the arena. The sculpture felt smooth. or the fact that something has certain qualities. Do Exercise 44. He walked to school every day. The chili tastes good. therefore. they are consider to be linking verbs. Martha tasted the chili. 1. A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and. B. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. cannot perform the physical action of tasting. Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire. The sky grew dark before the storm. .39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. The evidence looks convincing in this case. 45. FORMS OF VERBS• AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS• In the previous section. The engineer sounded the locomotive’s horn at the crossing. and 47 in the Practice Booklet.

Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating. I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o’clock. are being. is being. finishing. A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were has have had shall will do does did have been.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. thought. and write are the main verbs. I will travel to Halifax on the train. called a verb phrase. Did you write that poem? In the above sentences. had been am being. as in I willed all my property to my children. will can be a main verb. will. were being . has been. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below.40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. When you called. I am eating my dinner now. Within a verb phrase. however. I will eat all the cookies before the sale. have. was being. were. Sometimes. I was eating my dinner. the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. We have thought about a vacation this winter. it is a helping or auxiliary verb. and did are helping or auxiliary verb. When will comes before a main verb. Before calling. Travel. I had eaten my dinner.

but which are never part of the verb phrase. as well as what will happen after today. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. I have never driven in a big city before. VERB TENSES• Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. Here tested is the main verb. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. 2. Every verb has FOUR main forms. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase.m. Although rare. In some sentences.. should and have are the auxiliary verbs. not never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet. I will have saved enough money by Christmas. in the past. and future. In order to talk about the present. Saved is the main verb. before today. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other “non-verb”words. called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs. past. some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. The main verb is saved. I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. you cannot have a sentence without a verb. . in the future. In fact. we need to use different forms of verbs. At 5:00 p. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase.41 As you have just seen. Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. in the present.

this module explains four common tenses. is has.. were had III PAST PARTICIPLE walked carried brought sung hit done been had IV PRESENT PARTICIPLE walking carrying bringing singing hitting doing being having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past. The children will be hearing the story. present. in the third person singular. the present or the future. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past. etc. “carries”. have II PAST walked carried brought sang hit did was. “brings”. 1. ..the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses.42 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I PRESENT walk9 carry bring sing hit do am. How can you tell? 1. simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses 9 This form becomes “walks”. 2. Future. The children are reading the story. The children had heard the story. Present 3. and future. Past 2. are. 3.

To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb. I shall walk to the store. Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow. It is built using . Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past. Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will.43 Simple Verb Tenses• These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. He will talk to them They will attend the lecture. will in the second and third person.past Column I . The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first. from Column II. To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I. She will make the cake. from Column I. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. but the correct written form uses “shall” in the first person. Simple present He walks to school. he walks They will publish b. I and we.present Column I . You (plural) will write that test. To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE Simple past Simple present Simple future AUXILIARY none none will or shall PRINCIPAL PART Column II . Simple past I walked to the store today. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. Today. “will” is almost always used when speaking about the future. or is about to be.present EXAMPLE I walked I walk. completed. a. present and future) are used to express a single action which has been. It will be here. present and future.

. had. Despite its name. It is easy to see that the action happened in the past.Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine. but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other. but also notice that the answering took place before the calling.) Past perfect .Past Perfect Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently. . the past form of to have as its auxiliary. I have completed my assignment.44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has. I shall have showered before you arrive. have. but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm. Present perfect - . Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see. Here all the action definitely takes place in the future. Because this is the past perfect.I had answered your letter before you called me. He has finished his work. it uses had. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past. The truck has delivered the load of topsoil. but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used. The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have). Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb.He will have launched the boat before the storm hits. Future perfect . The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect.

was. Future progressive: Eventually.past participle EXAMPLE We had walked He has sung I shall have done c. Here. are. you use one of the progressive tenses. In this case. at sometime in the future. have will have. too. Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time. . Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. The future form of to be (will be.45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE Past perfect Present perfect Future perfect AUXILIARY had has. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). are. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart.past participle Column III.past participle Column III. were. they will be selling only new computers. Progressive Tenses The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. shall have PRINCIPAL PART Column III. When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling). Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). shall be. the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time. is. the action of “watching” takes place over a period of time. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am. present and future.

Identify the auxiliary. Try this one yourself.. the present participle.... 1.... As a final check.... present or future.. were EXAMPLE Column IV-present participle He was eating Column IV-present participle You are eating Column IV-present participle We will be doing Present Progressive am. this is truly an example of a past perfect tense... He has been saving his money to buy a car....... Is the auxiliary in the past.... Sheila had answered all their questions... RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses..the perfect tenses 4. Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately... The students will be walking to school from now on.. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have 3......had answered 2... Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes. Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries.. d.......46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE Past Progressive AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART was.. are.... Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions. .... Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?......had is in the past form. is Future Progressive will be.. Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase.. Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then. shall be Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense. The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense. The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV. They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive.. Then. My sisters had been discussing my birthday party. look at the main verb.

SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE Simple Past Simple Present Simple Future Past Perfect Present Perfect Future Perfect Past Progressive Present Progressive Future Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive AUXILIARY none none shall or will had has. were am. and choose the correct form when writing. There are other tenses. have shall/will have was. are shall/will be had been has/have been will have been PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Column II Column I Column I Column III Column III Column III Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV I walked He sings They will sing We had hit She has carried I shall have rung He was hearing You are finding She will be fitting I had been sitting He has been filling We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. but you learn them later. is. .47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence. The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses.

Look up the verb. If it is an irregular verb. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add “s”. just use the dictionary. . IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT throw feel spring ring drink bring burst eat rise raised swim cut PAST threw felt sprang rang drank brought burst ate rose raised swam cut PAST PARTICIPLE thrown felt sprung rung drunk brought burst eaten risen raised swum cut lain laid lie (to recline) lay lay (to place) laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet. the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the “entry word”. These verbs are called irregular verbs. The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs.”ing” or “ed” to form its principal parts.48 IRREGULAR VERB• As you may have noticed. If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb. If there are no words written in bold type. some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling.

. When you hear or read a sentence.. the VIA train has the strongest focus. One of them is to reduce someone’s or something’s responsibility for an action. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. Think about how you report bad news. the verb is probably passive. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence. Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. try to insert one of your own. (by me). For example.. Often it is phrased in the passive.49 3. Here’s an easy way to find passive verbs..(by me).someone/something”. In sentences using active voice. based on s sentence structure and meaning. on a stormy night. I had an accident and the fender was crumpled.by the heat. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last. Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with “by. The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night.. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing. so in this example.. The truck was hit on a stormy night. In this case. The effect of using a passive voice is to “downplay” the “doer” of the action. the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first.M. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. That house was designed by a famous architect. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this. which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which “downplays” the railway’s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence. My report card got lost.. (by whom? by what?.) . The candles were melted. If you can’t find a “by” phrase. “Good writing” generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message. The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P. On the other hand. If you can.

. you should always read it through just looking for passives. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective. When you find them. A vicious dog bit Mark. For example.. and 54 in the Practice Booklet.. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. restructure the sentences to place the “doer” of the action at the beginning of the sentence. Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences.50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing. putting the “doer” at the beginning. At the party. if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog. 53.. . Do Exercises 52. When you proofread your work. you should rewrite it. Although Lois could barely keep up. 59.. At the party. she still grabbed Clark’s arm and . 58. 57. Make sure your story uses only active verbs. and 60 in the Practice Booklet.. 56.. CDs were played and local news discussed. Complete Review Exercises 55. the guests played CDs and discussed local news. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice.

Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. sailed across the autumn sky. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. tall and leafy. . The clouds were white and puffy. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour. huddled in the ambulance. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. pale and fearful. white. The survivors. It seems to be injured. angry are all adjectives. happy. The trees. stately. puffy. The boys will be hungry. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6. is the best thing a mother can think of. The counsellors were very angry. A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately. I am happy about winning the lottery. The words tall. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect. A child. lined the driveway. The clouds.51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES• Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence. The tourists are American. Max was late again today. Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. puffy and white. However. The book is heavy. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify. busy and happy.

When comparing two things. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing. Adverbs often end in “ly”. Using the “wrong” modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing. Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. . If the sentence sounds awkward. Or I feel well. nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives. either adjective or adverb. add “er” to most modifiers. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered. and other adverbs. comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. 64. Do Exercises 63. quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS• Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things.52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. In the sentence below. To use them properly. How are you? I am well. He answered the question well. and 65 in the Practice Booklet. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS• The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. bright: This light is brighter than that one. He wrote a good answer. adjectives. Well is usually an adverb. In this sentence. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding “er”. use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer.

When comparing two things. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. It is not correct to say gooder. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable. goodest.53 fast: soon: He walked faster than I did. . Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things. They left sooner than we did. DO NOT add “er” to adverbs ending in “ly”. Do not add “est” to adverbs ending in “ly”. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. Often. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. beautiful: Today’s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. finely: Usually. These words actually change their form. more than two things are compared. or by using more or most. quietly: Of the four. or more good. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. this car's motor runs most quietly. add “est”. Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS• Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding “er”. Instead of adding “er”. Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. strawberry tastes better. but chocolate tastes the best of all. peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day. “est”. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street. the suffix “er” is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. sickly: Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met. fast: He always drives fastest at night.

It cannot be less dead or more dead. some Well Bad. . further COMPARING THREE OR MORE Least Most Most Best Worst Farthest. These words are called absolute adjectives . If something is dead. It cannot be more correct. badly Far COMPARING TWO Less More More Better Worst Farther. correct and dead. An answer on a test is either correct. or correcter.words such as. or not correct. because of their meaning. furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons.54 SINGLE FORM Little Many Much. it is dead.

55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER• When making comparisons. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. If the word modifies a verb. an adjective is necessary. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. or another adverb. use an adverb. He is real happy is incorrect. It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time. therefore the correct version is He is really happy. . an adjective. The correct adverb is really. some writers make mistakes because they can’t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb.

There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below.56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS• Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when. it. where. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. Always use the personal pronouns me. The students at Superior School went to the library with her. in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. us. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit. him. her. . you. to the library. them after a preposition. sometimes called complex prepositions. at Superior School. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing. in the middle of is the preposition in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions. Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet. how the action in a verb took place. Compound prepositions. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase.

but they are always used in pairs. (2 ideas) He always gets lost. but I can’t find the time. and so on. phrases or clauses. 2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. B. and the boys danced. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. 2 adverbs) The girls sang. and for but yet or so nor Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them. (2 ideas) You can write a report. . yet he never carries a map. for she had no money. A conjunction may join words. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly. but also at the wrong address.57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. (2 complete ideas) I want to go. (2 ideas) She couldn’t attend school.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. (2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used. an adjective with an adjective. TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS• CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS• Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: A. they peeled vegetables and told stories. nor* can I drink my coffee. (2 ideas) It rained. (2 prepositional phrases. (2 ideas) I can’t finish this dessert. or you can make a speech. so they cancelled the outing. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. (2 adjectives.

Compare It snowed last night. call them to explain. Although these could be two unconnected events. nor at the right address. either/or Harold was either late. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it. Example: Example: Example: C. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences. therefore. A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. therefore. whether/or I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. it burned to the ground. however. or lost. in this case. we didn’t go. Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. they are adverbs. both/and Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning. therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas. . Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. We did. consequently.58 Example: neither/nor Harold was neither on time. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. it burned to the ground.

The truck drivers stopped carefully. These are called subordinate conjunctions. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. Since she got that job. If I were you. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. . You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. I am not sure when I will be able to come. They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences. D. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. She didn’t ask any questions. Although she was confused. make sure Mark is alright. I will be able to come sometime. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work.59 SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS• Another group of words are often used as conjunctions. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. she hasn’t been able to go to school. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. she didn’t ask any questions. I would start studying now. She was confused. Module 6 explains this in more detail. You won’t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. Module 6. I am not sure when that time will be. As soon as you can. The road was slippery.

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Before the party started, we went to the store. Before the game, they bought popcorn and a drink. Because she lost her wallet, she couldn’t go to the concert. Because of her loss, she was unable to afford the plane ticket. Since I won the lottery, I decided to buy a new car. Since the election, the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. E. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Relative pronouns, which you learned in the pronoun section, are also used as conjunctions. These words are relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that, whomever, whichever. Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns, used to start a question or pronouns. Example: That club always has good entertainment. (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working. (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. (Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off. (Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. It is the student’s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. You can write your own or trade with a class mate. As well, any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet.

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X

INTERJECTIONS• Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. They are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow, did you see The Grateful Dead concert. Boy, that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet.

Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery!

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XI

SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES•

Boy, it is some cold today! Boy, it is very cold today. Boy, it is real cold today! Boy, it is really cold today. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is. Use very cold. If he had went home sooner, he wouldn’t have missed dinner. If he had gone home sooner, he wouldn’t have missed dinner. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III, not the past form from Column II. Use had gone. I done well on that test. I did well on that test. The form of the verb tense is incorrect. This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. Use the simple past form did. The pictures should of been ready by now. The pictures should have been ready by now. The verb phrase is incorrect. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have. I ain’t finished yet. I’m not finished yet. There is no such word as ain’t anymore. Bob said, “Very best, I’ll go with you next week”. Bob said, “Of course, I’ll go with you next week. English does not include the phrase very best. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence. Use a phrase like Of course. Fran had did her best on that test. Fran did her best on that test. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II. Use did.

He is the tallest of my two boys. so the correct pronoun is either who or that. Use really pleased. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was. He is sure late with his payment this month. therefore. The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? .63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late. learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. really late. The officer is obviously a person. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. In this sentence. Use certainly late. or very late. only two things are being compared. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. Parts of the Sentence. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective. If you understand parts of speech well. Polly was really pleased with her new dress. He is the taller of my two boys. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. “Unlearning” something you have said all your life is not easy. the correct form of the word is taller. A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning.

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ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH

Supplementary Exercises

GRAMMAR: PART I
Parts of Speech

FALL 1998

The Titanic sank in a few hours. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. Then. many husbands and wives were separated. 10. 2. 1. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5. Check your answers in the answer key. Underline all the nouns you used. The ocean was calm.1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find. My daughter sold her computer to a friend. 8. 9. 3. Local markets are full of mussels. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. 8. So much snow covered the roads. the little boats began to appear. When their boats are full. Storms make life on the water dangerous. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. 9. 7. In small villages. and the clouds were beautiful. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. 1. 4. Exercise 2: Nouns A. Penguins live near the South Pole. The dog chased the cat under the porch. Write 10 sentences of your own. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. If the weather is good. she went for a tetanus shot. scallops. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. but these birds aren’t bothered by the cold. B. After she cut herself. 2. 3. What did you bring with you? 4. . 1. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. 6. 10. 6. but few stayed long. Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns. that even truck drivers pulled into motels. clams. Many of them came. 3. 5. From the top of a small hill. 4. their catch is usually large. 2. 5. we saw the Northumberland Strait. and lobster. 7.

She never gave them any of it. They told about the hardships we survived. John ate his lunch slowly. Exercise 4: Pronouns A. but the insurance covered it. 7. B. 1. 9. The pitcher threw the ball. He dreamed about his recent accident. 4. 9. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. The lions slept in the sun for hours. His parents thought about him every day. We always welcome suggestions. 3. . 10. This belongs to her. He gave her several bottles of this. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6. 1. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars.2 6. 5. 4. Who likes chocolate? The stones on the beach were green. Give me some! 9. 1. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze. Phillip called to tell them about that. 7. Mine was destroyed by the flood. She often rode the bus home at night. None of us was frightened by that. 10. 7. All of those are expensive. 8. 10. Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2. 2. Write 10 sentences of your own. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 6. Many told about the kindness of strangers. 5. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. 8. 8. 2. 3. but these are pink. The robin perched on a lower branch. Underline all the pronouns you used. The Christmas tree looked beautiful.

9. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. 8. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. They are calling it the storm of the century. Finally. 4. or have you finished it? Lucy will send you her new address. Exercise 8: Adjectives A. 7. Soon. he has been driving more carefully. Exercise 7: Verbs A. After work. 7. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. After a few hours. 6.3 3. we decided on a movie. The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 5. 9. 3. The old curtains were torn and faded. 5. life was returning to normal. Rewrite it using enough adjectives . the dealer agreed to our price. After three days. Many branches had been broken by the wind. and they flapped in the light breeze. 10. 6. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. 1. nine miles from Minto. they arrived at the train station. 3. 8. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. Are you reading that magazine. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. 8. 10. People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. Since his accident. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. Write a paragraph about an exciting event. B. 4. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich. 2. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. Underline all the verbs you used. You will never guess the answer. B. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. The little girl ran along the dusty road. 6. These apples are juicy and red. 9. 2. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. 5. They used paper plates for the annual picnic. 4. food became scarce. 10. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. 7.

They finished their work surprisingly quickly. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. 6. She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. she wrote the very last sentence correctly. 2. 10. Many people have never used a computer. 9. they are quite easy to use. 1. he asked for a second helping. Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs. They arrived early for class. Yesterday. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. Finally. Politely.4 to make your reader see the scene clearly. The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. Computers are relatively new devices. 5. 1. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. 1. The baby has been very cranky lately. 7. 8. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. Today. very fast computers are needed. 3. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. Generally. 10. Kate is a truly courageous woman. You cannot drive there! 5. . 2. 9. 4. 6. 2. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. 5. Can you come soon? 3. Underline the adjectives you used. 4. 3. 4. 8. The colour of her dress was really flattering. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. Many businesses use them daily.

Guests with tickets entered first. Then indicate whether they are joining words. circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. 4. or groups of words (phrases). A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie’s. The time of day doesn’t matter. or complete ideas (clauses). 1. 3. 10. Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. Look under the table and in the closet. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John’s brother. 6. 8. Underline the prepositions. Oh no! He lost the puck. . 5. None of the items on that page are available until July. The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles. 7. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. The chairs on the porch were painted white. Underline the conjunctions. 9. 4. Yuck. many of the survivors have received cash settlements. 5. 2. 1. Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. 9. Apples and oranges are good for you. 3. In his new movie. 2. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. 7. 3. 1. I hate boiled cabbage. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. did you see that jet! 2. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. Since the crash. Wow.5 6. most of the money disappeared. 10. Ouch! That hurts. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work. In 1992. No! Don’t touch the brake. It was a life and death situation. 8.

she and Lily still arrived on time. you should not take your new camera on your trip. 12. 8. so we went to the concert. 5. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. This book cost six dollars. 2. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. 13. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. 7. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. Their house was built in 1990. 6. we drove to Doaktown. 9. I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. 9. 3. No. She was giving a short but interesting lecture. Before he gets sicker. Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. 5. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow. Most of the students listened politely. Until the snow melts. Although she missed the bus. Until we see it. If you are ready. 10. 4. We ran home because it was raining. we can leave so we will be on time. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. 8. 10. 2. 14. 8. 3. Exercise 16: Review Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. 7. The wind was cold. After we saw a deer. 6. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. we will have to stay home. . he should go to the doctor. When they had finished. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. we won’t believe it. We bought the tickets. 9.6 4. 4. but I couldn’t get a ride. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened. The tall. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. 7. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. 6. 11. 1. but the sun was really warm. 5. 10. they gave it to the teacher. 1.

c. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. 9. The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street. Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. Your instructor will correct your work. Copy the following sentences into your notebook. Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns. b. The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur.7 15. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a. 8. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. 5. 1. 3. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. Underline all the nouns. 6. Eric and they learned very quickly. Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. 2. 10. rose happiness school computer skiing bubbles justice cow truth grace stars fear . 4. 7.

Have you seen the dog’s leash? 3. They bought several rings at the auction. A large amount of deer were shot this season. B Reword each of the following phrases. Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession. 2. 4. .8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. Sue’s friends bought her a sweater in the men’s department. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. 1. 1. 4. 2. Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week. He received three months’ back pay yesterday. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where necessary. 3. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays. using apostrophes. Ann receives too many junk mail. Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook. 5. Write the corrected form in your notebook. 1. write two sentences. the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit. Each of the boy’s bicycles was locked. Mary’s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. 5.

(one girl. Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation. 3. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune. (two uncles) 2. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. 10. his wifes income was reduced. Smith was worried about her sons health. (two sons) The childs name is Nora. 4. Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5. 6. and the familys name is Boudreau. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding. The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. (one client) 9. Charles company owed him two days pay. 1. 9. (one son) Mr. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. Then try these sentences. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary. 7. 8. 5. Marks mother lives at my sisters. Because of the accident. 10. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. A March snow storm is sometimes called “winters last lament”. Mr. two twins) 3.9 2. 6. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. 7. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. 4. read the section on apostrophes again. .

Read the following sentence. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. Ferry. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. do not look back at the material in the module. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. accidents. Centennial Bridge. Ferry Road. Road. Bridge. That is my neighbours' new car. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. accidents. Chatham. Centennial Bridge. C. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. Chatham. B. This is the store belonging to Doris. or ask your instructor to mark it for you.10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. accidents. Ferry Road. C. Centennial Bridge. D. 3. 5. What is a noun? 2. Read the following sentence. As you work through the test. 4. Chatham. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. 1. mark your own work. When you have completed the test. Chatham. Those toys belong to the children. A. That new car is my neighbour. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. you should review the parts of this section that gave you “trouble” thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. connects. . C. That is my neighbour's new car. B. B. try this test again. E. and do not peek at the answer key. If you had any mistakes. The new car is my neighbours'. D. When you are satisfied that you really understand. D. There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road.

Read the following sentence. 9. B. Halifax. 7. B. Jupiter E. Parker There are errors in SOME of the following sentences. this. Our friends lived in Halifax. . river D. 11. The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. January B. C. D. before they moved to this town. correcting the errors. friends. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. this. Halifax. 8. holiday E. Dr. A. soda pop B. city C. Nova Scotia. The flower's petals fell to the floor. town. town. town. I had a great time last St. Canada C. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect. C. Nova Scotia. Halifax. The nouns in the sentence are A. friends. There is a burn mark on the chair's arm. A. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive.11 6. Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. magazine Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia. A. Nova Scotia. Patricks Day. Saint John D. they. D. friends. Halifax.

they took my jacket and your camera. ours. her husband and their children visited your mother. He may have taken her coat. mine. We. Gender A. herself 5. You. yours. 3. them. ourselves 4. You should take yours. Second person plural C. When I went to the club last night. They say that we should always mind our own business. but mine is on the desk. First person singular E. She. Where are you going with her tapes. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . her. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. 1. Cheryl gave her cold to them. I saw them eating their lunch myself. your. 1. 4. our. Did you give him his book? 2. concrete. yourself F. My sister. hers. yourselves B. Third person plural D. 1. count mob news equipment jury fragrance surprise sunrise broccoli mice Canada’s meat loyalty March company English horn Lions’ Club Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. their. Try not to look at the chart above. my. themselves 3. 2. You. They didn’t know it was theirs until they saw its label.12 The first one is done for you. 5. I. Number. us. 3. yours. theirs. 4. singular. your. myself 2.Person. me. . Third person singular B. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column. Beside each. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender. write its person and number . They. church beauty armies boys’ grammar men’s trouble boy’s Church: common. First person plural A.

theirs are used alone. hers. his. using the correct pronoun. your. me)! 6. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. its) not likely to return. 11. her. its. 8. Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me.e. ours. whose are always followed by a noun. Students often think that (you. They were sure that Lisa and (he. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. them) sneakers because of (their. 12. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn’t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. Give the pencil to Martha or (I.13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence. The first set is done for you. check the answers in the answer key. her. but (you. his. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook. Notice that the pronouns my. they) will fail. After finishing all the sentences. yours. 1. John and (he. Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. her) to town. I do not want (those. . (You. A student must try to find (his. (You’re. your. 9. him) were going to Miramichi. Jerry took his brother and (she. 10. its) nest was destroyed and (it’s. The pronouns mine. 3rd person singular). your) going to pass. their. Your) hard work means that (you’re. (It’s. our. yours. they’re) ugly colour. Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use. him) and (I. 5. 4. him) went to a meeting 2. they) have to keep trying. their) own learning modality. me) could go to the game? 7. I). 3. Do you think that (he. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton.

using the correct pronoun. The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. 5. 9. 1. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! . Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. 11. 8. Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. They kept the secret from Jack and I. If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence.14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. 4. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. 2. Rewrite the sentence. We sent her some flowers. 7. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. If a sentence is CORRECT. 3. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. Jane’s best friend is me. The man standing outside in the rain is him. using the right pronoun Mary gave her the keys. REWRITE the sentence. Could him and me could go to the game? You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news. Al met John and she at the movies. 10. 6. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. leave it as it is. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car. 12.

3. Some managers write their business letters themselves. Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. 7. 5. 5. The students asked for new books. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. The boys tried out for the football team. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces. 4. 4. 3. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook. It gathers once a year for a reunion. replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me. Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. 5. 9. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. 3. 2. 1. Our family is not large. 6. The dog's ears are pointed. Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. We ourselves were happy to participate. The jury were presenting their opinions. The instructor will give them those. My family are always ready to support their relatives. 4. . Philip gave her her present. 10. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet. 2. B.15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. 8. The dog belonging to you has run away again. The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale. Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. 1. 1. 2. The president should take his office seriously. and he should pay it. The merchants gave donations. A student should always be on time for his or her class. The audience clapped for their performance.

Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns. I myself won’t put up with that. 6. 4. their) lunches. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. The deer hurt (her. . her or his. their) Social Insurance Number? 2. its) leg when it jumped the fence. their) own bus ticket. A few forgot (his. her. 3. his or her. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive. and those as describing words later. 1. Does anybody know (his or her. their) mutual friends' wedding. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital. Each of those buyers should consult (his. Such cannot be true! 4. Several of the men have paid (his. Wash the car yourself this time. Max and Helen sang at (her. The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall.16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun. This is the one I want to buy. e. their) supervisors. these. our) marks. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. 5. his. A few of us have received (his. her. 10. their) pen. Many hens have escaped from (her. No one should submit (his or her. None of the boys has paid for (his. her. their. 3. their) dues. his or her. Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. 5. 4. Did he really say that? 3. 9. 2. Give me all of these and some of those. his. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. Emphatic. 8. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences. 6. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. You will learn about the use of this. Whose book is that on the floor? B. 5. 1. his or her. 7. 2. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. her. that. Write This is mine. their) report later than tomorrow. Then tell which is which.g. 1.

10. but later I had learned from it. 10. 6. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. 9. Whom should we reward? 6. My first attempt was a failure. How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names. . B.17 7. Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. 8. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. 5. The man who won is my friend Steve. 9. When you talk about that accident. making notes as you go. Which is right? There are two choices. 2. Who stole the money? 2. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. 8. He said many things which I didn’t understand. She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her. The children themselves saw it. What have you done with the keys? 10. it always gives me the shivers. We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. 5. can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves. He hasn’t decided what he wants to do next. The furniture was destroyed. He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. What would anyone do with that? 4. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. List all the pronouns in the following sentences. Ian is the one who knows that. Beside each one give as much information as you can about it. 7. but the house itself was undamaged. 4. 3. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns A. What did you bring for lunch? 3. 8. 1. 1. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. both of them look correct.

Always ask yourselves. hisself) on that rusty can. reciprocal pronoun C. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. a. our 4. everybody 6. 9. interrogative pronoun B. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. its) tail. Sheila and (her. which) is barking lives next door.18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. reflexive pronoun I. few 2. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. himself 9. did you? 5. The dog (who. c. 1. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other. The cat often chases (it’s. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. He cut (himself. these 2. its 5. 7. 1. indefinite pronoun (plural) E. me). e. which 10. what 7. b. 1st person plural A. d. demonstrative pronoun F. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I. . We did most of the work ourselves. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. its K. “What can I do to help those less fortunate?” 10. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. Something is missing from this recipe. 6. themself 8. possessive pronoun H. but the contractor poured the cement. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. a word that doesn’t exist J. Match the term on the left with the example on the right. You didn’t give that to them. 2. but he took mine. each other 3. she) went to the automatic teller. relative pronoun D. Sherri took your boots.

h. the kids and them returned to Rexton. Don’t buy (those. them) shoes. there) too expensive. Underline every pronoun you have used. i.19 f. B. Which sentence below is correct? A. employees is the antecedent of them D. A. they’re) old car. him). 6. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. 7. D. g. Which statement below is not correct. us and the kids returned to Rexton. themself) Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. Bill is the antecedent of he C. My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. Be sure and tell her where (your. A. the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. you’re) house is. After the holidays. B. their. C. She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. j. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. he told them to spend it wisely. C. 4. bonus is the antecedent of it 5. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. D. Mr. . we and the kids returned to Rexton. (they’re. B. Volunteers. Do you think there house is big enough? The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. Hutchins bought (their. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. there. it is the antecedent of bonus.

Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook. Then underline the verbs. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. B. For each verb that you identify. The students were happy about their marks. 6. Few of them knew the right answer. D. Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed. Mr. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. We feared the storm. Ask your instructor to review your work. 13. Use each one in a sentence.20 8. Exercise 44: Action Verbs A. For each underlined pronoun. 4. it is classed as an action verb. We watched a movie last night. 12. 11. Smyth was my uncle. 2. . They will be angry about your forgetfulness. Those are mine. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. 3. Who knows anything about this? E. 5. 7. 1. His car smashed into a bridge. The baseball hit the boy in the face. Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. B. The little mouse squeaked loudly. 10. 8. C. 9. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can. There were fourteen people in that class last year. Buy yourself something expensive. The dog jumped over the fence. A. We were afraid of the storm. My sister’s name is Paula.

Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. 5. 9. 7. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. . 15. Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. Suddenly. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. You know my aunt. I felt sick after the party. The policeman believed their every word about the robbery. 12. taste. Because of the dust. 14. 11. please. 15. 4. The children became excited before the snow storm. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences. the other with a linking or copula verb. The puppy carefully tasted his new food. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand.21 14. 1. 13. sound. Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. the bookkeeper at Colpitt’s. He looks taller than Mario. 10. Close the door to the garage. if any. Wolves always howl at the moon. The pie smells good. grow. You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). 6. he slammed the door and drove down the lane. This stew tastes good on a cold winter’s night. feel. we coughed all day. 8. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs. 3. 2. Madonna sings and dances well.

9. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. 14. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. 10. Carl kicks the ball across the field. Yesterday. 6. We played ball against their team Saturday. Sue may never have been given that letter. 3. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. 7. Have you ever heard such nonsense. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. 3. Tomorrow. He might have consulted a doctor. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. I shall never agree to his proposal. Today. 2. 4. 13. That would have confused anyone! Would you please flip the hamburgers? There was a good show on TV last night. 8.22 SENTENCE MAIN VERB HELPING VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. 15. A child can easily learn this song. Today. 1. . The washing machine has broken down. Carl had kicked the ball across the field. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. Mitchell has lived here all his life. I will not be going. 2. 11. not after the last trip. The men should have eaten that supper by now. 6. 4. Today. 5. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. Tomorrow. 5. 12. Carl will kick the ball across the field. 7.

won’t you? My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. They have lived here for two months. D. He is finished painting my house. He had been learning Chinese at school. They lived in Halifax before moving here. C.23 8. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. 10. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow. He will be finished painting my house by tonight. He has finished painting my house. I have completed my income tax return. B. C. we will serve dinner. 3. D. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. we had already served dinner. I am completing my income tax return early this year. Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. B. C. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. B. 4. D. B. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. . Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A. C. By the time they arrived. 9. D. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. 2. B. 5. Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. He will finish painting my house soon. C. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. When they arrive.

Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. 11. 2. 12. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash. 9. C. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. B. She designed a logo for the company. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A.24 6. She will design a logo for the company. 3 . D. 10. Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk. 8. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence. She is designing a logo for the company. She has designed a logo for the company. 7.

After the elections. My heart was broken. 5. I am feeling better already. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. 2. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. TENSE? Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them. The strike vote is being called for next Monday. I have just been thinking about you. 14. C. I was frightened by the storm. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall.25 4. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list. 9. 11. 4. 7. 6. Barry threw the ball to first base. The train will be making three stops before Montreal The butcher had already delivered our order. the votes were recounted several times. D. Sandra’s writing is improving daily. 1. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. G. My son did his homework last night. Write your answers in your notebook. SENTENCE A. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. By the time you get to school. 10. The child was struck by a stray bullet. 15. 3. the bell will already have rung. 8. . F. 12. E. 13. We have been searching for answers to our questions. B. The disaster relief team has sprung into action. Stephen King has written many best sellers.

This was a “trick” exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. . Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice. It is at this point that a word develops into a part of speech.26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise. Look at the words below. C. All by themselves. Once they have been placed in a sentence. Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs. they start to function by carrying the writer’s meaning to the reader. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B. Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs. Now look up each word in the dictionary. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A. words cannot have a part of speech. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech. Change the passive verbs to active ones. Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice.

and verbs in each sentence. .27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below. but old ones are gold. He has never drunk stout before. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. 13. 5. The men were unhappy with both of those. 6. reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. pronouns. 15. I am doing my homework now. 2. 3. The child was severely bitten. 9. 4. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. 8. Number: 3rd person singular Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. Have you eaten here before? 4. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person. Pronouns. The music will have been playing for several hours. and Verbs List the nouns. 10. New friends are silver. When everyone is finished. The houses had just been repainted. write everything you can about it. 7. That company buys only the best automotive parts from us. 3. Something should be done about each of these problems. 1. 1. 11. I shall be seeing you again next week. The first one is done for you. 7. Everything that Tom says about them is true. My sister was teaching herself Spanish. What were you thinking? 10. Lunch will be served at twelve o’clock sharp. For each one you identified. 6. 8. so the dog was destroyed. 5. The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings. The couple usually walks to the office. they will announce the results. My sister always rides her bike to the office. 14. 9. 12. He is dating a beautiful doctor. They might not find each other at the airport. 2.

1. and his mouth watered. What has anyone seen lately. The jury is discussing its decision. 6. 5. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. If you have too many mistakes. Where was he going? 5. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother’s now. Then give as much information as you can about each. 7.28 Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. 10. study it. Pronouns. The storm grew worse as night approached. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. and then return to these review exercises and try them again. 9. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. Your choices seem logical. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. All of these will sell well. 2. Those were made in China. If you find you are still confused about some points. 4. and Verbs List the nouns. He smelled the fresh bread. 3. Pronouns. I am happy about your decision. these come from Sackville. 4. 1. 8. 8. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. Why haven’t you written that letter yet? 6. How much money will you need next week? 7. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. He had watched TV for more than an hour. 3. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. Oprah has changed people’s attitudes towards honesty. They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. 4. 1. 2. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. 5. 2. Kevin gave me Marion’s card. 3. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. Tony will have finished his course by next June. Will you complete that survey? . Pronouns. 9.

7. Our cousins were eating huge. juicy apples. Don't forget articles. These parcels are heavy. . 13. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. SENTENCE 1. I have had a boring. 2. Write your answers in your notebook. Invite those six people. sat on the dining room table. This trip takes several days Do you like spicy. The little girl had big.29 10. 15. Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. 3. An old rusty car is parked in my space. depressing day. 11. Mexican food? We bought Shelley and Tim’s house. Give them some light summer clothes. 9. 8. sweet and lovable. Adjectives Nouns 10. 14. Two cats. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. 5. sparkling blue eyes. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital. Karl’s hockey skates are dull. 12. The road was rough and uneven. 4. 6.

2. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. bright and narrow. They were dressed too casually for the banquet. 8. 10. Krista almost never goes to the arena. Where is the grocery store now? 4. piercing the inky darkness. 3. A few boys knew that they were lost. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. The circus was really exciting. Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1. 9. Bob read the material carefully. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. and the hills were gentle. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. After two long hours. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. The weather was warm. Jensen’s chicken farm. They weren’t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. 6. They set up their canvas tents.30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. With relief. . Yesterday. lit a huge crackling fire. they saw a beam of light. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. and ate their supper. Simon is not a very good driver. 7. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground.

3. seriously) sometimes. The change in speed was (gradually. 5. Paul did (good. 6. 12. and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. 9. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. 2. Sheila feels (sad. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. 4. Adjectives. gradual). Thoughtfully. She danced (graceful. 8. Example: Answer: 1. 13. 6. 14. She strolled leisurely down the mall. I am sincerely grateful for your help. 2. 1. 7. His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun. Tim was very happy about his success. The soldiers were really tired after their training. I am not (really. badly) on that last hole! The lights shone (brightly. well). 10. 3. Tiger Woods putted (bad. You work too (serious. 7. well) on his second driver’s test. 10. well). 11. i. These chocolates taste (good. . adjective or adverb. 8. quickly). Lynn spoke in a (calm. Write an explanation of your choice. slow). calmly) voice after the accident. 9. For each adverb. gracefully) across the stage. We feel (awful. I don't feel (good. bright) in my eyes. (adverb) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Leah behaves (good. awfully) about what happened. gracefully) across the stage. tell whether it modifies a verb. Make sure that you review daily. sadly) about the death of her dog. Firefighters must respond very (quick.( ) She danced (graceful. 15. well). simply) to follow. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time.e: adjective or adverb. The directions were (simple. the old man chewed his dinner. real) sure if I will have a party. The repairs went (slowly. 5. Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. Indicate the type of modifier. Write your answers in your notebook.31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs. 4.

1. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. 1. unique. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. This idea is (more unique. 4. 8. worser) than the damage to mine. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6. Smoking is not allowed the building. more) in January than in February. 3. eldest) of the candidates. 2. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day. The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. 1. most unique). the bank. more badly. more difficult) than grammar exercises. Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father. Cathy or Diane? My heart beat (rapidlier.32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook. most small).. Dawn fell the horse. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. C Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition. 2. Answer: Carl drove to. He is the (elder. The horse galloped the field. Earl worked him. 6. 5. Tom thinks math is (difficulter. find and underline the prepositions. 9. 7. more rapidly. near. . 2. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. 7. I will meet you the front entrance. from. 3. 5. etc. smallest. beside. 5. around. more rapid) with each step. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. B In the next part of this exercise. Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. 3. The damage to the other car looked (worse. 4. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. It snowed (most. Who is the (smaller.

.. 1... it is a prepositional adjective phrase.. tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb. The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p.. the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day. 6.. 7. Exercise 70: Conjunctions . Since his return.. 2.where:... but she went home on the bus... The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet........ 5.. After each one.Coordinate. 4. it is an prepositional adverb phrase. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4. During the night. 1.. 3.. Because of the storm.. 5. He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits.. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens. but also steaming hot. the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms. After his graduation in 1992... If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun..when. Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences....... the designer placed a beautiful statue. On Fridays... The chili was not only spicy hot.m. 2.... Correlative.. 9. or Lynn and Joan will take our place.. Either Anna and I will go... he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba. when... with the red dress. In the middle of a big spacious lawn.33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence..m. why or how the action of the verb took place.... 6..... I asked her to wait for me. 3. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill. 10..prepositional adjective phrase modifying “woman” on the bench. 8.prepositional adverb phrase modifying “sat” at 5:00 p.. Here’s an example. If it is telling where... Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb. The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store. The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat.. the rest of the water drained from the basement. .prepositional adverb phrase modifying “sat” Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise.

18. 3. I don’t know how I will get there. 1. he turned pro. After the whale beached itself. yet he decided to drive anyway. 8. 19. but also I will perform. Because you were late. 20. Although it was quite sunny. you can’t reach that cupboard. the students asked if they could stay. they are out of the playoffs. 4. so he just drank pop all night. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. Thieves broke in while we were away. We will go. Although he is stronger. He always talks as if he were an expert. 15. 13. 9. 7. as a result. but I don’t have a map. I made supper. I wonder why they are leaving so early. 21. you missed it. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave. he felt prepared. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. 10. It isn’t certain whether they will come or not. the team returned home. 22. 5. Not only will I attend. Mark knows more than I do about that case. 13. The weather was snowy. I won’t be able to go even though I have the money. 10. 24. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find. 25. Before they read the instructions. she has always been very polite. Tired but happy. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. they couldn’t fix it themselves. Unless the Leafs win this game. Since I first met Sheila and her. After the lecture. 23. If you are short. 11. we will not pay our own fare. 14. He organized his study time. they will be cut down. I know where they have hidden the treasure. 15. some local citizens rescued it. he couldn’t turn it. 6. You just answered my questions before I asked them. 9. He was the designated driver. After he won the gold medal. 16. 8.34 7. 11. 17. 12. 12. 2. . the wind was cool. the children swam in the pool. however. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm. 14. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. Les is five inches taller than I am. meanwhile.

. Copy these sentences into your notebook. 8. Underline all the relative pronouns. I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. 2. 6. My sister. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. came for a visit. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 1. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday. put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it. For each sentence above. The first one is done for you. I know who bought the Fuller’s house. 5. 9. The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. 7. That book that you bought last month is very interesting. who lives in Utah. 4. Cars that cost more than $20. Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A. Are you sure that you are right? 3. Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported.000 aren’t worth the money. 10.35 B. He reported that he had seen the incident.

10.(15) I do not think about their problems now because I don’t have time. (11) 8. 3. (12) He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors’ home. (9) The students in this program are very hard workers. (10) Your ancestors lived beside the sea. 9. There are a total of 150 words in this review. 5. 13. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice. 14. . If you have less than a 120.(12) Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not. 7. (5) The frail.36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. Count the number of correct answers. 4. (9) You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. (9) She believes in his ability. 2. so you can buy several of them. 11. (6) Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately. 15.(7) The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester. Dogs make good pets for young children. 12. (10) Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) Those big. (14) Casually. (11) Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring. 6. 1. chunky pots sell for nine dollars. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. mine lived near Moncton.

the chairs were placed near the windows. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. 13. 8. . that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. 10. 15.37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. 14. (12) Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) Ouch. (10) Since the accident. 5. (14) I had been studying for three hours. (14) Very quickly. (13) Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. but today they are in a circle. (11) Miles’ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can’t pass those provincial exams. 16. 2. the victims have recovered quite well. 4. they bought lunch . 1. and I still don’t know it. they finished their work. (8) Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. 11. the damage was minor. Sue often seeks my advice. 9. (6) They had been writing their essays before they went there . (9) Because of her problems.(9) Because they have cashed their cheques. (15) Usually. Identify the parts of speech of each word. (13) 3. 12.(10) After they had mowed the lawn. 7. they have some money. (10) Although the storm was very intense. 6.

If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech. 18. 19.38 17. Ask your instructor for supplementary work. . Hey Eric. his clever tricks have failed. (6) The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. If you correctly identified 160 of them. you can continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made. did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) Finally. (8) There are 200 words in this exercise.

3rd person plural H. 3rd person singular B. Noun used as an adjective 2. using apostrophes correctly. What 1. means “it is” E. g. Sisters’ 8. Common noun g. Michael’s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. The six workers complaints were very reasonable.(9) a. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. Concrete noun i. . d. In the paragraph above. Sallys covered a whole month of work. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Proper noun h. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store.(8) A. Abstract noun j. b. Read this paragraph. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. interrogative pronoun D. fruit. It’s 6. Plural noun f. and meat. c. possessive noun.39 BAU ENGLISH . Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Someone 2. We 3. f. Singular noun e. Its 5. possessive noun. 1st person plural G. Non-count noun c. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean.PRETEST 1. Rewrite these sentences. Count noun b. e. Possessive noun d. The horses hooves needed new shoes. Their 4. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. singular 3. Paul’s 7. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. indefinite pronoun F. Collective noun k. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. plural C. non-count noun 9.

(2) Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. 9. Charles. Next summer. Write a sentence comparing two things. 8. 10. 3. Are you cutting her hair? 6. 4. The crows flew toward the swamp. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. The teacher with the beard is Mr. 9. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. Linton. 6. 2.(10) 1. During the week. 7. 3. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store.40 4. we work for Mr. 10. 6. They ate six lobsters each. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. . Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. They were afraid of bears. (15) walk cut sing think drive List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. His Ford has always run well. 7. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. we will go to Disneyland. Paula will rent a car in Boston. He always uses a cane since his accident. 5. 2. 5. I was the first one there! 8. 5.(11) 1. Write a sentence comparing two people. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. John is always talking to his boss lately. Use the correct form of the adjective good. 7.

and meat. Abstract noun j. Non-count noun c. Rewrite these sentences. Our new neighbours have three young children. Michael’s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Her Read this paragraph. Possessive noun d. 2. 1. 3. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. 4. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb’s friend. 13. . Count noun b. fruit. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Collective noun k.41 11. Proper noun h. 1. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Plural noun f. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon.(41) 1. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. 2. In the paragraph above. Noun used as an adjective 12. using apostrophes correctly. Singular noun e. What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. Common noun g. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. Use the correct form of the adverb early. her) were the first to arrive. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. 14. she and them 2.(9) a. 5. Concrete noun i.

3rd person plural H. 2. not a personal pronoun E. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. Charles. e. We 3. The teacher with the beard is Mr. During the week. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. They were afraid of bears. 6. g. possessive noun. singular Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. 5. Their 4. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. They ate six lobsters each. 7. John is always talking to his boss lately. What 1. 2.(8) A. Linton. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. d. 3. 4. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. 3. (2) Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. The crows flew toward the swamp. plural C. possessive noun. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. interrogative pronoun D. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. Sallys covered a whole month of work. indefinite pronoun F. Its 5.(11) 1. Paul’s 7. (15) walk cut sing think drive List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. . It’s 6. 5. He always uses a cane since his accident. 6. non-count noun 9. 3rd person singular B. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Someone 2. The workers complaints were very reasonable. 3.42 b. Sisters’ 8. The horses hooves needed new shoes. 4. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work.(10) 1. 1st person plural G. c. f. we work for Mr. 7.

Are you cutting her hair? The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Write a sentence comparing two people. I was the first one there! Next summer. 6.43 5. 10. we will go to Disneyland. Use the correct form of the adjective good. Write a sentence comparing two things. . Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. 9. 8. His Ford has always run well. 8. Paula will rent a car in Boston. 7. 10. 9. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable.

her and them 12. marshes. D. B. her) were the first to arrive. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb’s friend. Write a sentence comparing two actions. C. Use the correct form of the adverb early. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions.44 11. 5. Five Six Seven Eight . them) were the first to leave. 4. she and them D. 15. and swamps. 2. 14. How many nouns does this sentence contain? Wetlands. her and they C. and (they. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. 3. 13. are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. A. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. including ponds.(44) 1. she and they B.

and qualities. homeless. be playing C. never lost C. has played D. ragged. B. D. playing Florenceville B. ragged. D. dirty. C. things. include the names of persons. very. join groups of words or sentences. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. very B. The adjectives in this sentence are A. was.45 16. dirty C. C. lost D. B. ragged and dirty. places. The complete verb in this sentence is A. . the. hungry 18. playing They have never lost a game against that team. homeless. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before. Five Three Two Six 17. describe substances. ragged. 20. The complete verb in this sentence is A. are used to take the place of pronouns. ragged. Nouns are words that A. lost against The homeless man. was very hungry. dirty. and people. homeless. animals. the. 19. have lost B. hungry D. dirty.

The following sentences make comparisons. the chocolate covered. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one. B. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving. The dogs blanket wasn’t in it’s house when the storm hit. B. D. Him and me went to the Ashleys house. Yesterday. D. B. E. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. Them skates are real good. I bought a pair of sneakers. Which donut is the biggest. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A. Which one? A. C. They are moving to Moncton. He divided the candy between Sarah and I. Them sneakers are really great! Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box. or the glazed? This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember. 23.(9) A. TOTAL: 133 . D. 22.46 21. C. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. C.

8. 5. in the light breeze beside the general store 6. singular possessive noun. 7. Linton walking cutting singing thinking driving 3. 6. 5. 4. 3. 5. 2. 7. 6.PRETEST 1. 3. What Someone We Their Its It’s Paul’s sisters’ walked cut sang thought drove Interrogative pronoun Indefinite pronoun 1st person plural 3rd person plural 3rd person singular means “it is” possessive noun.47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . Answers will vary. . of the cereal during the week after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees with the red wheels Answers will vary. weeks’ Sally’s Molly and Sally’s lady’s. 2. A. 2. 4. 4. walk cut sing think drive Molly’s. plural walked cut sung thought driven in the cupboard for Mr. a. Duncan’s week’s workers’ horse’s or horses’ Explain the meaning of your choice.

.... Answers will vary.pronoun these...noun new................. Many..interjection are... 12... Answers will vary..verb Mount Carleton........adjective and.adjective ...... 8.. have sold.adjective belonged......verb bad..preposition men.....verb Jeb’s.....noun three.adjective weather..noun the.... 10.....adjective were.noun a.......noun always.pronoun for. 1....verb young.. Answers will vary....adjective is.............conjunction dog...48 7.. 11.verb cooking.......adjective have..verb supper. were.adjective 2.... ate. That.....noun of....... has run..adverb 4. was..........preposition camp.pronoun/adjective neighbours.. Answers will vary.....noun team. Hey.verb to. Our....preposition friend....adjective from.preposition soon.noun What.. Several.... is talking.. 13....... are cutting.....noun going...pronoun you..noun.......verb discussing...noun to....noun 5. flew.....adverb the.... possessive 3.. will go.....pronoun the.. 9.preposition of......adjective children.....preposition disks.......... will rent Answers will vary...

A D A B C A C C A A. 15. 22. 3. . 2. 4. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving. 5. 17. 23. Those skates are really good. 19. The dog’s blanket wasn’t in its house when the storm hit. He and I went to Ashley’s house. He divided the candy between Sarah and me. 21. 18. 20.49 14. 16.

D.(11) E. C. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. Each of these would have been correct. Oh no. D. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D. Name the tense of each verb. D. but the answers that you changed are now wrong. A. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work. E. A month from now. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband.(16) In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. C. Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband. 4. Cheryl’s ideas are better than mine are. I bought those pants in the childrens department. 3.50 IAUENG . I will call you.(51) A. The Sullivans have a new boat. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband. E. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. John will loan the maps to Erin' husband. F. The bosses letters are always long and dull. The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. B.PRETEST 1. Beth handled the dog very well today.(9) C. 2. B. B. (7) A.(6) B. C. Sheilas mother lives next door. Identify the part of speech of each word. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows. . Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years. Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock.

51 5. families. We watched the ships come in that night. These h. (8) a. We will watch the ships arrive tonight. my neighbours car. Yourselves e. C. B. What b. Which f. Jim. We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. D. spend. with. B. B. Read the following sentence. Personal pronoun 3. today. Relative pronoun 2. plural 6. and. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. . Cape Breton. Us g. singular 5. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. Each other Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families. C. car belonging to my neighbour. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A. Interrogative pronoun 8. Emphatic pronoun. for. 6. to. 8. Indefinite pronoun 1. Reciprocal pronoun 4. Demonstrative pronoun 7. C. Anne. my neighbour's car. 7. Myself c. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. D. Someone d. Christmas. my neighbours' car. D. left. Reflexive pronoun. Themself 9.

Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. university's women's club. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A.) Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year. C. Ron was late he stopped for me. Rewrite the sentence. C. the camera strap. B. D. A. university women's club.(3) A. Write the tense of the verb. the cameras strap’s 11. C.52 9. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. Do you like chocolate cake white cake? I shovel snow mow lawns. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A. B. 13.(6) early quite almost fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. D. university womens' club. B. changing the verb to the future perfect tense. B. the cameras' strap. 12. . D. 10. university's women club. the camera's strap. C.

Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives. .(5) 2.(5) B. List five (5) linking verbs. 1. C. looked abandonned.(4) 5. Write the tense of the verb.53 14. large and unpainted. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry. 18. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph. D. Monford’s old barn. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity. I heard a great new song on the radio. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. using pronouns as you think are necessary. Use each in a sentence. Their sporty new car. B.(3) 3. 16. Our children don’t like the icy. changing the verb to the present perfect tense. and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant.(3) 17.(6) A.(5) Write three (3) sentences with interjections. Rewrite the sentence. Rewrite the paragraph. cold water. Monica’s sneakers are always dirty and dusty. The ferret belonging to Shirley was named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret. 15. In the following sentences. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley. A. As far as I can see.(6) 4. is too flashy. red and expensive.

54

19.

Choose the correct modifier. Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb.(10) A. Ted damaged his car (bad, badly). B. The entire team did not feel (well, good) after the meal. C. The managers had a (private, privately) meeting. D. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow, slowly). E. He answered those questions (real, really) (well, good). Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs.(5) Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. A. B. C. D. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). Write the tense of the verb. Rewrite the sentence, changing the verb to the past perfect tense, Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following).(8)

20. 21.

22.

A.

B.

Example: A. Cindy writes letters. B. Cindy - NOUN writes - VERB letters - NOUN

23.

Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test.(5)

55

24.

Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences.(10) A. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone. B. While they were away, they visited Len and Jennifer. C. A storm was forecast; therefore, we cancelled our trip. D. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown. E. The man who wrote that book is in town today. F. Your work is good, but it still needs more work. G. They completed the report which we requested, yet we never received it. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences.(12) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim. He had went there several times before. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. Could him and me rent a movie? He sure done good on his last test. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course.

25.

Total 192

56

ANSWER KEY - IAU ENGLISH - PRETEST 1. A. Cheryl’s.....noun, possessive are.....verb than.....conjunction are.....verb. An.....adjective loud.....adjective of.....preposition rattled.....verb windows......noun Are.....verb really.....adverb that......conjunction/pronoun are.....verb here.....adverb Oh no.....interjection will.....verb have.....verb money......noun the.....adjective leaves......verb Each.....pronoun these.....pronoun have.....verb correct......adjective the.....adjective that......conjunction/pronoun changed......verb now......adverb ideas.....noun better.....adjective mine......pronoun extremely......adverb clap.....noun thunder.....noun the.....adjective you.....pronoun happy......adjective they......pronoun coming.....verb Matt.....noun not.....adverb the.....adjective before......conjunction tour......noun Woodstock.....noun of.....preposition would.....verb been.....verb but......conjunction answers......noun you.....pronoun are......verb wrong......adjective

B.

C.

D.

E.

2.

C

B. 8. 6. 6. Answers may vary. b. D. 9. g. A. Answers may vary. a. h. 12. F. 5. A. d. 14. 2.57 3. C. 7. B A C B B Simple past Past progressive Simple future Simple present Present perfect progressive Sheila’s children’s Nicole’s bosses’ mother’s Jones’ weeks’ 3. E. 7. E. 11. 9: e. . B. f. 3. 4 4. 1 c. C. D. A. 5. will complete Simple future will have completed 13. 2. Answers will vary. 10.

....58 15... feel simple present had felt......co-ordinate conjunction. sporty........ new.... .... either/or. 18....correlative conjunction and....adverb really. unpainted. badly.water their.. 23. 19... dusty. old...relative pronoun but. red..... Answers may vary.... 21.car Answers may vary.conjunctive adverb that.adjective slowly. flashy. 17........barn Our.past perfect Answers will vary....sneakers Monford’s.....co-ordinate conjunction 16....co-ordinate conjunction while. 22.children the.... cold..adverb Answers may vary.relative pronoun who...subordinate conjunction therefore... expensive....song the... great.. dirty.. abandonned. Answers will vary.... large........co-ordinate conjunction yet...present perfect a.......... icy.. and...radio Monica’s. 24.....adverb well...adjective (after a linking verb) private... 20. new. lived Simple past have lived..adverb well...

. I bought some of those apples from Jim and him. The driver could have finished this if he had had the time. Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course. He had gone there several times before.59 25. The lawyer will do the work himself. The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport.

ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 .

Everybody. Me. they 4. any. snow. boats. few 3. herself. these 10. birds. she 7. us. muffins. 2. them. blueberries 4. them. sea 7. storms. South Pole. it 4. porch 3. him. daughter. area. dog. Answers will vary. lobster 6. None. She. people. Many. catch Answers will vary. mussels. Mine. car. water B. you. computer. you 5. those 8. weather 2. fishermen. collision. traps. lives. clouds 4. truck 6. it 8. no one 2. that 5. Many B. She. Who 9. What. harbours. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. us. friend 5. we 10.1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns 1. fishermen. shipment. What. her 3. clams. husbands. her. motels 7. villages. Shediac. Saint John. They. Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. life. top. that 2. themselves 6. hill. Them. Japan 9. some 9. you. penguins. Confederation Bridge. passengers. We 7. 1. ship. drivers. boats 5. roads. Stones. wives 9. iceberg 8. weather. All. Northumberland Strait 3. Florida. They. something. lobster 8. night 10. cold 10. . Who. markets. This. Robert. scallops. his 6. hours. He. canneries seafood. cat. ocean. Titantic. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A. 1. couples.

beautiful. If you identified them as adverbs. Perched 5. Early 2. six the. white 5. Had been broken 5. The. Was returning 3. Six. Looked 2. torn. Soon 3. Here. Was bringing 6. Arrived 9. faded 6. Very. light 8. Surprisingly.2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. Threw 4. where. summer. there 5. A. at the beach. These. few. Was enjoying 6. dark. were jogging 4. Will send 3. effectively 7. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. Are calling 2. Sat. A. on the table. Are reading. Has been driving 8. quickly 10. juicy. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. Rides 10. Brought 10. Carefully 4. The. The. you are really thinking. Paper. Hope. lately 8. train. old. Decided 7. Agreed 2. Will guess 9. quiet. Became 8. Cost 7. Really. the steel 10. really Note: for class. that. new. tomorrow 6. the. Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. Walks 9. have finished 10. the. Little. Flew 6. Could stay 7. Yesterday. long. Truly 9. brown. annual 9. hockey. the. dusty 4. Not . Thought 3. flower 7. why. hot dry 2. Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. . Ate 5. Dreamed 8. The. at noon. Learned 4. red Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. delicious 3.

Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. in the guest room 3. Today. beside those. very. In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most . towards home Of her dress. very 5. into a syrup Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. Daily 3.3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. Finally. Brightly 2. accurately 7. Through the park. Quickly. in the mall 2. under the stairs 5. On the porch From maple trees. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. On the bed. Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. Never 8. Relatively 4. 6. quite 6. Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7. Behind the desk. correctly 10. 4. 8. Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John’s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt. With tickets 9. late 9. On airplanes. Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. Generally. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2. On the road. Politely. Not. In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. to Stanley 10. on trains 7. With the long scarf. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie’s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8.

If so 8. Ouch Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. Yuck 2. So ideas 6. And 10. Because ideas 10. That both. And prepositional phrases 4. Carol noun and conjunction I pronoun 4. And words (2 nouns) 3. Although and 2. When 9. Who but 5. Because yet 3. Before ideas 8. And adverbs But ideas 5. And words (2 nouns) 2. Oh no 3. Until 7. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. Our friends in pronoun/adjective noun preposition . And adjectives When ideas 9. After ideas 7. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1.and 6.4 10. No 5. Wow 2. Or which 4... Because Exercise 15: Review 1.

preposition adjective (article) noun verb adverb 5. She was giving a short but interesting lecture pronoun verb verb adjective (article) adjective conjunction adjective noun . We jogged quickly through the dark woods pronoun verb adverb preposition adjective (article) adjective noun 7. The adjective (article) 4.5 travelled to Alberta last year verb preposition noun adjective noun Calgary were surprised when we arrived Their house was built in 1990 noun verb adjective conjunction pronoun verb pronoun/adjective noun verb verb preposition noun 3. tall adjective majestic adjective Rocky Mountains noun majestic adjective are verb a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun No you should not take your camera on your trip Most of the students listened politely interjection 6. pronoun verb adverb verb pronoun/adjective noun preposition pronoun/adjective noun pronoun 8.

13. . We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday pronoun 10. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch Eric and they learned very quickly adjective adjective noun verb adjective noun preposition noun noun conjunction pronoun verb adverb adverb 14. 15. verb adjective (article) adverb adjective noun preposition noun adverb The wind was cold but the sun was really warm Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened Turn at the lights and go two blocks west adjective (article) noun verb adjective conjunction adjective (article) noun verb adverb adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb verb preposition pronoun conjunction pronoun verb verb preposition adjective (article) noun conjunction verb adjective noun adverb 11.6 9. This book cost six dollars adjective noun verb adjective noun 12.

path Black Lake 2. many pieces of. exceptions. Regina 3. sister. a lot of. people. school. arena. a few. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. rules. etc. parcel. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective. the children’s book Elvis’s biggest fans the secretaries’ meeting the bosses’ memos my oldest son’s car the men’s department 4. Ann receives (too much. maple*. stars. cow. several. Mary’s 2. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A. Owen has (many.) assignments to do this week. sale. England 10. several. family. 1. 3. months’ 5. happiness. mill Robin. 4. etc. Sue’s. a large number of. skiing. etc. areas North America 8. (Many. truth. grammar English 7. stores. dog’s 3. leaves. language. carnival. weekend Italy 6. boy’s B. men’s . city Bathurst. France. a large amount of. bubbles Abstract nouns: justice.7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1. moonlight. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. syrup. computer. newspaper. Marsha.) junk mail. grace. hockey*.) deer were shot this season. Bay of Chaleur 4. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary. Alberta 5. street Beresford 9. settlers Gaspé.

A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. Finish your client’s reports before you go to Smith’s tonight. Frank and James’ mail order business is making them a rich man’s fortune. The child’s name is Nora. 7. Martha’s sister was worried about her son’s health. 10. 8. Childs’ car was being serviced at Eaton’s. * Depending on the meaning. My uncles’ farmhouse was struck by during last summer’s storm. 3. The women’s resumés were sent to the companies’ head offices by the bosses’ secretary. Smith was worried about their sons’ health.8 the buses’ schedule the coyote’s barking the cats’ paws two weeks’ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1. 9. The students’ cafeteria will be closed after next week’s graduation. . Have you seen Mel Gibson’s last three movies? 5. Mr. 10. 2. Mrs. 4. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. Mark’s mother lives at my sister’s. his wife’s income was reduced. City Council’s regular meetings are held on Mondays. The girl’s hair had been cut short for the twins’ wedding. That is my neighbour's new car. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. The skateboarders’ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. 7. The sun’s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. Bob’s uncle lives near Sharon’s farm. 6. (two sons) 5. (one client) 9. either would be correct. 3. A March snow storm is sometimes called “winter’s last lament”. Because of the accident. (one son) 4. 6. (two uncles) 2. but the company’s salesman went to my cousin’s (cousins’)* place. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. and the family’s name is Boudreau. Charles’ company owed him two days’ pay.

Chatham. river St. Discover. Easter. nouns 2. 5. Edmundston. adjectives 5. magazine . The following is an example of answers you might have chosen. The nouns in the sentence are C. adverbs 6. Answers will vary. Those are the children's toys. .9 2. place. Halifax. I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. Coca-Cola. Campbellton. Boxing Day. Entertainment. Sports 3. Check your answer with your instructor.Pepsi. Sprite B. Canada Day E. pronouns 3. Truro. conjunctions 8. Fredericton. Consumer Reports. 6. Inside Sports. The eight parts of speech are: 1. Bathurst. Laura is Pam's oldest sister. A noun is a word which names a person. Ferry Road. 4. city Moncton. New Brunswick Day. 7-Up. Salmon River. interjections The proper nouns in the sentence are B. holiday Christmas. friends. C. or quality. town. verbs 4. Thanksgiving. Chatelaine. Nova Scotia. Miramichi River. Labour Day. This is Doris's store. Halifax.Canadian Living. E. Saint John. B. 7. Little River. New River D. thing. prepositions 7. A. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. A. John River. D. Ottawa C. soda pop . Orange Crush. Centennial Bridge. Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive.

collective. abstract. Patrick's Day. singular trouble . D. concrete. abstract*. B. count**. plural. possessive news . abstract. singular men’s . Saint John city D. count. concrete. singular Canada’s . concrete. singular beauty . 9. singular.common. count. singular mice .common. Canada country C. singular March . singular armies . count. January month B.province) A. singular boys’ .common. count. concrete. count. 10.common. C.common. abstract.common. singular . count. concrete. count**. non-count. Parents 8. non-count.common. (Example: New Brunswick .proper.common. non-count.common.common. possessive company . singular jury . no corrections Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair. singular gold . collective. abstract. plural mob . Dr. I had a great time last St.common. count. count. Jupiter planet E.common. count. abstract*. concrete. plural food . concrete. abstract*. church .common. E. concrete. possessive loyalty . abstract. singular surprise . plural. collective. count. count. singular English horn .common. abstract*.common.proper. concrete. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. singular fragrance .common.common. count. Parker doctor A. count. singular/plural grammar . collective.common. abstract. concrete. count. The petals of the flower fell to the floor.10 Illustrated. non-count.

We.2nd person singular 2. hers. her.2nd person singular/plural 4. count. You.common. 4. e. ours. concrete. Cheryl gave her cold to them.g.3rd person plural my . etc. Did you give him his book? 2. count.2nd person singular/plural yours . collective. Third person plural B.1st person singular your . Upper /Lower Canada. their. 1. count. but mine is on the desk. He may have taken her coat. us. First person plural C. themselves 5.3rd person singular feminine you .common.3rd person plural they . herself 3. concrete. Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns . mine.3rd person plural it . me.proper. yourselves 4. Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. possessive Lions’ Club .1st person plural our -1st person plural Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one. Third person singular D. First person singular A.3rd person plural its . my. I saw them eating their lunch myself 3. I.3rd person singular 3. our. your. myself B. She.common. theirs. They . They . singular.11 sunrise . you .1st person singular they . I . singular boy’s .3rd person singular theirs . count. Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1. 5. “Lions’ possessive broccoli . her husband and their children visited your mother. Second person singular F. 1. My sister. singular. abstract. They. French/English Canada.2nd person singular/plural her . Number. Gender A.Person. yours. concrete. them.3rd person plural we . Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection . ourselves 2.

His car is just like a new one. me 9. Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. Al met John and her at the movies. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. Al met she at the movies. he. they. Your. her 3. The pronoun them never goes with a noun. 6.. Although his car is not a new one. The word yous does not exist. 3. those.. they 11. Its. Read the sentence without John . We sent her some flowers. I 10. Her is the right choice. Her gave. his. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. he 6. You 8. 7. you’re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary. and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? 2. he 5. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. so try Al met her at the movies. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his. That doesn’t sound right. To find the right choice. . Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately. 5. Now it’s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select. it’s 2. her 7. I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday. Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1.12 1. 4. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. Your other choice is her. The following is an example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. Mary drove I to the mall. Have your instructor check your answer.. it had not been driven very far when he bought it.. their 12. read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. me 4.

Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. Therefore. The pronoun yourself is singular. Now the other pronoun choice. the second sentence sounds better. The plural version of this pronoun is the right one.) 8. .13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better. two people should be preparing themselves. In this sentence.

. Your instructor will check your answer. Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe.students.. Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A. Them..books 4. Their. I was Jane's best friend.. It.) Jane's best friend was I..... (This is tricky and may not sound right.. Him is the man outside.) 7. They kept the secret from Jack and me. Mine 5. Ourselves. He is the man outside.. They 2.. Only one person received a trophy. 1... Your 4..... It’s means “it is”. His......donations 10. themselves....family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8.... Use the same strategy as in sentence 11.. Her... They kept the secret from I.....managers 3... those.. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1. Their.. 10... Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech. Their. 12... the gender is not clear) . The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun. Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret....but try switching the sentence around...student (3rd person singular.... The man standing outside is he. These.one (Girls is not the antecedent.. B... The obvious choice is the pronoun I....president 2... The second choice makes more sense. and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance. Me was Jane's best friend. Decide which sentence sounds the best. 11......jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5. Her 3.we 9.family (used as a single unit) 6.. His or her...14 9.

Several of the men have paid their dues. This 2. (It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear. Emphatic. 3. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2. 1.. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A. Answers will vary. (Philip bought the present. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors. That 3.. “You deserved this ticket. That Exercise 38: Reflexive. (Donna bought the present. As well. and you should pay it. The audience clapped for the actors’ performance.... Each other reciprocal 3.” 5. Many hens have escaped from their pen. The police officer told the driver. Philip gave her a present.an action he did to himself 2. 9. A few forgot their lunches. 3. Yourself emphatic.. 2. 5.. 5. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1. Norm and Al filled Al’s (or Norm’s) basket with apples from Fredericton. 8. Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale. 4. A few of us have received our marks. those B. These. Norm and Al filled Jim’s basket with apples from Fredericton. No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow. 10. Reciprocal Pronouns 1. Himself reflexive. Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding. Yourself reflexive 6.) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn.) Philip gave her Donna’s present. Myself emphatic .15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary. 6.no one else washed it 4. The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence. a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1. Such 4. 7. None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket... One another reciprocal 5. 4.

. What 3.personal pronoun..... Who 2. Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is... 10. What. refers to person who is speaking 2. She. He..indefinite pronoun..... 1st person singular... 3rd person. (PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B.... 3rd person. themselves.reflexive pronoun.personal pronoun...... singular.. refers to person(s) who are present that. neuter (no gender).interrogative pronoun anyone.. singular. singular or plural..... 3rd person. replaces the noun accident me. feminine any.indefinite pronoun her.demonstrative pronoun.. singular. 1..personal pronoun.16 7. 3rd person singular 3...demonstrative pronoun 4. masculine .... ---- Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1. refers to the noun children it. feminine 5.. feminine herself... 3rd person plural. 3rd person. singular.... you. What 5.personal pronoun.. Which 7. Which 9.. 3rd person singular...personal pronoun. Themselves Herself Himself. (To) whom 10..emphatic pronoun. 8.. singular it...personal pronoun. singular that....... 2nd person. ---6. ---8.. herself Ourselves emphatic reflexive reflexive reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1... 9..personal pronoun.. ----4..

.personal pronoun..relative pronoun.....personal pronoun.interrogative pronoun 3... used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone... 10..demonstrative pronoun...personal pronoun.. 8..17 6. singular or plural That. modifies the noun attempt...personal pronoun. modifies the noun bill them.indefinite pronoun you.personal pronoun.. My...personal pronoun... shows possession.. singular..reflexive pronoun 4..... refers to a plural noun mentioned previously it.... all...relative pronoun. used as a conjunction to join two ideas you....interrogative pronoun both. shows possession.. plural.relative pronoun.... refers to a singular noun mentioned previously. masculine and/or feminine.personal pronoun 2.. masculine....... 3rd person....emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1.personal pronoun themselves.. neuter.....personal pronoun.. masculine and/or feminine they.. refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which... masculine and/or feminine... refers to the person speaking I. 9... refers to pronoun both which refers to the noun choices itself. plural..... singular that. 2nd person... singular or plural their..... they...personal pronoun. who. You. plural. 3rd person...personal pronoun.personal pronoun .. singular...... 3rd person.. 7...personal pronoun.personal pronoun.. used as a conjunction to join two ideas those.. 3rd person. singular. 3rd person. plural....(as above) it... modifies the noun boss that. plural.. shows possession. plural.. no gender.... 3rd person. 1st person. 3rd person.demonstrative pronoun....indefinite pronoun my... singular. singular. refers to the noun choices them.indefinite pronoun......... refers to a “whole” idea (the first attempt was a failure) Which. his. 1st person.. 2nd person... refers to the person speaking I.....

..personal pronoun you. 9.personal pronoun mine.. A.... F..........personal pronoun ourselves. or I...personal pronoun you. H... 8........demonstrative pronoun them.. 1st person plural interrogative pronoun reciprocal pronoun relative pronoun indefinite pronoun (plural) demonstrative pronoun indefinite pronoun (singular) possessive pronoun reflexive pronoun a word that doesn’t exist 2.personal pronoun who.relative pronoun each other...reciprocal pronoun your...demonstrative pronoun Something. .... G Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive..... 10.personal pronoun.. C......demonstrative pronoun We....... E.......personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he.personal pronoun those.. J. B F.. 6..personal pronoun 5....18 that..... K..indefinite pronoun 7.......... or I..reflexive pronoun what... possessive We. who.. Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1....emphatic pronoun yourselves...interrogative pronoun I.......relative pronoun that..

Answers will vary. jumped..action ...... singular.. singular yourself.demonstrative pronoun.reflexive pronoun. B.... hit... themselves Answers will vary. correctly completes the sentence.. its h. B. 3rd person.linking feared. Few...reflexive pronoun.relative pronoun themselves.. singular something. a..action is.. C. those c.... D.... were. 7. me f.... 9..... A. 6. 7.. refers to companies Who...action watched...action 2.linking will be.. 3.indefinite pronoun..interrogative pronoun anything......linking 6. himself e. were. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary..... B...... your i. is correct b.... Exercise 43: Action Verbs A.action 4..... plural Those. Answers will vary.linking 10. which g. singular this. smashed...demonstrative pronoun... she d.. him 4. plural mine.indefinite pronoun.. their j. was.19 3... plural.. is incorrect D.. Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1.....personal pronoun. A. 5... shows possession which........ 1st person..indefinite pronoun E.linking 8.. 5. 8.

. 13. I will not be going.linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary......... coughed.. Mitchell has lived here all his life... squeaked.. 5.. 15. He must have taken my jacket by mistake.linking became. 7..... 3.....action publishes.. 6.. 4... slammed..... drove.action 8.. fell.. 7. were... broke....action 6. 8.linking 2. 11. 15......action felt.20 11.. smells...... dances. 9.....action 12....linking 10. We played ball against their team Saturday. looked....action tasted. 9..... Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs looks...action 4.action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. felt. That would have confused anyone! Would you please flip the hamburgers? There was a good show on TV last night..action SENTENCE MAIN VERB drive taken played confused flip was lived going eaten HELPING VERB(S) (IF ANY) will must have ---------would have would ------has will be should have 1.action drove... 13..linking believed...action sings... 14...action 12.action howl.. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter.. tastes..action 14.. The men should have eaten that by now. ... 3. 2. 5.. not after the last trip... Close.linking know.

present progressive C. He might have consulted a doctor.. 3... 11... He has talked to the Lions’ Club before... 12.future progressive I. B. 14. B. has been kicking..simple future D.. 11. Answers may vary.. will kick.. The couple will be needing even more room soon. Sue may never have been given that letter.. Answers may vary..past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. has kicked......simple present B. 5... 8. 2.... Answers may vary...future perfect G... Have you ever heard such nonsense. had been learning... broken heard has have consulted might have given agree learn may have been shall can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses A. A... was giving. D.. C. A.. had kicked. 12. 13.. will be leaving. 10.. We have been thinking about you lately.... I shall never agree to his proposal... Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs . kicks.present perfect progressive E. Vanessa was signing her lease. 7. They will have washed the laundry by then. A child can easily learn this song.. Answers may vary.. 4. 9. Answers may vary...21 10. The washing machine has broken down. It had been snowing for three days. is kicking.past progressive J. 15.past perfect H....present perfect F. 6.. will have kicked.

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1-3. Answers may vary. 4. A. Present progressive B. Simple past C. Present perfect D. Future perfect E. Future progressive F. Past perfect G. Simple past

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Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1. Passive 2. Active 3. Active 4. Passive 5. Passive 6. Active 7. Passive 8. Passive 9. Passive 10. Passive 11. Active 12. Active 13. Active 14. Passive 15. Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word’s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2. Will show 3rd person plural simple future active voice 4. Had been asked 3rd person singular past perfect passive voice

3.

Have eaten 2nd person (singular or plural) present perfect active voice Has been asking 3rd person singular present perfect progressive active voice

5.

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The committee had asked

Gander. Pronouns. wings its landed 2. Tom everything. her rides 3.25 6. bike. ice. Will be served 3rd person singular simple future passive voice “The waiter” will serve Shall be seeing 1st person singular future progressive active voice 7. planes. that. and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1. Walks 3rd person singular simple present active voice Will have been playing 3rd person singular future perfect progressive active voice 9 b) Was destroyed 3rd person singular (neuter) simple past passive voice “The vet” destroyed 10 b) Are 3rd person plural simple present active voice 12. Was bitten 3rd person singular. 14. Had been repainted 3rd person plural. is 15. . office my. Spoke 3rd person singular simple past active voice 8. them says. 9 a). simple past passive voice The dog bit the boy 10 a) Are 3rd person plural (m or f) simple present active voice 11. neuter past perfect passive voice “The painter” had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. Am doing 1st person singular present progressive active voice Is dating 3rd person singular present progressive active voice 13. sister.

.. 3rd person. possessive. singular gave. simple past.. common. concrete.... singular 4. present progressive. 1st person singular Marion’s.. and Verbs 1... concrete. collective is discussing. and Verbs 1... plural 5.. concrete.. singular..pronoun.. active voice Exercise 59:Nouns.pronoun.. possessive choices. singular..pronoun. 3rd person.. singular.noun. 9. demonstrative... 3rd person... singular 2. possessive.. simple present.... concrete. common. jury.. men company. those us my. 7...noun. concrete. plural. possessive....verb.. plural these.pronoun.noun. 10. personal.. common. common.noun.. I.verb.verb.noun.. 3rd person. personal.. concrete. 1st person... simple future. parts sister. common. plural ...noun. herself something..verb. Your.. concrete lives..noun...pronoun.. each they. concrete. 5.. 6... 1st person singular am. singular..noun.pronoun. plural will sell. personal...pronoun. active voice my...26 4.. Kevin.. singular or plural.noun. concrete. personal.. plural. singular. 8. possessive recipes.. Aunt Gladys..noun. linking. passive voice their. present progressive. chefs... Spanish problems airport ---results both. 3rd person. simple present decision.... 2nd person... common........... personal.. mother’s... concrete. possessive decision.... active voice its.. each other you everyone. concrete... active voice me. they were buys was teaching should be done might find were thinking is finished.. 3rd person... proper.. common. 1st person singular. will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. singular card..... all..verb......pronoun... Pronouns..... singular 3. indefinite. personal.verb. 3rd person...... proper. Pronouns.. singular. plural. proper.noun.. singular 2.. singular are being asked. common.

. concrete... non-count....pronoun.. action 3rd person.. common..verb. 3rd. his. active voice people’s. action.pronoun. singular.verb. common. seem..... personal.pronoun...noun.noun.. proper will have finished........ common... personal..... singular Oprah. active voice beach... simple future..noun.verb. singular/plural will need. 2nd person..... 2nd person... personal.. present perfect. plural honesty. 3rd person.noun. common.verb. concrete.... past progressive...verb. singular accident... masculine smelled.pronoun. common......pronoun..pronoun. active voice He.verb.. concrete..noun.noun. simple past... singular. 6. 3rd.. action. proper.....verb.. active voice TV. active voice bread... 3rd person. concrete.noun. 1st person. 3rd person. concrete. singular is talking. future perfect. concrete.. personal. singular..... 2nd person. 2nd person... singular.... concrete. common.. linking. possessive attitudes.verb.. personal.. 3rd person. singular has changed. past perfect. active voice course. common....... singular.. 4.noun. personal.... masculine.. singular June. singular/plural have written... plural. plural were walking... plural. 1st person. 3rd person. singular money.. 8. possessive girlfriend.. concrete.. past progressive. 3rd person singular was going. non-count. 3rd person. common.. proper.verb.. common.noun. personal. simple present Luke.noun. 7.. singular...noun.. concrete..noun. He.. active voice You. singular.. singular/plural.. abstract.. active voice letter.. singular. masculine. concrete. 3rd. concrete... proper We. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns 1........ singular/plural. plural. singular He. masculine had watched. singular. singular. common.noun.... active voice his.noun. common. concrete......... singular you. present progressive...27 3.pronoun.... present perfect.. 9.. common..... singular Tony. used as an adjective .....noun. 5.pronoun. common. concrete. personal...verb. singular phone....noun... 10.noun. singular hour. 3rd person... singular...

noun.... active voice herself. concrete.verb.... plural were made. count..verb.. active voice storm. 2nd. personal.noun. present perfect. plural. plural were eating...... common... plural. active voice their... active voice Sackville.noun. past progressive. common.... concrete ... concrete.. singular Those. concrete.pronoun. common. action. concrete. 3rd.noun.noun. concrete. 8.. singular.. 3...... count.. plural were. What... action.. simple past. night.. demonstrative. concrete.verb.. personal.verb.pronoun.. singular. plural colours. active voice survey. concrete. count.. indefinite. action.noun... action.pronoun...noun... singular/plural.28 2.. singular watered. concrete... 3rd. singular. 3rd. singular. plural... 3rd. singular.... plural are being changed. action...noun. simple past. 10.. concrete. singular Liz.pronoun.. 7. common...... concrete.. common....verb. concrete... 3rd person... simple past. action... count. 3rd.. 3rd singular afternoon. 3rd. concrete.... possessive relatives. common. action.... personal... plural.noun.. plural Cuba... 9...... proper. non-count.verb. mouth.. plural come. proper Many.. singular porch.noun. active voice It... count. count. possessive lunch..verb..... simple past reservations.. proper. 3rd. 6... 3rd... linking.... past perfect.. 4...pronoun..noun... singular.. common.verb... demonstrative. common. concrete..noun. simple past.pronoun.. passive decorator.. 3rd person. 3rd.... common. concrete. linking verb. common..noun.noun..noun.. singular heat.. 3rd person. feminine drove.verb.. feminine Central Hospital.pronoun. 5. passive voice these. plural. count. 3rd. reflexive.. 3rd person. proper. common.verb...pronoun.... simple present.. singular Her....noun..... singular. plural... personal. singular approached. common....pronoun.... interrogative has seen.... singular They. active voice Will complete..verb.. singular grew. singular/plural.. simple future.. present progressive...

the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. Mexican food 9. boring. a. rough. Karl’s*. and one older . little girl big. an. hockey*. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. this trip several days 8. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. summer* clothes 14. two. light* bulb 5. juicy apples 13. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. ragged string dusty. a. sparkling. old. Tim’s* house 10. A few boys knew that they were lost. sweet icing the. and the hills were gentle. The. rusty car my space 3. depressing day 6. Exercise 62: Adjectives The young hikers walked through the dark woods. After two long hours. lovable cats the. sweet. uneven road 2. big spoon 4. spicy. the child the. The weather was warm. six people 7. dull skates 15. these parcels 12. they can be identified as adjectives. blue eyes 11. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun.29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1. Shelley. light. sugary. our cousins huge. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. some. The. those.

Why.. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been...interrogative adverb 4.how 3. casually..........when very. The sentence describes how she behaves. 10. thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3.when 2......where 7. lit a huge crackling fire. daily modifies the verb review 4.. there.... very modifies the adjective happy 6.how later....how casually now.. They set up their canvas tents.how good never.. yesterday..when really..how exciting not... and ate their supper. really modifies the adjective tired 10. sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7.... never.how efficiently extremely.... and Adverbs 1. Adjectives...how quickly efficiently.... Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags... where. politely modifies the verb asked 2.when carefully...... An adverb is needed to ...... Jensen’s chicken farm.30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook.. deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8.. fast modifies the verb travel..... Well.how very... bright and narrow.when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs.when important more...... 9.. 8. They weren’t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1.interrogative adverb 5.. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr.. piercing the inky darkness.negative almost.. they saw a beam of light. With relief. tightly modifies the verb packed 5.. leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1...how useful 6.. very modifies the adverb fast 9....how too....... quite..

Seriously is an adverb. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. 3. Brightly. 8. Simple is an adjective. real is an adjective. 6. Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. Calm is an adjective. 4. Gradual is an adjective. 13. 15. Although well is usually an adverb. Quickly is an adverb. Taste is a linking verb. 11. Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. More difficult (comparing two things) 6. Sad. Unique. awfully is an adverb. . An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. More. An adverb is required to modify the adjective. serious is an adjective. is the best choice. Good. Seriously. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. Good is an adjective. Worse (comparing two things) 5. Comparing two people 2. 14. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. Gradual. 5. quick is an adjective. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. Really. Comparing more than two 7. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone. Well. an adverb. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. Smaller. Well. Eldest. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond. 9. simply is an adverb. Quickly. Use the adjective good to complete it. Slowly. 12. Simple. Badly is an adverb. Calm. gradually is an adverb. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice. so well.31 2. bad is an adjective. Really is an adverb. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver’s test. Badly. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone’s health. An adverb is required to describe how he putted. Awful is an adjective. Awful. calmly is an adverb. An adverb modifies a verb. 7. modify the verb behaves. Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. sadly is an adverb. More rapidly 3. Sad is an adjective. 10.

under 5. at 8. for 10. of 3. to. near. for. around 7. along. B. 1. in 4. with. Among. beside. down. in. with . of. of (at the end of) 2. in.32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. for. with 6. on. Answers will vary. to. by (on top of) 9. at. in. For.

....... for the conference for the best costume..modifies the noun trees down the hill... 3.. For shells and pebbles. for pictures...adverb...where at noon.........adverb...where with the sore ear..adjective..adverb..adverb...adjective........... by my son (on top of the hill) in your group.......modifies the noun houses of the hill....adverb.......... in 1960....... to the clown..adverb.. 7.adverb.........when beside the store.adjective..... 1. 6...where around the corner..modifies the noun houses on top.adverb..modifies the noun cat to the door... around the corner With the sore ear..... with the hornets’ nest down the hill.adjective....modifies the noun end among the rubble......... of the day (at the end of the day) among the rubble.modifies the noun pictures in this store.adverb.. D....adverb........adjective. of her mother and father in this store in the world.... 5. . 7. in 1960.. 8.....why along the beach..adjective.how 2.modifies the noun top on top of the hill.where for pictures. with the funny hat for shells and pebbles. 4.. Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition.... of the hill....where with the hornets’ nest...when of the day.. 6..adverb.. 9.......when by my son.... 5. 8. 4...adverb..where at the end. on top..where in the world...33 C. along the beach........ at noon beside the store..adjective.why of her mother and father.. under my son’s bed near the trees.adverb.... 1...... 10.... to the door....where near the trees.. 2......................... at the end.adjective......can be considered as one prepositional phrase. 3...adverb..modifies the noun socks under my son’s bed....

...............modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn......adjective.adverb.............adjective.adverb........modifying the noun front in front of me..why from the day care..........when .........34 9..modifying the noun north 4.. 10.....adverb...........adverb....modifying the pronoun all at the radio station.adverb............adjective..when of the staff...adverb.adjective..... On Fridays.where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store.adjective......how long in the heat.......adverb.....where in front..where...where 7......adverb.......where 6....where of the city limits.....modifies the noun women for the conference...modifying the noun children at the church.where in the closets...adverb...adjective.modifies the noun theme for the best costume...... where 2......adjective.......modifying the noun station at the old mill....where of me..........modifying the noun day care around the block.how.....modifies the noun prize to the clown.modifying the noun men for two hours..where 5.......adverb. how with the funny hat......adverb......where 10.. during the night.. After his graduation.......adjective........adverb.where 8...adverb..modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1............adverb................adjective...modifying the noun lady into the line.when of the water...where to the north..adverb...where 3.adverb. with big hat..adjective...adjective......adverb...modifying the noun rest from the basement..adjective.................adjective.. on the roof..... in the kitchen..adverb.....adjective. near the mall..modifying the noun women under the tables. In the middle...where of a big spacious lawn........................adverb.. Because of the storm.. in your group.....adverb.adjective....

before B. 12. 4. why 8. how 11.adjective.... . she has always been very polite. 24.. 4. but 2. nor neither. as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. Mark knows more (than I do about that case).adjective.. I wonder (why they are leaving so early). 25. neither. because 17. nor meanwhile but so since where than before because although why than 3.... after 5.. 19.modifying the noun graduation for a job.modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1... 5. 9. 22. or 4. local citizens rescued it. (Since I first met Sheila and her)... although 14. 16.35 in 1992. 9. however 8. 13.. 6.. or. 5. yet 14. 9... but also 10. 8.adjective.. but I don’t have a map. 6. and 7. 13. not only. 7. 21.. both.. unless 23. and.. not only. and 12. I won’t be able to go (even though I have the money). 2. and 6. (After the maple trees were damaged).. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas.. 10. 3.. but also either. After the whale beach itself. 10..modifying the noun ad in Manitoba.. even though since whether if while how as if after He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 3. 18. It isn’t certain (whether they will come or not). 11. 15. they were cut down.. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). 15. I know (where they have hidden the treasure). if 20... because 2. 7. 1.

You just answered my questions (before I asked them). The adjective (article) pioneers noun settle verb quickly adverb on preposition the adjective (article) small adjective farms noun around preposition . I don’t know (how I will get there). they are out of the playoffs. Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. who 8. (Before they read the book). 12. In sentence 12. (After he won the gold medal). dogs noun make verb good adjective pets noun for preposition young adjective children noun 3. Exercise 74: Review A 1. the students asked (if they could stay). the wind was cool. Les is five inches taller (than I am). 17. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). 9. 16. (Because you were late). (Unless the Leafs win this game). that 2. 24. 25. he turned pro. who whom that 2. Compare this with. 21. 20. 18. you missed it Thieves broke in (while we were away). that 10. that 4. 14. 23. He always talks (as if he were an expert). they fixed it themselves After the lecture. The roads were slippery because of the snow. 13. he couldn’t turn it. 19. (If you are short). 6. 22.36 11. which 5. 15. who 7. you can’t reach that cupboard. after is a preposition. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). Compare the use of after. that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. (Although it was quite sunny). Why? (Although he is stronger).

7. your ancestors lived beside the sea mine lived near Moncton Those big chunky pots sell for nine dollars so you can buy several of them adjective (pronoun) 4.37 Gloucester noun 3. Does he often go to the beach during the summer I do not think their problems now because I do not have time verb (auxiliary) pronoun adverb verb (main) preposition adjective noun preposition adjective noun pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective/pronoun noun adverb conjunction pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) noun 5. adjective adjective noun verb preposition adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb (aux) verb (main) pronoun preposition pronoun 8. Casually adverb the adjective thieves noun surveyed verb the adjective neighbourhood noun until conjunction they pronoun Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he pronoun verb adjective/pronoun noun conjunction noun conjunction pronoun . noun verb preposition adjective noun preposition verb preposition noun adjective/pronoun 6.

He has always been a really excellent hockey coach pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective adverb adjective adjective/noun noun . Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring verb adjective adjective noun noun adverb verb adjective preposition noun 10.38 spotted the right house 9. noun preposition adjective/pronoun noun verb adverb adjective noun adjective adjective adjective noun verb adjective conjunction adjective preposition adjective adjective/noun noun 14. The students in this program are very hard workers The frail old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors’ home adjective 12. 13. did not verb (aux) adverb Mark noun smelled verb the adjective skunk noun and conjunction left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb She believes in his ability pronoun verb preposition adjective/pronoun noun 11.

Fred noun 2. sat verb on preposition the adjective fence noun and conjunction ate verb his adjective/pronoun lunch noun while conjunction the adjective others noun went verb into preposition town noun 3. I had been studying for three hours and pronoun verb (aux) verb (aux) verb (main) preposition adjective noun conjunction 4. Usually the chairs were placed near the windows but today they are in a circle Very quickly they finished their work adverb adjective noun verb (aux) verb (main) preposition adjective noun conjunction adverb pronoun verb preposition adjective noun adverb adverb pronoun verb adjective/pronoun noun .39 15. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective/pronoun noun preposition noun preposition adjective/pronoun noun Exercise 75: Review B 1.

After they had mowed the lawn they bought lunch conjunction pronoun verb verb adjective noun pronoun verb noun 7.40 I still do not know it 5. They had been writing their essays before they went there Because they have cashed their cheques they have some money 9. 6. 8. Although the storm was conjunction adjective noun verb very intense the damage was minor Because of her problems Sue often seeks my adverb adjective adjective adjective verb adjective preposition adjective/pronoun noun noun adverb verbs adjective/pronoun . Since the accident the victims have recovered pronoun adverb verb (aux) adverb verb (main) pronoun pronoun verb verb verb adjective/pronoun noun conjunction pronoun verb adverb conjunction pronoun verb verb pronoun noun pronoun verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun adjective noun verb verb 10.

advice noun The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old of hers Where did you hide the candy which I bought adjective adjective noun conjunction verb pronoun noun verb adjective adjective preposition pronoun adverb verb pronoun verb adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb 13. Miles’ brother is extremely intelligent even if he noun/adjective noun verb adverb adjective conjunction pronoun . Ouch that knife is so sharp that 16. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs pronoun verb conjunction adjective adjective/noun noun verb pronoun conjunction pronoun verb pronoun interjection adjective noun verb adverb adjective conjunction 14. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before adverb adverb verb pronoun adverb verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun adverb 12.41 quite well 11. 15.

42 I cut myself badly pronoun verb pronoun adverb can not pass those provincial exams 18. Finally his clever tricks failed verb adverb verb adjective adjective noun adverb adjective/pronoun adjective noun verb 17. . Hey Eric did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly interjection noun verb pronoun verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun preposition adjective noun adjective adjective noun verb verb adjective adverb adverb 19.

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