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Briefly explain the meaning and importance of each of the following in research. a. b. c. d. e. Systematic Objectivity Control Relevance Reproducible
having! showing! or involving a system! method! or plan" a systematic course of reading# systematic efforts. $OR %&' S(CC'SS O$ )*+ R'S')RC&! ,% -(S% B' CO*.(C%'. S+S%'-)%,C)//+. 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 b Objectivity
Objectivity can refer to factuality! and nonpartisanship! but most often encompasses all of these 1ualities. $OR CO*.(C%,*2 )* '$$'C%,3' R'S')RC& 4RO2R)-! 0it must have an object. 0the program must designed and conducted! with the object in mind. 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 c Control Control is used in a variety of contexts to express 5mastery5 or 5proficiency 5" and more generally an ability to purposefully direct change. $OR %&' S(CC'SS O$ )*+ R'S')RC& 4RO2R)-! 0it must be conducted in controlled manner. 0all the steps involved are monitored 6 controlled. 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 d Relevance Relevance is a term used to describe how pertinent! connected! or applicable something is to a given matter. ) thing is relevant if it serves as a means to a given purpose. .efinition" Something 7) is relevant to a tas8 7% if it increases the li8elihood of accomplishing the goal 72 ! ) R'S')RC& 4RO2R)- S&O(/. B' C/OS'/+ R'/'3)*% %O %&' OB9'C%,3' . 0mar8eting research should be close to the mar8eting objective. 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 e Reproducible %o produce again or anew# re0create. 0any research program can be produced again. 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000:::::::::: ;. <hat is Cluster Sampling= .iscuss the benefits of such an approach.
Cluster sampling refers to a sampling method that has the following properties. %he population is divided into * groups! called clusters. %he researcher randomly selects n clusters to include in the sample. %he number of observations within each cluster -i is 8nown! and - > -1 ? -; ? -@ ? ... ? -*01 ? -*.
iscriminant )nalysis= 'xplain the terms involved in . 2iven this disadvantage! it is natural to as8" <hy use cluster sampling= Sometimes! the cost per sample point is less for cluster sampling than for other sampling methods. ) subset of elements within selected clusters are randomly selected for inclusion in the sample. Simple random sampling! in contrast! might re1uire the interviewer to spend all day traveling to conduct a single interview at a single hospital. One0stage sampling.O* than either S.3)*%)2'S Cluster sampling should be used only when it is economically justified 0 when reduced costs can be used to overcome losses in precision. %he model is 4 .*2 or S%R)%. 2iven a fixed budget! the researcher may be able to use a bigger sample with cluster sampling than with the other methods. %wo types of cluster sampling methods. Cluster Sampling" )dvantages and . of cluster sampling . (sing cluster sampling! the interviewer could conduct many interviews in a single day at a single hospital. )ll of the elements within selected clusters are included in the sample.O.'. $or example! it may not be possible to list all of the customers of a chain of hardware stores.S. %he population is concentrated in 5natural5 clusters 7city bloc8s! schools! hospitals! etc.S)-4/. $or example! to conduct personal interviews of operating room nurses! it might ma8e sense to randomly select a sample of hospitals 7stage 1 of cluster sampling and then interview all of the operating room nurses at that hospital.'ach element of the population can be assigned to one! and only one! cluster. 'ven when the above situations exist! it is often unclear which sampling method should be used.iscriminant analysis is a techni1ue for classifying a set of observations into predefined classes.iscriminant )nalysis= . %his is most li8ely to occur in the following situations. <hen the increased sample siAe is sufficient to offset the loss in precision! cluster sampling may be the best choice.isadvantages )ssuming the sample siAe is constant across sampling methods! cluster sampling generally provides less 4R'C. <hat is the objective of . Cluster Sampling ).*2 . %his is the main disadvantage of cluster sampling. Constructing a complete list of population elements is difficult! costly! or impossible. Choose the most cost0effective approach# that is! choose the sampling method that delivers the greatest precision for the least cost. .$. &owever! it would be possible to randomly select a subset of stores 7stage 1 of cluster sampling and then interview a random sample of customers who visit those stores 7stage .-4/'R)*. %wo0stage sampling. S)-4/. %est different options! using hypothetical data if necessary. %he purpose is to determine the class of an observation based on a set of variables 8nown as predictors or input variables. @.
. ) biologist could record different characteristics of similar types 7groups of flowers! and then perform a discriminant function analysis to determine the set of characteristics that allows for the best discrimination between the types. ! or not at all 7group @ .! . . %he same examination is then given to all the students and the mar8s obtained are given below.g. ) teacher wishes to test three different teaching methods . %hese discriminant functions are used to predict the class of a new observation with un8nown class. $or example! an educational researcher may want to investigate which variables discriminate between high school graduates who decide 071 to go to college! 07.. Method I I J Method I K . D..iscriminant )nalysis could then be used to determine which variable7s are the best predictors of studentsC subse1uent educational choice. %his set of observations is sometimes referred to as the training set. %o summariAe the discussion so far! the basic idea underlying discriminant function analysis is to determine whether groups differ with regard to the mean of a variable! and then to use that variable to predict group membership 7e. $or a 8 class problem 8 discriminant functions are constructed. ) medical researcher may record different variables relating to patientsC bac8grounds in order to learn which variables best predict whether a patient is li8ely to recover completely 7group 1 ! partially 7group . %o do this! the teacher chooses at random three groups of five students each and teaches each group by a different method. ? B ? bnxn ? c ! where the bCs are discriminant coefficients! the xCs are the input variables or predictors and c is a constant.iscriminant function analysis is used to determine which variables discriminate between two or more naturally occurring groups.x. 2iven a new observation! all the 8 discriminant functions are evaluated and the observation is assigned to class i if the ith discriminant function has the highest value.. .etermine at E>F. Based on the training set ! the techni1ue constructs a set of linear functions of the predictors! 8nown as discriminant functions! such that / > b1x1 ? b. )fter graduation! most students will naturally fall into one of the three categories.! of new cases . $or that purpose the researcher could collect data on numerous variables prior to studentsC graduation. (se Hrus8al0<allis test. .! .built based on a set of observations for which the classes are 8nown. J I 1 I G J L I @ J 5 . to attend a trade or professional school! or 07@ to see8 no further training or education.FG significance level whether there is difference between the teaching methods.
)ttention" 2etting it and Heeping it %here are different! conventionaliAed ways of getting! directing and holding peopleCs attention in different presentation media. %he presentation must contain enough information for the user to clearly comprehend its intent . the test does assume an identically-shaped and scaled distribution for each group. %ype setters have long relied upon the use of alternate fonts! varying in siAe and style in relation with the nature and importance of the information they are being used to convey. the Hrus8alM<allis one0way analysis of variance by ranks (named after William Kruskal and W. NN%he lighting designer uses elements li8e color! intensity and direction to illuminate the action and its environment and to focus 6 . On the other hand! to avoid unwanted implicatures it is important that the presentation adhere to conventions of cooperative communication ! and present only what 0to the best of the systemCs reasoning ability0 needs to be presented. .iscuss the major elements of communication dimensions that are relevant to a presentation. the Kruskal$Wallis test does not assume a normal population. Several on0going projects see8 to establish a ran8ing of perceptual tas8s . It is identical to a one. /ogical formalisms have been brought to bear upon the problem of ensuring this 8ind of pragmatic coherence or thic8ness . %hree elements of 4resentation 1.'xpressiveness" <hat to say ) high level presentation planner may decide that a user needs or wants to 8now how to! for instance! ma8e expresso with a particular coffee ma8er .ay analysis of !ariance.ay analysis of !ariance ith the data replaced by their ranks. . %he actual form of the presentation should depend at least in part upon 8nowledge of the human perceptual processor as revealed by up0to0date psychophysical investigations .t ma8es this decision on the basis of input from a variety of sources! including perhaps! a model of the user and of the world around it. Allen Wallis) is a non-parametric method for testing equality of population medians among groups. <hen faced with a choice in the presentation of a set of relational data! for instance ! the presentation system should choose the approach with the lowest perceptual cost# a presentation may be composed of many inter0related sets of data! and the final result will be a composition of many presentations of different perceptual costs! optimiAed along a cost0benefit tradeoff continuum. G. e"cept for any difference in medians. It is an e"tension of the #ann$Whitney % test to & or more groups.II Method III K I D G I L I K F F I G I J F In statistics. %hese efforts capture the notion that perception is not passive! that users are not just sponges at which to throw presentations! and that different 8inds of presentations differ in the degree of difficulty for the user.t decides that a presentation designed to illustrate the use of the coffee machine is in order! subject to a set of constraints and to be elaborated by other 1ualified agents. unlike the analogous one. *ewspapers regularly employ color to highlight important stories in spite of the significant additional dollar cost over single0tone print. 2ood spea8ers are mar8ed by their ability to highlight important parts of their verbal presentations with carefully timed emphases" judicious application of pitch! timbre! volume! etc. 'ince it is a non-parametric method. .! ma8e the difference between a roomful of sleepy people loo8ing for the door! and a group of listeners. (o e!er. 'ffectiveness and perceptual difficulty" &ow best to say it %here may be e1ually expressive alternate presentations of the information# a multimodal presentation would be able to choose between at least text0only! graphics0only! text0and0graphics! and perhaps animated presentations of the same information.
t is very important that you pay attention to even the smallest details. Conventions in natural language discourse as well as in pictorial presentations are powerful design and recognition guidelines! but these assumptions should not be ta8en too far" people leave lectures and readers do put down technical reports from time to time.5 ! but donCt begin the summary too soon or else the audience will start to leave before you finishO /ength" .t therefore is appropriate to use techni1ues to retain audience interest! provided these techni1ues donCt detract from the content or professionalism of the tal8.onCt run overO 'verO Shorten your tal8 by removing details! concepts! and information! not by eliminating words. )lso! focus on your message and not the audience. -a8e sure you bring all your visual aids and plenty of handouts. -a8e sure you 8now how to get to where you are presenting. +ou can never overplan. Stay Relaxed 0 %o stay relaxed you should be prepared. )ny faster and the audience canCt absorb the additional information. )lways leave time for a few 1uestions at the end of the tal8. (se gestures! including wal8ing patterns.n summary! .o not hide behind the lectern. )rrive early so you can chec8 out where you will be presenting and ma8e any last minute adjustments. %he stories must match your message. Remember! 5&e who fails to 7 .our attention on 8ey areas and events. Be sure *O% to ma8e fun of anyone in the audience. -a8e about 1FP more handouts than you thin8 youCll need. )im to help your audience achieve high retention of this final information. 4eople will laugh with you when you po8e fun at yourself but donCt over do it. . . 4ic8 three positions! one on center stage! one to your right! and one to your left. Opening" %he opening should catch the interest and attention of the audience immediately! while avoiding trite filler phrases 7%han8 you for having me .uring the practice of your presentation loo8 for occasions where you can use a gesture. )s8 how large an audience you will be presenting to.. +ou should ma8e a big effort to help them be interested in what you have to say. %his will help you to get an accurate picture of how you spea8. %o give an effective presentation there are K elements you should consider. .. Remember that there is no point in giving a presentation if the audience isnCt listening. Be 4repared 0 Being prepared is by far the most important element. Signal that the summary is beginning 75. .CC )ll these techni1ues anticipate the ran8ing of perceptual tas8s referred to above! and represent an alternate! ecological source of data for design! in the absence of a mature neuroscience. $or instance! it is legitimate most of the time for a spea8er to assume that his listeners have a certain interest in the subject matter! or they would not have bothered to come! and the author or designer of a boo8 may ma8e similar assumptions which license the use of the attention0 getting and attention0directing 7highlighting approaches referred to above. &ow many times do you practice your presentation= )s a general rule! you should spend about @F hours of preparation and rehearsal time for every hour you will be presenting. . (se natural humor by po8ing fun at yourself and something you said or did. 'stablish three positions where you will stand and practice not only how to move to them but where in your presentation do you move. 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Other . (se examples from your personal and professional life to ma8e your point. )ttracting attention is more than just ma8ing sure that the presentation is maximally effective. (se pauses! and repeat critical information. . )nyone can give a presentation. <hen you do move maintain eye contact with the audience. %ransitions" %he lin8 between successive elements of the tal8 should be planned carefully! smooth! and logical. (se *atural &umor 0 . -a8e sure your stories help to emphasiAe or support your point.f it becomes absolutely essential to supply details! supplement your presentation with a handout. Rate" %he optimal rate for a presentation is about 1FF words per minute. (se a tape recorder or videotape yourself.mportant 'lements Heeping these elements in mind as you prepare and practice the presentation will reduce the amount of re0wor8ing youCll have to do as it evolves! and will result in a more streamlined and effective end product. . 4lan +our Body Q &and 4ositions 0 .onCt try to be a stand up comedian. %he audience will judge you in the first @F seconds they see you. +ou should ma8e the relation between successive elements clear to the audience. 4ay attention to all details 0 -a8e sure you have the right location . 2ive of +ourself 0 (se personal examples and stories in your presentation whenever possible. Conclusion" SummariAe the main concepts youCve discussed! and how your wor8 relates to issues youCve raised. %hese approaches wor8 and go mostly unnoticed because the intended listeners are engaged in a mutual interchange! a discourse! a context which permits the spea8er to ma8e certain assumptions about their beliefs. 4ractice the opening of your presentation and plan exactly how you will say it.n either case be willing to give of yourself by sharing some of yourself with the audience. and technical jargon. *ot everyone can give an effective presentation.
o -a8e sure your tal8 has a logical flow of information. o Orient your audience early in your presentation.S()/ 4R'S'*%)%. == . == %ellSem what you just told Tem. o -a8e your presentation appropriate to their interests Q level of understanding. o Be professional# avoid the use of slang! jargon! abbreviations and clichUs.O* R OrganiAation o %he rule of %ellSem. o . == )void nauseating combinations. 8 . R %emplates o .plan is planning for failure5 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Some more elements for 'ffective 4resentation R 4urpose o Be clear about the message that you are trying to convey. H'+ '/'-'*%S O$ 3. o %o 8now how long your presentation will run you must practice.ntroduction M where the point of the presentation is articulated.esign a template! or use a standard template! for your presentation.o not exceed the time limit. o (se the same symbol 7shape and color for similar data sets in different figures R Content o . o StandardiAe text! figures and colors. == Specify objectives! motivation and goals at the beginning of your presentation. == %ellSem what youSre going to tellSem. == <or8 from a universal theme. == %ext should appear clean and crisp. o -a8e it interesting. R Bac8ground Q Color o (se contrasting colors! but limit the use of color. o Be specific with the material you present.o not move any faster than one slide per minute. R )udience o Hnow your audience and their level of understanding. R %ime /imit o . == Content should be self0evident. == .o not crowd slides with too much information. == Summary M where the conclusions are presented.nclude only necessary information. o (se data and figures as the basis for your discussion. == Body M where the details of presented. == %ellSem. R )pproach o -a8e it easy for your audience to agree with your message. o Chec8 grammar and spelling M nothing loo8s more unprofessional than grammar and spelling errors in a presentation.
== )void pastels M these washout on projection.SS. o (se font siAe to communicate importance# font siAe should be limited to the range 1J0DJpt. o 'xplain 8ey elements 7components! axes! etc.f you are using a podium microphone! maintain a constant distance from the microphone.elivery and -annerisms o . Composition is the logical organiAation of ideas or points with clear transitions between sections and enough internal repetition to allow a listener to understand and remember what is said. R 2raphics o <hen appropriate present information in graphical form rather than in tabular or in word form.. o (se bullets and 8ey words. o . . o . o *o more than I words per line! less if a slide contains a figure M H.O* -'C&)*. o -inimiAe 2lare.talic strategically.elivery is the effective use of voice 7volume! tone and modulation and gesture 7eye contact! posture! and hand6body movement to reinforce ideas or points contained in the composition. o (se bold and .nclude no more than two figures or graphics per slide. R )mount of information o *o more than I lines per slide M H. o -a8e figures big and bold. o . o %al8 to your audience! not to the slide. 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 'very presentation involves two major components" 71 composition! and 7.o not read your presentation from a set of notes! or worse! from the slide. R $onts o )void multiple typefaces M use no more than . delivery. o (se capital letters only as the first letter.onSt assume the audience 8nows what they are seeing. 'ffective verbal presentation is neither straight reading nor rote memoriAation! but a combination of written prompts 7notes ! memory! and improvisation. Composition Composition involves writing an outline or notes for verbal presentation.ress R .SS.CS R )ppropriate . Straight reading is ineffective because it precludes sustained eye contact and creates a wall between spea8er and listener. o .etermine the minimum font siAe by room siAe M the audience should be able to read comfortably from the bac8 row. == (se dar8 bac8ground with light text M dar8 blue and green bac8grounds are good. o 'xplain the significance! and how it relates to the point you are trying to ma8e. 4R'S'*%)%. Rote memoriAation is ineffective because it usually produces mechanical or 9 .
%he introduction presents the topic or position and a brief list of major points or examples6arguments. %he major points should be arranged in some significant order" chronological! least to most important! cause and effect. ) good composition for the ear may appear simplistic and repetitive to the eye. . Both straight reading and rote memoriAation undermine immediacy" the appearance of spontaneity and directness every effective presentation re1uires. . )udience always design your presentation with your audience in mind.o not linger too long on any single individual and do not sweep the audience too rapidly. 3oice and eye must wor8 together in verbal presentation. %he 8ey is to be loud enough and clear enough. )void anything that brea8s consistent visual connection with your audience. +ou must loo8 at your audience if you want their attention. . Big or small! male or female! almost everyone can spea8 loudly enough to be heard clearly by an attentive audience in a moderately large room.o not! by any means! loo8 down too long or too fre1uently at your notes. Some people have what is called )an outdoor voice!V a naturally loud and booming delivery. . 4ronunciation! by itself! is rather unimportant.f you can>t be heard! your verbal presentation will fail. Be sure to establish eye contact early in your presentation and maintain it consistently. Some people have trouble with voice projection! either because they naturally have a wea8er voice than others or because they have been raised to consider forceful or )loudV spea8ing as unsuitable. %o achieve effective delivery! one must be willing to ma8e an effort to project and increase voice volume! regardless of prior training about )loudness. %hings %o Consider" 1. %he most important aspect of effective verbal delivery is projection or volume.o not mumble or slur. )de1uate projection has almost nothing to do with physical siAe or gender. .o not spea8 too fast. %he most important element of gesture is eye contact. . 'ach of the @ major points is presented in the order announced in the introduction.V )n introduction often begins with an )attention getterV" a fact or observation that attempts to engage the interest of an audience. )s8 yourself what might 10 . /i8ewise! a good composition for the eye may sounds vague or confusing to the ear.V . *ext in importance to voice projection is articulation. Clear transitions must signal movement from one part of a composition to another. ) composition typically has five parts" an introduction! @ major points! and a conclusion. 4ersons who have memoriAed their entire presentation often move their eyes toward the ceiling as if they are trying to see into their own brains.elivery involves effective use of voice and gesture to communicate a presentation to an audience. %he conclusion repeats the list of points and adds dramatic reinforcement in the form of a ) memorable statement. Remember! writing for the ear and writing for the eye are two different things. . ) spea8er who is wholly dependent on recall is vulnerable to surrounding distractions and tends to maintain rigid isolation from his or her audience. <ith very rare exceptions! most people will have the physical capacity necessary to project their voices effectively in any ordinary conference room or classroom. . 2ood )ear0writingV involves more )obviousnessV and )repetitionV than is common in )eye0writing.n verbal presentations! simply saying )one! two! and threeV to introduce each of the major points can be effective! and phrases such as )in conclusionV or )to summariAeV are useful and appropriate.f you spea8 'nglish with an accent! do not let that inhibit you. 4lenty of effective spea8ers spea8 with an accent.insecure delivery. *othing holds and controls attention as effectively as eye contact.V Sometimes! not often! a spea8er may over0project.istribute eye contact evenly throughout the room. 'ffective projection is achieved when one can be heard everywhere in a room without discomfort.f a 2erman spea8er pronounces 'nglish )wV as )v!V it will ma8e very little difference provided he or she projects and articulates.elivery . . Spea8 your words clearly and firmly.
*ever do this.. . Behaving professionally and with self0awareness persuades your audience of your ability and commitment. )c8nowledge opposing arguments and refute them courteously. Be serious without being harsh. D. 'nd your presentation with some forceful and memorable phrase capturing the essence of the information or argument you wish to convey.ma8e your topic interesting to them and lead with some fact or observation designed to awa8en their interest.n an informative presentation! be sure your facts are accurate and clear. G. Communicating these 1ualities is a vital advantage in career advancement. . 4ersuasive presentations use facts but often add emotion and hypothetical examples.nformative presentations concentrate on facts! statistics! and concrete examples to ma8e points. . @. 2uide your listeners through your presentation by providing clear transition signals when moving from one point to another.o not clown around. Clowning in most business presentations is a disaster. . 4lagiarism some people thin8 they can ma8e a speech stronger by stealing a part of someone else>s essay or speech. 4lagiarism can irreparably damage one>s academic and professional career. Conviction be sure to convey sincerity and competence.n other words! establish some )common ground.nformative or 4ersuasive B most business and professional presentations will be either informative or persuasive" designed to convey information or to ma8e an argument. . K. . 11 .ecide what your purpose is and use appropriate points to achieve it.V . 4rovide a fact! statistic or observation at the outset designed to awa8en audience interest. Be respectful of the opposition. $airness and )ccuracy in a persuasive presentation! always show consideration and understanding for other points0of0view.t is a serious ethical violation and is never worth the ris8s involved. (se humour only occasionally and only to clarify points. . )ttention 2etter! %ransitions! -emorable Statement B be sure your presentation includes each of these important elements.
3. establish some Acommon ground. Guide your listeners through your presentation by providing clear transition signals when moving from one point to another. Things To Consider: 1. It is a serious ethical violation and is never worth the risks involved. always show consideration and understanding for other points-of-view. 5. Be sure to establish eye contact early in your presentation and maintain it consistently. Conviction be sure to convey sincerity and competence. Voice and eye must work together in verbal presentation. Audience always design your presentation with your audience in mind. 12 . Avoid anything that breaks consistent visual connection with your audience. Distribute eye contact evenly throughout the room. Fairness and Accuracy in a persuasive presentation. In an informative presentation. by any means. Do not linger too long on any single individual and do not sweep the audience too rapidly. Do not clown around. Transitions. Persuasive presentations use facts but often add emotion and hypothetical examples. Informative presentations concentrate on facts. End your presentation with some forceful and memorable phrase capturing the essence of the information or argument you wish to convey. You must look at your audience if you want their attention. Provide a fact. statistic or observation at the outset designed to awaken audience interest. be sure your facts are accurate and clear. In other words. statistics. Never do this. look down too long or too frequently at your notes. Ask yourself what might make your topic interesting to them and lead with some fact or observation designed to awaken their interest. Plagiarism some people think they can make a speech stronger by stealing a part of someone else=s essay or speech. 6. Acknowledge opposing arguments and refute them courteously. Clowning in most business presentations is a disaster. Informative or Persuasive B most business and professional presentations will be either informative or persuasive: designed to convey information or to make an argument. 4. Persons who have memorized their entire presentation often move their eyes toward the ceiling as if they are trying to see into their own brains. Memorable Statement B be sure your presentation includes each of these important elements. Be serious without being harsh.@ 2. and concrete examples to make points. Plagiarism can irreparably damage one=s academic and professional career. Be respectful of the opposition. Use humour only occasionally and only to clarify points.The most important element of gesture is eye contact. Nothing holds and controls attention as effectively as eye contact. Decide what your purpose is and use appropriate points to achieve it. Behaving professionally and with self-awareness persuades your audience of your ability and commitment. Do not. Communicating these qualities is a vital advantage in career advancement. Attention Getter.
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