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CHAPTER 3 FLUID STATICS
37 Fluids in RigidBody Motion
CHAPTER 4 BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
46 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Arbitrary Acceleration
47 Equation for Rotating Control Volume
CHAPTER 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
66 Unsteady Bernoulli Equation—Integration of Euler’s Equation along a Streamline
67 Irrotational Flow
Bernoulli Equation Applied to Irrotational Flow
Velocity Potential
Stream Function and Velocity Potential for TwoDimensional, Irrotational,
Incompressible Flow: Laplace’s Equation
Elementary Plane Flows
Superposition of Elementary Plane Flows
CHAPTER 9 EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW
93 Laminar FlatPlate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution
CHAPTER 12 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
123 Isothermal Flow
126 Supersonic Diffuser
Supersonic Wind Tunnel Operation
Supersonic Flow with Friction in a ConstantArea Channel
Supersonic Flow with Heat Addition in a ConstantArea Channel
42757_FMCD_p1 4/30/03 9:24 AM Page 1
37 FLUIDS IN RIGIDBODY MOTION S1
37 FLUIDS IN RIGIDBODY MOTION
We are almost ready to begin studying ﬂuids in motion (starting in Chapter 4), but
ﬁrst there is one category of ﬂuid motion that can be studied using ﬂuid statics ideas:
rigidbody motion. As the name implies, this is motion in which the entire ﬂuid
moves as if it were a rigid body—individual ﬂuid particles, although they may be in
motion, are not deforming. This means that there are no shear stresses, as in the case
of a static ﬂuid.
What kind of ﬂuid ﬂow has rigidbody motion? You recall from kinematics that
rigidbody motion can be broken down into pure translation and pure rotation. For
translation the simplest motion is constant velocity, which can always be converted to
a ﬂuid statics problem by a shift of coordinates. The other simple translational motion
we can have is constant acceleration, which we will consider here (Example Problem
3.9). In addition, we will consider motion consisting of pure constant rotation (Exam
ple Problem 3.10). As in the case of the static ﬂuid, we may apply Newton’s second
law of motion to determine the pressure ﬁeld that results from a speciﬁed rigidbody
motion.
In Section 31 we derived an expression for the forces due to pressure and grav
ity acting on a ﬂuid particle of volume dV. We obtained
or
(3.2)
Newton’s second law was written
Substituting from Eq. 3.2, we obtain
(3.16)
If the acceleration is constant, we can combine it with and obtain an effective
“acceleration of gravity,” , so that Eq. 3.16 has the same form as our
basic equation for pressure distribution in a static ﬂuid, Eq. 3.3. This means that we
can use the results of previous sections of this chapter as long as we use in
place of . For example, for a liquid undergoing constant acceleration the pressure
increases with depth in the direction of , and the rate of increase of pressure will
be given by g
eff
,where g
eff
is the magnitude of . Lines of constant pressure will
be perpendicular to the direction of . The physical signiﬁcance of each term in
this equation is as follows:
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
×
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
net pressure force
per unit volume
at a point
body force per
unit volume
at a point
mass per
unit
volume
acceleration
of fluid
particle
− ∇ + p g a
r r
r
g
eff
r
g
eff
r
g
eff
r
g
r
g
eff
r r r
g g a
eff
−
r
g
r
a
−∇ + p g a
r r
dF a dm a a
r
r r
r
r
dV
dF
dV
or
dF
dV
p g
r
r
−∇ +
dF p g dV
r
r
−∇ + ( )
42757_03CD_pS1S6 4/14/03 2:54 PM Page S1
S2 CHAPTER 3 / FLUID STATICS
This vector equation consists of three component equations that must be satisﬁed
individually. In rectangular coordinates the component equations are
Component equations for other coordinate systems can be written using the appropriate
expression for . In cylindrical coordinates the vector operator,
∇
, is given by
(3.18)
where and are unit vectors in the r and directions, respectively. Thus
(3.19)
EXAMPLE 3.9 Liquid in RigidBody Motion with Linear Acceleration
As a result of a promotion, you are transferred from your present location. You must
transport a ﬁsh tank in the back of your minivan. The tank is 12 in. ϫ 24 in. ϫ 12 in.
How much water can you leave in the tank and still be reasonably sure that it will not
spill over during the trip?
∇
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
p e
p
r
e
r
p
k
p
z
r
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
1
ˆ e
ˆ e
r
∇
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
e
r
e
r
k
z
r
1
∇p
(3.17)
−
∂
∂
+
−
∂
∂
+
−
∂
∂
+
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
p
x
g a x
p
y
g a y
p
z
g a z
x x
y y
z z
direction
direction
direction
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3.9
GIVEN: Fish tank 12 in. ϫ 24 in. ϫ 12 in. partially ﬁlled with water to be transported in an automobile.
FIND: Allowable depth of water for reasonable assurance that it will not spill during the trip.
SOLUTION:
The ﬁrst step in the solution is to formulate the problem by translating the general problem into a more
speciﬁc one.
We recognize that there will be motion of the water surface as a result of the car’s traveling over
bumps in the road, going around corners, etc. However, we shall assume that the main effect on the water
surface is due to linear accelerations (and decelerations) of the car; we shall neglect sloshing.
Thus we have reduced the problem to one of determining the effect of a linear acceleration on the
free surface. We have not yet decided on the orientation of the tank relative to the direction of motion.
Choosing the x coordinate in the direction of motion, should we align the tank with the long side parallel,
or perpendicular, to the direction of motion?
If there will be no relative motion in the water, we must assume we are dealing with a constant accel
eration, a
x
. What is the shape of the free surface under these conditions?
Let us restate the problem to answer the original questions by idealizing the physical situation to ob
tain an approximate solution.
GIVEN: Tank partially ﬁlled with water (to depth d) subject to constant linear acceleration, a
x
. Tank height
is 12 in.; length parallel to direction of motion is b. Width perpendicular to direction of motion is c.
42757_03CD_pS1S6 4/14/03 2:54 PM Page S2
37 FLUIDS IN RIGIDBODY MOTION S3
FIND: (a) Shape of free surface under constant a
x
.
(b) Allowable water depth, d, to avoid spilling as a function
of a
x
and tank orientation.
(c) Optimum tank orientation and recommended water depth.
SOLUTION:
Governing equation:
Since p is not a function of
The component equations are:
Recall that a partial
derivative means that
all other independent
variables are held constant
in the differentiation.
The problem now is to ﬁnd an expression for p ϭ p(x, y). This would enable us to ﬁnd the equation
of the free surface. But perhaps we do not have to do that.
Since the pressure is p ϭ p(x, y), the difference in pressure between two points (x, y) and (x ϩ dx,
y ϩ dy) is
Since the free surface is a line of constant pressure, p ϭ constant along the free surface, so dp ϭ 0 and
Therefore,
{The free surface is a plane.}
Note that we could have derived this result more directly by converting Eq. 3.16 into an equivalent “accel
eration of gravity” problem,
where Lines of constant pressure (including the free surface) will then be
perpendicular to the direction of , so that the slope of these lines will be .
− −
1
g a
a
g
x
x
r
g
eff
r r
g g i a i a jg
eff x x
− − −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
.
−∇ + p g
eff
r
0
dy
dx
a
g
x \
,
−
free surface
0
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− −
p
x
dx
p
y
dy a dx g dy
x
dp
p
x
dx
p
y
dy
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
p
x
a
p
y
g
x
∴ −
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
i
p
x
j
p
y
j g i a
x
z p z g g g g a a
x y z y z
, / . Also, , , , and . ∂ ∂ − 0 0 0 0
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
j
(
,
\
,
(
+ + + + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
(
ˆ ˆ ˆ
) (
ˆ ˆ ˆ
) i
p
x
j
p
y
k
p
z
i g jg kg i a ja ka
x y z x y z
−∇ + p g a
r r
g
y
b
O x
a
x
d
←÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
42757_03CD_pS1S6 4/14/03 2:54 PM Page S3
S4 CHAPTER 3 / FLUID STATICS
In the diagram,
d ϭ original depth
e ϭ height above original depth
b ϭ tank length parallel to direction of motion
Since we want e to be smallest for a given a
x
, the tank should be aligned so that b is as small as possible.
We should align the tank with the long side perpendicular to the direction of motion. That is, we should
choose b ϭ 12 in. b
With b ϭ 12 in.,
The maximum allowable value of e ϭ 12 Ϫ d in. Thus
If the maximum a
x
is assumed to be , then allowable d equals 8 in.
To allow a margin of safety, perhaps we should select d ϭ 6 in. d
Recall that a steady acceleration was assumed in this problem. The car would have to be driven very care
fully and smoothly.
2
3
g
12 6 12 6 − − d
a
g
d
a
g
x x
and
max
e
a
g
x
6 in .
Only valid when the free surface intersects
the front wall at or above the floor
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
e
b b dy
dx
b a
g
x
−
j
(
\
,
(
2 2 2
tan
free surface
b
a
x
d
θ
12 in.
e
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
←÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
This Example Problem shows that:
Not all engineering problems are clearly deﬁned, nor do
they have unique answers.
For constant linear acceleration, we effectively have a hy
drostatics problem, with “gravity” redeﬁned as the vector
result of the acceleration and the actual gravity.
g
R
ω
EXAMPLE 3.10 Liquid in RigidBody Motion with Constant Angular Speed
A cylindrical container, partially ﬁlled with liquid, is rotated at a
constant angular speed, , about its axis as shown in the diagram.
After a short time there is no relative motion; the liquid rotates
with the cylinder as if the system were a rigid body. Determine
the shape of the free surface.
42757_03CD_pS1S6 4/14/03 2:54 PM Page S4
37 FLUIDS IN RIGIDBODY MOTION S5
g
R
r
z
ω
h
1
h
0
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3.10
GIVEN: A cylinder of liquid in rigidbody rotation with angular
speed about its axis.
FIND: Shape of the free surface.
SOLUTION:
Governing equation:
It is convenient to use a cylindrical coordinate system, r, , z. Since g
r
ϭ g
ϭ 0 and g
z
ϭ Ϫg, then
Also, a
ϭ a
z
ϭ 0 and a
r
ϭ Ϫ
2
r.
The component equations are:
From the component equations we see that the pressure is not a function of ; it is a function of r and
z only.
Since p ϭ p(r, z), the differential change, dp, in pressure between two points with coordinates
(r, , z) and (r ϩ dr, , z ϩ dz) is given by
Then
To obtain the pressure difference between a reference point (r
1
, z
1
), where the pressure is p
1
, and the
arbitrary point (r, z), where the pressure is p, we must integrate
Taking the reference point on the cylinder axis at the free surface gives
Then
p p
r
g z h − − −
atm
( )
2 2
1
2
p p r z h
1 1 1 1
0
atm
p p r r g z z − − − −
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
( ) ( )
dp r dr g dz
r
r
p
p
z
z
−
∫ ∫ ∫
2
1 1 1
dp rdr gdz −
2
dp
p
r
dr
p
z
dz
z r
∂
∂
\
,
(
+
∂
∂
\
,
(
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
p
r
r
p p
z
g
2
0
∴ −
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
j
(
,
\
,
(
− + ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
e
p
r
e
r
p
k
p
z
e r k g
r r r
1
2
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
j
(
,
\
,
(
− + + ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
( ˆ ˆ
ˆ
) e
p
r
e
r
p
k
p
z
k g e a e a ka
r r r z
1
−∇ + p g a
r r
42757_03CD_pS1S6 4/14/03 2:54 PM Page S5
S6 CHAPTER 3 / FLUID STATICS
Since the free surface is a surface of constant pressure (p ϭ p
atm
), the equation of the free surface is
given by
or
The equation of the free surface is a parabaloid of revolution with vertex on the axis at z ϭ h
1
.
We can solve for the height h
1
under conditions of rotation in terms of the original surface height, h
0
,
in the absence of rotation. To do this, we use the fact that the volume of liquid must remain constant. With
no rotation
With rotation
Then
Finally,
Note that the expression for z is valid only for h
1
Ͼ 0. Hence the maximum value of is given by
max
ϭ 2 gh R
0
͞ .
z h
R
g
r
g
h
R
g
r
R
− + − −
j
(
\
,
,
¸
,
,
]
]
]
]
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
0
2 2
0
2 2
4 2 2
1
2
( ) ( ) ( )
z r ( )
R h h R
R
g
h h
R
g
2
0 1
2
2 4
1 0
2
4 4
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
− and
( )
V h
r r
g
h R
R
g
R
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
2
2 8 4
1
2 2 4
0
1
2
2 4
V r dz dr zr dr h
r
g
r dr
R R z R
+
j
(
,
\
,
(
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
2 2 2
2
1
2 2
0 0 0 0
V R h
2
0
z h
r
g
+
1
2
2
( )
0
2
2 2
1
− −
r
g z h ( )
This Example Problem shows:
The effect of centripetal acceleration on the shape of con
stant pressure lines (isobars).
Because the hydrostatic pressure variation and variation
due to rotation each depend on ﬂuid density, the ﬁnal free
surface shape is independent of ﬂuid density.
42757_03CD_pS1S6 4/14/03 2:54 PM Page S6
46 MOMENTUM EQUATION FOR CONTROL VOLUME WITH ARBITRARY ACCELERATION S7
46 MOMENTUM EQUATION FOR CONTROL VOLUME
WITH ARBITRARY ACCELERATION
In Section 45 we formulated the momentum equation for a control volume with
rectilinear acceleration. The purpose of this section is to extend the formulation for
completeness to include rotation and angular acceleration of the control volume, in
addition to translation and rectilinear acceleration.
First, we develop an expression for Newton’s second law in an arbitrary, nonin
ertial coordinate system. Then we use Eq. 4.25 to complete the formulation for a
control volume. Newton’s second law for a system moving relative to an inertial co
ordinate system is given by
(4.27)
where, as in the previous section, XYZ denotes the inertial (e.g., stationary) reference
frame. Since
and M(system) is constant,
or
(4.35)
The basic problem is to relate to the acceleration , measured relative to a
noninertial coordinate system. For this purpose, consider the noninertial reference
frame, xyz, shown in Fig. 4.5.
The noninertial frame, xyz, itself is located by position vector relative to the
ﬁxed frame XYZ. The noninertial frame rotates with angular velocity . A particle
is instantaneously located relative to the moving frame by position vector
r
r
R
r
a
xyz
r
a
XYZ
r
r
F a dm
XYZ
M
∫
(system)
r r
r
F
d
dt
V dm
dV
dt
dm
XYZ
XYZ
M M
∫ ∫
(system) (system)
r r
P V dm
XYZ XYZ
M
)
∫
system
system ( )
r
r
F
dP
dt
XYZ
\
,
(
system
X
r ω
R
y
z
x
Y
X
Z
Particle
Fig. 4.5 Location of a particle in inertial
(XYZ) and noninertial (xyz) reference
frames.
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:06 PM Page S7
S8 CHAPTER 4 / BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
Relative to inertial reference frame XYZ, the position of the particle
is denoted by position vector . From the geometry of the ﬁgure,
.
The velocity of the particle relative to an observer in the XYZ system is
(4.36)
where, as in the previous section, is the instantaneous velocity of the control vol
ume frame itself relative to the inertial XYZ reference frame.
We must be careful in evaluating d /dt because both the magnitude,  , and the
orientation of the unit vectors, , , and , are functions of time. Thus
(4.37a)
The terms dx/dt, dy/dt, and dz/dt are the velocity components of the particle relative
to xyz. Thus
(4.37b)
You may recall from dynamics (and as we will see in Example Problem 4.13), for a
rotating coordinate system
(4.37c)
Combining Eqs. 4.37a, 4.37b, and 4.37c, we obtain
(4.37d)
Substituting into Eq. 4.36 gives
(4.38)
The acceleration of the particle relative to an observer in the inertial XYZ system
is then
or
(4.39)
Both
xyz
and are measured relative to xyz, so the same caution observed in devel
oping Eq. 4.37d applies. Thus
(4.40a)
dV
dt
i
du
dt
j
d
dt
k
dw
dt
V a V
xyz
XYZ
xyz xyz xyz
r
r
r
r r
r \
,
(
+ + + × + ×
ˆ ˆ ˆ
v
r
r
r
V
r r
r
r r
a a
dV
dt
d
dt
r
XYZ rf
xyz
XYZ
+
\
,
(
+ × ( )
r
r
r r
r r
a
dV
dt
dV
dt
dV
dt
d
dt
r
XYZ
XYZ
rf xyz
XYZ
+
\
,
(
+ × ( )
r r r
r r
V V V r
XYZ rf xyz
+ + ×
dr
dt
V r
xyz
r
r
r r
+ ×
r r
× + + r x
di
dt
y
dj
dt
z
dk
dt
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r
V i
dx
dt
j
dy
dt
k
dz
dt
xyz
+ +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
dr
dt
d
dt
xi yj zk i
dx
dt
x
di
dt
j
dy
dt
y
dj
dt
k
dz
dt
z
dk
dt
r
+ + + + + + + (
ˆ ˆ ˆ
)
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
k
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
r
r
r
r
r
Vrf
r
r r
r
r
r
V
dX
dt
dR
dt
dr
dt
V
dr
dt
XYZ rf
+ +
r r
r
X R r +
r
X
r
r i x jy kz + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
.
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S8
46 MOMENTUM EQUATION FOR CONTROL VOLUME WITH ARBITRARY ACCELERATION S9
and
or
(4.40b)
Substituting Eqs. 4.40a and 4.40b into Eq. 4.39, we obtain
(4.41)
Equation 4.41 relates the acceleration of a ﬂuid particle as measured in the two
frames (the inertial frame XYZ and the noninertial frame xyz). From your study of dy
namics you will be familiar with each of the terms in the equation. They are
: Absolute rectilinear acceleration of a particle relative to ﬁxed reference
frame XYZ.
: Absolute rectilinear acceleration of origin of moving reference frame
xyz relative to ﬁxed frame XYZ.
: Rectilinear acceleration of a particle relative to moving reference
frame xyz (this acceleration would be that “seen” by an observer on
moving frame xyz; .
: Coriolis acceleration due to motion of the particle within moving
frame xyz.
: Centripetal acceleration due to rotation of moving frame xyz.
: Tangential acceleration due to angular acceleration of moving refer
ence frame xyz.
Substituting , as given by Eq. 4.41, into Eq. 4.35, we obtain
or
(4.42a)
But
(4.42b)
Combining Eqs. 4.42a and 4.42b, we obtain
r
r r
r
r r r r r
r
F a V r r dm
dP
dt
rf xyz
M
xyz
− + × + × × + ×
\
,
(
∫
[ ( )
˙
] 2
(system)
system
r
v
r
r
a dm
dV
dt
dm
d
dt
V dm
dP
dt
xyz
xyz
xyz
M M
xyz
M
xyz
\
,
(
j
(
,
\
,
(
∫ ∫ ∫
(system) (system) (system)
system
r
r r
r
r r r r r r
F a V r r dm a dm
rf xyz
M
xyz
M
− + × + × × + ×
∫ ∫
[ ]
(system)
2 ( )
˙
( )
system
r
r r r
r
r r r r r
F a a V r r dm
rf xyz xyz
M
system
(system)
[ ] + + × + × × + ×
∫
2 ( )
˙
r
a
XYZ
.
r r
× r
r r r
× × ( ) r
2
r
r
× V
xyz
r
r
a dV dt
xyz xyz xyz
/ )
r
a
xyz
r
a
rf
r
a
XYZ
r r r r
r
r r r r r
a a a V r r
XYZ rf xyz xyz
+ + × + × × + × 2 ( )
˙
d
dt
r r V r
xyz
( )
˙
( )
r r r r r
r
r r r
× × + × + × ×
× + × + ×
r r r
r
r r
˙
( ) r V r
xyz
d
dt
r
d
dt
r
dr
dt
( )
r r
r
r r
r
× × + ×
xyz
\
,
(
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S9
S10 CHAPTER 4 / BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
or
(4.43)
Equation 4.43 is a statement of Newton’s second law for a system. The system
derivative, d /dt, represents the rate of change of momentum, , of the system
measured relative to xyz, as seen by an observer in xyz. This system derivative can be
related to control volume variables through Eq. 4.25,
(4.25)
To obtain the control volume formulation, we set N ϭ , and ϭ . Then Eqs.
4.25 and 4.43 may be combined to give
(4.44)
Equation 4.44 is the most general control volume formulation of Newton’s sec
ond law. Comparing the momentum equation for a control volume moving with arbi
trary acceleration, Eq. 4.44, with that for a control volume moving with rectilinear
acceleration, Eq. 4.33, we see that the only difference is the presence of three addi
tional terms on the left side of Eq. 4.44. These terms result from the angular motion
of noninertial reference frame xyz. In dynamics these terms are often referred to as
“ﬁctitious” forces that arise due to inertia effects present when we use a noninertial
xyz coordinate system: the Coriolis force due to particle motion within the xyz coor
dinates, and centripetal and tangential forces due to the xyz coordinate system’s rota
tional motion, respectively. As we should expect, the general form, Eq. 4.44, reduces
to the rectilinear acceleration form, Eq. 4.33, when the angular terms are zero, and to
the inertial control volume form, Eq. 4.26, when all of the terms for the control vol
ume motion ( , and ) are zero.
The precautions concerning the use of Eqs. 4.26 and 4.33 also apply to the use
of Eq. 4.44. Before attempting to apply this equation, one must draw the boundaries
of the control volume and label appropriate coordinate directions. For a control vol
ume moving with arbitrary acceleration, one must label a coordinate system xyz on
the control volume and an inertial reference frame XYZ.
EXAMPLE 4.13 Velocity in Fixed and Noninertial Reference Frames
A reference frame, xyz, moves arbitrarily with respect to a ﬁxed frame, XYZ. A
particle moves with velocity
xyz
ϭ (dx/dt) ϩ (dy/dt) ϩ (dz/dt) , relative to frame
xyz. Show that the absolute velocity of the particle is given by
r r r
r r
V V V r
XYZ rf xyz
= + + ×
ˆ
k
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
r
V
r
˙
r
r
a
rf
,
=
∂
∂
+ ⋅
∫ ∫
t
V d V V V dA
xyz xyz xyz
r r r r
CV CS
r r
r r
r
r r r r r
F F a V r r dV
S B rf xyz
+ − + × + × × + ×
∫
[ ( )
˙
] 2
CV
r
V
xyz
r
P
xyz
dN
dt t
dV V dA
xyz
=
∂
∂
+ ⋅
∫ ∫
system
CV CS
r r
r
P
xyz
r
P
xyz
r r
r r
r
r r r r r
r
F F a V r r dV
dP
dt
S B rf xyz
xyz
V
+ − + × + × × + × =
∫
[ ( )
˙
] 2
(system)
system
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/21/03 9:07 AM Page S10
46 MOMENTUM EQUATION FOR CONTROL VOLUME WITH ARBITRARY ACCELERATION S11
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 4.13
GIVEN: Fixed and noninertial frames as shown.
X
r
ω
X
R
z
y
x
Particle
Y
Z
FIND:
XYZ
in terms of
xyz
, , , and
rf
.
SOLUTION:
From the geometry of the sketch, so
Since
we have
or
The problem now is to evaluate d /dt, d /dt, and d /dt that result from the angular motion of frame xyz. To
evaluate these derivatives, we must consider the rotation of each unit vector caused by the three compo
nents of the angular velocity, , of frame xyz.
Consider the unit vector . It will rotate in the xy plane because of
z
, as follows:
ˆ
i
r
ˆ
k
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
dr
dt
V x
di
dt
y
dj
dt
z
dk
dt
xyz
r
r
+ + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
dr
dt
dx
dt
i
dy
dt
j
dz
dt
k x
di
dt
y
dj
dt
z
dk
dt
r
+ + + + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r
r xi yj zk + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
r
r r
r
r
r
V
dX
dt
dR
dt
dr
dt
V
dr
dt
XYZ rf
+ +
r r
r
X R r + ,
r
V
r
r
r
r
V
r
V
y(t + ∆t)
i (t + ∆t)
x(t + ∆t)
ω
z
y(t)
x(t)
i (t)
^
i (t + ∆t)
^
i (t + ∆t)
^
^
i (t)
^
i (t)
^
∆θ
–
Now from the diagram
But for small angles cos ⌬ Ϸ 1 Ϫ [(⌬)
2
/2] and sin ⌬ Ϸ ⌬, so
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( ) ( )
ˆ
( )
( )
(
ˆ
) ( )
ˆ ˆ
i t t i t j i j i + − + − −
,
¸
,
]
]
]
⌬ ⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬
1 1
2
1
2
2
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( ) ( ) sin
ˆ
( )( cos )(
ˆ
) i t t i t j i + − + − − ⌬ ⌬ ⌬ 1 1 1
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S11
S12 CHAPTER 4 / BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
In the limit as ⌬t :0, since ⌬ ϭ
z
⌬t,
Similarly, will rotate in the xz plane because of
y
.
ˆ
i
di
dt
i t t i t
t
t j
t
i
t
di
dt
j
z
z
t t
z
z
z
ˆ
lim
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( )
lim
( )
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
due to
due to
]
]
]
]
+ −
,
¸
,
,
]
]
]
]
−
,
¸
,
]
]
]
,
¸
,
,
,
,
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
→ →
⌬ ⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬ 0 0
1
2
x(t)
z(t)
x(t + ∆t)
z(t + ∆t)
∆θ
ω
y
Enlarged sketch
i (t + ∆t)
^
i (t + ∆t)
^
i (t + ∆t) –
^
i (t)
^
i (t)
^
i (t)
^
Then from the diagram
For small angles
In the limit as ⌬t :0, since ⌬ ϭ
y
⌬t,
Rotation in the yz plane because of
x
does not affect . Combining terms,
By similar reasoning,
Thus
x
di
dt
y
dj
dt
z
dk
dt
z y i x z j y x k
y z z x x y
ˆ ˆ ˆ
( )
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( )
ˆ
+ + − + − + −
dj
dt
k i
dk
dt
i j
x z y x
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
and
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
− −
di
dt
j k
z y
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
−
ˆ
i
di
dt
i t t i t
t
t k
t
i
t
di
dt
k
y
t t
y
y
y
y
ˆ
lim
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( )
lim
( )
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
due to
due to
]
]
]
]
+ −
,
¸
,
,
]
]
]
]
− −
,
¸
,
]
]
]
,
¸
,
,
,
,
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
−
→ →
⌬ ⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬ 0
1
2
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( ) ( ) (
ˆ
) ( )
( )
(
ˆ
) ( )
ˆ ˆ
i t t i t k i k i + − − + − − −
j
(
,
\
,
( ⌬ ⌬
⌬
⌬
⌬
1 1
2
1
2
2
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( ) ( ) sin (
ˆ
) ( )( cos )(
ˆ
) i t t i t k i + − − + − − ⌬ ⌬ ⌬ 1 1 1
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S12
47 THE ANGULARMOMENTUM PRINCIPLE S13
But
Combining these results, we obtain
r r r
r r
r
V V V r
V
XYZ rf xyz
XYZ + + ×
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
r r
× − + − + − r
i j k
x y z
z y i x z j y x k
x y z y z z x x y
ˆ ˆ ˆ
( )
ˆ
( )
ˆ
( )
ˆ
47 THE ANGULARMOMENTUM PRINCIPLE (continued)
Equation for Rotating Control Volume
In problems involving rotating components, such as the rotating sprinkler of Example
Problem 4.14, it is often convenient to express all ﬂuid velocities relative to the rotat
ing component. The most convenient control volume is a noninertial one that rotates
with the component. In this section we develop a formulation of the angularmomen
tum principle for a noninertial control volume rotating about an axis ﬁxed in space.
Inertial and noninertial reference frames were related in Section 46. Figure 4.5
showed the notation used. For a system in an inertial frame,
(4.3a)
The angular momentum of a system in general motion must be speciﬁed relative to
an inertial reference frame. Using the notation of Fig. 4.5,
With ϭ 0 the xyz frame is restricted to rotation within XYZ, and the equation be
comes
so that
Since the mass of a system is constant,
or
(4.47)
From the analysis of Section 46,
(4.36)
r r
r
V V
dr
dt
XYZ rf
+
r
r
r
r
r
T
dr
dt
V r
dV
dt
dm
XYZ
XYZ
M
system
(system)
× + ×
j
(
,
\
,
(
∫
r
r
r
T
d
dt
r V dm
XYZ
M
system
(system)
( ) ×
∫
r
r
r
T
d
dt
r V dm
XYZ
M
system
(system)
×
∫
r
r
r
r
r
H r V dm r V dV
XYZ
M
XYZ
V
system
(system)
× ×
∫ ∫
(system)
r
R
r r
r
r r
r
r
H R r V dm R r V dV
XYZ
M
XYZ
V
system
(system) (system)
( ) ( ) + × + ×
∫ ∫
r
r
T
dH
dt
system
system
\
,
(
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S13
S14 CHAPTER 4 / BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
With xyz restricted to pure rotation,
rf
ϭ 0. The ﬁrst term under the integral on the
right side of Eq. 4.47 is then
Thus Eq. 4.47 reduces to
(4.48)
From Eq. 4.41 with
rf
ϭ 0 (since xyz does not translate),
Substituting into Eq. 4.48, we obtain
or
(4.49)
We can write the last term as
(4.50)
The torque on the system is given by
(4.3c)
The relation between the system and control volume formulations is
(4.25)
where
Setting N equal to
xyz
)
system
and ϭ ϫ
xyz
yields
(4.51)
Combining Eqs. 4.49, 4.50, 4.51, and 4.3c, we obtain
dH
dt t
r V dV r V V d A
xyz
xyz xyz xyz
r
r
r
r
r r r \
,
(
∂
∂
× + × ⋅
∫ ∫
system
CV
CS
r
V
r
r
r
H
N dm
M
system
∫
(system)
dN
dt t
dV V dA
xyz
\
,
∂
∂
+ ⋅
∫ ∫
system
CV CS
r r
r
r
r
r r
r
T r F r g dm T
s
M
system shaft
system
× + × +
∫
( )
r
r
r
r
r
r
dV
dt
dm
d
dt
r V dm
dH
dt
xyz
M
xyz
M xyz
xyz
×
\
,
(
×
j
(
,
\
,
(
\
,
(
∫ ∫
(system) system
system xyz
( )
× ×
\
,
(
∫ ∫
r r r
r
r a dm r
dV
dt
dm
xyz
M
xyz
M
xyz
(system) (system)
r
r r
r
r r r r r
T r V r r dm
xyz
M
system
(system)
[ ( )
˙
] − × × + × × + ×
∫
2
r
r r r
r
r r r r r
T r a V r r dm
xyz xyz
M
system
× + × + × × + ×
∫
[ ( )
˙
]
(system)
2
r r r
r
r r r r r
a a V r r
XYZ xyz xyz
+ × + × × + × 2 ( )
˙
r
a
r
r
r
r r
T r
dV
dt
dm r a dm
XYZ
M
XYZ
M
system
(system) (system)
× ×
∫ ∫
dr
dt
dr
dt
r r
× 0
r
V
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S14
47 THE ANGULARMOMENTUM PRINCIPLE S15
Since the system and control volume coincided at t
0
,
(4.52)
Equation 4.52 is the formulation of the angularmomentum principle for a (noniner
tial) control volume rotating about an axis ﬁxed in space. All ﬂuid velocities in Eq.
4.52 are evaluated relative to the control volume. Comparing Eq. 4.52 with Eq. 4.46
(for inertial XYZ cooordinates) we see that the noninertial (rotating) xyz coordinates
have an extra “moment” term on the left side that includes three components. As we
discussed following Eq. 4.44, these components arise because of “ﬁctitious” forces: the
Coriolis force because of ﬂuid particle motion within the xyz coordinates, and centripetal
and tangential forces because of the xyz coordinates’ rotational motion, respectively.
Equation 4.52 reduces to Eq. 4.46 when the control volume is not in motion (when
and are zero). Even though we have the extra term to evaluate, Eq. 4.52 is sometimes
simpler to use than Eq. 4.44 because a problem that is unsteady in XYZ coordinates be
comes steady state in xyz coordinates, as we will see in Example Problem 4.15.
EXAMPLE 4.15 Lawn Sprinkler: Analysis Using Rotating Control Volume
A small lawn sprinkler is shown in the
sketch below. At an inlet gage pres
sure of 20 kPa, the total volume ﬂow
rate of water through the sprinkler is
7.5 liters per minute and it rotates at
30 rpm. The diameter of each jet is 4
mm. Calculate the jet speed relative to
each sprinkler nozzle. Evaluate the
friction torque at the sprinkler pivot.
r
˙
r
r
r
r r
r
r r
r
r r r r r
r
r
r
r r r
r F r g dV T
V dV
t
r V r V V dA
s
xyz
xyz xyz xyz
× + × +
− × × + × × + ×
∂
∂
× + × ⋅
∫
∫
∫ ∫
shaft
CV
CV
CV CS
[ ( )
˙
] r r r
dV
2
r
r
r r
r
r r
r
r r r r r
r
r
r
r r r
r F r g dm T
r V r r dm
t
r V r V V dA
s
xyz
xyz xyz xyz
× + × +
− × × + × × ×
∂
∂
× + × ⋅
∫
∫
∫ ∫
) +
dV
M
M
shaft
(system)
(system)
CV CS
[ (
˙
] 2
V
rel
V
rel
ω
R = 150 mm
Q = 7.5 L/min
= 30 rpm ω
α = 30°
p
supply
= 20 kPa (gage)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 4.15
GIVEN: Small lawn sprinkler as shown.
FIND: (a) Jet speed relative to each nozzle.
(b) Friction torque at pivot.
SOLUTION:
Apply continuity and angular momentum equa
tions using rotating control volume enclosing
sprinkler arms.
V
rel
V
rel
ω
R = 150 mm
α = 30°
p
supply
= 20 kPa (gage)
CV
(Control volume
rotates with
sprinkler arm)
Q = 7.5 L/min
ω = 30 rpm
z
r
T
f
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S15
S16 CHAPTER 4 / BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
art to be come
(4.52)
Assumptions: (1) Steady ﬂow relative to the rotating CV.
(2) Uniform ﬂow at each section.
(3) ϭ constant.
From continuity
Consider terms in the angularmomentum equation separately. As in Example Problem 4.14, the only ex
ternal torque acting on the CV is friction in the pivot. It opposes the motion, so
(1)
The second integral on the left of Eq. 4.52 is evaluated for ﬂow within the CV. Let the velocity and
area within the sprinkler tubes be V
CV
and A
CV
, respectively. Then, for one side, the ﬁrst term (a Coriolis
effect) is
(The ﬂow in the bent portion of the tube has no r component of velocity, so it does not contribute to the
integral.)
From continuity, Q ϭ 2 V
CV
A
CV
, so for both sides the integral becomes
(2)
The second term in the integral (a moment generated by centripetal acceleration) is evaluated as
so it contributes no torque. (The force generated by centripetal acceleration is radial, so it generates no
moment.)
r r r r
r r dV re k k re dV
re k re dV re r e dV
r r
r r r
× × × × × ×
× × × −
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
[ ( )] ˆ [
ˆ
(
ˆ
ˆ )]
ˆ [
ˆ
ˆ ] ˆ ( ˆ )]
CV CV
CV CV
2
0
r r
r
r V dV R Qk
xyz
× ×
∫
[ ]
ˆ
CV
2
2
r r
r
r V dV re k V e A
re V e A
V A r V A k
xyz r
R
r
r
R
R
× × × ×
×
¦ ¦
∫ ∫
∫
∫
[ ] ˆ [
ˆ
ˆ ]
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
CV
CV
CV
CV CV
2 2
2
2
0
0
0
CV
CV
CV CV
one side
dr
= dr
= dr k = R
2
r
T T k
f shaft
−
ˆ
V
Q
A
Q
D
V
V
rel
jet jet
2
3 2
2
rel
rel
. L
min ( ) mm
m
1000 L
mm
m
min
60 s
. m/s
× × × × ×
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
2 2
4
1
2
7 5 4 1
4
10
4 97
2 2
6
∂
∂t
͵
CV
dV ϩ
͵
CS
V
xyz
и dA ϭ 0
ϭ 0(1)
r ϫ F
S
ϩ
͵
CV
r ϫ g dV ϩ T
shaft
Ϫ
͵
CV
r ϫ [2 ϫ V
xyz
ϩ ϫ ( ϫ r) ϩ ϫ r] dV
∂
∂t
ϭ 0(1)
͵
CV
r ϫ V
xyz
dV ϩ
͵
CV
r ϫ V
xyz
V
xyz
и dA ϭ
ϭ 0(3)
Governing equations:
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/14/03 3:07 PM Page S16
47 THE ANGULARMOMENTUM PRINCIPLE S17
The integral on the right side of Eq. 4.52 is evaluated for ﬂow crossing the control surface. For the
right arm of the sprinkler,
The velocity and radius vectors for ﬂow in the left arm must be described in terms of the same unit vectors
used for the right arm. In the left sprinkler arm, the component has the same magnitude but opposite
sign, so it cancels. For the complete CV,
(3)
Combining terms (1), (2), and (3), we obtain
or
T
f
ϭ R(V
rel
cos ␣ Ϫ R) Q
From the data given,
Substituting gives
T
T
T
f
f
f
= ×
°
−
×
× × × ×
= ⋅
←
150 4 97 30
0 0718
2
mm m
s
0.471 m
s
999 kg
m
7.5 L
m
1000 L 60 s
N m
3
3
. cos
min
min N
.
s
kg
.
m
m
1000 mm
.
R = × × × ×
=
30 150 2 rev
min
rad
rev
min
60 s
m
1000 mm
0.471m/s
mm
− − = − T k R Qk RV Qk
f
ˆ ˆ
cos
ˆ
rel
␣
2
r
r r r
r V V dA RV Qk
xyz xyz
× ⋅ = −
∫
␣
rel
CV
cos
ˆ
r
r r r
r V V dA e V e k V A
RV k e
Q
xyz xyz r
× ⋅ = × − + +
= − + −
∫
␣ ␣
␣ ␣
Rˆ [cos ( ˆ ) sin
ˆ
]{ }
[cos (
ˆ
) sin ( ˆ )]
re rel jet
rel
l
CS
2
This problem illustrates use of the angular momentum princi
ple for a noninertial (rotating) control volume. Note that in
this approach, unlike the inertial control volume of Example
Problem 4.14, the ﬂuid particle position vector and velocity
vector are not timedependent. As we should expect, the re
sults agree using either an inertial or noninertial control volume.
r
V
r
r
42757_04CD_pS7S17 4/21/03 9:18 AM Page S17
S18 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
66 UNSTEADY BERNOULLI EQUATION—INTEGRATION OF EULER’S
EQUATION ALONG A STREAMLINE
It is not necessary to restrict the development of the Bernoulli equation to steady
ﬂow. The purpose of this section is to develop the corresponding equation for un
steady ﬂow along a streamline and to illustrate its use.
The momentum equation for frictionless ﬂow (Eq. 6.1) can be written (with in
the negative z direction) as
(6.17)
Equation 6.17 is a vector equation. It can be converted to a scalar equation by taking
the dot product with d , where d is an element of distance along a streamline. Thus
(6.18)
Examining the terms in Eq. 6.18, we note that
Substituting into Eq. 6.18, we obtain
(6.19)
Integrating along a streamline from point 1 to point 2 yields
(6.20)
For incompressible ﬂow, the density is constant. For this special case, Eq. 6.20
becomes
(6.21)
Restrictions: (1) Incompressible ﬂow.
(2) Frictionless ﬂow.
(3) Flow along a streamline.
To evaluate the integral term in Eq. 6.21, the variation in ∂V/∂t must be known as a
function of s, the distance along the streamline measured from point 1. (For steady
ﬂow, ∂V/∂t ϭ 0, and Eq. 6.21 reduces to Eq. 6.8.) Equation 6.21 may be applied to
any ﬂow in which the restrictions are compatible with the physical situation.
Application of Eq. 6.21 is illustrated in Example Problem 6.9.
p V
gz
p V
gz
V
t
ds
1 1
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2
+ + + + +
∂
∂
∫
dp V V
g z z
V
t
ds
1
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
1
2
2
0
∫ ∫
+
−
+ − +
∂
∂
( )
V dV
V
t
ds
dp
g dz +
∂
∂
− −
∂
∂
∇ ⋅
⋅
V
s
ds dV V
p ds dp
k ds dz z
(the change in along )
(the change in pressure along )
ˆ
(the change in along )
s
s
s
r
r
DV
Dt
ds
DV
Dt
ds V
V
s
ds
V
t
ds p ds gk ds
r
r r r
⋅
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− ∇ ⋅ − ⋅
1
ˆ
r
s
r
s
DV
Dt
p gk
r
− ∇ −
1
ˆ
r
g
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S18
66 UNSTEADY BERNOULLI EQUATION—INTEGRATION OF EULER’S EQUATION ALONG A STREAMLINE S19
EXAMPLE 6.9 Unsteady Bernoulli Equation
A long pipe is connected to a large reservoir that initially is ﬁlled with water to a
depth of 3 m. The pipe is 150 mm in diameter and 6 m long. Determine the ﬂow ve
locity leaving the pipe as a function of time after a cap is removed from its free end.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 6.9
GIVEN: Pipe and large reservoir as
shown.
FIND: V
2
(t).
SOLUTION:
Apply the Bernoulli equation to the un
steady ﬂow along a streamline from
point to point .
Governing equation:
Assumptions: (1) Incompressible ﬂow.
(2) Frictionless ﬂow.
(3) Flow along a streamline from to .
(4) p
1
ϭ p
2
ϭ p
atm
.
(5) V
2
1
Ӎ 0.
(6) z
2
ϭ 0.
(7) z
1
ϭ h ϭ constant.
(8) Neglect velocity in reservoir, except for small region near the inlet to the tube.
Then
In view of assumption (8), the integral becomes
In the tube, V ϭ V
2
everywhere, so that
Substituting gives
Separating variables, we obtain
Integrating between limits V ϭ 0 at t ϭ 0 and V ϭ V
2
at t ϭ t,
dV
gh V gh
V
gh
t
L
V
V
2
1
2 2 2
2
0
1
0
2
2
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
,
¸
,
,
]
]
]
]
∫
−
tanh
dV
gh V
dt
L
2
2
2
2 2 −
gh
V
L
dV
dt
+
2
2
2
2
∂
∂
∫ ∫
V
t
ds
dV
dt
ds L
dV
dt
L L
0
2
0
2
∂
∂
≈
∂
∂
∫ ∫
V
t
ds
V
t
ds
L
1
2
0
gz gh
V V
t
ds
1
2
2
1
2
2
+
∂
∂
∫
2 1
p
1 1
∂V
∂t
ds
͵
1
ϩ ϩ gz
1
ϭ
Ӎ 0(5) ϭ 0(6)
V
2
2
p
2 2
ϩ ϩ gz
2
ϩ
V
2
2
2
2 1
1
2
D = 150 mm
h = 3 m
L = 6 m
V
2
z
Flow
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S19
S20 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
Since tanh
Ϫ1
(0) ϭ 0, we obtain
For the given conditions,
and
The result is then V
2
ϭ 7.67 tanh (0.639t) m/s, as shown:
t
L
gh
t
t
2
2
2
1
6
7 67
0 639 × ×
m
m
s
.
.
2
2 9 81
3
7 67 gh × ×
.
.
m
s
m
m/s
2
1
2 2 2 2 2
2
1 2 2
2
gh
V
gh
t
L
V
gh
t
L
gh
V t
tanh tanh
( )
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
j
(
\
,
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
or
0
8
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5
t (s)
V
2
(
m
/
s
)
V
2
= 7.67 tanh (0.639 t)
Notes:
This problem illustrates use of the unsteady Bernoulli
equation.
Initially the head available at state is used to acceler
ate the ﬂuid in the pipe; eventually the head at state
equals the head at state .
This problem is somewhat unrealistic except for the initial
instants —the asymptotic ﬂow condition actually corre
sponds to a turbulent ﬂow!
1
1
*6.7 IRROTATIONAL FLOW
We have already discussed irrotational ﬂows in Section 53. These are ﬂows in which
the ﬂuid particles do not rotate ( ϭ 0). We recall that the only stresses that can gen
erate particle rotation are shear stresses; hence, inviscid ﬂows (i.e., those with zero
shear stresses) will be irrotational, unless the particles were initially rotating. Using
Eq. 5.14, we obtain the irrotationality condition
(6.22)
leading to
(6.23)
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
w
y z
u
z
w
x x
u
y
v v
0
∇ ×
r
V 0
r
* Note that Section 52 contains background material needed for study of this section.
2
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S20
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S21
In cylindrical coordinates, from Eq. 5.16, the irrotationality condition requires that
(6.24)
Bernoulli Equation Applied to Irrotational Flow
In Section 63, we integrated Euler’s equation along a streamline for steady, incom
pressible, inviscid ﬂow to obtain the Bernoulli equation
(6.8)
Equation 6.8 can be applied between any two points on the same streamline. In
general, the value of the constant will vary from streamline to streamline.
If, in addition to being inviscid, steady, and incompressible, the ﬂow ﬁeld is also
irrotational (i.e., the particles had no initial rotation), so that (Eq. 6.22),
we can show that Bernoulli’s equation can be applied between any two points in the
ﬂow. Then the value of the constant in Eq. 6.8 is the same for all streamlines. To il
lustrate this, we start with Euler’s equation in vector form,
(6.9)
Using the vector identity
we see for irrotational ﬂow, where , that
and Euler’s equation for irrotational ﬂow can be written as
(6.25)
Consider a displacement in the ﬂow ﬁeld from position to position + d ; the
displacement d is an arbitrary inﬁnitesimal displacement in any direction. Taking the
dot product of d = dx + dy + dz with each of the terms in Eq. 6.25, we have
and hence
or
dp
d V gdz
+ +
1
2
0
2
( )
1
2
2
d V
dp
gdz ( ) − −
1
2
1
2
∇ ⋅ − ∇ ⋅ − ⋅ ( )
ˆ
V dr p dr gk dr
r r r
ˆ
k
ˆ
j
ˆ
i
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
1
2
1
2
1
2
∇ ⋅ ∇ − ∇ − ( ) ( )
ˆ
r r
V V V p gk
( ) ( )
r r r r
V V V V ⋅ ∇ ∇ ⋅
1
2
∇ ×
r
V 0
( ) ( ) ( )
r r r r r r
V V V V V V ⋅ ∇ ∇ ⋅ − × ∇ ×
1
2
( )
ˆ
r r
V V p gk ⋅ ∇ − ∇ −
1
∇ ×
r
V 0
p V
gz
+ +
2
2
constant
1 1 1
0
r
V V
z
V
z
V
r r
rV
r r
V
z r z r
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S21
S22 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
Integrating this equation for incompressible ﬂow gives
(6.26)
Since d was an arbitrary displacement, Eq. 6.26 is valid between any two points
(i.e., not just along a streamline) in a steady, incompressible, inviscid ﬂow that is also
irrotational (see Example Problem 6.5).
Velocity Potential
We were introduced in Section 52 to the notion of the stream function for a two
dimensional incompressible ﬂow.
For irrotational ﬂow we can introduce a companion function, the potential func
tion , deﬁned by
(6.27)
Why this deﬁnition? Because it guarantees that any continuous scalar function (x, y,
z, t) automatically satisﬁes the irrotationality condition (Eq. 6.22) because of a funda
mental indentity
7
:
(6.28)
The minus sign (used in most textbooks) is inserted simply so that decreases in the
ﬂow direction (analogous to the temperature decreasing in the direction of heat ﬂow
in heat conduction). Thus,
(6.29)
(You can check that the irrotationality condition, Eq. 6.22, is satisﬁed identically.)
In cylindrical coordinates,
(3.18)
From Eq. 6.27, then, in cylindrical coordinates
(6.30)
Because ٌ ϫ ٌ ≡ 0 for all , the velocity potential exists only for irrotational
ﬂow.
Irrotationality may be a valid assumption for those regions of a ﬂow in which
viscous forces are negligible.
8
(For example, such a region exists outside the bound
ary layer in the ﬂow over a wing surface, and can be analyzed to ﬁnd the lift
produced by the wing.) The theory for irrotational ﬂow is developed in terms of an
imaginary ideal ﬂuid whose viscosity is identically zero. Since, in an irrotational
ﬂow, the velocity ﬁeld may be deﬁned by the potential function , the theory is often
referred to as potential ﬂow theory.
V
r
V
r
V
z
r z
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
1
∇
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
e
r
e
r
k
z
r
1
u
x y
w
z
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
, , v and
∇ × −∇ × ∇ − ≡
r
V curl(grad ) 0
r
V −∇
r
r
p V
gz
+ +
2
2
constant
7
That ٌ ϫ ٌ( ) ≡ 0 can easily be demonstrated by expanding into components.
8
Examples of rotational and irrotational motion are shown in the NCFMF video Vorticity.
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S22
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S23
All real ﬂuids possess viscosity, but there are many situations in which the as
sumption of inviscid ﬂow considerably simpliﬁes the analysis and, at the same time,
gives meaningful results. Because of its utility and mathematical appeal, potential
ﬂow has been studied extensively.
9
Stream Function and Velocity Potential for TwoDimensional, Irrotational,
Incompressible Flow: Laplace’s Equation
For a twodimensional, incompressible, irrotational ﬂow we have expressions for the
velocity components, u and v, in terms of both the stream function , and the veloc
ity potential ,
(5.3)
(6.29)
Substituting for u and v from Eq. 5.3 into the irrotationality condition,
(6.23)
we obtain
(6.31)
Substituting for u and v from Eq. 6.29 into the continuity equation,
(5.4)
we obtain
(6.32)
Equations 6.31 and 6.32 are forms of Laplace’s equation—an equation that
arises in many areas of the physical sciences and engineering. Any function or
that satisﬁes Laplace’s equation represents a possible twodimensional, incompress
ible, irrotational ﬂow ﬁeld.
It is worth summarizing what we’ve learned. For a twodimensional incompress
ible ﬂow, we can always deﬁne a stream function ; if the ﬂow is also irrotational,
will satisfy Laplace’s equation. On the other hand, for an irrotational ﬂow, we can al
ways deﬁne a velocity potential ; if the ﬂow is also incompressible, will satisfy
Laplace’s equation.
In Section 52 we showed that the stream function is constant along any
streamline. For ϭ constant, d ϭ 0 and
d
x
dx
y
dy
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
0
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
2
2
2
2
0
x y
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
u
x y
v
0
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
2
2
2
2
0
x y
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
v
x
u
y
0
u
x y
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
v
u
y x
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
v
9
Anyone interested in a detailed study of potential ﬂow theory may ﬁnd [4–6] of interest.
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S23
S24 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
The slope of a streamline—a line of constant —is given by
(6.33)
Along a line of constant , d ϭ 0 and
Consequently, the slope of a potential line—a line of constant —is given by
(6.34)
(The last equality of Eq. 6.34 follows from use of Eq. 6.29.)
Comparing Eqs. 6.33 and 6.34, we see that the slope of a constant line at any
point is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the constant line at that point; lines
of constant and constant are orthogonal. This property of potential lines and
streamlines is useful in graphical analyses of ﬂow ﬁelds.
Example 6.10 Velocity Potential
Consider the ﬂow ﬁeld given by ϭ ax
2
Ϫ ay
2
, where a ϭ 3 s
Ϫ1
. Show that the ﬂow
is irrotational. Determine the velocity potential for this ﬂow.
dy
dx
x
y
u \
,
(
−
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
−
/
/ v
d
x
dx
y
dy
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
0
dy
dx
x
y u u
\
,
(
−
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
−
−
/
/
v v
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 6.10
GIVEN: Incompressible ﬂow ﬁeld with ϭ ax
2
Ϫ ay
2
, where a ϭ 3 s
Ϫ1
.
FIND: (a) Whether or not the ﬂow is irrotational.
(b) The velocity potential for this ﬂow.
SOLUTION:
If the ﬂow is irrotational, ٌ
2
ϭ 0. Checking for the given ﬂow,
so that the ﬂow is irrotational. As an alternative proof, we can compute the ﬂuid particle rotation (in the xy
plane, the only component of rotation is
z
):
then
so
Once again, we conclude that the ﬂow is irrotational. Because it is irrotational, must exist, and
u
x y
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
and v
2 2 2 2 2 0
2
z
x
u
y x
ax
y
ay a a z
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
− −
∂
∂
− − +
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
v
( ) ( )
u
y
ax ay ay
x
ax ay ax
∂
∂
− − −
∂
∂
− − ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 and v
2
z
x
u
y
u
y x
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
v
v and
∇
∂
∂
−
( )
+
∂
∂
−
( )
−
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2 0
x
ax ay
y
ax ay a a
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S24
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S25
Consequently, Integrating with respect to x gives ϭ 2axy ϩ f(y),
where f (y) is an arbitrary function of y. Then
Therefore, and f ϭ constant. Thus
We also can show that lines of constant and constant are orthogonal.
ϭ ax
2
Ϫ ay
2
and ϭ 2axy
The slopes of lines of constant and constant are negative reciprocals. Therefore lines of constant
are orthogonal to lines of constant .
For constant hence d
−
\
,
−
, ; 0 2 2 ay dx ax dy
dy
dx
y
x
c
For constant hence d
−
\
,
, ; 0 2 2 axdx ay dy
dy
dx
x
y
c
+
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
2axy constant
− − −
∂
∂
− − 2 2 2 0 ax ax
f y
y
ax
df
dy
df
dy
( )
, so
v − −
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+ 2 2 ax
y y
axy f y
[ ( )]
u
x
ay
x
ay −
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
2 2 and .
This problem illustrates the relations among the stream func
tion, velocity potential, and velocity ﬁeld.
The stream function and velocity potential are
shown in the Excel workbook. By entering the equations
for and , other ﬁelds can be plotted.
Elementary Plane Flows
The and functions for ﬁve elementary twodimensional ﬂows —a uniform ﬂow, a
source, a sink, a vortex, and a doublet —are summarized in Table 6.1. The and
functions can be obtained from the velocity ﬁeld for each elementary ﬂow. (We saw
in Example Problem 6.10 that we can obtain from u and v.)
A uniform ﬂow of constant velocity parallel to the x axis satisﬁes the continuity
equation and the irrotationality condition identically. In Table 6.1 we have shown the
and functions for a uniform ﬂow in the positive x direction.
For a uniform ﬂow of constant magnitude V, inclined at angle ␣ to the x axis,
ϭ (V cos ␣)y Ϫ (V sin ␣)x
ϭ Ϫ(V sin ␣)y Ϫ (V cos ␣)x
A simple source is a ﬂow pattern in the xy plane in which ﬂow is radially out
ward from the z axis and symmetrical in all directions. The strength, q, of the source
is the volume ﬂow rate per unit depth. At any radius, r, from a source, the tangential
velocity, V
, is zero; the radial velocity, V
r
, is the volume ﬂow rate per unit depth, q,
divided by the ﬂow area per unit depth, 2r. Thus V
r
ϭ q/2r for a source. The
and functions for a source are shown in Table 6.1.
In a simple sink, ﬂow is radially inward; a sink is a negative source. The and
functions for a sink shown in Table 6.1 are the negatives of the corresponding func
tions for a source ﬂow.
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S25
S26 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
T
a
b
l
e
6
.
1
E
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
r
y
P
l
a
n
e
F
l
o
w
s
U
n
i
f
o
r
m
F
l
o
w
(
p
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
x
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
)
S
o
u
r
c
e
F
l
o
w
(
f
r
o
m
o
r
i
g
i
n
)
O
r
i
g
i
n
i
s
s
i
n
g
u
l
a
r
p
o
i
n
t
q
i
s
v
o
l
u
m
e
ﬂ
o
w
r
a
t
e
p
e
r
u
n
i
t
d
e
p
t
h
⌫
ϭ
0
a
r
o
u
n
d
a
n
y
c
l
o
s
e
d
c
u
r
v
e
S
i
n
k
F
l
o
w
(
t
o
w
a
r
d
o
r
i
g
i
n
)
O
r
i
g
i
n
i
s
s
i
n
g
u
l
a
r
p
o
i
n
t
q
i
s
v
o
l
u
m
e
ﬂ
o
w
r
a
t
e
p
e
r
u
n
i
t
d
e
p
t
h
⌫
ϭ
0
a
r
o
u
n
d
a
n
y
c
l
o
s
e
d
c
u
r
v
e
V
q
r
q
V
q
r
r
−
−
2
2
0
2
l
n
V
q
r
q
V
q
r
r
−
2
2
0
2
l
n
u
U
U
y
U
x
−
v
0
0
⌫
a
r
o
u
n
d
a
n
y
c
l
o
s
e
d
c
u
r
v
e
U
U
x
y
y
x
ψ
φ
=
c
3
ψ
=
–
c
3
ψ
=
c
2
ψ
=
–
c
2
ψ
=
c
1
ψ
=
–
c
1
ψ
=
0
= k
2
φ = – k
2
φ = k
1
φ = – k
1
φ = 0
x
y
r
θ
y
x
φ
=
–
k
1
φ
=
–
k
2
ψ
=
c
1
ψ
=
c
2
ψ
=
c
3
ψ
=
c
4
ψ
=
c
5
ψ
=
c
6
ψ
=
c
7
ψ
=
0
y
x
r
θ
y
x
φ
=
k
1
φ
=
k
2
ψ
=
–
c
1
ψ
=
–
c
2
ψ
=
–
c
3
ψ
=
–
c
4
ψ
=
–
c
5
ψ
=
–
c
6
ψ
=
–
c
7 ψ
=
0
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S26
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S27
T
a
b
l
e
6
.
1
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e
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c
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k
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i
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s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
o
f
t
h
e
v
o
r
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x
⌫
ϭ
K
a
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o
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−
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22
c
o
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V
K
r
V
K
r
K
r
−
−
0
2
2
2
l
n
y
x
r
θ
y
x
ψ
=
–
c
1
ψ
=
–
c
3
ψ
=
–
c
4
φ
=
–
k
1
φ
=
–
k
2
φ
=
–
k
3
φ
=
–
k
4
φ
=
–
k
5
φ
=
–
k
6
φ
=
–
k
7
φ
=
0
ψ
=
–
c
2
y
x
rθ
ψ
=
–
c
2
ψ
=
–
c
3
ψ
=
0
ψ
=
c
3
ψ
=
c
2
ψ
=
–
c
1
ψ
=
c
1
φ
=
–
k
1
φ
=
k
1
φ
=
k
2
φ
=
–
k
2
x
y
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S27
S28 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
The origin of either a sink or a source is a singular point, since the radial veloc
ity approaches inﬁnity as the radius approaches zero. Thus, while an actual ﬂow may
resemble a source or a sink for some values of r, sources and sinks have no exact
physical counterparts. The primary value of the concept of sources and sinks is that,
when combined with other elementary ﬂows, they produce ﬂow patterns that ade
quately represent realistic ﬂows.
A ﬂow pattern in which the streamlines are concentric circles is a vortex; in a free
(irrotational) vortex, ﬂuid particles do not rotate as they translate in circular paths around
the vortex center. The velocity distribution in an irrotational vortex can be determined
from Euler’s equation and the Bernoulli equation. For irrotational ﬂow, the Bernoulli
equation is valid between any two points in the ﬂow ﬁeld. For ﬂow in a horizontal plane,
The component of Euler’s equation normal to the streamline is
Combining these equations yields
From the last equality
Integrating this equation gives
The strength, K, of the vortex is deﬁned as K ϭ 2rV
; the dimensions of K are L
2
/t
(volume ﬂow rate per unit depth). The irrotational vortex is a reasonable approxima
tion to the ﬂow ﬁeld in a tornado (except in the region of the origin; the origin is a
singular point).
The ﬁnal “elementary” ﬂow listed in Table 6.1 is the doublet of strength ⌳. This
ﬂow is produced mathematically by allowing a source and a sink of numerically
equal strengths to merge. In the limit, as the distance, ␦s, between them approaches
zero, their strengths increase so the product q␦s/2 tends to a ﬁnite value, ⌳, which
is termed the strength of the doublet.
Superposition of Elementary Plane Flows
We saw earlier that both and satisfy Laplace’s equation for ﬂow that is both in
compressible and irrotational. Since Laplace’s equation is a linear, homogeneous
partial differential equation, solutions may be superposed (added together) to
develop more complex and interesting patterns of ﬂow. Thus if
1
and
2
satisfy
Laplace’s equation, then so does
3
ϭ
1
ϩ
2
. The elementary plane ﬂows are
the building blocks in this superposition process. There is one note of caution:
While Laplace’s equation for the stream function, and the stream function
velocity ﬁeld equations (Eq. 5.3) are linear, the Bernoulli equation is not; hence, in
the superposition process we will have
3
ϭ
1
ϩ
2
, u
3
ϭ u
1
ϩ u
2
, and v
3
ϭ
V r
constant
V dr r dV
+ 0
dp
V
V
r
dr
− dV
2
1
2
dp
dr
V
r
1
dp V − dV
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S28
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S29
v
1
ϩ v
2
, but p
3
϶ p
1
ϩ p
2
! We must use the Bernoulli equation, which is nonlinear
in V, to ﬁnd p
3
.
We can add together elementary ﬂows to try and generate recognizable ﬂow pat
terns. The simplest superposition approach is called the direct method, in which we try
different combinations of elementary ﬂows and see what kinds of ﬂow patterns are pro
duced. This sounds like a random process, but with a little experience it becomes a quite
logical process. For example, look at some of the classic examples listed in Table 6.2.
The source and uniform ﬂow combination makes sense—we would intuitively expect a
source to partially push its way upstream, and to divert the ﬂow around it. The source,
sink, and uniform ﬂow (generating what is called a Rankine body) is also not surpris
ing—the entire ﬂow out of the source makes its way into the sink, leading to a closed
streamline. Any streamline can be interpreted as a solid surface because there is no ﬂow
across it; we can therefore pretend that this closed streamline represents a solid. We
could easily generalize this sourcesink approach to any number of sources and sinks
distributed along the x axis, and as long as the sum of the source and sink strengths
added up to zero, we would generate a closed streamline body shape. The doublet
uniform ﬂow (with or without a vortex) generates a very interesting result: ﬂow over a
cylinder (with or without circulation)! We ﬁrst saw the ﬂow without circulation in
Fig. 2.12a. The ﬂow with a clockwise vortex produces a toptobottom asymmetry. This
is because in the region above the cylinder the velocities due to the uniform ﬂow and
vortex are in the same overall direction and lead to a high velocity; below the cylinder
they are in opposite directions and therefore lead to a low velocity. As we have learned,
whenever velocities are high, streamlines will be close together, and vice versa—
explaining the pattern shown. More importantly, from the Bernoulli equation we know
that whenever the velocity is high the pressure will be low, and vice versa—hence, we
can anticipate that the cylinder with circulation will experience a net upward force (lift)
due to pressure. This approach, of looking at streamline patterns to see where we have
regions of high or low velocity and hence low or high pressure, is very useful. We will
examine these last two ﬂows in Example Problems 6.11 and 6.12. The last example in
Table 6.2, the vortex pair, hints at a way to create ﬂows that simulate the presence of a
wall or walls: for the yaxis to be a streamline (and thus a wall), simply make sure that
any objects (e.g., a source, a vortex) in the positive x quadrants have mirrorimage ob
jects in the negative x quadrants; the y axis will thus be a line of symmetry. For a ﬂow
pattern in a 90Њ corner, we need to place objects so that we have symmetry with respect
to both the x and y axes. For ﬂow in a corner whose angle is a fraction of 90Њ (e.g., 30Њ),
we need to place objects in a radially symmetric fashion.
Because Laplace’s equation appears in many engineering and physics applica
tions, it has been extensively studied. One approach is to use conformal mapping with
complex notation. It turns out that any continuous complex function f(z) (where z ϭ x
ϩ iy, and i ϭ ) is a solution of Laplace’s equation, and can therefore represent
both and . With this approach many elegant mathematical results have been de
rived [7–10]. We mention only two: the circle theorem, which enables any given ﬂow
[e.g., from a source at some point (a, b)] to be easily transformed to allow for the pres
ence of a cylinder at the origin; and the SchwarzChristoffel theorem, which enables a
given ﬂow to be transformed to allow for the presence of virtually unlimited stepwise
linear boundaries (e.g., the presence on the x axis of the silhouette of a building).
Much of this analytical work was done centuries ago, when it was called “hy
drodynamics” instead of potential theory. A list of famous contributors includes
Bernoulli, Lagrange, d’Alembert, Cauchy, Rankine, and Euler [11]. As we discussed
in Section 26, the theory immediately ran into difﬁculties: In an ideal ﬂuid ﬂow no
−1
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S29
S30 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
T
a
b
l
e
6
.
2
S
u
p
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r
p
o
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b
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(
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(
)
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f
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q
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1
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+
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f
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q
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1
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s
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n
P
P
P
y
x
r
P V
1
V
2
V
θ
y
x
V
2
V
1
r
2
r
1
r
V
P
θ
1
θ
2
(
a
,
0
)
(
–
a
,
0
)
y
x
V
2
(
×
3
)
V
3
V
1
(
×
3
)
r
2
r
1
r
V
P
θ
θ
1
θ
2
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S30
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S31
T
a
b
l
e
6
.
2
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p
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t
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l
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s
(
c
o
n
t
’
d
)
V
o
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t
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x
(
c
l
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c
k
w
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s
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)
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n
d
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f
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m
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(
ﬂ
o
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p
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l
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d
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)
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o
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b
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t
,
V
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t
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x
(
c
l
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k
w
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)
,
a
n
d
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f
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)
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a
U
r
K
U
r
U
r
ar
K
<
−
+
−
−
+
j( ,
\, (
+
⌳
⌳
;
c
o
s
c
o
s
c
o
s
4
2
1
2
22
+
+
+
+
−
+
−
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u
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1
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\, (
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v
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+
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\,
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\, (
U
r
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+
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1
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⌳
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\, (
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\, (
U
r
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a
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⌳
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n
s
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n
1
22
+
+
−
+
−
+
d
u
f
r
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r
U
r
1
2
⌳
⌳
s
i
n
s
i
n
s
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n
+
+
−
−
v
u
f
K
U
x
K
U
r
1
2
2
2
c
o
s
+
+
+
+
v
u
f
K
r
U
y
K
r
U
r
1
2
2
2
l
l
n
n
s
i
n
P
P
P
y
x
V
1
V
2
P
r
V
θ
y
x
V
1
V
2
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r
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θ
y
x
V
1
V
2
V
3
P
r
V
θ
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S31
S32 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
T
a
b
l
e
6
.
2
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p
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r
p
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d
.
)
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(
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p
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)
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(
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2
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r
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r
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rr
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l
n
n
n
+
+
−
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+
+
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i
s
i
q
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r
q
r
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vv
1
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2
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l
l
n
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+
+
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+
+
−
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o
s
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q
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r
q
r
K
vv
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 l
l
n
n
P
P
P
y
x
r
V
P
V
1
V
2
θ
y
x
r
V
P
V
1
V
2θ
y
x
r
2
r
1
1
V
1
V
2
P
V
θ
2
θ
(
a
,
0
)
(
–
a
,
0
)
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S32
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S33
body experiences drag—the d’Alembert paradox of 1752—a result completely
counter to experience. Prandtl, in 1904, resolved this discrepancy by describing how
real ﬂows may be essentially inviscid almost everywhere, but there is always a
“boundary layer” adjacent to the body. In this layer signiﬁcant viscous effects occur,
and the noslip condition is satisﬁed (in potential ﬂow theory the noslip condition is
not satisﬁed). Development of this concept, and the Wright brothers’ historic ﬁrst hu
man ﬂight, led to rapid developments in aeronautics starting in the 1900s. We will
study boundary layers in detail in Chapter 9, where we will see that their existence
leads to drag on bodies, and also affects on the lift of bodies.
An alternative superposition approach is the inverse method in which distributions
of objects such as sources, sinks, and vortices are used to model a body [12]. It is called
inverse because the body shape is deduced based on a desired pressure distribution.
Both the direct and inverse methods, including threedimensional space, are today
mostly analyzed using computer applications such as Fluent [13] and STARCD [14].
EXAMPLE 6.11 Flow over a Cylinder: Superposition of Doublet and Uniform Flow
For twodimensional, incompressible, irrotational ﬂow, the superposition of a doublet
and a uniform ﬂow represents ﬂow around a circular cylinder. Obtain the stream
function and velocity potential for this ﬂow pattern. Find the velocity ﬁeld, locate
the stagnation points and the cylinder surface, and obtain the surface pressure distri
bution. Integrate the pressure distribution to obtain the drag and lift forces on the
circular cylinder.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 6.11
GIVEN: Twodimensional, incompressible, irrotational ﬂow formed from superposition of a doublet and a
uniform ﬂow.
FIND: (a) Stream function and velocity potential.
(b) Velocity ﬁeld.
(c) Stagnation points.
(d) Cylinder surface.
(e) Surface pressure distribution.
(f) Drag force on the circular cylinder.
(g) Lift force on the circular cylinder.
SOLUTION:
Stream functions may be added because the ﬂow ﬁeld is incompressible and irrotational. Thus from Table
6.1, the stream function for the combination is
The velocity potential is
The corresponding velocity components are obtained using Eqs. 6.30 as
V
r r
U
−
∂
∂
− −
1
2
⌳sin
sin
V
r r
U
r
−
∂
∂
− +
⌳cos
cos
2
+ − −
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
d u f
r
Ur
⌳cos
cos
+ − +
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
d u f
r
Ur
⌳sin
sin
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S33
S34 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
The velocity ﬁeld is
Stagnation points are where
Thus
Thus V
ϭ 0 when ϭ 0, .
Stagnation points are (r, ) ϭ (a, 0), (a, ).
Note that V
r
ϭ 0 along r ϭ a, so this represents ﬂow around a circular cylinder, as shown in Table 6.2. Flow is
irrotational, so the Bernoulli equation may be applied between any two points. Applying the equation between
a point far upstream and a point on the surface of the cylinder (neglecting elevation differences), we obtain
Thus,
Along the surface, r ϭ a, and
since ⌳ ϭ Ua
2
. Substituting yields
or
Drag is the force component parallel to the freestream ﬂow
direction. The drag force is given by
since dA ϭ a d b, where b is the length of the cylinder normal
to the diagram. Substituting
F p ab d U ab d
p ab U ab U ab
F
F
D
D
D
− + − −
−
]
]
]
−
]
]
]
+
]
]
]
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
∞
∞
∫ ∫
0
2
1
2
0
2
2 2
0
2
1
2
2
0
2
1
2
2 4
3
3
0
2
1 4
0
cos ( sin ) cos
sin sin sin
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
p p U + −
∞
1
2
2 2
1 4 ( sin ),
F p dA pa d b
D
A
− −
∫ ∫
cos cos
0
2
p p
U
−
−
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
∞
1
2
2
2
1 4
sin
Pressure
distribution
p p U U U − − −
∞
1
2
2 2 2 1
2
2 2
4 1 4 ( sin ) ( sin )
V V
a
U U
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
4 − −
j
(
,
\
,
(
⌳
sin sin
p p U V − −
∞
1
2
2 2
( )
p U p V
∞
+ +
2 2
2 2
Stagnation points
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
V
r
U U
r
− − − +
j
(
,
\
,
(
⌳ ⌳ sin
sin sin
2 2
V r
U
a
r
0 when . Also,
⌳
V
r
U U
r
r
− + −
j
(
,
\
,
(
⌳ ⌳ cos
cos cos
2 2
r
V V e V e
r r
+ ˆ ˆ
0
r r
V V e V e
r
U e
r
U e V
r r r
+ − +
j
(
,
\
,
( + − −
j
(
,
\
,
(
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷
ˆ ˆ
cos
cos ˆ
sin
sin ˆ
⌳ ⌳
2 2
a
p dA
U
p
∞
θ
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S34
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S35
Lift is the force component normal to the freestream ﬂow direction. (By convention, positive lift is an up
ward force.) The lift force is given by
Substituting for p gives
F p ab d U ab d
p ab U ab U ab
F
F
L
L
L
− − −
]
]
]
+
]
]
]
+ −
,
¸
,
]
]
]
← ÷ ÷
∞
∞
∫ ∫
0
2
1
2
0
2
2 2
0
2
1
2
2
0
2
1
2
2
3
0
2
1 4
4
3
4
0
sin ( sin ) sin
cos cos
cos
cos
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
F p dA pa d b
L
A
− −
∫ ∫
( sin ) sin
0
2
This problem illustrates:
How elementary plane ﬂows can be combined to generate
interesting and useful ﬂow patterns.
d’Alembert’s paradox, that potential ﬂows over a body do
not generate drag.
The stream function and pressure distribution are plot
ted in the Excel workbook.
Example 6.12 Flow over a Cylinder with Circulation: Superposition of Doublet,
Uniform Flow, and Clockwise Free Vortex
For twodimensional, incompressible, irrotational ﬂow, the superposition of a dou
blet, a uniform ﬂow, and a free vortex represents the ﬂow around a circular cylinder
with circulation. Obtain the stream function and velocity potential for this ﬂow pat
tern, using a clockwise free vortex. Find the velocity ﬁeld, locate the stagnation
points and the cylinder surface, and obtain the surface pressure distribution. Integrate
the pressure distribution to obtain the drag and lift forces on the circular cylinder. Re
late the lift force on the cylinder to the circulation of the free vortex.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 6.12
GIVEN: Twodimensional, incompressible, irrotational ﬂow formed from superposition of a doublet, a
uniform ﬂow, and a clockwise free vortex.
FIND: (a) Stream function and velocity potential.
(b) Velocity ﬁeld.
(c) Stagnation points.
(d) Cylinder surface.
(e) Surface pressure distribution.
(f) Drag force on the circular cylinder.
(g) Lift force on the circular cylinder.
(h) Lift force in terms of circulation of the free vortex.
SOLUTION:
Stream functions may be added because the ﬂow ﬁeld is incompressible and irrotational. From Table 6.1,
the stream function and velocity potential for a clockwise free vortex are
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S35
S36 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
Using the results of Example Problem 6.11, the stream function for the combination is
The velocity potential for the combination is
The corresponding velocity components are obtained using Eqs. 6.30 as
(1)
(2)
The velocity ﬁeld is
Stagnation points are located where . From Eq. 1,
Thus V
r
ϭ 0 when
The stagnation points are located on r ϭ a. Substituting into Eq. 2 with r ϭ a,
Thus V
ϭ 0 along r ϭ a when
Stagnation points: r ϭ a
− ,
¸
,
]
]
]
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
−
sin
Stagnation points
1
4
K
Ua
sin or sin
−
− ,
¸
,
]
]
]
−
K
Ua
K
Ua 4 4
1
V U
K
a
− −
2
2 sin
V
a
U
K
a
U
U
K
a
− − −
− − −
2
⌳
⌳
⌳
sin
sin
sin
sin
2
2
r a
U
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
⌳
Cylinder surface
V
r
U U
r
r
− + −
j
(
,
\
,
(
⌳ ⌳ cos
cos cos
2 2
r
V V e V e
r r
+ ˆ ˆ
0
r r
V
r
U e
r
U
K
r
e V
r
− +
j
(
,
\
,
( + − − −
j
(
,
\
,
(
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
⌳ ⌳ cos
cos ˆ
sin
sin ˆ
2
2
r
V V e V e
r r
+ ˆ ˆ
V
r r
U
K
r
−
∂
∂
− − −
1
2
2
⌳sin
sin
V
r r
U
r
−
∂
∂
− +
⌳cos
cos
2
− − +
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
⌳cos
cos
r
Ur
K
2
+ +
d uf fv
− + +
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
⌳sin
sin n
r
Ur
K
r
2
l
+ +
d u f f v
f f
K
r
K
v v
2 2
ln
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S36
67 IRROTATIONAL FLOW S37
As in Example Problem 6.11, V
r
ϭ 0 along r ϭ a, so this ﬂow ﬁeld once again represents ﬂow
around a circular cylinder, as shown in Table 6.2. For K ϭ 0 the solution is identical to that of Example
Problem 6.11.
The presence of the free vortex (K Ͼ 0) moves the stagnation points below the center of the cylinder.
Thus the free vortex alters the vertical symmetry of the ﬂow ﬁeld. The ﬂow ﬁeld has two stagnation points
for a range of vortex strengths between K ϭ 0 and K ϭ 4Ua.
A single stagnation point is located at ϭ Ϫ/2 when K ϭ 4Ua.
Even with the free vortex present, the ﬂow ﬁeld is irrotational, so the Bernoulli equation may be ap
plied between any two points. Applying the equation between a point far upstream and a point on the sur
face of the cylinder we obtain
Thus, neglecting elevation differences,
Along the surface r ϭ a and V
r
ϭ 0, so
and
Thus
Drag is the force component parallel to the freestream ﬂow direction. As in Example Problem 6.11,
the drag force is given by
since dA ϭ a d b, where b is the length of the cylinder normal to the diagram.
Comparing pressure distributions, the free vortex contributes only to the terms containing the factor
K. The contribution of these terms to the drag force is
(3)
Lift is the force component normal to the freestream ﬂow direction. (Upward force is deﬁned as posi
tive lift.) The lift force is given by
F p dA pa d b
A
L
− −
∫ ∫
sin sin
0
2
F
U
K
Ua
ab
K
U a
ab
F
D
f
D
v
1
2
2
2
0
2
2
2 2 2
0
2
2
2 4
0
]
]
]
+
]
]
]
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷
sin
sin
F
U
K
Ua
K
U a
ab d
D
fv
1
2
2
2
2 2 2
0
2
2
4
+
j
(
,
\
,
(
∫
sin cos
F p d A pa d b
D
A
− −
∫ ∫
cos cos
0
2
p p U
K
Ua
K
U a
p
+ − − −
j
(
,
\
,
(
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
∞
1
2
1 4
2
4
2 2
2
2 2 2
sin sin
( )
V
U
K
Ua
K
U a
j
(
\
,
+ +
2
2
2
2 2 2
4
2
4
sin sin
V V U
K
a
2 2
2
2
2
− −
j
(
\
,
sin
p p U V U
U
V
− − −
j
(
\
,
,
¸
,
,
]
]
]
]
∞
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
2
( )
p U
gz
p V
gz
∞
+ + + +
2 2
2 2
p
∞
V
θ
a
p
U
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:19 PM Page S37
S38 CHAPTER 6 / INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
Comparing pressure distributions, the free vortex contributes only to the terms containing the factor K. The
contribution of these terms to the lift force is
The circulation is deﬁned by Eq. 5.18 as
On the cylinder surface, r ϭ a, and so
Substituting into the expression for lift,
or the lift force per unit length of cylinder is
F
b
U
L
−
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
⌫
L
F
b
F UKb U b U b
L
− − ( ) ⌫ ⌫
⌫
⌫
− −
j
(
\
,
⋅
− −
−
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
∫
∫ ∫
2
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
U
K
a
e a d e
Ua d
K
d
K
sin ˆ ˆ
sin
Circulation
r
V V e
ˆ ,
⌫ ϵ
͵
V и ds
Thus, F UKb
F
L
f
L
v
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
F
U
K
Ua
K
U a
ab d
K
Ua
ab d
K
U a
ab d
Kb
U
K b
U a
F
L
L
f
v
1
2
2
2
2 2 2
0
2
2
2
2 2 2
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2 2
0
2
2
4
2
4
2
2 4 4
+
j
(
,
\
,
(
+
−
,
¸
,
]
]
]
−
]
]
]
∫
∫ ∫
sin sin
sin sin
sin
cos
ff
U
Kb
U
Kb
U
v
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
,
¸
,
]
]
]
This problem illustrates:
Once again d’Alembert’s paradox, that potential ﬂows do
not generate drag on a body.
That the lift per unit length is −U⌫. It turns out that this
expression for lift is the same for all bodies in an ideal
ﬂuid ﬂow, regardless of shape!
The stream function and pressure distribution are plotted
in the Excel workbook.
42757_06CD_pS18S38 4/14/03 3:20 PM Page S38
93 LAMINAR FLATPLATE BOUNDARY LAYER: EXACT SOLUTION S39
93 LAMINAR FLATPLATE BOUNDARY LAYER: EXACT SOLUTION
The solution for the laminar boundary layer on a horizontal ﬂat plate was obtained by
Prandtl’s student H. Blasius [2] in 1908. For twodimensional, steady, incompressible
ﬂow with zero pressure gradient, the governing equations of motion (Eqs. 5.27) re
duce to [3]
(9.3)
(9.4)
with boundary conditions
at y ϭ 0, u ϭ 0, v ϭ 0
at y ϭ ϱ, u ϭ U, ϭ 0
(9.5)
Equations 9.3 and 9.4, with boundary conditions Eq. 9.5 are a set of nonlinear, cou
pled, partial differential equations for the unknown velocity ﬁeld u and v. To solve
them, Blasius reasoned that the velocity proﬁle, u/U, should be similar for all values
of x when plotted versus a nondimensional distance from the wall; the boundary
layer thickness, ␦, was a natural choice for nondimensionalizing the distance from
the wall. Thus the solution is of the form
(9.6)
Based on the solution of Stokes [4], Blasius reasoned that ␦ ϰ and set
(9.7)
We now introduce the stream function, , where
(5.4)
satisﬁes the continuity equation (Eq. 9.3) identically. Substituting for u and v into Eq.
9.4 reduces the equation to one in which is the single dependent variable. Deﬁning
a dimensionless stream function as
(9.8)
makes f () the dependent variable and the independent variable in Eq. 9.4. With de
ﬁned by Eq. 9.8 and deﬁned by Eq. 9.7, we can evaluate each of the terms in Eq. 9.4.
The velocity components are given by
(9.9)
u
y y
xU
df
d
U
x
U
df
d
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
f
xU
( )
u
y x
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
and v
y
U
x
x U
u
U
g
y
∝ ( ) where
␦
∂
∂
u
y
u
u
x
u
y
u
y
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
∂
∂
v
2
2
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
u
x y
v
0
42757_09CD_pS39S43 4/15/03 7:22 AM Page S39
S40 CHAPTER 9 / EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW
and
or
(9.10)
By differentiating the velocity components, it also can be shown that
and
Substituting these expressions into Eq. 9.4, we obtain
(9.11)
with boundary conditions:
(9.12)
The secondorder partial differential equations governing the growth of the laminar
boundary layer on a ﬂat plate (Eqs. 9.3 and 9.4) have been transformed to a nonlin
ear, thirdorder ordinary differential equation (Eq. 9.11) with boundary conditions
given by Eq. 9.12. It is not possible to solve Eq. 9.11 in closed form; Blasius solved it
using a power series expansion about ϭ 0 matched to an asymptotic expansion for
: ϱ . The same equation later was solved more precisely—again using numeri
cal methods —by Howarth [5], who reported results to 5 decimal places. The numeri
cal values of f, df /d, and d
2
f /d
2
in Table 9.1 were calculated with a personal com
puter using 4thorder RungeKutta numerical integration.
The velocity proﬁle is obtained in dimensionless form by plotting u/U versus ,
using values from Table 9.1. The resulting proﬁle is sketched in Fig. 9.3b. Velocity
proﬁles measured experimentally are in excellent agreement with the analytical solu
tion. Proﬁles from all locations on a ﬂat plate are similar; they collapse to a single
proﬁle when plotted in nondimensional coordinates.
From Table 9.1, we see that at ϭ 5.0, u/U ϭ 0.992. With the boundarylayer
thickness, ␦, deﬁned as the value of y for which u/U ϭ 0.99, Eq. 9.7 gives
(9.13) ␦
≈
5 0 5 0 . .
U x
x
x
Re
at
→ ∞ ,
df
d
1
at
0 0 , f
df
d
2 0
3
3
2
2
d f
d
f
d f
d
+
∂
∂
2
2
2 3
3
u
y
U
x
d f
d
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
u
x
U
x
d f
d
u
y
U U x
d f
d
2
2
2
2
2
v −
,
¸
,
]
]
]
1
2
U
x
df
d
f
v −
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
− −
j
(
\
,
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
x
xU
f
x
U
x
f xU
df
d x
U
x
f
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
42757_09CD_pS39S43 4/15/03 7:22 AM Page S40
93 LAMINAR FLATPLATE BOUNDARY LAYER: EXACT SOLUTION S41
The wall shear stress may be expressed as
Then
(9.14)
and the wall shear stress coefﬁcient, C
f
, is given by
(9.15)
Each of the results for boundarylayer thickness, ␦, wall shear stress,
w
, and
skin friction coefﬁcient, C
f
, Eqs. 9.13 through 9.15, depends on the length Reynolds
number, Re
x
, to the onehalf power. The boundarylayer thickness increases as x
1/2
,
and the wall shear stress and skin friction coefﬁcient vary as 1/x
1/2
. These results
characterize the behavior of the laminar boundary layer on a ﬂat plate.
EXAMPLE 9.2 Laminar Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate: Exact Solution
Use the numerical results presented in Table 9.1 to evaluate the following quantities
for laminar boundarylayer ﬂow on a ﬂat plate:
(a) ␦*/␦ (for ϭ 5 and as :ϱ).
(b) v/U at the boundarylayer edge.
(c) Ratio of the slope of a streamline at the boundarylayer edge to the slope of ␦ versus x.
C
U Re
f
w
x
1
2
2
0 664 .
w
x
U U x
U
Re
0 332
0 332
2
.
.
w
y
u
y
U U x
d f
d
∂
∂
]
]
]
]
]
]
0
2
2
0
Table 9.1 The Function f() for the Laminar Boundary Layer along a Flat Plate at
Zero Incidence
f fЈ
0 0 0 0.3321
0.5 0.0415 0.1659 0.3309
1.0 0.1656 0.3298 0.3230
1.5 0.3701 0.4868 0.3026
2.0 0.6500 0.6298 0.2668
2.5 0.9963 0.7513 0.2174
3.0 1.3968 0.8460 0.1614
3.5 1.8377 0.9130 0.1078
4.0 2.3057 0.9555 0.0642
4.5 2.7901 0.9795 0.0340
5.0 3.2833 0.9915 0.0159
5.5 3.7806 0.9969 0.0066
6.0 4.2796 0.9990 0.0024
6.5 4.7793 0.9997 0.0008
7.0 5.2792 0.9999 0.0002
7.5 5.7792 1.0000 0.0001
8.0 6.2792 1.0000 0.0000
′ f
u
U
y
U
x
42757_09CD_pS39S43 4/15/03 7:22 AM Page S41
S42 CHAPTER 9 / EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 9.2
GIVEN: Numerical solution for laminar ﬂatplate boundary layer, Table 9.1.
FIND: (a) ␦
*
/␦ (for ϭ 5 and as :ϱ).
(b) v/U at boundarylayer edge.
(c) Ratio of the slope of a streamline at the boundarylayer edge to the slope of ␦ versus x.
SOLUTION:
The displacement thickness is deﬁned by Eq. 9.1 as
In order to use the Blasius exact solution to evaluate this integral, we need to convert it from one involving u and
y to one involving f Ј (ϭu/U) and variables. From Eq. 9.7,
Thus,
(1)
Note: Corresponding to the upper limit on y in Eq. 9.1,
max
ϭ ϱ, or
max
Ϸ 5.
From Eq. 9.13,
so if we divide each side of Eq. 1 by each side of Eq. 9.13, we obtain (with f Ј ϭ df/d)
Integrating gives
Evaluating at
max
ϭ 5, we obtain
The quantity Ϫ f () becomes constant for Ͼ 7. Evaluating at
max
ϭ 8 gives
Thus, ␦*
:ϱ
is 0.24 percent larger than ␦*
ϭ5
и
From Eq. 9.10,
v
v
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
1
2
1
2
1
2
U
x
df
d
f
U Ux
df
d
f
Re
df
d
f
x
, so
␦
␦
*
( ) → ∞
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
␦
␦
*
( . . ) . −
1
5
8 0 6 2792 0 344
␦
␦
␦
␦
*
( . . ) .
*
( ) −
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
1
5
5 0 3 2833 0 343 5
␦
␦
*
( )
max
− [ ]
1
5
0
f
␦
␦
*
max
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
∫
1
5
1
0
df
d
d
␦
≈
5
U x
␦
* ( ) ( )
max max
− −
∫ ∫
1 1
0 0
f
x
U
d
x
U
f d Ј Ј
y
U
x
y
x
U
dy d
x
U
, so and
␦
␦
* −
j
(
\
,
≈ −
j
(
\
,
∫ ∫
∞
1 1
0 0
u
U
dy
u
U
dy
42757_09CD_pS39S43 4/15/03 7:22 AM Page S42
93 LAMINAR FLATPLATE BOUNDARY LAYER: EXACT SOLUTION S43
Evaluating at the boundarylayer edge ( ϭ 5), we obtain
Thus v is only 0.84 percent of U at Re
x
ϭ 10
4
, and only about 0.12 percent of U at Re
x
ϭ 5 ϫ 10
5
.
The slope of a streamline at the boundarylayer edge is
The slope of the boundarylayer edge may be obtained from Eq. 9.13,
so
This result indicates that the slope of the streamlines is about 1/3 of the slope of the boundary layer
edge—the streamlines penetrate the boundary layer, as sketched below:
Thus
.
.
.
streamline streamline
dy
dx
d
dx
d
dx
dy
dx
\
,
\
,
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
0 84
2 5
0 336
␦ ␦
d
dx U
x
Ux Re
x
␦
−
5
1
2
2 5
2 5
1 2
.
.
␦
≈
5
5
U x
x
U
dy
dx u U Re
x
\
,
≈
streamline
. v v 0 84
v v
U Re Re Re U
x x x
− ≈
← ÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
1
2
5 0 9915 3 2833
0 837 0 84
5
[ ( . ) . ]
. .
( )
U U
u
δ
This problem illustrates use of numerical data from the Bla
sius solution to obtain other information on a ﬂat plate lami
nar boundary layer, including the result that the edge of the
boundary layer is not a streamline.
42757_09CD_pS39S43 4/15/03 7:22 AM Page S43
S44 CHAPTER 12 / COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
123 FLOW IN A CONSTANTAREA DUCT WITH FRICTION (continued)
Isothermal Flow
Gas ﬂow in long constantarea ducts, such as natural gas pipelines, is essentially
isothermal. Mach numbers in such ﬂows are generally low, but signiﬁcant pressure
changes can occur as a result of frictional effects acting over long duct lengths.
Hence, such ﬂows cannot be treated as incompressible. The assumption of isothermal
ﬂow is much more appropriate.
For isothermal ﬂow with friction (as opposed to the adiabatic ﬂow with friction we
previously discussed), the heat transfer ␦Q/dm is not zero. On the other hand, we have
the simpliﬁcation that the temperature is constant everywhere. As for adiabatic ﬂow,
we can start with our set of basic equations (Eqs. 12.1), describing onedimensional
ﬂow that is affected by area change, friction, heat transfer, and normal shocks,
1
V
1
A
1
ϭ
2
V
2
A
2
ϭVA ϭ ϭconstant (12.1a)
R
x
ϩp
1
A
1
Ϫp
2
A
2
ϭ V
2
Ϫ V
1
(12.1b)
(12.1c)
(12.1d)
p ϭRT (12.1e)
⌬h ϭh
2
Ϫh
1
ϭc
p
⌬T ϭc
p
(T
2
ϪT
1
) (12.1f)
(12.1g)
We can simplify these equations by setting ⌬T ϭ 0, so T
1
ϭ T
2
, and A
1
ϭ A
2
ϭ A. In
addition we recall from Section 121 that the combination, h ϩ V
2
/2 is the stagnation
enthalpy, h
0
. Using these, our ﬁnal set of equations (renumbered for convenience) is
(12.22a)
(12.22b)
(12.22c)
(12.22d)
(12.22e)
(12.22f)
Equations 12.22 can be used to analyze frictional isothermal ﬂow in a channel of
constant area. For example, if we know conditions at section (i.e., p
1
,
1
, T
1
, s
1
,
h
1
, and V
1
) we can use these equations to ﬁnd conditions at some new section 2
1
⌬s s s R
p
p
− −
2 1
2
1
ln
p RT
˙ ( )
˙
CS
m s s
T
Q
A
dA
2 1
1
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
∫
Ն
q
Q
dm
h h
V V
−
− ␦
0 0
2
2
1
2
2 1
2
R p A p A mV mV
x
+ − −
1 2 2 1
˙ ˙
1 1 2 2
V V V G
m
A
˙
constant
⌬s s s c
T
T
R
p
p
p
− −
2 1
2
1
2
1
ln ln
˙ ( )
˙
CS
m s s
T
Q
A
dA
2 1
1
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
∫
Ն
␦Q
dm
h
V
h
V
+ + +
1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
˙ m ˙ m
˙ m
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S44
123 FLOW IN A CONSTANTAREA DUCT WITH FRICTION S45
after the ﬂuid has experienced a total friction force R
x
. We have ﬁve equations (not
including the constraint of Eq. 12.22d) and ﬁve unknowns (p
2
,
2
, s
2
, V
2
, and the heat
transfer q that was necessary to maintain isothermal conditions). As we have seen be
fore, in practice this procedure is unwieldy—we once again have a set of nonlinear,
coupled algebraic equations to solve.
Before doing any calculations, we can see that the Ts diagram for this process
will be simply a horizontal line passing through state . To see in detail what hap
pens to the ﬂow, in addition to Eqs. 12.22, we can develop property relations as func
tions of the Mach number. For isothermal ﬂow, c ϭ constant, so V
2
/V
1
ϭ M
2
/M
1
, and
from Eq. 12.22a we have
Combining with the ideal gas equation, Eq. 12.22e, we obtain
(12.23)
At each state we can relate the local temperature to its stagnation temperature using
Eq. 11.20b,
(11.20b)
Applying this to states and , with the fact that T
1
ϭ T
2
, we obtain
(12.24)
To determine the variation in Mach number along the duct length, it is necessary
to consider the differential momentum equation for ﬂow with friction. The analysis
leading to Eq. 12.18 is valid for isothermal ﬂow. Since T ϭ constant for isothermal
ﬂow, then from Eq. 12.18, with dT ϭ 0,
and
(12.25)
Equation 12.25 shows (set dx ϭ 0) that the Mach number at which maximum length
L
max
is reached is M ϭ 1/ . Since T is constant, then the friction factor, f ϭ f (Re),
is also constant. Integration of Eq. 12.25 between the limits of M ϭ M at x ϭ 0 and
M ϭ 1/ at x ϭ L
max
, where L
max
is the distance beyond which the isothermal ﬂow
may not proceed, gives
(12.26)
f L
D
kM
kM
kM
h
max
ln
−
+
1
2
2
2
k
k
f
D
dx
kM d M
kM
h
− ( ) ( ) 1
2 2
4
f
D
kM
dx
kM d M
M
h
2 2 2
2
2
1
2
−
j
(
,
\
,
(
( )
T
T
k
M
k
M
0
0
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
+
−
+
−
2 1
T
T
k
M
0 2
1
1
2
+
−
p
p
V
V
M
M
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
V
V
M
M
1
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S45
S46 CHAPTER 12 / COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
The duct length, L, required for the ﬂow Mach number to change from M
1
to M
2
can be obtained from
(12.27)
The distribution of heat exchange along the duct required to maintain isothermal
ﬂow can be determined from the differential form of Eq. 12.22c as
or, since T ϭ constant,
Substituting for dM
2
from Eq. 12.25,
(12.28)
From Eq. 12.28 we note that as M :1/ , then dq/dx : ϱ . Thus, an inﬁnite rate
of heat exchange is required to maintain isothermal ﬂow as the Mach number ap
proaches the limiting value. Hence, we conclude that isothermal acceleration of ﬂow
in a constantarea duct is only physically possible for ﬂow at low Mach number.
We summarize the set of Mach number –based equations (Eqs. 12.23, 12.24, and
12.27, respectively, renumbered) we can use for analysis of isothermal ﬂow of an
ideal gas in a duct with friction:
(12.29a)
(12.29b)
(12.29c)
126 SUPERSONIC CHANNEL FLOW WITH SHOCKS (continued)
Supersonic Diffuser
Analysis of the effects of area change in isentropic ﬂow (Section 122) showed that a
converging channel reduces the speed of a supersonic stream; a converging channel is a
f L
D
kM
kM
kM
kM
M
M
h
−
−
−
+
1 1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
ln
T
T
k
M
k
M
0
0
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
+
−
+
−
p
p
V
V
M
M
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
k
dq
c T k kM
k
M kM
f
D
dx
p
h
−
+
−
j
(
\
,
−
0
4
2 2
1
2 1
1
2
1
( )
( )
dq c T
k
dM
c T k
k
M
dM
p
p
−
j
(
\
,
−
+
−
j
(
\
,
1
2
1
2 1
1
2
2 0
2
2
( )
dq dh c dT c d T
k
M
p p
+
−
j
(
\
,
,
¸
,
]
]
]
0 0
2
1
1
2
f
L
D
f
L L
D
f
L
D
kM
kM
kM
kM
M
M
h h
h
−
−
−
−
+
max max
ln
1 2
1 1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S46
126 SUPERSONIC CHANNEL FLOW WITH SHOCKS S47
2
Boundary layers develop rapidly in adverse pressure gradients, so viscous effects may be important or
even dominant. In the presence of thick boundary layers, supersonic ﬂows in diffusers may form com
plicated systems of oblique and normal shocks.
supersonic diffuser. Because ﬂow speed decreases, pressure rises in the ﬂow direction,
creating an adverse pressure gradient. Isentropic ﬂow is not a completely accurate
model for ﬂow with an adverse pressure gradient,
2
but the isentropic ﬂow model with a
normal shock may be used to demonstrate the basic features of supersonic diffusion.
For isentropic ﬂow, a shock cannot stand in a stable position in a converging
passage; a shock may stand stably only in a diverging passage. Real ﬂow near M ϭ 1
is unstable, so it is not possible to reduce a supersonic ﬂow exactly to sonic speed.
The minimum Mach number that can be reached at a throat is 1.2 to 1.3.
Thus in real supersonic diffusers, ﬂow is decelerated to M Ϸ 1.3 in a converging
passage. Downstream from the throat section of minimum area, the ﬂow is allowed to
accelerate to M Ϸ 1.4, where a normal shock takes place. At this Mach number, the
stagnation pressure loss (from Eq. 12.41b) is only about 4 percent. This small loss is
an acceptable compromise in exchange for ﬂow stability.
Figure 12.22 shows the idealized process of supersonic diffusion, in which ﬂow
is isentropic except across a normal shock. The slight reduction in stagnation pres
sure all takes place across the shock.
In the actual ﬂow, additional losses in stagnation pressure occur during the super
sonic and subsonic diffusion processes before and after the shock. Experimental data
must be used to predict the actual losses in supersonic and subsonic diffusers [3, 4].
Supersonic diffusion also is important for highspeed aircraft, where a super
sonic external freestream ﬂow must be decelerated efﬁciently to subsonic speed.
Some diffusion can occur outside the inlet by means of a weak oblique shock system
[5]. Variable geometry may be needed to accomplish efﬁcient supersonic diffusion
within the inlet as the ﬂight Mach number varies. Multidimensional compressible
ﬂows are discussed in Section 127, and are treated in detail elsewhere [6, 7].
4
5
3 2 1
Flow
4
3 2
1
5
p
1
p
0
1
p
0
4
p
1
*
T
1
T
0
= constant
T* = constant
T
s
Fig. 12.22 Schematic Ts diagram for ﬂow in a
supersonic diffuser with a normal shock.
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S47
S48 CHAPTER 12 / COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
Supersonic Wind Tunnel Operation
To build an efﬁcient supersonic wind tunnel, it is necessary to understand shock be
havior and to control shock location. The basic physical phenomena are described by
Coles in the NCFMF video Channel Flow of a Compressible Fluid. In addition to
choking—sonic ﬂow at a throat, with upstream ﬂow independent of downstream condi
tions—Coles discusses blocking and starting conditions for supersonic wind tunnels.
A closedcircuit supersonic wind tunnel must have a convergingdiverging nozzle
to accelerate ﬂow to supersonic speed, followed by a test section of nearly constant area,
and then a supersonic diffuser with a second throat. The circuit must be completed by
compression machinery, coolers, and ﬂowcontrol devices, as shown in Fig. 12.23 [9].
Consider the process of accelerating ﬂow from rest to supersonic speed in the
test section. Soon after ﬂow at the nozzle throat becomes sonic, a shock wave forms
in the divergence. The shock attains its maximum strength when it reaches the nozzle
exit plane. Consequently, to start the tunnel and achieve steady supersonic ﬂow in the
test section, the shock must move through the second throat and into the subsonic dif
fuser. When this occurs, we say the shock has been swallowed by the second throat.
Consequently, to start the tunnel, the supersonic diffuser throat must be larger than
the nozzle throat. The second throat must be large enough to exceed the critical area
for ﬂow downstream from the strongest possible shock.
Blocking occurs when the second throat is not large enough to swallow the
shock. When the channel is blocked, ﬂow is sonic at both throats and ﬂow in the test
Fig. 12.23 Schematic view of NASAAmes closedcircuit, highspeed wind tunnel with sup
porting facilities [9]. (Photo courtesy of NASA.)
A. Dry Air Storage Spheres G. Cooling Tower
B. Aftercooler H. Flow Diversion Valve
C. 3Stage Axial Flow Fan I. Aftercooler
D. Drive Motors J. 11Stage Axial Flow Compressor
E. Flow Diverson Valve K. 9 by 7Foot Supersonic Test Section
F. 8 by 7Foot Supersonic Test Section L. 11 by 11Foot Transonic Test Section
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S48
126 SUPERSONIC CHANNEL FLOW WITH SHOCKS S49
section is subsonic; ﬂow in the test section cannot be controlled by varying condi
tions downstream from the supersonic diffuser.
When the tunnel is running there is no shock in the nozzle or test section, so the en
ergy dissipation is much reduced. The second throat area may be reduced slightly during
running to improve the diffuser efﬁciency. The compressor pressure ratio may be
adjusted to move the shock in the subsonic diffuser to a lower Mach number. A combi
nation of adjustable second throat and pressure ratio control may be used to achieve
optimum running conditions for the tunnel. Small differences in efﬁciency are important
when the tunnel drive system may consume more than half a million kilowatts [10]!
Supersonic Flow with Friction in a ConstantArea Channel
Flow in a constantarea channel with friction is dominated by viscous effects. Even
when the main ﬂow is supersonic, the noslip condition at the channel wall guarantees
subsonic ﬂow near the wall. Consequently, supersonic ﬂow in constantarea channels
may form complicated systems of oblique and normal shocks. However, the basic be
havior of adiabatic supersonic ﬂow with friction in a constantarea channel is revealed
by considering the simpler case of normalshock formation in Fannoline ﬂow.
Supersonic ﬂow along the Fanno line becomes choked after only a short length of
duct, because at high speed the effects of friction are pronounced. Figure E.2 (Appendix
E) shows that the limiting value of L
max
/D
h
is less than one; subsonic ﬂows can have
much longer runs. Thus when choking results from friction and duct length is increased
further, the supersonic ﬂow shocks down to subsonic to match downstream conditions.
The Ts diagrams in Figs. 12.24a through 12.24d illustrate what happens when
the length of constantarea duct, fed by a convergingdiverging nozzle supplied from
a reservoir with constant stagnation conditions, is increased. Supersonic ﬂow on the
Fanno line of Fig. 12.24a is choked by friction when the duct length is L
a
. When
additional duct is added to produce L
b
Ͼ L
a
, Fig. 12.24b, a normal shock appears.
Flow upstream from the shock does not change, because it is supersonic (no change
in downstream condition can affect the supersonic ﬂow before the shock).
In Fig. 12.24b the shock is shown in an arbitrary position. The shock moves to
ward the entrance of the constantarea channel (toward higher initial Mach number)
as more duct is added.
Flow remains on the same Fanno line as the shock is driven upstream to state
by adding duct length; thus the mass ﬂow rate remains unchanged. The duct length,
L
c
, which moves the shock into the channel entrance plane, Fig. 12.24c, may be cal
culated directly using the methods of Section 123.
When duct length L
c
is exceeded, the shock is driven back into the CD nozzle,
Fig. 12.24d. The mass ﬂow rate remains constant until the shock reaches the nozzle
throat. Only when more duct is added after the shock reaches the throat does the
mass ﬂow rate decrease, and the ﬂow move to a new Fanno line.
If the shock position is known, ﬂow properties at each section and the duct
length can be calculated directly. When length is speciﬁed and shock location is to be
determined, iteration is necessary.
Supersonic Flow with Heat Addition in a ConstantArea Channel
Supersonic ﬂow with heat addition in a frictionless channel of constant area is shown
in Fig. 12.25a. Assume the channel is fed by a convergingdiverging nozzle, supplied
from a reservoir with constant stagnation conditions, and ﬂow is supersonic at state
. Heat addition causes state points to move up and to the right along the Rayleigh 1
1
f
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S49
S50 CHAPTER 12 / COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
line. Fig. 12.25a illustrates the condition in which the heat addition is just sufﬁcient to
choke the ﬂow. Flow is sonic at the exit, so p
e
ϭ p* and T
e
ϭ T*; the heat addition per
unit mass, T ds, is represented by the shaded area beneath the Rayleigh line.
A normal shock involves no heat addition, so T
0
is constant across a shock. Con
sequently, a shock in the constantarea channel would not change the heat addition
s
s
e
1
∫
1
1
*
T
0
p
0
p
1
p*
p
0
*
p
0
1
T* = constant
T
0
= constant
T
1
L
a
1
*
T
0
p
0
L
a
L
b
Shock
1
*
T
0
p
0
L
a
L
c
1
1
y
y
x
x
*
T
0
p
0
L
a
L
d
Shock
Process path
T
s
(a) Choked supersonic flow in channel.
1 p
1
p*
p
0
*
p
0
1
T* = constant
T
0
= constant
T
1
T
s
(b) Choked flow in channel with shock.
M > 1
M < 1
M = 1
Shock
M = 1
M < 1
1 p
1
p*
p
0
*
p
0
1
T* = constant
T
0
= constant
T
1
T
1
p
1
T
s
(c) Choked flow with shock in nozzle exit
plane.
p*
p
0
*
p
0
p
0
1
T* = constant
T
0
= constant
T
s
(d) Choked flow with shock in nozzle; subsonic
flow in channel.
Fig. 12.24 Schematic Ts diagrams for supersonic Fannoline ﬂows with normal shocks.
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S50
t e
1
1
M > 1 M > 1
M
t
= 1 M
e
= 1 M
1
= 2
p
0
1
T
0
1
t
8 7
M < 1 M < 1
M
t
< 1 M
8
= 1 M
7
= 0.35
p
0
1
T
0
1
t e
2 1
M < 1 M > 1
M
t
= 1 M
e
= 1
p
0
1
T
0
1
4 5 6 3
M < 1
M < 1 M > 1
M
t
= 1 M
4
= 0.701 M
6
= 1
M
3
= 1.5 M
5
= 0.407
p
0
1
T
0
1
p
0
1
T
0
1
T
1
p
1
T
0
e
p
0
e p
e
T
e
0
0
400
800
1200
1 2
Nondimensional entropy, (s* – s)/R
3
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
(
K
)
(a) Choked supersonic flow.
0
800
1600
2000
1 2
Nondimensional entropy, (s* – s)/R
3
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
(
K
)
(c) Choked flow with shock in nozzle; same
mass flow rate, but flow shifts to a new
Rayleigh line.
p
0
1
p
0
2
T
0
1
T
1
p
1
p
2
T
2
T
0
e
p
0
e
p
e
T
e
0
0
400
800
1200
1 2
Nondimensional entropy, (s* – s)/R
3
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
(
K
)
(b) Choked flow with shock at nozzle exit
plane.
0
800
400 400
1200 1200
1600
2000
1 2
Nondimensional entropy, (s* – s)/R
3
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,
(
K
)
(d) Subsonic flow throughout; decreased mass flow
rate and flow shifted to another new Rayleigh
line.
p
0
6
p
6
T
5
T
4
T
3
T
t
T
6
T
0
6
T
0
4
p
0
1
p
0
2
p
3
T
0
1
p
0
8
p
0
1
T
0
1
p
8
T
8
T
7
T
t
T
0
8
t
Fig. 12.25 Schematic Ts diagrams for supersonic Rayleighline ﬂows with normal shocks.
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S51
S52 CHAPTER 12 / COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
required to change the ﬂow state from the inlet condition to choking. When the shock
stands at the channel inlet, Fig. 12.25b, the heat addition needed to reach Mach one
at the exit is the same as in Fig. 12.25a; the shaded areas also must be identical.
If more thermal energy is added to ﬂow at the conditions shown in Fig. 12.25b,
the shock will be pushed from the entrance of the constantarea duct back into the di
verging portion of the nozzle, where the Mach number is lower.
With a shock in the nozzle, conditions at the duct entrance are changed, and heat
addition occurs along a different Rayleigh line, as shown in Fig. 12.25c. There is no
change in T
0
or T* across the shock (thus T
0
3
ϭ T
0
4
and T
3
* ϭ T*
4
), but the Mach
number downstream changes. Additional subsonic diffusion occurs from state to
the nozzle exit (state ), thus moving the choked condition upward on the Ts plane,
allowing for increased heat addition on the new Rayleigh line. All of these changes
occur at the same mass ﬂow rate, because nozzle throat conditions remain un
changed.
The Mach number immediately upstream from the shock (state ) is less than
M
1
of Fig. 12.25b; the corresponding temperature, T
3
, is higher than T
1
. Since the shock
strength is reduced, the entropy rise across the shock is less, (s
4
Ϫ s
3
) Ͻ (s
2
Ϫ s
1
). The
subsonic diffusion following the shock results in a lower Mach number and higher
temperature at the duct entrance. Thus M
5
Ͻ M
2
and T
5
Ͼ T
2
.
When the heat addition rate is increased enough to drive the shock to the nozzle
throat, a further increase in heat addition will result in a decrease in mass ﬂow rate.
The Mach number at the channel inlet is reduced, M
7
Ͻ M
5
, and the channel ﬂow
shifts to another new Rayleigh line, as shown in Fig. 12.25d.
Thus for speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate, there is a maximum rate of heat addition for
supersonic ﬂow throughout. For higher rates of heat addition, a shock occurs in the
nozzle and ﬂow is subsonic in the constantarea channel, but the exit ﬂow remains
sonic. If the shock position is speciﬁed, the heat addition along the Rayleigh line can
be calculated directly. If the heat addition is speciﬁed but the shock position or mass
ﬂow rate are unknown, iteration is required to obtain a solution.
Additional consideration of ﬂow with shock waves is given in [11].
3
5
4
42757_12CD_pS44S52 4/15/03 7:28 AM Page S52
S53
Appendix H
A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT
EXCEL
INTRODUCTION
Microsoft Excel is one of several available spreadsheet applications. All of these
spreadsheets work in a very similar fashion, with minor variations in syntax and
builtin features, so that most of our discussion of Excel will be directly applicable to
other spreadsheet applications.
There are several versions of Excel in widespread use (e.g., Excel XP, Excel
2000, Excel 98, even Excel 97); we will use Excel 2000, again with the understanding
that most current versions are 100% compatible, and that most menu items are un
changed from version to version.
In this brief review we will discuss such fundamental features as how to create
formulas, how to format cells, how to create graphs, and so on. The review of these
fundamentals will presuppose that you are familiar with the Windows environment,
and it will be brief —more detailed explanations are available from a number of
sources, e.g., [1], [2], as well as from Excel’s builtin Help. We will then go on to
explore use of Excel’s Goal Seek and Solver features, and more sophisticated, less
commonly used features such as use of macros and custom functions using Excel’s
builtin Visual Basic for Applications (VBA).
INSTALLING EXCEL FEATURES
We assume that you already have Excel installed on your personal computer (PC) —
it comes with many different versions of Microsoft Ofﬁce. If not, you may purchase a
standalone copy or a version of Ofﬁce that includes it (and note that your college
bookstore will have heavily discounted academic versions available!); simply follow
the default instructions for installation.
Although spreadsheets were initially developed for use in business for such
things as tabulating and analyzing ﬁnancial data, they are now so computationally
powerful that engineers and scientists are increasingly using them. Because the ma
jority of users are still people such as accountants, the standard or default installation
of Excel does not include some features that engineers and scientists ﬁnd useful. (In a
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S54 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
similar way default installation of the word processor Microsoft Word does not in
clude the equationcreating component, which in Word is called the Equation Editor.)
As an engineer you will ﬁnd useful some features of Excel’s Analysis Toolpak, Visual
Basic for Applications (VBA), and we will use its Solver, so we will install them. The
Analysis Toolpak has some useful mathematical features such as regression analysis;
VBA is used for creating custom functions; the Solver will be very useful for solving
equations, optimizing a function, and so on.
To install these, use the following steps:
Quit all programs.
On the Windows Start menu, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.
Doubleclick the Add/Remove Programs icon.
Next, do one of the following:
o If you installed Excel with Ofﬁce, click Ofﬁce on the Install/Uninstall tab, and
then click Add/Remove.
o If you installed only Excel, click Excel on the Install/Uninstall tab, and then
click Add/Remove.
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INSTALLING EXCEL FEATURES S55
A window similar to the one below will appear. Click on Add or Remove Features.
A window similar to the one below will appear. Click on the plus sign next to
Microsoft Excel for Windows to expand the tree structure, and then on the plus
sign next to Addins.
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S56 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
A window similar to the following one will appear. You can now select addins you
would like. Start by selecting Analysis Toolpak, and select Run from My Com
puter. Follow the instructions for installing the addin (you will probably need your
Ofﬁce or Excel CD). Repeat this last step for the Solver, and any other addins you
like (a useful one is Internet Assistant VBA).
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EXCEL FUNDAMENTALS S57
The addins should now be available the next time you use Excel; depending on the
version, you may ﬁrst have to restart your computer.
To proceed with this brief review, you should have Excel running. It will look some
thing like:
Note that your collections of icons may be different. You can view, hide, or customize
toolbars (collections of icons) using the same procedure used for other Ofﬁce
applications.
EXCEL FUNDAMENTALS
Excel is an application for manipulating and performing calculations on data that are
in a tabular format. Originally developed for ﬁnancial calculations that lend them
selves to this format, Excel is also an extremely powerful tool for performing engi
neering calculations, whether or not data are tabular.
Entering Data into Cells
To enter data (numeric or text), simply click on a cell or use the arrow keys on the
keyboard to maneuver to the cell of interest, and type in the data. To conclude the en
try, press the Enter key. We can make some comments here:
You can do only limited editing while entering data into a cell: You can use the
Backspace key to delete, but cannot use the left arrow to move to earlier digits or let
ters (using this or any other arrow key leaves the cell).
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S58 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
Excel internally recognizes whether a cell’s contents are numeric or text, and by
default leftaligns text and rightaligns numbers.
Spaces should not be used in entering a number (e.g., 123 456) because Excel will
interpret this as text. Commas are allowed (but are not necessary) (e.g., 123,456).
Excel will use a general number format for numerical data; if the number is too large
to ﬁt in a cell it will change to scientiﬁc format, e.g., 1.23E45 (or an error format
######, which can be changed—see below for how to widen columns). The font
and many other formatting properties of cells can be done by selecting the cell or
cells and then using the Formatting toolbar:
or by rightclicking and choosing the cellformatting option. To select several con
tiguous cells, simply drag over them with the mouse (or hold down the Shift key
while using the arrow keys); for noncontiguous cells, hold down the Ctrl key while
selecting with the mouse. If a text data entry is too large to ﬁt into its cell it will ap
pear to spill into the cell to the right. If you have several cells with text data Excel
will display them as if they were a deck of cards. For example, the words Data in
a cell typed into three adjacent cells looks like:
even though Excel still remembers all three cells’ contents. There are several ways to
widen a cell to display the full contents —one is to select the cell or cells and click
on menu item Format . . . Column . . . Autoﬁt Selection.
Once data have been entered in a cell (i.e., after pressing Enter), to edit the data
simply doubleclick on them, or select the cell and press F2. You will now be in edit
mode and can use the left and right arrow keys, the Del and BackSpace key, etc., and
ﬁnish by pressing Enter.
ENTERING FORMULAS INTO CELLS
The real power of Excel is its computational abilities. This involves creating formulas
in cells for automatic calculation. As an example, suppose we wish to compute any
number to any (reasonable!) power, e.g., 2
3
, 12
1.5
, e
Ϫ
, etc. The crude way is to type
in a new formula each time we have two new numbers. Let’s do this ﬁrst. The key
rule in Excel is that you must use the equals sign ( ϭ ) at the beginning of a formula
so that Excel knows it’s a formula and not numeric or text data. Hence to compute 2
3
,
select a cell and type ؍2^3 and press Enter (the exponential is created with ^). The
result (8) will be displayed. The disadvantage of this formula is that we need to
retype the formula for each new computation, e.g., for 12
1.5
we would need to type
؍12^1.5 in a cell. A much better approach is to use formulas with cell references.
A cell reference is simply the cell coordinates of the cell. For example, type 2 in
cell B3 and 3 in cell C3; B3 and C3 are cell references. Now, in cell D3, instead of
computing 2
3
by typing ؍2^3, we can type ؍B3^C3. Excel interprets this formula
to say “take the contents of cell B3 and raise it to the value of cell C3,” and displays
the result. You should have the following:
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ENTERING FORMULAS INTO CELLS S59
We have a “live” worksheet —we can type new numbers into cells B3 and C3 and
get, after pressing Enter, the result immediately (e.g., 12 in B3 and 1.5 in C3 should
produce 41.56922 in D3).
Typing formulas with cell references can get tedious and can produce errors, espe
cially when there are many such references. A very useful mouse technique is to start
creating a formula, and instead of typing in a cell reference, use the mouse to click on
the cell you wish to reference. As long as you don’t press Enter, Excel will remain in
this formula creation mode, and you can continue typing the rest of the formula, using
the mouse to click on additional cells while building the formula. For example, we can
select cell D3 and replace its current contents by typing ؍, then clicking on cell B3
with the mouse, then typing ^, then clicking on cell C3 with the mouse, and ﬁnally
pressing Enter (you can also use the arrow keys for this kind of formula building).
This is obviously a trivial example, but very complex spreadsheets can be devel
oped in which we have multiple formulas with multiple cell references. In addition, a
workbook can have multiple worksheets, indicated by the tabs (and you can add
more, rename them, and so on):
A formula on one worksheet can contain references to cells on other worksheets. To
do this you would start creating the formula, and when you needed to reference a cell
on another worksheet, still in formula creation mode, click on the appropriate tab,
then the cell, and then continue typing the formula.
We can copy and paste cells using any of the standard Windows techniques such
as using menu items, rightclicking, etc., and Excel has additional methods [1], [2].
When we copy and paste a cell containing a formula, we need to be careful about how
Excel interprets the pasting. Excel pastes the logic of the formula, not the speciﬁc cell
references. For example, if we copy and paste our cell D3 to cell D5, we get (depend
ing on what else you have done to the worksheet), 0 or #NUM!, or some other result,
not 8! If you click on cell D5 to see the formula, you will see that instead of the origi
nal formula ؍B3^C3 we have ؍B5^C5. Excel has copied the logic, which in this
case is “take the contents of the cell two cells to the left and raise it to the power of the
contents of the cell one cell to the left”—which in this example doesn’t compute be
cause in cells B5 and C5 we currently have zeros, and 0
0
is undeﬁned. You only begin
to get a result that makes sense if you now type numbers into cells B5 and C5.
In many cases we want this kind of pasting to happen. For example, suppose we
wish to compute the mass of air in a container when the air is pressurized over a
range of pressures. The formula for this is
(H.1) m
pV
RT
=
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S60 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
where p is the pressure, is the container volume, T is the air temperature, and
R ϭ 287 J/kgK is the air gas constant. Suppose ϭ 1 m
3
and T ϭ 20°C ϭ 293K,
and p varies from 10 to 100 kPa in steps of 10 kPa.
Hence,
(H.2)
In this formula p is the pressure in Pa and m will be the mass in kg.
We can start a new worksheet (e.g., by clicking on the top left icon on the tool
bar or by using menu item File . . . New) and type in column headings for the pres
sure and mass, and enter the pressure data (and note that there are ways in Excel to
automatically ﬁll in the p sequence, and that we’ve done some formatting, and added
borders):
m p =
×
1
287 293
V
V
We can now create Eq. H.2 in cell C4, for the mass due to the ﬁrst pressure: The for
mula should be ؍1/287/293*B4. (Note that Excel follows the conventional prece
dents of exponentiation, then multiplication/division, then addition/subtraction, etc.)
We could then create similar formulas for the other cells; e.g., cell C5 should have
؍1/287/293*B5. A better approach is simply to copy cell C4 into cells C5
through C13. The result is (after a little formatting):
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ENTERING FORMULAS INTO CELLS S61
We have just introduced what is called the idea of a relative reference—the reference
is to a cell relative to the cell containing the formula. Sometimes we want instead an
absolute reference. This is a reference to a ﬁxed cell, so that if the formula is copied
to another cell the reference does not change. An example in which this would be de
sired is as follows: Suppose we wanted to be able to repeat the above computations
for a different temperature or container volume. We want to have cells containing
these so that we can easily change them. Let’s put them in cells E4 and F4 (with ti
tles —can you create “m
3
”?):
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S62 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
We now need the following formula in cell C4 (corresponding to Eq. H.1):
؍B4*E4/287/F4. The problem now is that if we copy this formula to the other
cells in the mass column, we will get errors (try it, then click Undo!): The formula
logic says that each cell should obtain the volume and temperature data two and
three cells to the immediate right, e.g., cell C5’s formula as pasted would be
؍B5*E5/287/F5. The reference to B5 (the pressure) is correct, but E5 and F5 refer
to blank cells! What we wish to have in cell C5 is ؍B5*E4/287/F4, i.e., we wish to
copy and paste our formula, but not have the E4/287/F4 part change. To do this we
make these references absolute. Before copying our original cell C4, we edit it (e.g.,
by doubleclicking on it) and place $ signs as follows: ؍B4*$E$4/287/$F$4.
Excel understands that any cell reference that has the $ sign in front of it is absolute,
and does not change it when copied and pasted. Note that E4, for example, has two
$ signs, so that neither E nor 4 will change (strictly speaking, in this example E does
not change anyway, so we don’t really need to $ it). If this formula is copied and
pasted to the mass column, we get the correct results: Each computation obtains the
pressure from the cell to the left, and the volume and temperature from cells E4 and
E5. We can now change the temperature to, say, 100°C ϭ 373K, and obtain new data
(don’t worry about the circle and square shown below—we’ll discuss them shortly):
Note that Excel will automatically create the $ signs in a reference, if you press the
F4 key during either formula creation or editing.
Our last comment on formula creation is that Excel has many mathematical
functions built in, but you need to use the correct syntax and spelling. For example,
to create 2, you must type 2*pi(). Many functions are obvious, e.g., to obtain
sin(/4) type sin(pi()/4); others are less so (e.g., !). Note that trigonometric
functions in Excel use arguments in radians by default.
You can always search for functions while creating a formula by clicking on the
Paste Function icon (circled above) to get a useful menu:
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ENTERING FORMULAS INTO CELLS S63
Let’s see how we can now graph the data we computed.
Creating Graphs
Excel has powerful graphing features. There are a number of ways to access these,
but the main decision is whether you select the data to graph ﬁrst and then go into
graphing mode, or vice versa. Both approaches work, but beginners will probably
ﬁnd it easier to start graphing mode without ﬁrst having selected the data. As in all
Windows applications, there are several ways to perform any action; here the sim
plest is to click on the Graph Wizard icon (squared in the spreadsheet image shown
above). If we do this we get the ﬁrst of four selfexplanatory windows:
Most of the time engineers will plot xy data using XY (Scatter) (not Line, which
forces data to appear uniformly on the x axis!). There is nothing to preview yet so
click Next to get:
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S64 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
Click in Data Range and then drag the entire window out of the way a little as neces
sary so that you can select the range to plot (or alternatively click on the little icon in
Data Range on the right to go directly to the worksheet); select the cells containing
our data (cells B4 to C13); and proceed with the rest of the steps. We end up with a
graph something like:
It is not too interesting! It can be improved a lot by customizing the trace, adding ti
tles, etc. To do this we can rightclick on any graph feature (e.g., a data point) for a
menu of options, and we can also use the Formatting toolbar, and end up with some
thing like:
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ENTERING FORMULAS INTO CELLS S65
We have created a basic xy graph: Excel can create many sophisticated graph types
such as bar charts, pie charts, radar plots, and surface plots. In addition, it can be used
to ﬁt a curve to experimental data. We will not do this here, but it involves: plotting the
data on an xy plot; rightclicking any point on the curve to get a menu that includes
Add Trendline . . . ; selecting this (leading to the window shown next); choosing the
type of curve (Linear, Logarithmic, etc.), and specifying options with the Options
tab; clicking OK and observing the results.
This concludes our introduction to Excel basics. As you use Excel you will dis
cover many features as the need arises, and the references have additional help. We
mention one ﬁnal feature to illustrate the usefulness of some of these features. We
earlier copied and pasted a formula from a single cell to a column using conven
tional Windows copy and paste techniques. Excel has an additional convenient
shortcut for this: Simply click once on the cell to be copied, then move the mouse
(without clicking) over the cell’s lower right corner until the Excel pointer changes
to a “ﬁll handle” (؉); you can then press and drag down a column (or a block of
cells) to immediately copy the cell contents. Even neater is that if you have two or
more cells with contents that make a sequence (e.g., 12, 24, or Jan, Feb) and se
lect them, then move the mouse to the lower right to get the ﬁll handle (؉) and ﬁ
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S66 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
nally drag down or across, Excel will ﬁll with the sequence (e.g., 36, 48, . . . etc.,
or Mar, Apr, . . . etc.!).
MORE ADVANCED FEATURES
Excel has a number of more advanced features. We will consider several of them:
Goal Seek, Solver, use of macros, and creation of custom functions.
Goal Seek and Solver
Many problems in engineering end in an equation or equations to be solved for an
unknown or unknowns. In some cases the equation or equations are not directly solv
able, and we need to use numerical techniques to obtain a solution. For example, sup
pose we wish to solve the following equation for x:
(H.3)
We cannot solve explicitly for x. We could make guesses for x until we converged on
a solution, or we could use one of several classic methods to converge to a solution in
a more systematic way. Most scientiﬁc calculators, and certainly all spreadsheets, in
cluding Excel, also have equation solution techniques built in.
To use Excel’s Goal Seek feature, we ﬁrst need to convert Eq. H.3 into a func
tion, the root of which we need to ﬁnd:
(H.4)
The problem then becomes, ﬁnd the root (or roots) of f (x). While not necessary for
using Goal Seek, the best procedure for this is ﬁrst to plot the function over a range
of x values to see the locations of the roots. After some experimentation with x
ranges, we obtain, using Excel,
f x e x
x
( ) = −
2
2
e x
x
2
2
=
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MORE ADVANCED FEATURES S67
This dialog box is almost selfexplanatory: Click on the Set cell: window, then on the
cell we wish to ﬁnd the root of (C23); click on the To value: window and type 0;
click on the By changing cell: window and click on the cell we wish to vary to ﬁnd
the root (in this example, B23); click OK. If Excel can ﬁnd a root, it tells us so:
and we have:
It looks like we have roots at approximately x ϭ Ϫ0.8 and x ϭ 1.4. We would like more
accurate answers. To use Goal Seek, set up another table containing a single x and f (x):
Note that cell B23 contains 0.0, an arbitrary starting point, and cell C23 contains the
formula ؍EXP(B23/2)B23^2. Goal Seek is accessed by using menu item Tools
. . . Goal Seek . . . , which brings up the following dialog box:
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S68 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
We can repeat this process by typing in another guess value for x (try 1) to ﬁnd the
second solution (x ϭ 1.4296). When using this method you sometimes have to try
several guess values in order to ﬁnd all the roots (in this example there is a third
root . . . can you ﬁnd it?) —and of course, as with all numerical methods, sometimes
it simply fails.
Note that we can also use Goal Seek to ﬁnd an x at which f (x) attains any given
value, e.g., when does f (x) ϭ 2?
Goal Seek is quick and easy. A more powerful feature is Solver. Solver is ac
cessed by using menu item Tools . . . Solver . . . , which brings up this dialog box:
As for Goal Seek, we can still select an x cell that we will allow Excel to vary in
order to make a formulaconnected f (x) cell attain a certain value—but we can do
much more! We can
Find the minimum or maximum of f (x).
Find the roots (or any other value) of a function of several variables, e.g., f (x,y),
f (x, y, z) etc.
Do all of the above while applying constraints, e.g., while x Ͼ 2 and y Ͻ x
2
.
The window is fairly selfexplanatory, so we will not go into the details here. We will
demonstrate its use by ﬁnding the maximum of our function f (x) in Eq. H.4, graphed
earlier. In the Set Target Cell: window select cell C23; for the Equal To: select
Max; click on the By Changing Cells: window and click on cell B23; click Solve.
We end up with:
Finally, let’s consider an example of two variables:
f (x, y) ϭ x
2
Ϫ 6x ϩ y
2
Ϫ 5
Suppose we wish to ﬁnd its minimum value. We can set up a new worksheet, with
cells for x and y (guess values of 0), and a formula cell (in the worksheet below the
formula is ؍B3^2؊6*B3؉C3^2؊5):
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MORE ADVANCED FEATURES S69
Then all we need to do is use Solver with the following information:
The solution is f (x, y) has a minimum value of Ϫ14 when x ϭ 3 and y ϭ 0.
Macros
A macro is nothing more than a set of instructions for automating a sequence of ac
tions in Excel (or Word or any number of other applications). We will illustrate the
use of macros by considering a fairly complicated but ultimately very useful exam
ple: We will create a worksheet that can be easily used to numerically evaluate a deﬁ
nite integral. The formula we will use to approximate the deﬁnite integral is a form of
Simpson’s Rule:
(H.5)
where N (which must be even) is the number of segments of size that the
range (b Ϫ a) is divided into, and x
0
ϭ a with x
iϩ1
ϭ x
i
ϩ ⌬x, leading to x
N
ϭ b.
Within limits, the accuracy of the evaluation increases with N. As a good check, we
would like to have the worksheet automatically evaluate the integral for N ϭ 10, 20,
40, and 60 segments.
Before we automate this task with a macro for use with an arbitrary integral,
let’s see how we create such a worksheet entirely from scratch for a speciﬁc integral.
Suppose we wish to numerically evaluate the following:
⌬x
b a
N
=
− ( )
f x f x f x
N N
+ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + +
]
−
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 4
4 1
I f x dx
x
f x f x f x f x
a
b
= ≈ + + +
[
∫
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
⌬
3
4 2 4
0 1 2 3
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S70 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
(H.6)
Obviously we can easily evaluate this analytically and ﬁnd I ϭ 2; we can use this re
sult to test whether or not our worksheet is working. The following worksheet shows
the calculations for N ϭ 10, and part of the calculations for the other N values:
I x dx =
∫
sin( )
0
Let’s discuss in detail the construction of the calculations for N ϭ 10 (the others are
very similar). In cell C4 we compute the value of ⌬x: The cell contains the formula
؍pi()/10. The ﬁrst x value is generated by entering the lower integration limit (0),
and the other x values are created with formulas that add ⌬x to each previous x value;
e.g., cell C8 has ؍C7؉$C$4. The f (x) column contains the integrand formula, with
x assumed to be in the cell to the left; e.g., cell D7 has ؍sin(C7). The w column
contains the “weightings” 1, 4, 2, 4, 2, . . . 4, 1 used in Eq. H.5, and the Prod. column
contains the products of the f (x) and w columns (e.g., cell F7 contains the formula
؍D7*E7). We now need to sum the Prod. column, shown in cell F18 (it contains the
formula ؍SUM(F7:F17)), and this is the series in brackets in Eq. H.5. Finally,
the integral I is given in cell D21 (it contains the formula ؍C4/3*F18). The value
we obtain for the integral, 2.00011, is very close to the exact result of 2.
This entire procedure needs to be done for the other computations, for N ϭ 20,
40, and 60 (with obvious changes, such as the computation of ⌬x). Your four values
of I for Eq. H.6 should agree closely.
We now wish to modify the workbook so we can evaluate other integrals (differ
ent integrands and limits).
First, we can tidy up the entire workbook by relegating these calculations to a
secondary “Calculations” worksheet (doubleclick the tab to edit its name; click and
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In this worksheet we enter the formula for the integrand, assuming x is to the left (in the
present case ؍sin(C6)), and the lower and upper limits, as shown. The Calcu
lations sheet must be modiﬁed so that ⌬x in four locations is now automatically
calculated from the limits on the Results sheet (e.g., cell C4 now contains
؍(Results!D11Results!D10)/10), and the ﬁrst x value in each column is
now computed from the lower limit (these cells contain the formula ؍Results!D10).
The workbook is now almost ﬁnished. To use it to evaluate the integral, we must
copy the formula for f (x) in cell C6 from the Results sheet and paste it to the four f (x)
columns in the Calculations sheet. Finally, the four cells in the Results sheet showing
the integration results contain formulas for picking up these results from the Calcula
tions sheet (e.g., cell F15 contains the formula ؍Calculations!D21). If all goes
according to plan, the four evaluations appear as shown above.
It took quite a bit of effort, but we now have a workbook for numerically evalu
ating deﬁnite integrals! The workbook is fairly easy to use to evaluate an integral. We
use the following steps:
1. Enter the integrand formula in cell D6, assuming x is to the immediate left.
2. Enter the lower and upper limits.
3. Copy the formula in cell D6 to the four f(x) columns in the Calculations sheet, and return
to the Results sheet to view the answers.
drag the worksheet tab to move the worksheet), and create a userfriendly “Results”
worksheet as shown next:
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S72 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
This procedure works: You can test whether your worksheet is working correctly by
trying the following integral:
You should get the following results (the exact result is e Ϫ 2 ϭ 0.71828):
10 segments: 0.71830
20 segments: 0.71828
40 segments: 0.71828
60 segments: 0.71828
We are now (ﬁnally!) ready to see how we can use a macro to automate this proce
dure. Steps 1 and 2 are straightforward, but step 3, involving a lot of copying and
pasting from one sheet to another, is tedious and prone to error. We can automate this
step by creating some Visual Basic code. If you are familiar with Visual Basic you
can write your own code, but Excel has a builtin macrorecording feature that will
generate the code for you. The idea is that you switch on macro recording, and then
perform exactly the actions you wish to record that accomplish a task, and ﬁnally
switch off recording. Let’s do this now.
Click on menu item Tools . . . Macro . . . Record New Macro . . . to get the
following window:
I x e dx
x
=
∫
2
0
1
You may type in a name if you wish (e.g., Integration) and even assign a shortcut key
(such as Ctrl ϩ i), then click OK. You will now be in macrorecord mode, as indi
cated at the lower left of the screen:
You should be careful now because every action will be recorded! Select and copy
cell D6 on the Results sheet (try Ctrl ϩ C); switch to the Calculations sheet, select
the f (x) column for N ϭ 10, and paste (try Ctrl ϩ V); select each of the other f (x)
columns and paste; to end up at the Results sheet, click on it and select a conven
ient cell, e.g., the lower limit cell D10. Now stop recording, by selecting menu item
Tools . . . Macro . . . Stop Recording. . . . We have our macro! Your code should
look something like the following (to see it, use menu item Tools . . . Macro . . .
Macros . . . and select your code for editing; close the window when you’re done):
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The code is almost selfexplanatory and shows the steps used to accomplish our task.
If you make a procedural error you can simply stop recording and use menu item
Tools . . . Macro . . . Macros . . . where you can delete the macro and start over.
How do we use this macro? Whenever we enter a new integrand in cell D6, we can
run the macro by using menu item Tools . . . Macro . . . Macros . . . and selecting and
running our macro. The macro will do all the copying and pasting for us! A more con
venient procedure is to assign an accelerator keystroke combination to run the macro (the
code above runs whenever Ctrl ϩ i is typed). An even better idea is to create an object
such as a picture or WordArt piece of text (click menu item Insert . . . Object . . . and
choose WordArt); we can then rightclick on it and choose Assign Macro . . . and assign
our macro to the object. Then, whenever you click on the object the macro will run!
Before ﬁnishing this example, we can protect the Results and Calculations
sheets (after unlocking cells we wish to be able to copy and paste to, or enter data
into) so a future user is not able to wreak havoc with the formulas we have “hard
wired,” and hide the grid lines, etc., and end up with something like the sheet shown
next. To use this worksheet we use the following steps:
1. Enter the integrand formula in cell D6, assuming x is to the immediate left.
2. Enter the lower and upper limits.
3. Click on the “Integrate!” icon (or type, if you created them, the shortcut keys, e.g., Ctrl ϩ i).
The user does not need to worry about complicated copying and pasting procedures,
and has a very convenient integrator! Most of the needed formulas are “hardwired,”
and the needed copying and pasting is done by our macro.
Sub Integrate()
’
’Integrate Macro
Macro recorded 12/6/02 by Philip J. Pritchard
’
’Keyboard Shortcut: Ctrl ϩ i
’
Range(“D6”).Select
Selection.Copy
Sheets(“Calculations”).Select
ActiveWindow.SmaIlScroll ToRight: ϭϪ5
Range(“D7:D17”).Select
ActiveSheet.Paste
Range(“J7:J27”).Select
ActiveSheet.Paste
Range(“P7:P47”).Select
ActiveSheet.Paste
ActiveWindow.SmallScroll ToRight: ϭ8
Range(“V7:V67”).Select
ActiveSheet.Paste
Sheets(“Results”).Select
Range(“D10”).Select
Application.CutCopyMode ϭ False
End Sub
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S74 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
In this example we saw how to create a simple macro. The potential of macros is
obvious—you can include automatic graph generation, ﬁle saving, etc. —in fact, virtu
ally any actions you can perform in Excel can be recorded and hence made into a macro.
Customized Functions
Excel comes with a plethora of useful builtin functions, including many mathemati
cal, logical, database, and statistical functions. To see the list of available functions,
click the menu item Insert . . . Function . . . (or click on the Paste Function icon we
discussed earlier) to get a window like the following:
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Note that we have scrolled down to the collection of Engineering functions, which
Microsoft has apparently decided should contain not only obviously engineeringori
ented functions such as CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit) (for performing unit
system conversions such as lb to kg), but also such things as complex math, and ad
vanced functions such as Bessel’s functions —Excel’s Math & Trig. group does not
contain these last two items but does contain equally advanced functions such has hy
perbolic functions! When searching for a function in Excel, it is a good idea to search
under All functions so you do not accidentally fail to ﬁnd a builtin function.
Even with this impressive collection, there will be occasions when you wish to
deﬁne your own functions. This can be easily done in Excel. We will illustrate the
method for deﬁning a customized function by considering the following example.
Suppose we wish to compute the friction factor f for pipeﬂow problems:
(H.7a)
(H.7b)
where is the pipe relative roughness and Re is the Reynolds number of the ﬂow. If
Re Ͻ 2300, the computation is simple; for Re Ն 2300 we have a slight problem, be
cause f is implicit in Eq. H.7b. To solve Eq. H.7b for f we need to iterate—given
and Re, we guess a value for f (e.g., 1) on the right side, and compute f on the left.
This value is fed back into the right side, and the computation is repeated, until con
vergence to a suitable accuracy is obtained.
Let’s deﬁne a function in Excel that computes f from given values of and Re, us
ing Eq. H.7a or Eq. H.7b as needed. (Note that we could just deﬁne a function that
solves Eq. H.7b, and then use a cell containing an If function to decide which equation to
use, but it is neater to deﬁne a function that incorporates both equations automatically.)
In Excel we use its builtin Visual Basic editor to write the code for a function.
To access this, use menu item Tools . . . Macro . . . Visual Basic Editor, to get a
window looking something like:
1
2 0
3 7
2 51
2300
f Re f
Re = − +
≥ . log
.
.
(Turbulent flow)
f
Re
Re = <
64
2300 (Laminar flow)
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S76 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
Note that your window may be slightly different, showing more or fewer subwin
dows—you can make subwindows visible or not using menu item View. You may or
may not have a Module subwindow visible—if not, create a module (a storage area for
code) using menu item Insert . . . Module.
We now need to create code for computing f from Eq. H.7a or H.7b. A possible
ﬂowchart for the logic of the computation is:
Note that we have two decision boxes: The ﬁrst is obvious; the second involves iterat
ing Eq. H.7b until a suitable convergence has been obtained. We will iterate Eq. H.7b
until the change in f is less than 0.1%.
We need to write Visual Basic code for this ﬂowchart. In this introduction to
Excel, we cannot discuss in detail the Visual Basic syntax and grammar we must use
to accomplish the tasks described in the ﬂowchart, but there are several texts avail
able, e.g., [3]. However, next we present the code we need, which you can now type
into the module subwindow (and note that as we type the ﬁrst line the Declarations
tab changes to f, our new function):
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The code works as follows:
We ﬁrst perform the test for Reynolds number.
If Re Ͻ 2300, we compute f from Eq. H.7a and go to the end of the function.
If Re Ն 2300, we go to the Else line and deﬁne the error (Er) and initial values
for f
n
(oldf) and ⌬f(deltaf), the error between successive values of f. Be
tween the Do While and Loop lines we iterate to converge on an accurate value of
f. For each iteration:
o We compute a value for f
nϩ1
(newf) from the current value of f
n
and Re and
(represented by Re and e, respectively). [Note that we multiply the log by
0.434294482 because Visual Basic treats Log as a natural log, so we convert
to base 10 by multiplying by log(l0)/ln(10).]
o Next we compute the change ⌬f (deltaf) in the value of f, and update the
value of f.
o Finally, we return to the Do While line to perform the accuracy test: If ͉⌬f/f ͉ Ն
0.1% we repeat the iteration; if ͉⌬f/f ͉ Ͻ 0.1% we ﬁnish iterating and output the
value of f.
We can now close the Visual Basic window and return to the spreadsheet. We now have
a new function f that computes Eq. H.7a or H.7b as appropriate! We can test the func
tion for laminar (Re Ͻ 2300) and turbulent (Re Ն 2300) ﬂows, e.g., something like:
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S78 APPENDIX H / A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL
The procedure we just outlined showed how to create a custom function in Excel. We
demonstrated this with a function that was fairly complicated—Eqs. H.7a and H.7b,
with two decision branches needed—but the procedure can obviously be used for
deﬁning simple functions, or ones of unlimited complexity.
REFERENCES
1. Gottfried, B. S., Spreadsheet Tools for Engineers. New York: McGrawHill, 2000.
2. Bloch. S. C., Excel for Engineers and Scientists. New York: John Wiley, 1999.
3. McKeown, P. G., and C. A. Piercy, Learning to Program with Visual Basic, 2nd ed. New
York: John Wiley, 2001.
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