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Industrial Communication Systems 3.3
Field bus: standards Bus de terrain standard Standard-Feldbusse
2005 April, HK
Prof. Dr. H. Kirrmann ABB Research Center, Baden, Switzerland
Field busses: Standard field busses
3.1 Field bus types Classes Physical layer Networking 3.2 Field bus operation Centralized - Decentralized Cyclic and Event Driven Operation
3.3 Field bus standards International standard(s) HART ASI Interbus-S CAN Profibus LON Ethernet Automotive Busses
Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.3 - 2
Which field bus ? • A-bus • Arcnet • Arinc 625 * • ASI • Batibus • Bitbus * • CAN • ControlNet • DeviceNet • DIN V 43322 • DIN 66348 (Meßbus) • FAIS • EIB • Ethernet • Factor • Fieldbus Foundation • FIP • Hart • IEC 61158 • IEEE 1118 (Bitbus) • Instabus * • Interbus-S • ISA SP50 • IsiBus • IHS • ISP • J-1708 • J-1850 • LAC * • LON • MAP • Master FB • MB90 • MIL 1553 • MODBUS * • MVB • P13/42 • P14 • Partnerbus • P-net * • Profibus-FMS • Profibus-PA • Profibus-DP • PDV * • SERCOS • SDS • Sigma-i • Sinec H1 • Sinec L1 • Spabus • Suconet • VAN • WorldFIP • ZB10 • ...
Standard Field Busses 3.3 - 3
Worldwide most popular field busses Bus CANs Profibus (3 kinds) User* 25% 26% Application Sponsor
Automotive, Process control CiA, OVDA, Honeywell Process control Siemens, ABB
Plant bus Manufacturing
all Phoenix Contact
Fieldbus Foundation, HART
Building Systems obsolete point-to-point
*source: ISA, Jim Pinto (1999)
Sum > 100%, since firms support more than one bus
European market in 2002: 199 Mio €, 16.6 % increase (Profibus: 1/3 market share)
**source: Elektronik, Heft 7 2002 Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.3 - 4
10. status Intrinsically safe Twisted pair (reuse 4-20 mA) Max distance 1200m 10 100 1000 10.000 Sensor Bus Simple devices Low cost Bus powered (?) Short messages (bits) Fixed configuration Not intrinsically safe Twisted pair Max distance 500m 1000 frame size (bytes) Data Networks Workstations. milliseconds Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.. motors $$ Medium cost Non bus powered Messages: values. files) Not intrinsically safe Coax cable. PCs Higher cost Not bus powered Long messages (e-mail. fiber Max distance miles H oney we ll PV 6000 SP 6000 100 A U TO 1 10 High Speed Fieldbus PLC. robots..5 .Different classes of field busses One bus type cannot serve all applications and all device types efficiently.000 source: ABB poll time. valves Medium cost Bus-powered (2 wire) Messages: values.3 . status Not intrinsically safe Shielded twisted pair Max distance 800m Low Speed Fieldbus Process instruments. remote I/O. DCS.
20 mA current loop fluid The device transmits its value by means of a current loop Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.6 .3 ..Field device: example differential pressure transducer 4.
. allowing to transmit signal and power through a single pair of wires. Simple devices are powered directly by the residual current (4mA).the conventional. proportional to the measured value.7 . Remember: 4-20mA is basically a point-to-point communication (one source) Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3..3 . while 0 mA signals an error (wire break) The voltage drop along the cable and the number of readers induces no error.20 mA conductor resistance The transducer limits the current to a value between 4 mA and 20 mA. 4.4-20 mA loop . analog standard (recall) The 4-20 mA is the most common analog transmission standard in industry sensor flow transducer i(t) = f(v) reader 1 reader 2 voltage source 10V.24V RL3 RL1 R1 RL2 RL4 R2 R3 RL4 i(t) = 0.
20 mA loops 2005 April.2 HART Data over 4.3.. HK .3.
9 .Principle HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) was developed by Fisher-Rosemount to retrofit 4-to-20mA current loop transducers with digital data communication. without affecting the average analogue signal. ADSL technology was not available in 1989. HART uses Bell 202 modem technology.but sufficient. at the time HART was designed Transmission of device characteristics is normally not real-time critical Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.HART .3 . its rate is 1200 Bd . HART uses low frequencies (1200Hz and 2200 Hz) to deal with poor cabling. HART modulates the 4-20mA current with a low-level frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) sine-wave signal.
5 command bytecount 1 1 [status] data data checksum 1  0. a hand-held device Master Request Slave Indication time-out Response Confirmation Hart frame format (character-oriented): preamble 5.25 (slave response) (recommended) Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3..Protocol Hart communicates point-to-point.20 (xFF) start 1 address 1.10 ..3 . e. under the control of a master.g.HART ..
Commands Universal commands (mandatory): identification. primary measured variable and unit (floating point format) loop current value (%) = same info as current loop read current and up to four predefined process variables write short polling address sensor serial number instrument manufacturer. EEPROM control. diagnostics.HART . model.3 . trimming. serial number. tag.11 . … Common practice (optional) time constants. range. range limits. descriptor.… total: 44 standard commands.… Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3. plus user-defined commands Transducer-specific (user-defined) calibration data.
20mA devices come equipped with HART today About 40 Mio devices are sold per year. more info: http://www.3 .org/ http://www..HART .asp Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.com/default.Importance Practically all 4.12 .thehartbook.hartcomm.
HK .3 ASI Small installation bus 2005 April.3.3.
3 .two wires for data and power • insulation piercing connectors .valve terminals .Sensor bus Wiring ASI = Actor-Sensor Interface Very simple sensor bus for building automation.sensors. transmitting mostly binary signals • mechanically coded flat cable .simple & safe .14 . actuators . combining power and data on the same wires.protection class up to IP67. even after disconnecting • directly connected slaves .electrical modules etc.ASI (1) . D0 = sensor 1 one connection D1 = sensor 2 D2 = actuator 1 AS-Interface Slave IC 1 module enclosure D3 = actuator 2 P0 Watchdog energy up to 4 sensors or/and 4 actuators vampire-connector Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.
) automatic address numbering via bus connection master To Slave 1 To Slave 2 To Slave 31 To Slave 1 master calls slave response Slave 1 Slave 2 Slave 31 Slave 1 Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.ASI (2) .15 .Data sheet master-slave principle up to 31 slaves on one line cycle time < 5 ms each slave can have up to 4 digital inputs + 4 digital outputs additional 4 parameter bits / slave Max. 248 digital Inputs and Outputs controller also possible: analogue I/O (but ..3 .
16 .3 .Topography star controller line controller branch lines controller tree controller Master Master Master Slave Slave Slave Slave Master Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave Slave unshielded 2-wire cable data and power on one cable extension: 100 m (300 m with extender) Industrial Automation no terminating resistor necessary free tree structure of network protection class up to IP67 Standard Field Busses 3.ASI (3) .
4 Interbus-S Discrete Manufacturing bus 2005 April.3.3. HK .
3 .Topology Master BA remote "bus" (ring) 400 m between devices optical fibres also available localbus (flat cable) BA BC IO IO IO 5-wire loop (2 wire.18 . includes power) bus coupler Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.Interbus-S (2) .
Analysis + + standard in CENELEC + 1700 products. 375.3 . 13 km) + good response time + conformance test – market centered on manufacturing – limited number of variables (4096 bits) – ring structure sensitive to disruptions – sensitive to misplacement – clumsy and slow message service – medium user community – few and costly tools – strong ties to Phoenix Contact Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3. 270 manufacturers.Interbus-S (4) .000 applications + good experience in field wiring (intelligent wiring bar) + easy to engineer + easy to program (IEC 61131) + far extension (400m .19 ..
HK .3.5 CAN Automotive bus 2005 April.3.
DeviceNet (profiles) comes free with processor (Intel: 82527.21 Industrial Automation . no session. Philips: 82C200. implicit presentation CAL. IEC 61158-x (?) dominant-recessive (fibre. Siemens: SAB-C167 Standard Field Busses 3. 8xC592.Data Sheet Supporters Standard Medium Medium redundancy Connector Distance Repeaters Encoding User bits in frame Mastership Mastership redundancy Link layer control Upper layers Application Protocols Chips Automotive industry. Honeywell. 8xC196CA. bit-wise arbitration none (use device redundancy) connectionless (command/reply/acknowledgement) no transport. open collector).CAN (1) . Motorola: 68HC05X4. 1000m @ 25kb/s (B) unspecified (useless) NRZ.3 . bit stuffing 64 multi-master. Intel/Bosch. 400m @ 100kb/s (B). ISO11898 (only drivers). ISO 11898 none unspecified 40m @ 1 Mb/s (A). 12-bit bisection. 68HC705X32. Allen-Bradley SAE (automotive). SDS.
AB. - + strong market presence. come free with many embedded controllers + application layer definition + application layer profiles + bus analyzers and configuration tools available + Market: industrial automation. SDS) – strongly protected by patents (Bosch) – interoperability questionable (too many different implementations) – small data size and limited number of registers in the chips. – no standard message services. automobiles Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3. Honeywell. DeviceNet. – limited product distance x rate (40 m x Mbit/s) – sluggish real-time response (2. Nr 1 in USA (> 12 Mio chips per year) + supported by user organisations ODVA.22 . + numerous low cost chips.CAN (2) .Analysis + ”Unix" of the fieldbus world.3 .5 ms) – non-deterministic medium access – several incompatible application layers (CiA.
HK .3.3.6 Profibus The process bus 2005 April.
Disappearing Standard Field Busses 3. (chemical industry) Physical Layer according to international standard IEC 61158-2. Can be used for extensive and complex communication tasks.24 Industrial Automation .Family PROFIBUS-DP (Distributed Processing) Designed for communication between programmable logic controllers and decentralized I/O. Academic approach (layer 7 services based on MMS. basically under the control of a single master Replaces parallel signal transmission with 24 V or 0 to 20 mA by “ intelligent DIN rail” PROFIBUS-PA (Process Automation) Permits data communication and power over the bus using 2-wire Connects sensors and actors on one common bus line even in intrinsically-safe areas. PROFIBUS-FMS (Field Messaging Specification) General-purpose for peer-to-peer communication at the cell level.Profibus .3 . ISO 9506).
3 .Profibus .Stack FMS FMS device profiles DP DP-profiles PA PA-profiles DP basic functions Fieldbus Messaging Specification IEC interface RS 485 Fibre optics IEC 61158-2 Upper layers Link Phy Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.25 .
HD = 4 none under normal conditions not supported by the controller DP: central master. 2048 bits in messages •SDN •SDA •SRD •CSRD Send Data with No acknowledgement Send Data with Acknowledgement Send and Request Data with reply Cyclic Send and Request Data with reply Standard Field Busses 3. FMS: UART 11 bit/character CRC8..Data sheet Topography: Medium: bus •TWP @ 31. not periodic) 8 bit device address up to 512 bits in Process Data.26 Signaling: Integrity Collision Medium redundancy Medium Access Communication chip Processor integration Cycle Time Address space Frame size (useful data) Link Layer Services Industrial Automation .25 kbits/s (intrinsic safety).3 . delimiters DP.Profibus .5 Mbit/s (12 Mbit/s) (DP) PA: Manchester II. 500 kbit/s (FMS) •RS 485 or fibres @ 1. 10 devices (PA) •RS 485 @ 19. preamble.2 kbit/s.2) FMS. cyclic polling (see: 3.1. PA: token passing dedicated chips for 12 Mbit/s can use UART interface on most processors directly depends on number of slaves (cyclic.
12 Mbit/s).all connections must be set up beforehand (except network management): tools required. 80186.Profibus .Analysis MS-DOS of the fieldbus world Standardized by CENELEC (EN 50 170-3) – Exists in four incompatible versions (FMS. Extended Application Layer (FMS) and Network Management (SM7. NEC V25.000 applications. Wide support by Siemens (Profibus DP is backbone of Simatic S7) – Most products do not implement all the and active Profibus User Organization Profibus functionality.3 . – Little used outside of Europe (identified in USA / Asia with Siemens/Germany ) Standard Field Busses 3. questionable outside of one manufacturer 200. I-tec). PA.5 Mb/s). > 2 Mio devices – Additional protocols exist within Siemens Low entry price (originally simple UART – Weak physical layer (RS 485 at 1. protocol at 500 kbit/s with RS 485 drivers) to remedy this. interoperability is (PNO) with >1000 companies. a 12 Mb/s version has been Several implementations based on most developed (does not significantly improve commons processors and micro controllers response time. DP. evolving specifications. Development tools available (Softing. but limits distance). 68302). (8051. SM2) Market: industry automation – Complex configuration .27 + Industrial Automation .
3.7 LonWorks The building automation bus 2005 April. HK .3.
400 exchanges/s @ 1.com) Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3. UTP p-persistent CSMA/CD 3 ms (single call/reply). transformer-coupling UTP 100 Ohm.echelon. =1 against sync slips) full 7-layer stack programmed in Neuron-C LONMark group (www. @ 78 kbit/s. HD = 2 against steps. Hitachi) none Differential Manchester for STP. limited by -55dB radio @ 4.25 Mbit/s 300m.3 . transformer-coupling reduced to 100m with free topology power line carrier @ 9.9 kbit/s Neuron chip (Motorola.LON (1) .6 kbit/s.Data sheet Topography: Medium: Communication chip Medium redundancy: Signalling: Medium access: Response Time Address space Frame size (useful data) Integrity Higher-level protocols Application Support bus STP 150 Ohm @ 1.25 Mbit/s 32385 stations up to 1824 bits CRC16.29 . 1300m.
CRC error detection MAC sublayer predictive p-persistent CSMA: collision avoidance.Stack Application network variable exchange. learning routers Link Layer connectionless frame transfer. application-specific RPC. medium-specific protocols (e. optional priority and collision detection Physical Layer multiple-media. etc. domain-wide broadcast. loop-free topology.LON (2) .3 . unicast and multicast Authentication server Transaction Control Sublayer common ordering and duplicate detection Network Layer connectionless. data encoding.30 . spread-spectrum) Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3. network management Session Layer request-response Transport Layer acknowledged and unacknowledged. no segmentation.g. framing..
3 . – no conformance testing – can only be accessed through Echelon tools – strong ties to Echelon (net profit in 01Q1: 20’000 $) Standard Field Busses 3. access to IEC 1131. products. + standard device description (LonMarks). networking. – cannot be used in a fast control loop such as drives or substation protection. + only fieldbus to provide authentication.LON (3) . + only fieldbus in industry (except for IEC's TCN) which supports interoperability of networks of different speeds. – sluggish response time: > 7ms per variable.Analysis + "Macintosh" of the fieldbus world - + several media. + market: building automation Industrial Automation . + standard network variable types definition (SNVT).31 + low chip costs (10$). plug-and-play access. protocols. support. tools and documentation. starter kits. – non-deterministic medium access (p-persistent CSMA) – low data integrity due to the use of differential manchester encoding and lack of frame delimiter / size field. but a LON subprint costs about 500$. + easy.
John J.3. Roese.8 Ethernet The universal bus To probe further: "Switched LANs".3. ISBN 0-07-053413-b "The Dawn of Fast Ethernet" 2005 April. McGrawHill. HK .
com) « Industrial Ethernet » new cabling: 9-pin D-shell connectors « direct connection to Internet (!?) » Hirschmann (www. Yokogawa. www.hirschmann. Sick www.de).de) M12 round IP67 connector Fieldbus Foundation (www.org) CIP (Control and Information Protocol) DeviceNet.ida-group.fieldbus. ControlNet ProfiNet Siemens (www. www. RTI. ABB IDA (Interface for Distributed Automation. PNO (www.jetter.siemens. Phoenix Contact.E.de Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.com) ODVA (Open DeviceNet Vendors Association.ad. Fisher Rosemount.33 .org) Jetter.3 .0 Schneider Electric. Rockwell. Rockwell Automation www. Lenze.iaona-eu.profibus.rockwellautomation. (www.adva.The Ethernet consortia Ethernet/IP (Internet Protocol). Schneider Electric.org): HSE FS 1. AG. Kuka.com IAONA Europe (Industrial Automation Open Networking Alliance.
3 .another philosophy Ethernet + Fieldbus (classical) Ethernet PLC cheap field devices decentralized I/O cyclic operation Fieldbus simple devices PLC PLC SCADA switch Ethernet as Fieldbus (trendy) Ethernet costly field devices Soft-PLC as concentrators Event-driven operation SCADA switch Soft-PLC Soft-PLC Soft-PLC Soft-PLC This is a different wiring philosophy. not the reverse Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.Ethernet .34 . The bus must suit the control system structure.
Kuka. www. Technikum Winterthur www. Master clock Method 2: IEEE 1588 (Agilent) PTP precision time protocol Method 3: Powerlink B&R.hirschmann. Method 1: Common clock synchronisation: return to cyclic.de. www.kuka. www.de Method 4: Siemens Profinet V3 synchronization is in the switches Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.br-automation.3 .35 . Several improvement have been made.The "real-time Ethernet" The non-determinism of Ethernet makes it little suitable for the real-time world.lenze.de. Lenze.com. but this is not anymore a standard solution.
3 . local I/O CPU fieldbus Ethernet Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.Ethernet and fieldbus roles Ethernet is used for the communication among the PLCs and for communication of the PLCs with the supervisory level and with the engineering tools Fieldbus is in charge of the connection with the decentralized I/O and for time-critical communication among the PLCs.36 .
com www.bosch.com Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.and safety-critical busses for cars Contrarily to those who say « fieldbus is dead.3 . Ethernet takes it all » automobile manufacturers are developing several real-time busses for X-by-wire: www.flexray-group.can.tttech.com www.Time.37 .
38 . low data rate (100 kbit/s) for general use (power slides) extreme reliability.Car network extreme low cost. excellent real-time behavior for brake-by-wire or drive-by-wire Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.3 .
0 10.3 .39 .02 LIN Master-Slave 1-wire. fault-tolerant 2 x 2 wire.05 0.5 0.Mbit/s 50. not clocked J1850 1 Industrial Automation 2 5 10 20 € / node Standard Field Busses 3.1 0.0 2.0 FlexRay (10 Mbit/s) byteflight (10 Mbit/s) TTP TDMA. MOST Token-Ring optical bus MVB 1.0 The automotive busses 20.0 0.2 0.0 5. 2 Mbit/s CAN-A 2-wire 1 Mbit/s CAN-B fault-tolerant D28.
no wiring Disadvantages: Base stations are still costly. ZigBee. fieldbus goes wireless (802. 802. WiMax Advantages: mobility. work in disturbed environments and metallic structures costs mobile = batteries distance = 30m in factories lifetime > 5 years ? privacy Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.40 .Wireless fieldbus Increasingly.11g. Bluetooth.3 .11b.
3 .1 1 10 100 Mbit/s source: aktuelle Technik. 4/05 Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.41 .Wireless Technologies costs high GPRS medium WLAN low bluetooth 0.
com www.interbusclub.phoenixcon.com • • • • • www.pilz.org Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.org www.tuv.org • • • www.profibus.safetybus.ch www.odva.com www.nfpa.fieldbus.roboticsonline.Safety bus: The organisations • • • • www.iec.42 .rockwellautomation.com www.com www.com www.com www.3 .org www.
contrarily to office products.Future of field busses Non.time critical busses are in danger of being displaced by LANs (Ethernet) and cheap peripheral busses (Firewire.43 . USB) In reality. since the fieldbus binds customers. Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3. The project of a single. Siemens "Industrial Ethernet") The cost objective of field busses (less than 50$ per connection) is out of reach for LANs.3 . interoperable field bus defined by users (Fieldbus Foundation) failed. The cabling objective of field busses (more than 32 devices over 400 m) is out of reach for the cheap peripheral busses such as Firewire and USB. There is no real incentive from the control system manufacturers to reduce the fieldbus diversity. both in the standardisation and on the market.g. Fieldbusses tend to live very long (10-20 years). these "cheap" solutions are being adapted to the industrial environment and become a proprietary solution (e.
devices availability: processors.44 .Fieldbus Selection Criteria Installed base.3 . potential differences) Connection costs per (input-output) point Response time Deterministic behavior Device and network configuration tools Bus monitor (baseline and application level) tools Integration in development environment Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3. input/output Interoperability (how likely is it to work with a product from another manufacturer Topology and wiring technology (layout) Power distribution and galvanic separation (power over bus.
3 .45 .Assessment Which are the selection criteria for a field bus ? Which is the medium access and the link layer operation of CAN ? Which is the medium access and the link layer operation of LON ? Which is the medium access and the link layer operation of Profibus ? Which is the medium access and the link layer operation of Interbus-S ? What makes a field bus suited for hard-real-time operation ? How does the market influence the choice of the bus ? Industrial Automation Standard Field Busses 3.
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