SHIPS & SHIPPING

A HANDBOOK OF POPULAR NAUTICAL INFORMATION; WITH NUMEROUS DIAGRAMS PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS EDITED BY FRANCIS MILTOUN ALEXANDER MORING LTD. THE DE LA MORE PRESS 298 REGENT STREET LONDON 1903

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PREFACE THIS book has been compiled with the object of providing in a convenient and attractive form nautical information of the kind required by intelligent landsmen whose interest has been raised in the maritime heritage of our empire. Information of this kind has hitherto been almost entirely inaccessible, since it is contained partly in large and cumbrous books of reference, and partly in expensive technical works, or in Government publications. In the first edition of a work of this kind absolute completeness is naturally not possible, and the publisher will be very glad to receive any suggestions for correction or improvement. Though there has been no attempt to provide a monograph on any one particular aspect of maritime knowledge, it is claimed that the work covers a wide ground and contains in a condensed form the information most likely to be serviceable to the traveller and the general enquirer. It has been the aim of the Editor to obtain his facts from the most authentic sources, and in this connexion thanks are due to Lloyd's for their kind permission to print extracts from their most valuable CALENDAR, and to Messrs. Thacker & Co. for the same courteous permission to use their handy and comprehensive NAVAL POCKET BOOK, to both of which works the reader is referred for additional facts should he desire either to know more of the Merchant Service or of the Navy. Thanks are also due to the Navy League for permission to reprint the article dealing with its work, and to the various Steamship Companies who have kindly placed at the Editor's disposal the lists of their fleets, and other interesting details connected with their lines of steamers. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. THE MAKING OF THE SHIP (a) Evolution (b) Relative Size and Growth of Mercantile Steamships (c) Consumption of Coal (d) Design and Construction of Ships (e) Parts of a Full-Rigged Ship 2. THE SAILING OF THE SHIP (a) Seamanship and Navigation (b) The Rule of the Road at Sea 3. COURSE AND DIRECTION (a) The Compass (b) The Use of a Watch as a Compass (c) Tracks of Atlantic Steamers 4. DISTANCE (a) Charts (b) Meridians (c) Length of Degrees of Longitude (d) Nautical Measures (e) Table for converting Sea into Land Miles (f) Measured Miles (g) Ocean Depths (h) Method of judging Distances at Sea (i) Distances between Headlands, Harbours, and Lights off the British Coasts (j) Distances by Sea between British and Continental Ports 5. TIME (a) Chronometer (b) Ship Time (e) Time Signals in Great Britain (d) Difference in Time (e) Reduction of Longitude into Time (f) Ship's Speed

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(g) Comparative Velocities 6. ATMOSPHERE (a) Weather Wisdom (b) Beaufort Notation Formula (c) Velocity of the Wind 7. THE ROYAL NAVY 8. THE MERCHANT SERVICE (a) History and Development (b) Merchant Vessels launched in the United Kingdom (c) List of the Largest Steamships afloat (d) Tonnage of the Largest Steamship Companies (e) Merchant Fleets of Chief Maritime Powers (f) Routes of Travel (g) Transatlantic Records (h) Other Records 9. EMBLEMS (a) Flags (b) House Flags and Funnels (c) Distinguishing Letters of British Fishing Boats 10. SIGNALS (a) General Signals (b) Numeral Signals (c) Sound Signals (d) Fog Signals (e) Storm Signals (f) Distress Signals (g) Pilot Signals (h) Night Signals of Steamers (i) Lloyd's Signal Station Reports (j) Wireless Telegraph Stations 11. LIGHTS AND LIGHTHOUSES (a) History and Development (b) Important Lighthouses off British Isles (c) Views of Lighthouses 12. BUOYS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM (MISSING) 13. SHIP CANALS 14. THE HIGH SEAS 15. YACHTING (a) History and development (b) Well-Known Yachts and their Owners (c) America Cup Races (d) British Yacht Clubs (e) Yachting Fixtures 16. LLOYD'S — see also Signals (a) History and Development (b) Lloyd's Signal Stations (c) Classification of Ships (d) Loadline or Plimsoll Marks

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17. GAZETEER (a) Of Ports (b) Of Important Shipping Events 18. NAUTICAL VOCABULARY 19. ILLUSTRATED LIST OF THE SHIPS OF THE ROYAL NAVY 20. MERCHANT SHIPS CONVERTIBLE INTO WAR VESSELS 21. FLEETS OF PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP COMPANIES 22. THE NAVY LEAGUE TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS VIKING SHIP OF KING ALFRED'S DAY (COLOURED PLATE) DIAGRAM OF DEVELOPMENT OF CUNARDER GALLEY OF COLUMBUS (COLOURED PLATE) DIAGRAM OF A FULL-RIGGED SHIP TYPES OF SAILING VESSELS A MARINER'S COMPASS H.M.S. VICTORY (COLOURED PLATE) SECTIONAL VIEWS OF A MODERN WARSHIP SECTIONAL VIEW OF MODERN LINER FLAGS (COLOURED PLATE) OBJECTS USED IN SIGNALLING SIGNALS (COLOURED PLATE) VIEWS OF LIGHTHOUSES ILLUSTRATIONS OF BUOYS SAILORS' KNOTS H.M.S. KING ALFRED (COLOURED PLATE) There are besides numerous cuts illustrating types of the Royal Navy and Merchant Services.

VIKING SHIP OF KING ALFRED'S DAY 1 The Making of The Ship

(a) EVOLUTION THE earliest and simplest means of water carriage employed by man consisted of the rafts or floating logs, which have doubtless been used since the dawn of the human race for carrying men and their property. This early and crude form was supplemented by the "dug-out," found in all parts of the world, and made from the hollowed-out trunk of a tree. Later followed various forms of the canoe; often a mere framework of bone or wooden ribs covered with hides or tree-bark. This led to the conventional built-up boat, which still, however, remained of the open or undecked type.

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Decked craft are of unknown antiquity; but it is certain that the ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans all possessed ships of this class, capable of transporting large numbers of men, that these vessels were composed of keels, frames and beams, and had decks and planking secured by fastenings of metal or wood, and that they were also fitted with the conventional appliances for rowing, sailing, steering and anchoring. In B.C. 350 the Greeks are known to have possessed a navy and dockyards, and from this time forward, throughout the Mediterranean, great progress was made in maritime affairs with regard to the transportation by ships both of men and goods. The Phoenicians were the first to construct warships (of the "galley" type) about 900 B.C., propulsion being effected by two banks of oars. The Greeks later employed oars arranged in several banks, and rising in tiers one above the other, a type which existed among the Mediterranean nations for ships (both of War and State) until well into the middle ages. The later merchant ships of the Western Mediterranean nations in general did not differ greatly from the warships of the time, although there seems to be more distinction of this kind among those of the ancient Greeks and Romans. As all the early battles must have taken place at close quarters, or at least at a range suitable for the bow and arrow, a demand at once grew up for the lofty castellated structures which adorned the prows and sterns of 'most mediaeval ships; a form which, with some modifications, survived well into the nineteenth century,' and still leaves its traces in the modern appellation which is given to the crew's quarters in the fo'csle or fore-castle. The art of shipbuilding progressed very slowly for centuries, the transition from type to type being but gradual. In the seventeenth century the national characteristics of build were but slightly marked; all the vessels of that time having the following features in common, which have since disappeared: a lofty and often highly decorated stern; a square sail hung forward below the bowsprit; and a diminutive lateen sail on the mizzen mast, doubtless intended as an aid in steering, and Which survives to-day in the common "yawl" rig. During this period the armament was increased, in order to give a heavier broadside, and the ships proportionately increased in beam. This heavier type may be said to have endured well into the last century, with such modification as the development of the arts and sciences had then brought about. The use of iron for the construction of a ship was tried in a small craft as early as 1787, but the first iron ship (of any magnitude) to be built was the paddle steamer Aaron Manby, in 1821. The practical establishment of iron shipbuilding dates, however, from a few years later, When John Laird, of Birkenhead, in 1829, first made a commercial success of iron ship-construction. The Sirius, in 1837, was the first iron vessel classed at "Lloyd's"; but this innovation was generally opposed until almost the middle of the century, when this method of construction first met with unqualified favour. The adapting of the steam-engine to all classes of ships, and the employment of steel instead of iron in the construction of the hull have, to a yet further extent, revolutionised the world's mercantile marine. The substitution of mild steel as a substitute for iron — an invention originally introduced into this country from France — is now thoroughly established, and has resulted in producing a class of ships which, ton for ton, are not only stronger and more durable than vessels of wood, or even vessels of iron, but are actually proved to be 50 per cent. lighter than boats built of timber, and 15 per cent. lighter than iron-built ships. Finally, the now established practice of sub-dividing these steel-built vessels into watertight compartments (which can be used at will for water-ballast) has still further diminished the chances of lives being lost in the event of a wreck or a collision.

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THE EVOLUTION OF THE SHIP CHART (b) RELATIVE SIZE AND GROWTH OF MERCANTILE STEAMSHIPS In the last sixty years the duration of the Transatlantic voyage has been reduced by more than 50 per cent., the size of the ships has been multiplied by fifteen, and their power and carrying capacity by more than fifty. Enormous strides have been made in shipbuilding and in increasing the size of ocean steamships. Built 1840 1850 1855 1862 1881 1885 1889 1889 1893 1897 1899 1900 1901 1901 1902 1902 Vessel Acadia Atlantic Persia Scotia City of Rome Umbria Teutonic City of Paris Campania Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse Oceanic Deutschland Kron Prinz Wm. Celtic Kaiser Wm. d. II Cedric Length Feet 228 276 300 379 560 520 582 527 625 649 705 662 630 700 706 700 Beam Feet 34 45 45 47 52 57 57 63 65 66 68 67 75 75 H. P. 425 850 900 1,000 17,500 15,000 17,000 18,000 25,000 27,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 14,000 38,000 Tonnage 1,150 2,800 8,300 8,871 8,144 8,128 9,685 10,499 13,000 13,800 17,040 16,502 15,000 20,904 19,500 21,000

(c) CONSUMPTION OF COAL The consumption of coal in steamships has (proportionately) much decreased since the introduction of the compound engine. Previous to that time a vessel fitted with the best type of engines, such as the Scotia, of the Cunard line — which was floated in 1862, and had a midship section of 841 square feet — consumed 160 tons of coal per day, or 1,600 tons on the passage between New York and Liverpool. The City of Brussels, a screw-steamer of the Inman line, floated in 1869, with a midship section of 909 square feet, consumed 95 tons per day; while the Spain, a screw-steamer of the National line, launched in 1871, with compound machinery, and at that time the longest vessel on the Atlantic — with a length of 425 feet 6 inches on the load-line, beam-mould 43 feet, draught (loaded) 24 feet 9 inches — when making the passage in September of the above year, consumed only 53 tons per day, or 500 tons on the run. All these three vessels had a similar average of speed. There are still later instances where but 40 tons of coal per day were used.

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Ocean steamers are large consumers of coal. The Orient line, with their fleet of ships running from England to Australia every two weeks, may be instanced. The steamship Austral went from London to Sydney in 35 days, and consumed on the voyage 3,641 tons of coal; her coal bunkers held 2,750 tons. The steamship Oregon consumed over 330 tons per day on the passage from Liverpool to New York; her bunkers held nearly 4,000 tons. The Stirling Castle brought home in one cargo 2,200 tons of tea, and consumed 2,800 tons of coal in doing so. Immense stocks of coal are kept at various coaling stations — St. Vincent, Madeira, Port Said, Singapore, and elsewhere; the reserve at the latter place being about 20,000 tons. The Oceanic consumes from 400 tons to 500 tons of coal per day, the Majestic and Teutonic about 150 tons less. An enormous increase in coal consumption is necessary for a comparatively slight increase in the vessel's speed. Suppose the propellers were turning 57 times to the minute, and it was desired to make them turn 58. It would require the burning of five additional tons of coal a day. The coal burned varies as the cube of the speed attained. If the vessel could be driven 12 knots an hour by burning 90 tons of coal a day, by burning twice that amount (180 tons) her speed is advanced to 16 knots, a gain of only one-third. Increase the coal to 300 tons a day, the rate of gain is even less, the speed being 20 knots. It is estimated that if the present horse-power could be doubled by extra furnaces and firemen and the burning of sufficient coal, the result would be to shorten her time across the Atlantic by a bare half day only. So enormous is the cost of the gain of an hour's time to an Atlantic "greyhound."

GALLEON OF COLUMBUS (HENRY THE SEVENTH'S DAY) (d) THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SHIPS The earliest ship builders gave little thought or care to the design or construction of the hull, but devoted their attention rather to the interior arrangements and the upper works of their vessels. The reason for this was that the factors of speed and capacity in relation to size were then less paramount than at present. During the middle ages the purely decorative features or what is called the "top hamper," were extravagantly increased, but with due regard for stability and strength these gradually gave way to more serviceable plans and models, until at the latter part of the eighteenth century, the types of our sailing craft first began to approach the forms with which we are now familiar. Certain accepted rules and formulae were eventually laid down which, without restricting shipbuilders to any very definite dimensions, enforced due regard for the rules of proportion and measurement which had proved suitable or

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satisfactory in practice — thus meeting the special demands that were likely to be made upon the various types of craft, whether war vessels or merchantmen, under the more stringent modern conditions. When all ships were of small size, the masts usually consisted of a single piece or "stick," but the modern sailing vessel of large dimensions (1,500 to 3,000 tons) has its masts of steel, or made up of smaller pieces of timber strapped or bound together with steel bands; while the required height is obtained by constructing them in two or more lengths, the one standing above the other. Top masts, top gallant masts and "royals," are each formed of one stick surmounting another. The bow-sprit is also usually formed of a single stick. The earliest sails in our northern latitudes were pro-bably made from the skins of animals; but in the tropics large palmleaves, at first singly, and later more or less roughly fastened together, have been used since time immemorial. Later still, the sails of all races seem to have consisted of woven fabrics, constructed from the sterns of certain plants (e.g. flax) or grasses. These primitive sails, moreover, were generally of a more or less square (lug-sail) shape. These, however, were followed by the more simple fore and aft lateen rig, the latest development of which is the lateen sail still used on small craft in the Mediterranean. In a modern rigged vessel sail is reduced firstly by the division of the total sail-area into small sails of manage-able shape and dimensions; so that they may be taken in one after the other as occasion requires, and secondly by "reefing," an arrangement which allows of a portion of individual sail only being furled at a time. Numerous devices for furling sails have been used to accom-plish this from time to time, but the usual course is to employ several rows of "reef-points " or short ropes attached to the sail itself, by means of which it can be fastened down to the yard to which it is attached, thereby effectively reducing the area, but still allowing a portion of the sail to remain in position. Rigging is divided into two classes, the "standing rigging," by which the masts and spars are supported, and "running rigging," by which the sails themselves are manipulated or trimmed. Modern improvements and developments with regard to rigging consist chiefly in the substitution of wire rope in place of the Manila or hemp rope formerly used. The question of ballast has always been a serious one for sea captains making long voyages in sailing vessels. Water ballast is used on large ocean steamers, and many of the modern sailing craft have tanks arranged in their holds, so that they can take on water ballast direct from the sea. But the old-time sailing vessels have to wait to see what ballast they can pick up before making the homeward trip. The most common ballast is stone or rock, and the relative value of its grades is known to every shipmaster, who can often dispose of such a cargo for more than the cost of loading and unloading, Sand and common dirt are also shipped in ballast. Of late there has been much speculation as to the life of a ship. This is of course a question that depends very much upon the builders. It is found that Norwegian vessels have a life of 30 years; Italian, 27; British, 26; German, 25; Dutch, 22; French, 20; United States, 18. The average death-rate of the world's shipping is about 4 per cent. and the birth-rate 5 per cent. The largest cargo carrier is, at present, the White Star steamer Celtic. She is 20,880 tons gross measurement, and her dimensions are: over-all length, 700 feet; beam, 75 feet; depth, 49 feet. The Pennsylvania, of the Hamburg American Line, is the next largest cargo carrier, being rated at 20,000 tons burden. Four steamships of enormous dimensions are projected (two of which are already laid down in Connecticut, U.S.) for the Great Northern Steamship Co.'s Pacific Service. They are to be of 21,000 R.T. The largest tank steamer is the St. Helens, which is built to carry 2,850,000 gallons of oil in bulk. The largest schooner in existence is a seven-masted schooner (building in Maine, U.S.A.). It is 310 feet long on the keel, 345 feet over all, and will register about 2,750 tons net, with an estimated coal-carrying capacity of from 5,000 to 5,500 tons. The largest sailing ship afloat is called the Potosi. She was built at Bremen, with five masts, is 394 feet long, 50 feet beam, with a draught of 25 feet and a carrying capacity of 6,150 tons. The second largest ship in the world is the five-masted French ship France: length, 3I6 feet; beam, 49 feet; depth, 26 feet. She has a net tonnage of 3,624, a sail area of 49,000 square feet, and has carried a cargo of 5,900 tons. The British ship Liverpool, 3,330 tons, is 333 feet long, 48 feet broad, and 28 feet deep. The Palgrave is of 3,078 tons. She has taken 20,000 bales of jute from Calcutta to Dundee in a single voyage.

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The biggest of wooden ships is the Roanoke, built by Arthur Sewall and Co. Her dimensions are: length of keel, 300 feet; length over all, 350 feet; height of fore-mast top from deck, 180 feet; length of main yard, 95 feet; main lower topsail yard, 86 feet; main upper topsail yard, 77 feet; main top-gallant yard, 66 feet; main royal yard, 55 feet; main skysail yard, 44 feet; bowsprit, 65 feet; deck to keelson, 22.2 feet; keelson to bottom, 12 feet; height of keelson, 9 feet 8 inches. With all sails set she spreads 15,000 square yards of canvas. She has four masts — fore, main, mizzen and jigger. She has four headsails with an aggregate of 646 square yards of canvas in them. Her main and mizzen sails contain 2,424 square yards of canvas. In her hull are 24,000 cubic feet of oak, 1,250,000 feet of yellow pine, 225 tons of iron, 98,000 treenails and 550 hackmatack knees.

(e) PARTS OF A FULL-RIGGED SHIP 1, hull; 2, bow; 3, stern; 4, cutwater; 5, stem; 6, entrance; 7, waist; 8, run; 9, counter; 10, rudder; 11, davits; 12, quarterboat; 13, cat-head; 14, anchor; 15, cable; 16, bulwarks; 17, taffrail; 18, channels; 19, chain-plates; 20, cabin-trunk; 21, after-deck house; 22, forward-deck house; 23, bowsprit; 24, jib-boom; 25, flying jib-boom; 26, foremast; 27, mainmast; 28, mizzen-mast; 29, foretopmast; 30, maintopmast; 31, mizzen-topmast; 32, foretopgallantmast; 33, maintopgallant-mast; 34, mizzentopgallantmast; 35, foreroyalmast; 36, mainroyalmast; 37, mizzenroyalmast; 38, foresky-sailmast; 39, mainskysailmast; 40, mizzenskysailmast; 41, foreskysail-pole; 42, mainskysail-pole; 43, mizzen-skysail-pole; 44 fore-truck, 45, main-truck; 46, mizzen-truck; 47, foremast-head; 48, mainmast-head; 49, mizzenmast-head; 50, foretopmast-head; 51, maintop-mast-head; 52, mizzentopmast-head; 53, foretop; 54, maintop; 55, mizzentop; 56, dolphin-striker; 57, out-riggers; 58, foreyard; 59, mainyard; 60, cross jack-yard; 61, fore lower topsailyard; 62, main lower topsail-yard 63, mizzen lower topsail-yard; 64, fore upper topsail-yard; 65, main upper topsail-yard; 66, mizzen upper topsail-yard; 67, foretopgallant-yard; 68, main-topgallant-yard; 69, mizzentopgallant-yard; 70, fore-royal-yard; 71, mainroyal-yard; 72, mizzenroyal-yard; 73, foreskysail-yard; 74, mainskysail-yard; 75, mizzen-skysailyard; 76, spanker-boom; 77, spanker-gaff; 78, mainskysail-gaff; 79, monkey-gaff; 80, lower studding-sail-yard; 81, foretopmast studdingsail-boom; 82, fore-topmast studdingsail-yard; 83, maintopmast studding sail-boom; 84, maintopmast studdingsail-yard; 85, foretopgallant studdingsail-boom; 86, foretopgallant studdingsail-yard; 87, maintopgallant studdingsail-boom; 88, maintopgallant studdingsail-yard; 89, fore-royal studdingsail-boom; 90, foreroyal studdingsail-yard; 91, mainroyal studdingsail-boom; 92, mainroyal studding-sail-yard; 93, bobstays; 94, bowspritshrouds; 95, martingale-guys; 96, martingale-stays; 97, fore-chains; 98, main-chains; 99, mizzen-chains; 100, foreshrouds; 101, main-shrouds; 102, mizzen-shrouds; 103, foretopmast shrouds; 104, maintopmast-shrouds; 105, mizzentopmast-shrouds; 106, foretopgallant-shrouds; 107, maintopgallant-shrouds; 108, mizzentopgallant-shrouds; 109, futtock-shrouds; 110, futtock-shrouds; 111, futtock-shrouds; 112, forestay; 113, mainstay; 1I4, mizzenstay; 115; foretopmast-stay; 116, maintopmast-stay; 117, spring-stay; 118, mizzentopmast-stay; 119, jib-stay; 120, flyingjib-stay; 121, foretopgallant-stay; I22, maintopgallant-stay; 123, mizzentopgallant-stay; 124, foreroyal-stay; 125, mainroyal-stay;

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126, mizzen-royal-stay; 127, foreskysail-stay; 128 mainskysail-stay; 129, mizzenskysail-stay; 130, foretopmast-backstays; 131, maintopmast-backstays; 132, mizzentopmast-backstays; 133, foretopgallant-backstays; 134, maintopgallantbackstays; 135, mizzentopgallant-backstays; 136, foreroyal-backstays; 137, mainroyal-backstays; 138, mizzenroyalbackstays; 139, foreskysail-backstays; 140, mainskysail-backstays; 141, mizzenskysail-backstays; 142, foresail or forecourse; 143, mainsail or main-course; 144, crossjack; I45, fore lower topsail; 146 main lower topsail; 147, mizzen lower topsail; 148, fore upper topsail; 149, main upper topsail; 150, mizzen upper topsail; 151, foretopgallant-sail; 152, maintopgallant-sail; 153, mizzentopgallant-sail; 154, foreroyal; 155, mainroyal; 156, mizzenroyal; 157, foreskysail; 158, mainskysail; 159, mizzensky-sail; 160, spanker; 161, mizzenstaysail; 162, foretopmast-staysail; 163, main. topmast lower staysail; 164, maintopmast upper stay-sail; 165, mizzentopmast-staysail; 166, jib; 167, flying-jib; 168, jib-topsail; 169, maintopgallant-staysail; 170, mizzentopgallant-staysail; 17I, mainroyal-staysail; 172, mizzenroyal-staysail; 173, lower studding-sail; 174, foretopmast-studding sail; 175, maintopmast-studdingsail; 176, foretopgallant-studding sail; 177, maintop-gallant-studding sail; 178, foreroyal-studding sail; 179, mainroyal-studding sail; 180, forelift; 181, mainlift; 182, crossjack-lift; 183, fore lower topsail-lift; 184, main lower topsail-lift; 185, mizzen lower topsail-lift; 186, spanker-boom topping-lift; 187, monkey-gaff lift; 188, lower studdingsail-halyards; 189, lower studdingsail inner halyards; 190, foretopmast studdingsail-halyards; 191, maintopmast studdingsail-halyards; 192, foretop-gallant studdingsail-halyards; 193, maintopgallant studdingsail-halyards; 194, spanker peak-halyards; 195, signal-halyards; 196, weather jib-sheet; 197, weather flying-jib sheet; 198, weather jib topsail-sheet; 199, weather fore-sheet; 200, weather main-sheet; 201, weather crossjack-sheet; 202, spanker-sheet; 203, mizzentopgallant staysail-sheet; 204, mainroyal stay-sail-sheet; 205, mizzenroyal staysail-sheet; 206, lower studdingsail-sheet; 207, foretopmast studdingsail-sheet; 208, foretopmast studdingsail-tack; 209, maintopmast studdingsail-sheet; 210, maintopmast studdingsail-tack; 211, foretopgallant studdingsail-sheet; 212, foretop-gallant studding sail tack; 213, maintopgallant studding-sail-sheet; 214, maintopgallant studdingsail-tack; 215, foreroyal studdingsail-sheet; 216, foreroyal studdingsail-tack; 217, mainroyal studdingsail-sheet; 218, mainroyal studdingsail-tack; 219, forebrace; 220, mainbrace; 221, crossjack-brace; 222, fore lower topsail-brace; 223, main lower topsail-brace; 224, mizzen lower topsail-brace; 225, fore upper topsail-brace; 226, main upper topsail brace; 227, mizzen upper topsail-brace; 228, foretop-gallant-brace; 229, maintopgallant-brace; 230, mizzen-topgallantbrace; 231, foreroyal brace; 232, mainroyal-brace; 233, mizzenroyal-brace; 234, foreskysail-brace; 235, mainskysail-brace; 236, mizzenskysail-brace; 237, upper maintopsail-downhaul; 238, upper mizzentopsail-downhaul; 239, foretopmast maintopsail-downhaul; 240, maintopmast studding sail-downhaul; 241, fore-topgallant studdingsail-downhaul; 242, maintopgallant studdingsail-downhaul; 243, clew-garnets; 244, clew-lines; 245, spanker-brails; 246, spanker-gaff vangs; 247, monkey-gaff vangs; 248, main bowline; 249, bowline-bridle; 250, foot-ropes; 251, reef-points.

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The Sailing of the Ship

(a) SEAMANSHIP AND NAVIGATION BY the traveller seamanship and navigation are too often confounded. Navigation in brief is the con-ducting of the ship as it were along a certain preconceived path or track of the ocean, from port to port. Seamanship, on the other hand, whether in the old sailing ship or the modern steamship, includes the general care and labour given towards keeping the ship in seaworthy condition and the command and control of the men exercised by the officers in each department, in order to insure, as far as possible, the safe and quick prosecution of the voyage. The COMMANDER, or Captain, as he is still often called, is the absolute authority, whether civil or naval, on board ship, and may demand the entire compliance of the passengers and crew alike should he require it. He is responsible for the safe and efficient navigation of the ship, as well as for the proper performance of the duties of the officers under him; for the internal discipline down to the humblest member of the forecastle or the stoke-hold, and for the comfort and satisfaction of the pas-sengers as well. The CHIEF OFFICER is generally charged with the entire responsibility of the care and upkeep of the ship; and though he may sometimes stand watches With the junior officers, it is usually the Second, Third and Fourth officers who, dividing the time amongst them, are the real navigators of the ship, and who keep it on the courses and under the speed set down by the captain, who, however, usually confers with the officer then on duty. Whether at sea or in port, one of the officers must always be on duty in charge of the ship, his proper station being, in the former case, the upper bridge. The officer on duty is strictly forbidden, by an obvious necessity, to enter into conversation, but should give his whole and undivided attention to his Work, If in the execution of his duties he should have arty reason to anticipate the arising of any immediate risk or danger to the ship from the course upon which she is being steered, he is required to take action at once upon his own initiative and to send word of the Whole circum-stances at once to the captain. Every such officer on duty is further forbidden to go below until his watch is ended, and indeed even then, unless he is relieved by the officer whose watch next succeeds his own. It should be added here that passengers are never allowed on the bridge, or in the wheel or chart-house.

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With regard to the SURGEON, the rule in the case of most companies is that they do not forbid their surgeons to accept any honoraria spontaneously offered them, but at the same time it must not be forgotten that they are not entitled to any sort of fee for their services, Which should be rendered entirely free of charge to all sections of the community alike. The PURSER may be called the "business manager" of the ship. In conjunction With the Chief Steward, he contracts for the ship's supplies, and supervises the various duties connected with clerical work and accounts. The CHIEF STEWARD has charge of the details for messing and berthing the passengers and crew, and might be best described as a "Maître d'Hotel," in charge of the corps of bedroom and table stewards, cooks and bakers. Divine service is held in the saloon on Sunday morning, the Commander (or some clergyman among the passengers of whom he may ask the favour) officiating. Inspection of all parts of the ship usually takes place daily at 11 a.m., by the Commander, Surgeon, Purser and Chief Steward. The Captain, Officers and Stewards are alike required to show all possible attention and courtesy to passengers on board and to afford all possible assistance to them when entering or leaving the ship. They are also required to see that the crew interfere as little as possible, when performing their duties, With the passengers' comfort. On the other hand there is to be no familiarity between the passengers and the officers which might be in any way prejudicial to the maintenance of good discipline, this last being a point to which the Captain is especially required to attend. Officers on duty should be courteous enough to give a polite reply to questions which may be addressed to them by passengers, but are strictly forbidden to converse with them. On the modern ocean liner the traveller feels at once that he is in an admirably appointed and well-disciplined vessel, in which the elements of speedy locomotion, safety and comfort, together with the appliances and attendance of a firstclass hotel are combined and placed at his command, at an expense which is small indeed compared with hotel life in most large cities. Freed for the time being from the worry of daily letters and telegrams, he enjoys an ideal existence, if the weather is fine; and if it is not he has under the same roof (as it were) nearly all the social attractions of a large hotel at a tourist resort. It is generally conceded that sea air, healthful and invigorating as it is, and conducive to appetite, does not tend to encourage mental labour or study, hence the lightest and most whimsical of literature is that best suited to steamer requirements. In the Ship's Library is usually found a good selection of the Works of standard and popular novelists, but as it can hardly be expected that the company would at once put on its shelves the latest sensation of the day, it is as Well to remind the voyager that a fair supply of magazines and a paper-covered novel or two are sure to be found useful. It has been said by some unappreciative person that only six occupations could be indulged in at sea — eating, drinking, sleeping, flirting, quarrelling and grumbling. To these he might have added smoking — of all seven we get each day, no doubt, quite an abnormal share. Some energetic persons usually form themselves into an Amusement Committee, to seek out the latent musical or histrionic talents of their fellow-voyagers and turn them to the general amusement and edification. Deck Quoits and Shuffle Board still hold their own in season-able weather on deck, and the tug-of-war and the egg and spoon race still serve to amuse. Each day as the hour of noon approaches there reigns a mild excitement, which is caused by speculation as to the length of the ship's "run" during the previous twenty-four hours; the number of miles to be posted on the chart being the raison d'être of the smoking-room "pool." With the view of increasing the security of the voyage, and of lessening the risks of collision, the steamships of the trans-Atlantic lines follow certain prescribed courses out-ward and homeward, the more northerly of which is to be followed in summer, and the more southerly in winter, though in neither case do the ships follow in the same "lane" going east or West, but are always on separate tracks, in some places one hundred or more miles apart. A vigilant and careful Watch is kept by the officers on the bridge at all times of the day and night, and in foggy or thick weather a look-out is also posted in the crow's nest on the foremast. The boats are given con-stant care and attention,

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and are at all times ready to be launched at a moment's notice. They are manned by a crew and in charge of an officer according to a list posted in a conspicuous place in the crew's quarters, and the utmost care is taken that each and every member of the crew fully knows his particular station and his duty in case of any emergency, such as fire, collision or running on shore, for all of which there are special "drills" and in-spections. The crew is usually mustered on deck, in clean clothes, on Sunday morning, and boat drill often takes place at sea, where it may be watched by the passengers. A ship "rolls" when the port (left) and starboard (right) sides of it rise and fall alternately: until the addition of the modern "bilge keel" or "rolling chock," steamships were wont to roll more than sailing vessels. "Pitching" is the plunging of ships lengthwise into the sea's trough, and "scending" is a sort of combination of pitching and rolling. Modern steamers carry little or no sail, their masts and yards, when they have any, being used merely for signalling purposes and for rigging the tackle for handling cargo. The rudder swings upon the stern-post, and to its head is attached the tiller, which in all large steamers is controlled, with the aid of steam or hydraulic gear, by the wheelman on the bridge forward, under supervision of an officer in charge. In the event of anything happen-ing to the rudder, it is possible to rig up a substitute by towing astern a spar, from each end of which a line is passed to the stern of the ship. When either of these lines are drawn inboard the action is, to a certain extent, analogous to that accomplished by the rudder. A ship's anchors are of various kinds, and are used to perform various duties. The "stream anchor" is for light and quick work and for any sudden emergency; the "sheet anchor" is a spare anchor; the two "bower" (i.e. "bow") anchors are kept at the bows for ordinary work, and to them are attached the cables (or, more usually, the chains) which are run through the "hawse holes" out of the chain lockers. At sea the anchors are lashed on deck, at the bows, ready for use the moment they may be required. When wanted they are "unstowed" and at the right moment "let go"; as soon as the requisite amount of cable or chain has been run out, it is "bitted" or made fast, and the ship is allowed to swing with the tide. When an anchor is " weighed," the cable is first drawn in by means of winch or windlass. When first the anchor breaks away from bottom it is said to be "apeak," when it reaches the surface "a-wash," and when finally brought to its place at the bows, the order is given to seize or "eat and fish" — which means that it is to be lifted inboard and stowed in its usual place. A vessel is "moored" when it is made fast to buoys or any stationary mooring, or when two anchors are made use of at the same time. (b) RULE OF THE ROAD AT SEA Aids to Memory in Four Verses by the late Mr. Thomas Gray, C.B. (1.) Two Steam Ships meeting. When both side-lights you see ahead — Port your helm and show your RED. (2.) Two Steam Ships passing. GREEN to GREEN — or, RED to RED — Perfect safety — go ahead ! (3.) Two Steam Ships crossing. Note. — This is the position of greatest danger; there is nothing for it but good look-out, caution and judgment. If to your starboard RED appear, It is your duty to keep clear; To act as judgment says is proper; To Port — or Starboard — Back — or Stop her! But when upon your Port is seen A Steamer's Starboard Light of GREEN,

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There's not so much for you to do, For GREEN to Port keeps clear of you. (4.) All Ships must keep a good look-out, and Steam Ships must stop and go astern, if necessary. Both in safety and in doubt Always keep a good look-out; In danger, with no room to turn, Ease her, Stop her, Go astern. The general rule of the road at sea for steamers is the same as for foot-passengers in towns. Under ordinary circumstances two steamers meeting face to face, or so near as to involve risk, have to "port," that is, to keep to the right and pass one another on the left. When crossing, the steamer that has another on her own right-hand side has to get out of the way. No collision can happen between two passing ships whilst a Green light is opposed to a Green light or a Red to Red. A steamer gives way to a sailing ship. PORT is the left-hand side of a ship looking to the bow, and is denoted at night by a red light. STARBOARD is the right-hand side, and is denoted after dark by a green light. Navigation or piloting has always been roughly divided into (1) Common Piloting, which consists in coasting along shore, or within sight of land, and (2) Proper Piloting, which consists in navigating, out of sight of land, by the aid of the celestial bodies. For the deep sea "navigator" it is always of the first importance that he should know the exact position of his ship on the surface of the globe, as regards latitude and longitude. Latitude is his exact distance north or south of the Equator. Longitude is his exact distance east or west of the meridian of Greenwich. The degrees of latitude, of which there are ninety between the pole and the equator, are measured on the meridians, and are equal to each other. The degrees of longitude, unlike those of latitude, vary according to the latitude in which they are reckoned. 3 Course and Direction

(a) THE COMPASS THE Mariner's Compass consists of a circular card, the circumference of which is divided into 32 equal parts, called points; these are again divided into half-points and quarter-points, and finally into 360 equal parts, called degrees. The essential part of a compass is a magnetized needle, which (allowing for what is called "variation") always points towards the North Pole. Upon this needle the card as described above is laid and attached, the former being in turn balanced upon a hard pivot working in chrysolite or agate. The whole is enclosed in a brass bowl or box, and fitted with a glass cover. When it is used as a Steering Compass the inside of the bowl has a vertical black line painted upon it, which is known as the "Lubber Line," and which is in direct alignment with the ship's head. Compasses vary much in size, from 7½ inches to 15 inches in diameter. A Pole or Masthead Compass is so called from the fact that it is mounted as far away as possible from the iron hull or body of the ship in order to be removed from the magnetic influence of the latter. The Standard Compass is the compass by which the ship is navigated. It is generally of the Pole Compass type. Ship Logs are of various types, those commonly in use at the present day being known as Patent Logs. They have an adjustable rotator or screw, and a registering dial which records the distance covered. Their object is to indicate the speed of the ship by recording the distance covered in a given time. On the rotator are fixed four or five blades, resembling the blades of a screw propeller. These blades, when the

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machine is towed astern, cause revolutions which are recorded on the dial face which is affixed to the taffrail, and indicate the distance run to great exactness. To "box the Compass" is to give, in consecutive rotation from east to West, the various divisions and sub-divisions indicated on the card of the Compass as follows: — North by East. North North-East. North-East by North. North-East. North-East by East. East North-East. East by North. East. East by South. East South-East. South-East by East. South-East. South-East by South. South South-East. South by East. South. South by West. South South-West. South-West by South. South-West. South-West by West. West South-West. West by South. West. West by North. West North-West. North-West by West. North-West. North-West by North. North North-West. North by West. North.

The smallest divisions represent degrees, of which there are 360. [Reproduced by kind permission from Lloyd's Calendar.] (b) USE OF A WATCH AS COMPASS At noon, if you hold your watch horizontally, with the hour hand pointing to the sun, the hands will direct you to the South, the figure VI. to the North, the figure IX. to the East, and the figure III. to the West. Before or after noon, if you point the hour hand to the sun, the South will be indicated by a point midway between the centre of the figure XII. and the hour hand. If it be a.m., the figure XI. will point to the South; if it be p.m., the figure III. will point to the South; and so on. If you had a 24-hour dial, the figure XII. would always point to the South and the hour hand to the sun. Your watch must be

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correct and pointed to the sun's centre, and the compass will be true. (c) TRACKS FOR ATLANTIC STEAMERS [From Lloyd's Calendar, by kind permission.] The "tracks" of the Atlantic Liners vary in length according to the seasons of the year. The eastward course is generally longer than the westward course, though both vary Within certain limits, and hence the time occupied by any ship on a particular passage is not to be necessarily taken as a test of speed. The following routes, agreed to by the principal Steamship Companies, came into force January 15, 1899: — WESTWARD-BOUND From January 15 to August 14, both days inclusive. Steer from Fastnet, or Bishop Rock, on Great Circle course, but nothing South, to cross the meridian of 47° West in Latitude 42° North, thence by either rhumb line, or Great Circle (or even North of the Great Circle, if an easterly current is encountered), to a position South of Nantucket Light-Vessel, thence to Fire Island Light-Vessel, when bound for New York, or to Five Fathom Bank South Light-Vessel, when bound for Philadelphia. From August I5 to January 14, both days inclusive. Steer from Fastnet, or Bishop Rock, on Great Circle course, but nothing South, to cross the meridian of 49° West in Latitude 46° North, thence by rhumb line, to cross the meridian of 60° West in Latitude 43° North, thence also by rhumb line, to a position South of Nantucket Light-Vessel, thence to Fire Island Light-Vessel, when bound to New York, or Five Fathom Bank South Light-Vessel when bound for Philadelphia. EASTWARD-BOUND At all seasons of the year steer a course from Sandy Hook Light-Vessel, or Five Fathom Bank South Light-Vessel, to cross the meridian of 70° West, nothing to the northward of Latitude 40° 10'. From January 15 to August 23, both days inclusive. Steer from 40° 10' North, and 70° West, by rhumb line, to cross the meridian of 47° West in Latitude 41° North, and from this last position nothing North of the Great Circle to Fastnet, when bound to the Irish Channel, or nothing North of the Great Circle to Bishop Rock, when bound to the English Channel. From August 24 to January 14, both days inclusive. Steer from Latitude 40° 10' North and Longitude 70° West, to cross the meridian of 60° West in Latitude 42° 0' North, thence by rhumb line to cross the meridian of 45° West in Latitude 46° 30' North, and from this last position nothing North of the Great Circle to Fastnet, when bound to the Irish Channel, and as near as possible to, but nothing North of; the Great Circle to Bishop Rock, always keeping South of the Latitude of Bishop Rock, when bound for the English Channel. 4 Distance

(a) CHARTS CHARTS are constructed upon the True Meridian, or Mercator's Scale, the degrees noted on the margins being proportioned to the position charted — north or south of the equator, on Which 60 nautical miles are represented by each degree. When "Admiralty Charts" are issued by the London Chart Agent, they are supposed to have received all necessary corrections up to date. When they are once out of the agent's hands there is no guarantee that further corrections will be made before they are sold by local firms at the different ports, and purchasers should obtain some assurance that the charts are correct to date.

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All small corrections of any importance that can be made by hand are notified by Notices to Mariners. Extensive corrections that cannot be conveniently made in this way are put upon the plates, after which fresh copies are issued. The Track Chart of that part of the ocean which is being traversed at the time is publicly posted, together with the observations noted at noon each day, on all regular passenger ships. The course sailed is marked as a line with figures denoting the exact latitude and longitude and the number of miles covered since noon of the previous day, together with remarks as to the state of the weather, wind and sea, according to the Beaufort notation formula, which will be found below on page 54. (b) MERIDIANS ADOPTED BY FOREIGN NATIONS* Austria, Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, the United States of America, and Holland (for all charts published at Batavia and for some published at the Hague), adopt the Meridian of Greenwich. Holland, for most charts published at the Hague, adopts the Meridian of Amsterdam (W. Tower of Wester Kerk), which is assumed to be in longitude 4° 53' 4" E. of Greenwich. France adopts the Meridian of Paris Observatory, assumed to be in longitude 2° 20' 15" E. of Greenwich. Spain adopts the Meridian of San Fernando Observa-tory, Cadiz, assumed to be in longitude 6° 12' 24" W. of Greenwich. Portugal adopts the Meridian of the Marine Observa-tory (Lisbon Castle), assumed to be in longitude 9° 8' 24" W. of Greenwich. The Pulkowa Observatory of St. Petersburg (sometimes referred to in Russian Charts) is assumed to be in longitude 30° 19' 40" E. of Greenwich. The Royal Observatory of Naples (sometimes referred to in Italian Charts) is assumed to be in longitude 14° 14' 43" E. of Greenwich. [*From Lloyd's Calendar, by kind permission.] Nautical Measures (c) LENGTH OF DEGREES OF LONGITUDE A degree of longitude at 1° of latitude A degree of longitude at 10° of latitude A degree of longitude at 20° of latitude A degree of longitude at 30° of latitude A degree of longitude at 40° of latitude A degree of longitude at 50° of latitude A degree of longitude at 60° of latitude A degree of longitude at 70° of latitude A degree of longitude at 80° of latitude A degree of longitude at 90° of latitude (d) NAUTICAL MEASURES 12 inches = 1 foot 3 feet = 1 yard 6 feet = 1 fathom 3 nautical miles = 1 league Sea or Nautical mile = one-sixtieth of a degree of latitude and varies from 6,046 ft. on the Equator to 6,092 ft. in lat. 60°. = = = = = = = = = = 60 miles. 59 miles, about 56½ miles, about 52 miles. 46 miles.. 38½ miles, about 30 miles. 20½ miles, about 10½ miles, about 0 miles.

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Nautical mile for speed trials, generally called the Admiralty Measured Mile Cable's length

= = = =

6,080 feet 1.151 statute miles 1,853 metres the tenth of a nautical mile; or approximately, 100 fathoms or 200 yards.

A Knot = a nautical mile an hour, is a measure of speed, but is not infrequently, though erroneously, used as synonymous with a nautical mile. (e) TABLE FOR CONVERTING SEA INTO LAND MILES. The Sea Mile = The Statute Land Mile Sea Land Miles Miles 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 6.25 6.50 6.75 (f) MEASURED MILES List of Ports in the United Kingdom where there are "measured miles" used for speed and other trials London. Humber. Middlesbrough. Hartlepools. Sunderland. The Tyne. The Forth. The Tay. Aberdeen. Clyde. Dundee. Liverpool. Plymouth. Near Maplin Sands and in Longreach. Eight Miles below Hull. At Sandy Bay. North of Hartlepool. At Ryehope. At Whitley. At Galleon Bay. North side. North of Harbour. At Skelmorlie, Wemyss Bay. North side of River. In Crosby Channel. Whitesand Bay (Admiralty). 1.151 1.439 1.729 2.015 2.303 2.590 2.878 3.160 3.454 3.742 4.030 4.318 4.606 4.893 5.181 5.469 5.757 6.045 6.333 6.621 6.909 7.196 7.484 7.772 Sea Land Miles Miles 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.75 8.00 8.25 8.50 8.75 9.00 9.25 9.50 9.75 10.00 10.25 10.50 10.75 11.00 11.25 11.50 11.75 12.00 12.25 12.50 12.75 8.060 8.348 8.636 8.924 9.212 9.500 9.787 10.075 10.163 10.651 10.939 11.227 11.515 11.803 12.090 12.370 12.666 12.954 13.242 13.030 13.818 14.106 14.193 14.681 = 6,080 feet. 5,280 feet. Sea Land Miles Miles 19.00 19.25 19.50 19.75 20.00 20.25 20.50 20.75 21.00 21.25 21.50 21.75 22.00 22.25 22.50 22.75 23.00 23.50 24.00 24.50 25.00 21.878 22.166 22.454 22.742 23.030 23.318 23.606 23.893 24.181 24.468 24.757 25.045 25.333 25.621 25.909 26.196 26.484 27.000 27.636 28.212 28.787

Sea Land Miles Miles 13.00 13.25 13.50 13.75 14.00 14.25 14.50 14.75 15.00 15.25 15.50 15.75 16.00 16.25 16.50 16.75 17.00 17.25 17.50 17.75 18.00 18.25 18.50 18.75 14.969 15.257 15.545 15.833 16.121 16.409 16.696 16.984 17.272 17.560 17.848 18.136 18.424 18.712 18.999 19.287 19.575 19.863 20.151 20.439 20.727 21.015 21.103 21.590

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Southampton. Cowes. Belfast. (g) OCEAN DEPTHS Name of Sea Atlantic Pacific Indian Arctic Antarctic Mediterranean Irish English German Levant Adriatic Baltic (h) DISTANCES AT SEA

At Stokes Bay. At Stokes Bay. In Belfast Lough.

Average 4026 4252 3658 1690 3000 1476 240 110 96 72 45 43

Depth in Yards Maximum 7750 9310 6040 5300 3950 2860 710 300

The earth being round, its convexity limits the vision even on a level expanse like the sea. The line of vision on the seashore, of a man of ordinary height (say six feet), would be intercepted by the horizon at 3.24 miles. If he were looking at an object 44 feet in height, say a flag on a masthead, the flag would seem to be on the horizon if it were 9.35 miles distant. In this case add the height of the object, 44 feet, to the height of the eye from the ground, 6 feet equal 50 feet, and find the corresponding distance in the list below. A carrier pigeon at a mile above the earth would only command a field of 96 miles in radius. This table shows the distance from sea-level at which objects are visible at different elevations: — Height in Feet Distance in Miles 0.582 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1.00 1.31 1.87 2.29 2.63 2.96 3.24 3.49 3.73 3.96 4.18 4.39 4.58 4.77 Height in Feet Distance in Miles 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 65 70 5.12 5.29 5.45 5.61 5.77 5.92 6.61 7.25 7.83 8.37 8.87 9.35 10.25 11.07 Height in Feet Distance in Miles 80 90 100 150 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 1 mile 11.83 12.25 13.23 16.22 18.72 22.91 26.46 29.58 33.41 59.20 72.50 83.70 93.50 96.10

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(i) TABLE OF DISTANCES BETWEEN HEADLANDS, HARBOURS AND LIGHTS OFF THE COAST OF THE BRITISH ISLES Terminal Points North Foreland to Goodwin Lightvessel " " Galloper Lightvessel " " Calais " " Dunkirk " " Ostend Nore Lightvessel to Mouse Lightvessel Mouse Lightvessel to Maplin Lighthouse Gunfleet Lighthouse to Sunk Lightvessel Sunk Lightvessel to Orfordness Sunk Lightvessel to Shipwash Lightvessel Shipwash Lightvessel to Orfordness Orfordness to North Foreland Girdler Lightvessel to Prince's Channel Lightvessel Prince's Channel Lightvessel to Tongue Lightvessel Tongue Lightvessel to North Foreland " " Gull Lightvessel Nore Lightvessel to Orfordness Orfordness to Lowestoft Lowestoft to Yarmouth Roads Yarmouth Roads to Cromer Light Cromer Light to Dudgeon Lightvessel Dudgeon Lightvessel to Spurn Head " " Flamborough Head Flamborough Head to Scarborough Scarborough to Whitby Flamborough Head to Robin Hood's Bay Robin Hood's Bay to Hartlepool Hartlepool to Sunderland Sunderland to Tynemouth Tynemouth to Berwick Berwick to St. Abb's Head St. Abb's Head to Bass Rock Bass Rock to May Island May Island to Inchkeith " " Leith Roads " " Fife Ness Fife Ness to Aberdeen Aberdeen to Peterhead Peterhead to Kinnaird Head Kinnaird Head to Duncansby Head Duncansby Head to Dunnett Head Dunnett Head to Cape Wrath Cape Wrath to Butt of Lewis Butt of Lewis to Barra Island Barra Island to Tiree Tiree to Rhynns of Islay Rhynns of Islay to Mull of Cantyre Miles 6 29 29 39 57 7½ 4 7¾ 14½ 12 4 43 21 41 81 9 60 25 7 30 22½ 36 57 14¾ 15 22½ 24½ 14 6½ 50 10 19 2 2½ 23 5½ 54½ 25 20 65 11½ 51 40 35 30 60 40 Terminal Points Skerries to Inistrahull Inistrahull to Malin Head Malin Head to Tory Island Tory Island to Arran Island Arran Island to Teelin Head Teelin Head to Erris Head Erris Head to Achill Head Achill Head to Slyne Head Slyne Head to Loop Head Loop Head to Skelligs Skelligs to Mizen Head Mizen Head to Fastnet Fastnet to Old Head of Kinsale Old Head of Kinsale to Poor Head Poor Head to Ballycotton Ballycotton to Hook Point Hook Point to Saltees Saltees to Tuskar Tuskar to Carnarvon Lightvessel Carnarvon Lightvessel to South Stack South Stack to Skerries Skerries to N.W. Lightvessel (Liverpool) Miles 23½ 7 28 19 20 48 23 35½ 51 54½ 32 12 42 17 7 44 11 18 76 11 8 43

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(k) DISTANCES BY SEA BETWEEN VARIOUS IMPORTANT PORTS, IN SEA MILES * Terminal Ports Plymouth to Melbourne Ditto Sydney Ditto Wellington Ditto Valparaiso Ditto San Francisco Ditto Esquimalt Ditto Honolulu Ditto Bombay Ditto Colombo Ditto Calcutta Ditto Singapore Ditto Hong Kong Ditto Shanghai Ditto Yokohama Names of Terminal Ports Aden to Bombay " " Colombo Ascension to St. Vincent Bombay to Zanzibar C. Virgins to Monte Video Cape to St. Helena " " Adelaide " " Ascension " " King George Sound " " Melbourne " " Sunda Strait " " Sydney " " Wellington Colombo to King George Sound " " Penang " " Singapore " " Sunda Strait Fiji to Thursday Island Gibraltar to St. Vincent " " Malta " " Naples " " Madeira Hobart to Port Chalmers " " Cape Horn " " Cape Virgins Hong Kong to Shanghai Honolulu to Vancouver " " Yokohama King George Sound to Adelaide Malta to Port Said By Magellan Straits 13,090 12,910 11,710 8,560 13,300 14,050 13,410 — — — — — — — By Cape of Good Hope 11,870 12,340 12,910 — — — — 10,450 10,150 11,380 11,350 12,790 13,540 14,220 By Suez Canal 10,670 11,200 12,110 — — — — 6,000 6,490 7,710 8,050 9,490 10,240 10,920

Miles 1,640 2,130 1,640 2,530 1,170 1,700 5,760 2,380 4,880 6,030 5,010 6,500 7,070 3,380 1,270 1,560 1,770 2,240 1,560 980 960 610 1,010 5,660 5,810 810 2,410 3,440 1,040 940

Names of Terminal Ports Melbourne to Cape Horn " " Wellington Plymouth to Canary Islands " " Gibraltar Plymouth to Lisbon " " Cape Town, via Madeira " " St. Vincent " " Sierra Leone " " Colon " " New York " " St. John's, Newfoundland Rio to Monte Video St. Vincent San Francisco to Fiji " " " Hong Kong " " " Honolulu " " " Sydney " " " Yokohama Shanghai to Yokohama Sierra Leone to Canary Islands " " " St. Helena Singapore to Hong Kong " " Manila " " Yokohama Sydney to Auckland " " Vancouver Suez to Aden St. Helena to Ascension St. Vincent to Madeira

Miles 5,910 1,470 1,410 1,050 770 5,890 2,250 2,700 4,520 2,990 1,910 980 2,690 4,740 6,440 2,080 6,430 4,880 1,130 1,300 1,570 1,440 1,320 2,870 1,260 6,840 1,310 680 1,040

* Reprinted by permission from the Navy League Annual.

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LIVERPOOL TO NEW YORK (N. TRACK) Terminal Points Distance from Point to Point 11 0.5 94 19 50½ 11 16 42 2,699 30 6½ 15½ Total Distance from Liverpool 11 61 155 174 224½ 235½ 251½ 2,931 29,921 3,022¼ 30,281 3,044½

Liverpool (Rock Light) to Bar Lightship Bar Lightship to Skerries Skerries to Tuskar Tuskar to Conningbeg Lightship Conningbeg Lightship to Ballycotton Ballycotton to Queenstown (Roche's Point) Queenstown (Roche's Point) to Old Head of Kinsale Old Head of Kinsale to Fastnet Fastnet to Fire Island Lighthouse Fire Island Lighthouse to Sandy Hook Lightship Sandy Hook Lightship to Sandy Hook Sandy Hook to New York LIVERPOOL TO BOSTON (N. TRACK) Liverpool (Rock Light) to Queenstown (Roche's Point) Queenstown (Roche's Point) to Fastnet Fastnet to Boston Outer Light Boston Outer Light to Boston SOUTHAMPTON TO NEW YORK Terminal Points Southampton to Needles Needles to Portland Bill Portland Bill to Start Start to Eddystone Eddystone to Lizard Lizard to Bishop Rocks Bishop Rocks to Fire Island Fire Island to Sandy Hook Sandy Hook to New York LONDON (THAMES) TO NEW YORK Gravesend to Nore Nore to North Foreland North Foreland to Dover Dover to Dungeness Dungeness to Beechy Head Beechy Head to St. Catherine's St. Catherine's to Portland Bill Portland Bill to Start Point Start Point to Eddystone Eddystone to Lizard Lizard to Bishop Rocks Bishop Rocks to Fire Island Fire Island to Sandy Hook Lightship Sandy Hook Lightship to Sandy Hook Sandy Hook to New York

2351 58 2,563 81

235½ 293½ 2,856½ 2,865

Miles 20 38 50 22 40 28 2,919 36½ 154

191 20 25 24 30 60 55 50 22 40 28 2,919 30 6 154

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5

Time

(a) THE CHRONOMETER A CHRONOMETER is neither more nor less than a very superior watch. Its motive power is a spring whose varying force (as it uncoils) is accurately compensated for by the form of the drum upon which the chain is wrapped. What is called the "escapement" (that is, the mechanism which prevents the watch from running down all at once) is somewhat different to that of an ordinary English lever watch. The seconds' hand only moves two steps for each second, and the balance-wheel receives an impetus only when swinging in one direction. The hair-spring is of the cylindrical form, and the balance-wheel itself is very carefully "compen-sated" for temperature. The result of all the succes-sive improvements in the construction of Chronometers, and of the extraordinary care taken in their manufacture, is that a good Chronometer will continue to go at a con-stant rate, even when subjected successively to two extreme temperatures (say 50° and 90°), and very nearly at the same rate for intermediate temperatures. A Chronometer should be kept in a padded box in a part of the ship where it will be as free as possible from vibration, and should never be moved until taken ashore, and should be wound up regularly. The use of a Chrono-meter on board ship is mainly to keep Greenwich time from port to port; hence the navigator requires to know on leaving port the error of his Chronometer as compared with Greenwich Mean Time, and also the extent to which it is gaining or losing per day. This information is usually supplied by an Optician or Chronometer "rater," who has exceptional facilities for doing this important work. But the navigator takes every opportunity of checking the daily rate from time to time, for the rate may change from the moment the Chronometer is taken on board. (b) SHIP TIME For the purpose of discipline on shipboard and to divide the watch fairly, the crew is mustered in two divisions: the Starboard (right side, looking toward the head), and the Port (left). The day commences at noon, and is thus divided: Afternoon Watch, noon to 4 p.m.; First Dog Watch, 4 p.m. to 6 p.m.; Second Dog Watch, 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.; First Watch, 8 p.m. to midnight; Middle Watch, 12 a.m. to 4 a.m.; Morning Watch, 4 a.m. to 8 a.m.; Forenoon Watch, 8 a.m. to noon. This makes seven Watches, which enables the crew to keep them alternately, as the Watch which comes on duty at noon one day has the afternoon next day, and the men who have only four hours' rest one night have eight hours the next. This is the reason for having Dog Watches, which are made by dividing the hours between 4 p.m. and 8 p.m. into two Watches. No. of Bells 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " Time of Day 12.30 1.00 1.30 2.00 2.30 3.00 3.30 4.00 4.30 5.00 5.30 6.00 6.30 7.00 7.30 8.00 8.30 9.00 9.30 10.00 10.30 11.00 11.30 Noon No. of Bells 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " Time of Day 12.30 1.00 1.30 2.00 2.30 3.00 3.30 4.00 4.30 5.00 5.30 6.00 6.30 7.00 7.30 8.00 8.30 9.00 9.30 10.00 10.30 11.00 11.30 Midnight

Mid-day

Afternoon

Morning

1st Dog 2nd Dog

Forenoon

First Watch

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(c) LIST OF TIME SIGNALS IN GREAT BRITAIN Place Greenwich Sheerness Deal Dover Portsmouth Southampton Devonport Falmouth Swansea Liverpool Dundee Edinburgh (Leith) North Shields Cork Queenstown Dublin Signal Adopted Black Ball (Royal Observatory) Black Ball (Garrison Fort) Black Ball (Telegraph Tower) Gun (near Drop Battery)* Black Ball (Dockyard Sema-phore Tower) Ball (South Castle) Black Ball, also Gun on Mount Wise * Black Ball (Pendennis Castle) Gun on Old Eastern Pier* Gun (Morpeth Dock Pier)* Gun* Ball (Calton Hill), also Gun (Edinburgh Castle)* Gun (near Albert Edward Dock)* Gun (Victoria Quay)* Gun (near Military Hospital)* Ball (Port and Docks Board Building)

* The signals at the above places are made at 1 p.m. Greenwich mean time, with the exception of Dover, where the gun is fired at noon Greenwich mean time. At most of these places no signal is made on Sundays or general holidays. NOTE (Liverpool). — Chronometers tested gratis at Bidston Observatory. [The above is from Lloyd's Calendar, by kind permission.] (d) DIFFERENCE IN TIME Time in different parts of the world corresponding to London time at 12 o'clock (noon). Locality Aden (Arabia) Amsterdam Athens Auckland (New Zealand) Berlin Bombay Bremen Brussels Buenos Ayres Cairo Calcutta Constantinople Genoa Gibraltar Hong Kong Honolulu (Hawaii) Lima (Peru) Lisbon Madrid Manila (Philippine Islands) Marseilles Melbourne (Victoria) Mexico City Time of Day 3.00 p.m. 12.20 p.m. 1.35 p.m. 11.39 p.m. 12.54 p.m. 4.51 p.m. 12.33 p.m. 12.17 p.m. 8.07 a.m. 2.06 p.m. 5.53 p.m. 1.56 p.m. 12.36 p.m. 11.39 a.m. 7.37 p.m. 1.29 a.m. 6.53 a.m. 11.24 a.m. 11.45 a.m. 8.04 p.m. 12.21 p.m. 9.40 p.m. 5.24 a.m. Locality Milan Moscow Munich (Germany) New York Odessa (Russia) Paris Pekin Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Rome St. Petersburg San Francisco San Juan (Porto Rico) Shanghai Singapore (Malay Peninsula) Stockholm (Sweden) Sydney (New South Wales) Teheran (Persia) Vienna Venice Warsaw (Russia) Yokohama (Japan) Zanzibar ( East Africa) Time of Day 12.37 p.m. 2.30 p.m. 12.46 p.m. 7.00 a.m. 2.03 p.m. 12.09 p.m. 7.46 p.m. 9.07 a.m. 12.50 p.m. 2.01 p.m. 4.00 a.m. 8.00 a.m. 8.06 p.m. 6.54 p.m. 1.12 p.m. 10.05 p.m. 3.27 p.m. 1.06 p.m. 12.48 p.m. 1.24 p.m. 9.19 p.m. 2.37 p.m.

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(e) REDUCTION OF LONGITUDE INTO TIME Rule 1. — Divide the number of degrees, minutes and seconds by 15, and the quotient will be the time. If longitude is west of Greenwich, the result will be the time at Greenwich when it is noon at the place. Ex-ample: Longitude 74° 48' 15" W. What is the time ? Divide by 15 — 4 h., 59 m., 15 s., slower than Greenwich. Rule 2. — To find difference in time between two places divide the difference in longitude by 15. Example: Paris, longitude 2° 20' E.; Philadelphia, longitude 75° 10' W. Difference in longitude 77° 30' divided by 15 — 5 h., 10 m., difference in time. Rule 3. — To find difference in longitude (e.g. distance sailed) when difference in time is known, multiply the difference in time by 15. (f) A SHIP'S SPEED A ship at 1 knot per hour goes about 1.69 feet per second. A ship at 10 knots per hour goes about 16.89 feet per second. A ship at 15 knots per hour goes about 25.33 feet per second. A ship at 16 knots per hour goes about 27.02 feet per second. A ship at 17 knots per hour goes about 28.71 feet per second. A ship at 18 knots per hour goes about 30.40 feet per second. A ship at 19 knots per hour goes about 32.09 feet per second. A ship at 20 knots per hour goes about 33.78 feet per second. A ship at 21 knots per hour goes about 35.47 feet per second. (g) COMPARATIVE VELOCITIES Velocities Wave 30 metres high and 300 metres in breadth Ship 9 knots an hour Ship 17 knots an hour Ordinary wind Carrier pigeon Ocean wave during tempest Storm-wind Cannon-ball Electricity in submarine wire Light A metre is equal to 39.37 English inches 6 Atmosphere Metres per Second 6.81 4.63 8.75 5 to 6 18 21.85 25 to 30 632 4,000,000 300,400,000

(a) WEATHER WISDOM THE general theory of wind depends upon two factors — heat and the earth's motion. The air near the equator, being heated and becoming lighter, gives way to a periodical inrush of heavier air from the colder regions, that of the poles pressing against that of the equator; when the air of the poles meets the air of the equator moving northward they counterbalance each other, producing calms and variable winds, such as the equatorial doldrums. Such is the general idea of the motion of the atmosphere, which is modified by certain local manifestations, the monsoons of the Indian Ocean, and the north-east and south-east "trade winds," where the wind blows from the same quarter for days at a time. Cirrus or "Mare's Tails" Cumulus Stratus Cirro-cumulus or "Mackerel Sky" Cirro-stratus Clouds which consist of wisp-like streaks and streamers. A cloud composed of dense convex mounds or masses. A continuously extended sheet of cloud. Well defined, small rounded masses of clouds separated by intervals of sky. Clouds which partake of the char-acteristics of both cirrus and stratus clouds in combination.

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Cumulo-stratus Cumulo-cirro-stratus or Nimbus

Clouds formed by the blending of cumulus and stratus. The rain cloud, a combination consisting of a sheet of cirro-stratus, under which a cumulus cloud drifts.

Soft or delicate clouds foretell fine weather, a dark, gloomy blue sky presages wind, but a light blue sky indicates fine weather. Generally speaking the lighter and softer the clouds the less wind (though there may be rain), and the harder and more ragged the clouds the stronger the wind to follow. Sky Colours. — The colour of the sky, caused by moisture or clouds, is a sure indication of the weather, the principal effects being noted at sunrise or sunset. A deep blue colour of the sky, even when seen through clouds, indicates fair weather; a growing whiteness, an approaching storm. Sun Colours. — A red sunrise, with clouds lowering later in the morning, indicates rain. A gray lowering sunset, or one where the sky is green or yellowish-green, indicates rain. A light yellow sky at sunset presages wind. A gale, moderating at sunset, will increase before midnight, but if it moderate after midnight the weather will improve. If the full moon shall rise red, expect wind. Halo. — By a "halo" is meant one of the large circles, or parts of circles (also called Sun Dogs), about the sun or moon. A halo occurring after fine weather in-dicates a storm. Corona. — By a "corona" is meant one of the small coloured circles frequently seen around the sun or moon. A corona growing smaller indicates rain; growing larger, fair weather. Rainbows. — A morning rainbow is regarded as a sign of rain; an evening rainbow, of fair weather. Fogs. — Fogs indicate settled weather. A morning fog usually breaks away before noon. Three foggy mornings will be surely followed by a rain storm. Haze. — Haze is believed to prognosticate frost in winter, snow in spring, fair weather in summer, and rain in autumn. Clearness. — Unusual clearness of the atmosphere, un-usual brightness or twinkling of the stars, indicates rain. Friday's weather shows what may be expected on the following Sunday; that is, if it rains on Friday noon, then it will rain on Sunday, but if Friday be clear, then Sunday will be fine as well. The twelve days immediately following Christmas denote the weather for the coming twelve months, one day for a month. The day of the month the first snow-storm appears indicates the number of snowstorms the winter will bring. For example, the first snowstorm comes on November 29 — look out, then, for twenty-nine snowstorms. When you see northern lights you may expect cold weather. Storms that clear in the night will be followed by a rain storm. When the sky is full of stars expect rain. No weather is ill, if the wind is still. The sharper the blast the sooner it is past. If a cat washes herself calmly and smoothly the weather will be fair. If she washes herself "against the grain" take your mackintosh with you. If she lies with her back to the fire there will be a squall. Cats with their tails up and hair apparently electrified indicate approaching wind. If pigs are restless there will be windy weather. Pigs are said to be able to see the wind. The direction in which a loon flies in the morning will be the direction of the wind the next day.

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Magpies flying three or four together and uttering harsh cries predict windy weather. (b) BEAUFORT NOTATION FORMULA AS USED FOR INDICATING THE DISTURBANCE OF THE SEA 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (c) VELOCITY OF THE WIND Miles per Hour 0 to 2 3 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 25 26 to 30 31 to 36 37 to 44 45 to 52 53 to 60 61 to 69 70 to 80 above 80 Calm. Very Smooth. Smooth. Slight. Moderate. Rather Rough. Rough. High. Very High. Tremendous.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Calm Light Air Light Breeze Gentle Breeze Moderate Breeze Fresh Breeze Strong Breeze Moderate Gale Fresh Gale Strong Gale Whole Gale Storm Hurricane

just sufficient for Steerage Way Ships with all sail set would sail, in smooth water 1 to 2 miles per hour Ships with all sail set would sail, in smooth water, 3 to 4 miles per hour Ships with all sail set would sail, in smooth water, 5 to 6 miles per hour in which a Ship could just carry full and by Royals, etc. in which a Ship could just carry full and by Single Reef and T.G. Sails in which a Ship could just carry full and by Double Reefs and Jib in which a Ship could just carry full and by Triple Reefs, etc. in which a Ship could just carry full and by close Reefs and Courses just carrying close-reefed Maintopsail and reefed Foresail under Storm Staysail with bare poles

LINE OF BATTLESHIP OF NELSON'S DAY H.M.S. VICTORY

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7

The Royal Navy

THE invasion of England by the Romans, Saxons and Danes was only made possible by the non-existence of a fleet. The great Alfred remedied this by collecting a fleet and keeping it in a thoroughly efficient con-dition; later, after a period of immunity from further invasion the fleet was neglected, and the opportunity which came to the Conqueror again made it apparent that it was to the Navy that England must look for her first line of defence. In the reign of John the Navy once more became thoroughly efficient; then followed the usual reaction and indifference. Edward III. realized the importance of a powerful fleet, but in a few years it again fell off, the result being that the French were able to ravage Portsmouth and Winchester in 1372. By Henry V.'s time, however, these attacks had been effectually checked, and the birth of an established Mercantile Marine and of that Empire may be said to have commenced with the Elizabethan Navigators. The Spanish wars and the attempted invasion of the Great Armada in the latter part of the sixteenth century, the final struggle with the Dutch in 1692, and the battle of Barfleur (which put an end to the plans of the French King) practically ended for the time any serious consideration on the part of any foreign power of being able to force through the line of the British fleet. A century later, however, the strength of the Navy declined once more, with the result that the American colonies were lost. Then once again the vital necessity of re-organization and development became apparent, and the modern British Navy came into being, under the glorious guidance of Hawke, Rodney, Howe and Nelson. The greatest change, however, in the Royal Navy came in 1832 with the introduction of steam power, which in that year was fitted to H.M.S. Salamander (a paddle steamer). In 1843 a screw propeller was fitted to H.M.S. Rattler, the immediate success of which, with regard to vessels of war, made its future universal adoption a certainty. It was not, however, until 1848 that steam was applied to the class of warships known as battleships, and then only as an auxiliary to full sailing rig. In 1856 the first iron-built war vessels were constructed, and in 1860 was built (in consequence of the success in France of La Gloire, an armoured vessel of great power and stability), the first armour-clad iron vessel, H.M.S. Warrior. The earliest armour for men-of-war was made of wrought iron, but with the invention of hardened steel shot, a steelfaced plate, backed with a softer metal, became necessary. This in turn gave way to nickel steel or other forms of specially hardened metal which obviated the defects of the compound metal armour formerly in use. The control and management of the Royal Navy is vested in the Lords of the Admiralty. The First Lord, who is a civilian, is responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament for all the business of the Admiralty. The First, Second and Junior Naval Lords are responsible for the personnel of the Navy and the movements and the condition of the fleet, the Third Lord (or "con-troller") for the Material, the Civil Lord and the Parliamentary Secretary for the Finance, the permanent Secretary being in charge of the Secretariat under the First Lord. There are five Royal Dockyards existing in England for the building, equipment and repair of "Men-of-War." These are at Portsmouth, Chatham, Plymouth, Pem-broke and Sheerness; also twelve smaller dockyards or Depots, one being located in Ireland, and the other more important ones at Malta, Sydney, Bermuda, the Cape of Good Hope, Gibraltar and Hong Kong. A battleship takes from two to three years to build, and costs from £80,000 to £1,000,000 — a cruiser takes from one to two years, at a cost of from £160,000 to £400,000, or more. This is an increase of a very large percentage as compared with Nelson's day, when a Line-of-Battle-Ship was floated for about £70,000, and a small frigate for £12,600. In former days the largest ships were called Line-of--Battle-Ships; they were built of wood and were classed as first, second and third-raters, according to the weight and number of guns carried. Below this class ships were ranked as Frigates, Sloops and Corvettes. At the present day the ships of the Royal Navy may be separated into two broad classes at least, with regard to efficiency and invulnerability, namely, "Armoured" and "Unarmoured," Armoured ships being those whose sides and guns are protected by vertical plates of armour. These ships are classed as "Battleships," and sometimes as "Armoured Cruisers." Unarmoured vessels are those that are without protective armour, and include Torpedo Boats, Destroyers, Gunboats, and other auxili-ary craft.

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The three main divisions are First-Class, Second-Class and Third-Class Battleships — all of which, of course, are armoured vessels varying in efficiency according to size, number of guns, weight of armour and age. Cruisers, whether heavily armoured, or, as is more usual, only partially so, are classed as First, Second and Third-Class Cruisers, according to their size, speed and age. Destroyers properly rank next in importance, as being not only of very high speed, but powerful craft of high efficiency, well qualified to run down the torpedo craft of an enemy's fleet, to perform scout duty, etc. De-stroyers are unarmoured, and carry only the lightest guns, but are usually fitted with two or more torpedo tubes. Their steel plating is of the thinnest possible description, and they have proved to be very "risky" craft to navigate and control. The Government have now under construction a new class of Destroyers called "Scouts." These are more substantially built than the Destroyers, and are to act chiefly as fast Cruisers, to obtain information of the whereabouts of an enemy, and to carry dispatches and orders — in short, to perform the same kind of services at sea as the cavalry perform on land. A former type of vessels designed for this object — viz., the Torpedo Gunboat — was not successful, and the vessels are now used chiefly for fishery protection duties. Torpedo Boats and Torpedo Gunboats are classed as of small fighting power under all conditions, being for the most part only of value when an especially invulnerable point has been left open to attack. The smaller Gun-boats, while mounting rather heavier guns than Torpedo Boats, or even than those of the Destroyer Class, are perhaps more efficient than either of the other two classes, and, being of light draft, are especially valuable for river or harbour work, or in bombarding the coast from points of vantage where the waters may be too shallow for vessels mounting heavier guns. The Submarine is a development in naval engines of war, which came to the front at the latter end of the nineteenth century. The earliest application of these miniature craft, which are propelled beneath the sur face of the water, to practical purposes was made by the United States and France. The first submarines to be constructed in Great Britain were five of the Holland type (called after the American inventor). Other auxiliary craft are classed as Depôt or Supply Ships, Hospital Ships, Training Ships, Dispatch Vessels, Store Ships, Troop Ships, Surveying Ships, Coast Guard Cruisers, Sailing Cutters, Tugs, etc., and last (but not, it is to be hoped, by any means least as regards value in warfare) "Merchant Cruisers," which include the largest and fastest of the great "Liners" built in recent years by the leading Steamship Companies, and of whose efficiency there can be no doubt (in consideration of their high speed and great coal-carrying capacity, coupled with their great size and strength, which enable them to mount guns). Much discussion has taken place during the last few years as to the efficiency of the new tubular boilers of the "Belleville" type, fitted to a large majority of our latest ships. The old form of steam generator — called the Scotch or locomotive boiler — has been in use for warships ever since the introduction of steam power, and the principle of the construction is that the flames are carried through tubes which pierce the boiler with holes, as opposed to the watertubes running through the furnace. Experiments have been in progress some time and an interim Report, issued by the Committee appointed to investigate the matter, has been issued. This apparently condemns the "Belleville" type of water-tube boilers as being wasteful and dangerous. It appears, however, that other varieties of water-tube boilers will be adopted and not a return made to the older Scotch pattern; as the chief advantage claimed by the former type is in being able to get up steam quicker, owing to the larger heating surface. Without attempting to express an opinion where experts dis-agree, it may be mentioned that when the stokers have got used to the boilers, much good work has been got out of them, notably in the long voyages of the Powerful and Terrible.

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THE INTERIOR ARRANGEMENTS OF A MODERN WARSHIP 8 The Merchant Service

(a) HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM NAVIGATION FROM the early experiments of Watt, Fitch, Miller, Symmington, Bell and Fulton, the development of the steamship was but gradual, and the first attempts at navigating anything but inland waters were not at all successful. Not until 1819 was the trans-Atlantic steam voyage accomplished, and that by the paddle-steamer Savannah, which sailed from Savannah (Georgia) for St. Petersburg via Great Britain. This was the first true ocean steamship. She was of 350 tons burthen, and was built, sparred and fitted with steam machinery at Corlear's Hook, New York. Hence under Captain Moses Rogers she sailed to Savannah, making the voyage in seven days. The ship was full rigged, and not necessarily dependent upon her wrought iron paddles, which could be taken aboard at will. Her engine, direct acting, low pressure, had a forty-inch cylinder and a six-foot stroke of piston. Her fuel was pine wood, which, of course, could only be replenished as convenience served. When she sailed for Liverpool thousands waved her God-speed with the deepest misgivings as to the result of this novel marriage of sail and steam. Steaming and sailing, the Savannah made port in twenty-five days, having had recourse to the use of her canvas, exclusively, for more than a third of the time. From Liverpool her prow was turned toward the Baltic, and touching at Stockholm, Copenhagen and other ports, she ended her voyage at St. Petersburg, afterwards re-turning to America, where her engines and boilers were taken out, and she was converted into a sailing packet. The experiment was again followed on a large scale in 1825 by the fitting out in America of the Enterprise, for a voyage to India. By sailing or steaming alternately, as the weather and her fuel permitted, she arrived in the Hoogley in fortyseven days. Although the Savannah and the Enterprise succeeded through favourable circumstances in making long voyages, they were essentially sailing ships, and their steam power was merely an accessory. The Great Western and the Sirius in the year 1838 first really de-monstrated that it was practical to navigate a steamship without the unfurling of a yard of canvas; and the importance of the traffic which was thus inaugurated on the Atlantic was a vital and immediate factor in fostering its further development. The Sirius, 178 feet in length by 251 feet beam and 18f feet in depth, was dispatched from Queenstown for New York by the British and American Steam Navigation Company on April 5, 1838, and arrived in New York on April 21,

30

having been something over sixteen days upon the passage, during which she maintained an average speed of 81 knots per hour, on a consumption of 24 tons of coal per day. A few hours after the arrival of the Sirius in New York Harbour there also arrived the Great Western, which left the Bristol Channel three days later than the Sirius. The arrival of these two boats set the City of New York ablaze with excitement, some idea of which can be gained from the account printed by the Evening Post (N.Y.) on the following day. "The arrival yesterday of the steam-packets Sirius and Great Western caused in this city that stir of eager curiosity and speculation which every new enterprise of any magnitude awakens in this excitable community. The Battery was thronged yesterday morning with thousands of persons of both sexes to look on the Sirius, which had crossed the Atlantic by the power of steam, as she lay anchored near at hand, gracefully shaped, painted black all over, the water around her covered with boats filled with people passing and repassing, some conveying and some bringing back those who desired to go aboard. "When the Great Western at a later hour was seen ploughing her way through the waters towards the city the crowd became more numerous, and the whole bay to a great distance was dotted with boats, as if every-thing that could be manned by oars had left its place at the wharves. It would seem, in fact, a kind of triumphal entry. "The practicability of establishing a regular intercourse between Europe and America is considered to be solved by the arrivals of these vessels, notwithstanding the calculations of certain ingenious men, at the head of whom is a Dr. Lardner, who have proved by figures that the thing is impossible, and declared that ships would perforce be obliged to replenish their bunkers at either the Azores or Newfoundland in order to be able to complete the voyage; stating further that 'the whole project was chimerical in the extreme, and that one might as well talk of making a voyage to the moon.' The only question which now remains is whether the greater regularity and speed with which the passage is effected in steam vessels will compensate for the additional cost, or whether, in fact, on balancing all considerations, any additional cost will be incurred." The Great Western continued in the trans-Atlantic trade for about six years, during which time she made 70 voyages across the ocean, averaging 15½ days westward and 131 days eastward. The quickest passage to New York was made in 12 days and 19 hours, and the quickest passage to Liverpool in 12 days and 7 hours. From this date and from these beginnings were de-veloped the trans-Atlantic steamship lines of the present day. Among other earlier ships engaged in this trade were the Royal William, the British Queen, the President, the Liverpool and the Great Britain. The Cunard Line was established in 1840 with a fleet of four ships, the Britannia, the Acadia, the Columbia and Caledonia, each with an average horse-power of 440. William Fairbairn, of Manchester, England, built three small iron steamers in 1831, and afterwards be-came associated with the Lairds, of Birkenhead, when the latter went largely into this construction. Up to 1848 they had built more than 100 iron vessels. But not till 1855 was a great ocean steamship, the Cunarder Persia, built of this material on well-formulated and scientific principles. In France and the United States iron had only been used for the structural framework. The Persia was the turning point in a new movement. She was 360 feet long, 45 feet in breadth and 35 feet in depth, with a capacity of 1,200 tons greater than the largest of her sisters. In addition to this great increase of strength, ships wholly constructed of iron or steel are lighter than those of the same tonnage made of wood, and can carry larger freights. As they can be enlarged beyond the dimensions that limit wooden ships, they profit by the law that the larger the capacity, the less proportionate space need be devoted to the stowage of fuel, their cargo room being thus increased. This substitution of steel for iron was almost as great an advance as that of iron for oak. A still more important invention was at this time fast establishing its supremacy. It had long been seen that the paddlewheel even at its best did not by any means fulfil all requirements, and even during its best days the screw propeller had come into partial use as an auxiliary. It had been observed, for instance, that as the latter's blades work in the current following the ship, the tendency of its action was to restore its static con-dition to the agitated fluid, taking up and restoring usefully a large part of the energy which would, by reason of friction, otherwise have been lost. The screw,

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too, through its complete submersion, is more continu-ously efficient than the paddle-wheel, which is only par-tially submerged at any time, and for some periods (as in a rolling sea) perhaps not at all. The rapid and smooth rotation of the screw permits the use of light, fast-running, quick-acting engines, economizes weight and space, and increases cargo room. The economy of steam in a quick-running engine, especially in one of the compound type, also means less expense of fuel, and a saving in stowage and carriage. The history of the adoption of the screw propeller is full of romantic interest. The honours already won by the Cunard were challenged about ten years later by an American Company, the Collins' Line, which, how-ever, unfortunately came to grief in the course of a few years. The first really dangerous competitors of the Cunard were the vessels of the Inman Line, a company which had experimentally adopted the principle of the screw propeller, which was destined eventually to supersede the paddle-wheel principle, upon which the Cunard Company had up to that time relied. In fact, for some years later the Cunard Company still continued to construct paddle-steamers, the Scotia, which was one of the last and finest vessels of this class, reaching a capacity of 3,870 tons. Not long after the building of the Scotia, however, the Cunard Company, spurred probably by the competition of the Inman Line, wrung from the Government of the day permission to fit their steamers with screw propellers for the carriage of the mails. The first Cunarder of this new type was called the China, and it was her success, with that of her sister boats, that finally established the superiority of the screw. The victory of this principle (of the screw propeller) was one of the great turning-points in the history of steam navigation, and from the day of its adoption by the Cunard the progressive development of the steam-ship on modern lines may be dated. Following the example of these two famous pioneer lines came the establishment of the "P. & O." Company (at first known as the Peninsular Company), in 1837; the Royal Mail, in 1839; the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, in 1847; the "B. I.," in 1855; the Anchor Line, in 1856; the German Nord Deutscher Lloyd, in 1858; the French Compagnie Transatlantique, in 1861; the building of the Britannic and the Germanic (of the "White Star" line), in 1874; the establishment of the Orient Line (to Australia), in 1877; and the first direct steamship service to New Zealand, in 1883. The year 1888 and the next following decade saw the introduction of the "twin-screw" principle in the con-struction of the famous City of New York and City of Paris (Inman Line); the Majestic and the Teutonic (White Star Line); the Lucania and Campania (Cunard); and the Celtic (White Star), the last-mentioned in 1903. The most recent development of steam navigation has been the introduction of engines on the turbine principle, but this new principle at the time of writing (January, 1903) can hardly be said to be yet established, as it is only within the present year that turbine steamers have been introduced (into the cross-channel service). It is impossible (even in the merest sketch of steamboat development) to conclude without making some reference to what is generally known as the "American Shipping Combine," or "Trust," of 1902 — a gigantic enterprise, the ultimate effect of which upon the shipping trade generally cannot at present be foreseen. The facts, however, are that this new "mammoth" Company has started with a gross capital of £24,000,000, and has bought up the "White Star," the Leyland, tho Dominion and the British and North Atlantic Companies; and that the British Government, in return, has subsidised the Cunard. Briefly summarising various stages in the evolution of the ocean liner since the days of the Savannah, we find that the factors of its progress have been developed in the following order: — (1) Substitution of the steam-engine for canvas, as the main motive-power. (2) The substitution of iron for wood in the construction of the hull, and later that of steel for iron, and the consequent development, to the best advantage, of the long, sharp, yacht-like lines which have given increased room, size and speed. (3) The adoption of the screw propeller as a means of propulsion in place of the less effective and more cumbersome paddle-wheel. (4) The adoption of the compound triple and quad-ruple engine, with surface condenser, which makes it possible to utilise the steam more than once before its final discharge into the condenser, an enormous economy of fuel and a greater speed and space for the accommoda-tion of passengers and freight being thus secured. It has hitherto been found that each decade has been distinguished by some radical improvement in steamer construction from the decade which preceded it. The accompanying table shows this progress (approximately), and at

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the same time exhibits the most important approximate rises in boiler pressure, and the approximate improvement in engine power. Decade 1845 - 1855 1855 - 1865 1865 - 1875 1875 - 1885 1885 - 1900 Development in Construction Iron in place of wood Screw in place of paddle-wheel Compound in place of simple engines Steel in place of iron, and triple expansion engines Twin screws, quadruple expansion and forced draught Approximate Boiler Pressure 10 to 20 20 to 35 35 to 60 60 to 125 125 to 200 Approximate lb. of coal per h.p. 4.5 to 3.5 3.5 to 2.9 2.9 to 2.2 2.2 to 1.9 1.9 to 1.3

It is interesting to note the vast stores of food that are used on an Atlantic liner. During a single trans-Atlantic trip on an average liner there were used — Fresh beef, 15,000 lbs.; fresh mutton, 2,500 lbs.; fowls, 650 head; game, 350 head; cabbages, 250 head; turnips, 160 bunches; leeks, 60 bunches; onions, 4,480 lbs.; potatoes, 17,920 lbs.; parsley, 50 bushels; tomatoes, 200 lbs.; rhubarb, 130 bunches; asparagus, 30 tins; green corn, 80 tins; peas, 140 tins; tomatoes, 70 tins; canned meats, 60 tins; flour, 30 barrels; sugar, 1,600 lbs.; coffee, 350 lbs.; tea, 136 lbs.; as well as 16 tons of ice, 5,000 eggs, 2,000 lbs. of butter, 400 quarts of ice cream, 20 barrels of oysters in the shell, 700 gallons of milk, 5,000 lbs. of fish, a large quantity of fruit, and many other things. Of the wines, liquors, etc. — champagne, 200 pints; claret, 220 pints; whiskey, 170 bottles; liquors, 14 bottles; beer and porter, 240 dozen bottles; mineral waters, 350 dozen bottles; cigars, 1,100; cigarettes, 160 packages; tobacco, 100 lbs.; water, 140 tons. In the refrigerating rooms are stored several hundred tons of ice, all of it in such a way that it may be obtained at a moment's notice, and yet so closely packed that there is no space lost. There is seldom a scarcity of drinking-water on board passenger steamships. There are large tanks of a capa-city of five hundred or six hundred tons on nearly all the large steamships, and all carry a condenser, which makes it possible to have fresh water directly from the ocean. Salt water, however, is only used for the baths as a rule. The amount of food that can be cooked in the various galleys is enormous, the cooks, of whom there is a host, often preparing three or more meals a day for 1,000 to 2,000 people, on the largest of the passenger ships. (b) MERCHANT VESSELS LAUNCHED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM DURING RECENT YEARS* Year 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 STEAM NO. 458 595 651 641 512 438 549 526 628 545 744 714 664 591 Gross Tonnage 757,081 1,083,793 1,061,619 878,353 841,356 718,277 964,926 904,991 1,113,831 924,382 1,363,318 1,414,774 1,432,600 1,501,078 SAIL NO. 81 95 92 181 169 98 65 53 68 46 17 12 28 48 Gross Tonnage 80,959 125,568 133,086 252,463 268,594 118,106 81,582 45,976 45,920 28,104 4,252 2,017 9,871 23,661 TOTAL NO. 539 690 743 822 681 536 614 579 696 591 761 726 692 639 Gross Tonnage 838,040 1,209,361 1,194,705 1,130,816 1,109,950 836,383 1,046,508 950,967 1,159,751 952,486 1,367,570 1,416,791 1,442,471 1,524,739

[*By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar.] * Since writing the above a yet more gigantic cargo steamer has been built in America, viz. the S.S. Minnesota, whose carrying capacity is just about double even that of the Cedric and the Celtic.

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THE INTERIOR ARRANGEMENTS OF A MODERN STEAMSHIP CHART (c) THE LARGEST STEAMSHIPS AFLOAT Name Cedric * Celtic * Kaiser Wilhelm II. Oceanic Deutschland Kron Prinz Wilhelm Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse Saxonia Ivernia Minneapolis Minnehaha Minnetonka Pennsylvania Campania Lucania Walmer Castle Rijndam Potsdam Athenic Noordam Kaiser Frederick Blucher Line White Star White Star N.D.L. White Star Hamb. Am. N.D.L. N.D.L. Cunard Cunard Atl. Trnspt. Atl. Trnspt. Atl. Trnspt. Hamb. Am. Cunard Cunard UnionCastle HollandAm HollandAm White Star HollandAm N.D.L. Hamb. Am. Gross Length Tonnage 700 21,000 700 20,880 19,500 17,274 15,500 15,000 14,000 13,963 13,800 13,402 13,402 13,400 13,333 13,000 12,950 12,570 12,500 12,500 12,500 12,500 12,480 12,372 706.5 705.5 686 633.5 649 600 600 600.7 600.7 600 559.4 625 625 565 565 520 565 581 66 64 64 65 65 65 62 65 64 62 62 62 63 Beam 75 75 68 67 Name Moltke Carpathia Kroonland Finland Haverford Merion St. Paul St. Louis New England Korea Siberia La Savoie La Lorraine Tunisian Bavarian Briton Mongolia Moldavia Majestic Teutonic Kildonan Castle Orontes Line Hamb. Am. Cunard Red Star Red Star American American American American Dominion Hamb. Am. Hamb. Am. Cie. Gen. Trans. Atl. Cie. Gen. Trans. Atl. Allan Allan UnionCastle P. and O. P. and O. White Star White Star UnionCastle Orient Gross Length Tonnage 12,372 12,000 580 12,000 580 12,000 530 11,635 530 11,635 535 11,629 535 11,629 11,406 11,300 11,300 11,200 11,200 10,576 10,576 10,248 10,000 10,000 9,965 9,965 9,664 9,000 550 Beam

60 60 59 59 63 63 59

563 563 500.6 500 530 582 582 515

60 60 59 59 60 57 57 59

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(d) TONNAGE OF THE LARGEST STEAMSHIP COMPANIES. Numerical Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Name of Company Hamburg American Nord Deutscher Lloyd Elder, Dempster and Company British India S. N. Company Peninsular and Oriental Company Messageries Maritimes F. Leyland and Company Union-Castle Line Nippon Yusen Kaisha White Star Line General S. N. Co. of Italy Wilson Line Compagnie Générale Transatlantique Austrian Lloyd American Line Ocean Steamship Company Clan Line Hansa Line Allan Line Lamport and Holt Harrison Line Anchor Line Maclay and MacIntyre Cunard Line Atlantic Transport Company Dominion Line Johnston Line R. Ropner Cia Transatlantica Royal Mail Steam Packet Company J. Westoll Bucknall Brothers Chargeurs Réunis No. of Ships 202 111 120 120 58 62 55 41 69 25 102 89 59 68 25 41 46 57 36 47 31 41 51 26 17 13 24 36 23 28 38 23 26 Tons 541,085 454,936 382,560 378,770 313,343 246,277 242,781 222,613 218,361 212,403 205,104 189,818 183,243 169,436 167,105 165,143 164,487 157,037 152,367 149,712 146,625 132,540 126,917 126,332 123,000 105,430 100,460 100,426 88,453 88,205 88,306 83,207 81,149

(e) THE MERCHANT FLEETS OF THE CHIEF MARITIME POWERS A. STEAMERS. Country United Kingdom Colonies United States Aust.-Hungarian Belgian Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Norwegian Russian Spanish Swedish Number 7,161 946 1,036 237 118 365 307 679 1,293 339 503 859 529 466 703 Tons 12,053,395 685,786 1,704,156 462,366 164,791 410,468 515,530 1,068,036 2,407,410 657,981 524,125 810,335 533,029 734,557 451,020

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B. SAILING VESSELS. Country United Kingdom Colonies United States Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Norwegian Russian Spanish Swedish Number 1,773 989 2,250 414 116 568 493 874 882 1,462 761 163 780 Tons 1,602,767 366,259 1,393,188 97,726 62,579 338,847 488,372 459,557 120,539 816,885 256,224 51,791 225,199

(f) PRINCIPAL PASSENGER ROUTES FROM BRITISH PORTS AMERICA. Halifax, Montreal and Quebec, via Liverpool; New York, Via Liverpool; Via Southampton; 8 to 10 days; 7 to 10 days; 7 to 10 days; £10 upwards. via White Star and Cunard Lines; £12 upwards. Nord Deutscher Lloyd, Hamburg-American and American Lines; £12 upwards. Atlantic Transport Line; £10 upwards. Cunard and Dominion Lines; £10 upwards. 12 to 15 days; 12 days; £26 upwards. £ 7 7s. £16. about £25.

Via the Thames; 8 to 10 days; Boston. Via Liverpool; 8 to 10 days; San Francisco and Vancouver. Via Montreal, New York and Boston, thence overland; Philadelphia. From Liverpool, via Queenstown; New Orleans. Via Liverpool; 16 to 18 days; West Indies. Via Southampton or Bristol; 12 to 15 days; Brazil and River Plate. Via Southampton; £22 to £35.

AUSTRALASIA. Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland From London or Southampton, via Suez Canal; From Liverpool, via Cape; BELGIUM. Ostend, from London direct; G.S.N. Co., 10 hours; Antwerp. Via Hull or Harwich; 12 to 15 hours; Via Ostend; 8 hours;

about 6 weeks; £70. from £14 upwards. 7s. 6d. £1 upwards. £1 18s. £70 upwards. £20 to £28.

CHINA. EGYPT. FRANCE

Shanghai, via Colombo, Straits and Hong Kong; about 6 weeks from Liverpool or London; Cairo, via Alexandria or Port Said, from Liverpool or London; Bordeaux, from Liverpool or London; Havre, via Southampton, Cherbourg, via Southampton, St. Malo, via Southampton, Dieppe, via Newhaven, Boulogne, via Folkestone, from London direct; Bennett SS. Co. Calais, via Dover, Marseilles, via Liverpool or London, 8 to 12 days;

3 to 4 days; about £5. 9 hours. 10 hours. 10 hours. 3¼ hours. 1½ to 1¾ hour. 10 hours; 10s.; 1 to 4 hour. 5 to 7 days; £10 upwards.

GERMANY. GREECE.

Hamburg, via Harwich, £1 17s. 6d. Bremen, from London; £1 15s. Athens, via Brindisi (Italy) or Marseilles; fares from London, £15 upwards.

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Amsterdam and Rotterdam, via Hook of Holland, from Harwich; 11 hours; £1 9s. upwards. via Flushing; 13 hours; £1 10s. upwards. INDIA. Bombay, Calcutta and Colombo, from London or Liverpool; about 3 weeks; £50 upwards. ITALY. Genoa, from Southampton; 5 to 7 days; £10 upwards. Naples; 6 to 7 days; £12 upwards. JAPAN From London or Liverpool; 6 to 7 weeks; £60. PALESTINE. Jerusalem, via Alexandria; 9 to 10 days; about £25. RUSSIA. Odessa, steamer from Hull; about 14 days; about £12. St. Petersburg, via Hull; about 7 days; £5 5s. SCANDINAVIA. Bergen, Christiania, Copenhagen, from Newcastle, London or Hull; l½ to 3 days; £3 to £6. Gothenburg, Stockholm, from London, Leith and Hull; £3 upwards. SPAIN. Gibraltar, via London or Liverpool; 4 to 6 days; £8 to £10. TURKEY. Constantinople, from Liverpool; 10 to 12 days. Via Marseilles, 6 to 7 days. (g) OCEAN RECORDS Year 1819 1838 1851 1856 1862 1866 1873 1875 1876 1877 1877 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1887 1888 1889 Days 22 18 10 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Liverpool and Queenstown to America (New York). Hours 11 10 6 2 19 13 1 17 2 20 18 15 13 11 10 8 3 23 21 18 14 9 6 5 4 1 23 22 21 20 19 19 18 16 14 13 12 9 7 Mins 15 15 25 42 45 47 48 9 50 48 11 37 53 30 50 4 37 18 51 8 31 42 55 7 50 20 39 18 5 8 31 24 23 47 29 23 Name of Vessel Savannah (Savannah to Liverpool) Sirius (Liverpool to New York) Great Western (Liverpool to New York) Africa (London to New York) Asia (Liverpool to New York) Pacific (Liverpool to New York) Baltic (Liverpool to New York) Persia (Liverpool to New York) Scotia (Liverpool to New York) Scotia (Queenstown to New York) Baltic City of Richmond City of Berlin Britannic Germanic Britannic Arizona (New York to Queenstown) Arizona (Queenstown to New York) Servia City of Rome Alaska America Oregon Umbria Etruria Umbria Etruria City of New York City of Paris Majestic City of New York City of Paris Teutonic Majestic Teutonic City of Paris Campania Lucania Campania Lucania

HOLLAND.

1891 1892 1893 1894

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Note. — These and the subsequent lists of "Ocean Records" are reprinted from the "Daily Mail Year Book" by kind permission. Southampton to New York. Year 1881 1883 1882 1884 1885 1886 1887 1889 1889 1893 1893 1893 1894 1896 1897 1897 1897 1900 1900 1902 Name of Vessel Elbe Werra Werra Eider Eider Aller Aller Augusta Victoria Fürst Bismarck. Fürst Bismarck. Fürst Bismarck Paris New York St. Paul St. Louis Kaiser Wm. der Grosse Kaiser Wm. der Grosse Kaiser Wm. der Grosse (To Cherbourg) Deutschland (To Plymouth) Kronprinz Wm. (To Plymouth) Company N.D.L. N.D.L. N.D.L. N.D.L. N.D.L. N.D.L. N.D.L. Hamb. Am. Hamb. Am. Hamb. Am. Hamb. Am. American American American American N.D.L. N.D.L. N.D.L. Hamb. Am. N.D.L. Time D. H. M. 8.00.00 7.21.00 7.20.15 7.18.10 7.17.00 7.10.00 7.08.00 6.18.00 6.13.00 6.11.44 6.10.55 6.09.37 6.07.14 6.00.31 6.10.41 5.22.35 5.17.08 5.16.00 5.07.38 5.08.18 East or West W W E W W W W W W E E W W W E W E E E E

(h) Other Records Company P. & O. Orient Mess. Mar. Bibby P. & O. N. D. Lloyd City Line Service England and India, Ceylon, Burma, etc. Tilbury & Bombay Tilbury & Colombo Marseilles & Bombay Liverpool & Rangoon Tilbury & Calcutta Southampton & Colombo London & Calcutta . England and Australasia Orient Aberdeen Line P. & O. N. D. Lloyd Messrs. Mar. Tilbury & Sydney Dover & Sydney Tilbury & Sydney Southampton & Sydney Marseilles & Sydney England and China (Terminal Port, Hong Kong) N. D. Lloyd P. & O. Messrs. Mar . Southampton & Hong Kong Tilbury & Hong Kong, via Marseilles Marseilles & Hong Kong 10,178 10,112 8,611 35 38 34 0 0 0 12,558 12,341 12,555 12,563 10,491 43 93 43 46 33 0 10 12 0 0 Distance 6,570 7,093 4,559 8,162 8,259 7,068 8,259 Days 22 24 14 23 33 25 26 Hours 12 0 23 20 0 0 0

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Other Records (continued) Company Service England and The West Indies Trent Port Morant Barbados & Plymouth Bristol & Kingston Europe and America Labrador Parisian La Savoie Minneapolis New England Tunisian Moville & Belle Isle Moville & Rimouski Havre & New York Dover & Sandy Hook Queenstown & Boston Rimouski & Moville England and South Africa Scot Carisbrook Castle Buluwayo Medic 9 Southampton to Cape Town E. 14 Southampton to Cape Town W. 14 Dartmouth & Durban E. 23 Liverpool & Cape Town 5,981 5,981 6,584 6,100 14 d 11 h 00m 14 d 11 h 13 m 23 d 02 h 26 m 19 d 14 h 50 m 6 d 00 h 00 m 5 d 02 h 00 m 20.59 knts av. speed 8 d 02 h 31 m 3,265 6 d 12 h 42 m 2,636 6 d 06 h 40 m 3,513 15 d 04 h 00 m 11 d 12 h 00 m Distance Time Days Hours Minutes

Distinguishing Emblems

(a) FLAGS FLAGS are also used to signify the rank of the principal person on board. Thus the Royal Standard, containing the arms of the United Kingdom, is only hoisted when a member of the Royal Family is on board; on land it is flown over Royal residences. The Admiralty Flag, containing the Foul Anchor on a red field, is flown wherever the Lords of the Ad-miralty are present, either afloat or ashore. The St. George's Jack consists of a white field, which is divided into four quarters by a red cross, and is flown by Admirals instead of a pennant. For a Full Admiral it is flown at the main, for a Vice-Admiral at the fore, for a RearAdmiral at the mizen. The Trinity House Flag consists of the St. George's Jack, with the addition of a ship in each of the four quarters; it is flown by the Trinity Brethren, and by all Light Ships. The Union Jack, which is the National Flag of Great Britain, represents England, Scotland and Ireland by means of a combination of the three respective crosses of St. George, St. Andrew and St. Patrick. It is flown over all Ports and Barracks, and at the bows of all Men-of-War, either attached to a small staff on the bowsprit, or (while they are at anchor) attached to the head-rail. ENSIGNS are large flags denoting the nationality of a ship, and are hoisted on a staff at the stern. The British Ensign has for its field one of three colours — white, blue or red — with the Union Jack on the upper corner next the staff. The White Ensign, besides containing the Union Jack, is divided into four by a red cross, and is always flown by a Manof War at the stern, also by Yachts belonging to the Royal Yacht Squadron, but by no other vessels. The Blue Ensign is the flag of the Royal Naval Re-serve, and is only permitted on the stern of a Merchant Ship, when it happens to be commanded by Royal Naval Reserve Captains, and has ten Royal Naval Reserve men in her crew

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besides. The Blue Ensign is worn by any vessel maintained under the Colonial Defence Act; by all ships employed in the service of any public office; by Hired Transports, or vessels employed in the Surveying Service, and by all British merchant ships commanded by officers who are on the Retired List of the Royal Navy, or who are Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve, provided also that ten of the crew (officers and men) belong to the Royal Naval Reserve; and, lastly, by all British Merchant Ships in receipt of any Admiralty subvention. A few Yacht Clubs fly the Blue Ensign, but in all cases a device is added to the field. The Red Ensign is flown by all other British Ships, and is the only flag private individuals really have any right to use on land. The Colonies use it with their colonial badge added. The Red Ensign is worn by British Merchant Ships without any modification whatsoever. No merchant ship shall, besides the Red Ensign or the Union Jack with a white border, wear any of the flags or pennants usually worn by, or resembling those worn by, His Majesty's ships, a fine of £500 being inflicted on any one who should hoist or cause the same to be hoisted without authority to do so. A Foreign Ensign flying at the fore signifies that a distinguished personage, of the nationality denoted by the ensign, is a passenger on board. The Man-of-War PENNANT is a long-flowing narrow piece of white bunting, with the Cross of St. George at the end next the mast; it is flown at the main-mast head and is called the "Whip," as significative of whip-ping the seas. The National Flag of any ship when hoisted upside down, indicates that she is in want of immediate assist-ance. A White Flag is accepted in all parts of the world as a token of peace; a Red Flag as that of defiance; and a Black Flag as that of a pirate. The Quarantine Flag is a plain yellow flag hoisted at the fore; it shows that the ship has some infectious disease on board, or comes from an infected port. No one is allowed either to go on board or to leave such ship until permission has been received from the Local Sani-tary Authorities. A Plain Red Flag, called a Danger or Powder Flag, when hoisted at the fore, denotes that the ship has powder or shell or ammunition on board, and is intended as a warning to other ships not to come too close. A Green Flag flying from a boat or barge at anchor denotes that there is a wreck in the vicinity, as does also a green buoy placed over the spot. The Pilot Jack consists of a Union Jack with a white border, and, when hoisted at the fore, signifies that a pilot is required. At night-time a blue light is burnt at the end of the bridge. The Pilot Flag is White and Red, and is equally divided horizontally — the white at top. It is hoisted wherever it can be seen by a ship directed by a Pilot. The Blue Peter consists of a blue field with a white square centre. It is hoisted at the fore while in harbour to denote that the ship is ready to sail, and to warn any one on shore who intends to go aboard. (b) HOUSE FLAGS AND FUNNELS In addition to the National Flag, the ships of the Chief Mercantile Steamship Companies fly what is termed a "House Flag." These are designed and adopted by the owner or owners simply as a distinguishing mark. The House Flag is always flown at the main on entering or leaving the harbour. At long distances the painting of the funnels, by means of the colour and lines or designs painted upon them, serves the same purpose. Many of these flags and funnels will be found illustrated and described in Part II, under the headings of their respective companies.

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(c) DISTINGUISHING LETTERS OF BRITISH FISHING BOATS [*By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar.] The Fishing Smacks and Steamers around the British coast have their bows or sails marked with letters to distinguish the ports from which they sail. As a rule, the first and last letters of the name of the port are used, e.g., W.Y., Whitby; but there are a great many exceptions. The port from which they are registered is often that of the nearest large harbour. For instance, the Hastings fishing boats are marked R.X., which stands for Rye; and the Brixham boats D.H., for Dartmouth. The foreign boats are also marked in this way. H. stands for Havre, as well as Hull. ENGLAND AND THE CHANNEL ISLANDS Aberystwith Barnstaple Barrow-in-F's Beaumaris Berwick-on-Tw Bideford Boston, Lincs. Bridgwater Bridport Bristol Cardiff Cardigan Carlisle Carnarvon Castletown,IoM Chepstow Chester SCOTLAND Aberdeen Alloa Arbroath Ardrishaig Ardrossan Ayr Banff Borrowstoness Broadford IRELAND Ballina Belfast Coleraine Cork Drogheda B.A. B. C.E. C. D.A. Dublin Dundalk Galway Limerick Londonderry D. D.K. G. L. L.Y. New Ross Newry Skibbereen Sligo Tralee N.S. N. S. S.O. T. Waterford Westport Wexford Youghal W. W.T. W.D. Y. A.N. A.A. A.H. A.G. A.D. A.R. B.F. B.O. B.R.D. Campbeltown Castlebay Dumfries Dundee Fraserburgh Glasgow Grangemouth Granton Greenock C. N. C. Y. D. S. D.E. F.R. G.W. G.H. G.N. G.K. Inverness Irvine Kirkcaldy Kirkwall Leith Lerwick Montrose Oban Perth I.N.S. I. E. K.Y. K.L. L.H. L.K. M.E. O.B. P.E.H. Peterhead Pt Glasgow Rothesay Stornoway Stranraer Troon Ullapool Wick Wigtown P.D. P.G.W. R.O. S.Y. S.R. T.N. U.L. W.K. W.N. A.B. B.E. B.W. B.S. B.K. B.D. B.N. B.R. B.T. B.L. C.F. C.A. C.L. C.O. C.T. C.W. C.H. Colchester Cowes, IoW Dartmouth Deal Douglas, IoM Dover Exeter Falmouth Faversham Fleetwood Folkestone Fowey Gainsborough Gloucester Goole Grimsby Guernsey C.K. C.S. D.H. D.L. D.O D.R. E. F.H. F.M. F.D. F.E. F.Y. G. A. G.R. G.E. G.U. Hartlepool Harwich Hayle Hull Ipswich Jersey Lancaster Littlehampton Liverpool Llanelly London Lowestoft Lyme, Dorset Lynn Norfolk Maldon Maryport Middlesb'gh H.L. H.H. H.E. H. I.H. J. L.R. L.I. L.L. L.A. L.O. L.T. L.E. L.N. M.N. M.T M.H. Milford New-on-Ty Newhaven Newport Padstow Penzance Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Preston Ramsey Ramsgate Rochester Runcorn Rye Scarborough Scilly M. N.E. N.N. N.T. P.W. P.Z. P.H. P.E. P. P.N. R.Y. R. R.R. R.N. R.X. S.H. S.C. Shoreham Southampton Shields, N Shields, S Stockton Sunderland Swansea Teignmouth Truro Wells, N'lk Weymouth Whitby Whitehaven Wisbeach Woodbridge Workington Yarmouth, G S.M. S.U. S.N. S.S.S. S.T. S.D. S.A. T.H. T.O. W.S. W.H. W.Y. W.A. W.I. W.E. W.O. Y.H.

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10

Signals

(a) GENERAL SIGNALS THE International (Commercial) code of Signals was first introduced in the year 1857. It then consisted of but eighteen flags, but there has been a constant demand for an increased number of signals, which the code in use until 1900 had altogether failed to meet. The code, however, was then re-written, and in its improved form came into operation throughout the world on January 1, 1901. Under the newly-arranged code many important signals, which formerly required the use of three or more flags, can now be displayed in two, whilst it is of course now possible to make a larger and more varied number of new signals by the use of three or more flags, as well as to express a message by means of an alphabetical signal (there being now a flag for every letter of the alphabet), with much less risk of its being wrongly interpreted. The New International Signal Code consists of 2 Burgees, or swallow-tailed flags, 5 Pennants, a narrow triangular flag, and 19 square flags; in all, 26 flags, one for each letter of the alphabet, together with a "Code Flag" or answering pennant. Signals at sea and along the coast are also now made by various new methods, e.g. by the Semaphore, which has been highly developed by the French; by an elaborate system of balls and cones, which are displayed from the masthead (usually by ships of the Navy); by hand-flag semaphoring; by flash-light signalling; by blasts of sound on the system of the Morse telegraphic alphabet, or by ordinary flag waving, in which a small number of different flags are used in

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combination to express certain simple phrases. A new chapter in the history of signalling has just opened with the marvellous invention of Signor Marconi, who has succeeded in transmitting messages across the Atlantic without the aid of any kind of cable — an achievement which is bound sooner or later to revolutionize the existing systems of long-distance intercommunication. This novel method of sending messages is called wireless telegraphy and the messages themselves Marconi-grams after the name of the inventor. In many circles it is hoped that the Post Office Department will succeed in securing for this country some of the benefits of this great invention. The employment of the International Signal Code is practically universal, most of the foreign powers having adopted it officially immediately upon its being made effective, and some of them having even translated it at once into their own languages. When a ship wishes to make a signal, she hoists the Ensign with the "Code Flag" under, and when this has been answered or acknowledged by the ship whose attention she is desirous of attracting, she proceeds with her message, hauling down the "Code Flag" if it is required for making the succeeding signal. Signals are always hoisted where they can best be seen, and not necessarily always at the mast-head. Each signal-flag is kept flying until the ship signalled hoists her "Answering Pennant." The letters required for the signal are readily found by looking up the first letter of the principal word in the message, under its initial letter in the General Vocabulary of the Code Book. In answering a signal, the ship signalled hoists the "Answering Pennant" half-way, and upon reading or understanding the signal, hoists it close up. Ships passing each other on the deep seas and signalling their position always use the meridian of Greenwich, except French ships, which ordinarily make use of the meridian of Paris, and of course (in this case) Paris time. The British meridian is that of Greenwich — Oh. Om. Os. The meridian of Paris is Oh. 9m. 21s. east of Greenwich, and is computed to be 9 minutes and 21 seconds faster (in point of time). The meridian of New York is 4h. 56m. 1.8s. west of Greenwich, and in point of time is of course proportionately slower. When ships pass either one another or Signal Stations on shore, they usually hoist the following signals: — (1) The National Colours, with the "Code Flag" under them. (2) The ship's name (in signal letters). (3) Port of starting. (4) Port of destination. (5) Number of days out. (6) Longitude by Chronometer. The Ensign is kept flying until the communication is ended and "dipped" and re-hoisted as a farewell. The Ensign is said to be "dipped" when it is lowered a short distance from the masthead, or from the peak, and hauled up close again. To express emphasis or fervour this operation is repeated "ad lib." Distant Signals are required when, in consequence of the extreme distance or the state of the weather, it is not possible to distinguish the colours of the flags which might otherwise be visible. Three different methods of signalling are used. (1) By the fixed Coast Semaphore. (2) By Balls, Drums and Cones. (3) By Balls, Square Flags and Whefts (a wheft being a pennant with the fly tied to the halyards). For an example of distant signals, see illustration.

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SEMAPHORE, BALL, CONES, DRUM, AND WHEFT, USED IN DISTANCE SIGNALLING. (b) NUMERAL SIGNALS Are given with the Code Flag over M, N, and O. Code Flag over M. " " " N. " " " O. NUMERAL TABLE A B C D E F G H I (c) SOUND SIGNALS A vessel under weigh in sight of another indicates the course she is taking by the following signals: — One short blast means Two short blasts means Three short blasts means (d) FOG SIGNALS During a fog, a steamer under weigh, with her whistle or siren, blows a prolonged blast every two minutes. A sailing ship blows on the fog-horn (when on the starboard tack) one blast; when on the port tack, two blasts; when the wind is abaft to beam, three blasts every minute. All vessels at anchor during fog ring their bell at intervals of not more than one minute. "I am directing my course starboard." "I am directing my course to port." "My engines are going full speed astern." 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 J K L M N O P Q R 10 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 S T U V W X Y Z 99 100 0 00 000 0000 00000 000000 This represents that the Signals which follow are Numeral Signals. This indicates the Decimal point. This represents that the Numeral Signals are ended; the Signals which follow are to be looked out in the Code in the usual manner.

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(e) STORM SIGNALS

NORTH CONE

Gale probably from the Northward.

SOUTH CONE

Gale probably from the Southward.

At numerous ports and fishing stations, many of which are Lloyd's signal stations, warning signals are hoisted in connexion with the Meteorological Office to advise as to the probability Of an approaching gale. A cone pointed downwards means that strong winds are probable, at first from the southwards — from S.E. round by S. to N.W. A cone pointed upwards means that strong winds are probable, at first from the northwards — from N.W. round by N. to S.E. The drum is added to either cone when a very heavy gale is probable. No drum is used at dark, or without the cone. The signal is kept flying until dusk and then lowered to avoid unnecessary wear and tear, but it is hoisted again at daylight next morning; and so on until the end of 48 hours from the time at which the message was issued from London, unless orders to lower the signal are received previously. At dusk, whenever a signal ought to be flying if it were daylight, a night signal consisting of three lanterns hung on a triangular frame is hoisted in place of the Cone, point downwards (for South Cone), or point up-wards (for North Cone), as the case may be. The hoisting of either of these signals is a sign that an atmospherical disturbance is in existence, which will probably cause a gale from the quarter indicated within a distance of fifty miles of the locality. The signal is frequently kept flying after a gale is over, one gale being often followed by another within a very brief interval. (f) DISTRESS SIGNALS When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore, the following are the signals to be used or displayed by her, either to-gether or separately, viz.: — BY DAY — 1. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute; 2. The International Code Signal of Distress indicated by NC; 3. The distant signal, consisting of a square flag, having either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball; 4. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal ap-paratus.

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BY NIGHT — 1. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute; 2. Flames (i.e., signal fires) on the vessel (as from a burning tar-barrel, oil-barrel, etc.); 3. Rockets or shells, throwing stars of any colour or description, fired one at a time, at short intervals; 4. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal ap-paratus. SPECIAL SIGNALS FROM LIGHT VESSELS IN THAMES DISTRICT. — The signals appointed for the Lightvessels and Pile Lighthouses in the London, Harwich, Ramsgate and Yarmouth districts, meaning that a vessel is on either of the adjacent sands, are as follows: — By Day — Two guns fired from any of these light-vessels at intervals of a minute, and repeated every fifteen minutes, indicate that assistance is required by her or by a vessel seen in distress on the sands above referred to. By Night — Two guns repeated as above, and followed by a rocket. (g) PILOT SIGNALS The following signals, when used or displayed together or separately, shall be deemed to be signals for a pilot: — BY DAY — 1. To be hoisted at the fore, the Union Jack, having round it a white border, one-fifth of the breadth of the flag; 2. The International Code Pilotage Signal indicated by PT; 3. The International Code Flag S, with or without the Code Pennant over it; 4. The distant signal, consisting of a cone, point up-wards, having above it two balls or shapes resembling balls. BY NIGHT — 1. The pyrotechnic light commonly known as a blue light every fifteen minutes; 2. A bright white light, flashed or shown at short or frequent intervals just above the bulwarks for about a minute at a time. (h) NIGHT SIGNALS OF STEAMSHIP LINES ABERDEEN LINE. A Red pyrotechnic light burnt near the stern, fol-lowed by a Roman candle throwing up three groups of balls to a height not exceeding 50 feet, and each group consisting of a Red, White and Blue ball, the colours following in the order specified. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. ALLAN LINE. 1. Three Rockets, Blue, White and Red, simultaneously, or in such quick succession as to amount practi-cally to a simultaneous or almost simultaneous display. Off Moville, and at the entrance of Lough Foyle in the county of Donegal, and off Queenstown Harbour, in the county of Cork. 2. Three " Blue Lights" in a triangle half way up the rigging. Off the coasts of Great Britain and on the high seas. ANCHOR LINE. A Red light and a White light exhibited alternately from some conspicuous part of the ship; the Red light to be so exhibited as not to be mistaken for the Red side light carried under the regulations for preventing collisions at sea. On and near the coasts of the United Kingdom, and on the high seas. [By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar.]

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ATLANTIC TRANSPORT LINE. A Roman candle throwing six balls of the following colours — viz., one Green, one White and one Red, to be repeated once in the same order. Within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. BEAVER LINE. A Roman candle throwing four Blue and two Red Stars in succession, followed by a red light. Off the North or South Coast of Ireland for steamers bound to or from Liverpool. BIBBY LINE. A Roman candle throwing to a height not exceeding 50 feet. One Red ball, one Blue ball, one Red ball, one Blue ball, one Red ball, one Blue ball, in succession, and to be repeated if necessary. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. BRITISH INDIA STEAM NAVIGATION Co. A Roman candle throwing Red and White balls in succession three times from the bridge to a height not exceeding 50 feet. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. CLAN LINE. A White, a Red and a White light in succession. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE. Three Coston lights, Blue, White and Red, burned simultaneously at the fore, middle and after parts of the vessel respectively. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. CUNARD LINE. 1. A Blue light and two rockets bursting into golden stars, fired in quick succession. Off Browhead, in the county of Cork, and off Queenstown Harbour, in the county of Cork. 2. A Blue light and two Roman candles, each throwing out six Blue balls to a height not exceeding 150 feet, and fired in quick succession. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. ELDER, DEMPSTER & Co., Water Street, Liverpool. A Roman candle throwing four Blue and two Red stars in succession. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE. Three Roman candles in succession at stern, each throwing to a height not exceeding 50 feet, seven stars, white, red, blue, white, red, blue, white. Off Scilly, off Lizard, off Plymouth and on the high seas. HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE. One Green pyrotechnic light from the forecastle, one White pyrotechnic light from the bridge, and one Green pyrotechnic light from the poop of the vessel — the three lights to be shown at the same moment. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas.

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HOULDER LINE. 1. One Red light changing to White from the fore-castle head. 2. One Roman candle discharging six White balls in succession off the bridge. 3. One Red light changing to White from the poop or after-deck of the vessel. All exhibited simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. IMPERIAL DIRECT WEST INDIA MAIL SERVICE. A Roman candle, throwing four Blue and Red stars in succession, followed by a Green pyrotechnic light. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION CO. (AMERICAN LINE). One pyrotechnic light known as a Blue light, shown at the fore part of the ship. One Red pyrotechnic light, shown on the bridge. One pyrotechnic light known as a Blue light, shown at the aft part of the ship. Off Browhead, in the county of Cork, and off Queenstown Harbour, in the county of Cork. Two variegated rockets, the balls thrown out of each of which are Blue, Red and Green. All the lights and rockets to be fired simultaneously or in such quick succession as to amount to a simultaneous or almost simultaneous display. Off Browhead, in the county of Cork, and off Queenstown Harbour, in the county of Cork. The same as above, omitting the rockets, viz., Blue Light forward, Red Light on bridge, Blue Light aft simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. SOUTH-EASTERN AND CHATHAM RAILWAY - Cross Channel Steamers. One Red light denotes position; when burned by a vessel not in answer to a signal, it means, "What am I to do ?" One Red pyrotechnic light, then one Green pyrotechnic light. — "I am temporarily disabled, but am not in want of assistance." One Bright or White pyrotechnic light. — Vessels meeting or passing at sea, and one wishing to give warning that there are obstructions in or off the port she has left, is to burn this light. One Red pyrotechnic light. A vessel's answer to a sister vessel's signal. Two Blue pyrotechnic lights together. — To be burnt by a special vessel when 15 minutes off. One Green pyrotechnic light. — "Have India Mail on board, in addition to ordinary mails." One Red pyrotechnic light and one Green pyrotechnic light together. — "Off Deal Jetty and wish to communicate." One Red pyrotechnic light and one Blue pyrotechnic light together. — "I am not going into harbour." Two Red pyrotechnic lights and two Blue pyrotechnic lights together. — "I am going into the Downs." Two Red pyrotechnic lights together. If made off Calais. — "I am returning to Dover." If made off Dover — "I am returning to Calais."

On the coasts of the United Kingdom and on the high seas.

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NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING CO. One Green light forward, one Roman candle throwing three Purple and three Green stars to a height not exceeding 50 feet and fired simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA. Two White pyrotechnic lights burnt simultaneously about 50 feet apart, and each throwing up two Red balls to a height not exceeding 50 feet. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. NORD DEUTSCHER LLOYD. For use by any of the steamers of the N.-D. Lloyd.

1. Two pyrotechnic lights burned simultaneously, each of which changes from the light commonly known as a Blue light to a Red light. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. For Mail Steamers only. (a) The steam whistle blown well, (b) burned simultaneously — two pyrotechnic lights described in the paragraph marked 1 above as changing from Blue to Red, and (c) shown in lanterns simultaneously and vertically from the mizen peak — one Green light, one Red light and one White light, the whole constituting one signal. When this signal is acknowledged by the telegraph station at Hurst Castle, then a Roman candle, throwing up Red stars to a height not exceeding 150 feet, is to be burnt on any part of the ship. Near Hurst Castle. PACIFIC S. N. Co. A Roman candle throwing two White, two Red, and two Blue balls in succession. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. RED STAR LINE. Three Red lights burning simultaneously, one forward, one on the bridge, and one aft. On or near the coasts of the United Kingdom. ROYAL MAIL S. P. Co. A Yellow pyrotechnic light, and a Roman candle throwing up White balls to a height not exceeding 150 feet, fired simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. SHAW, SAVILL & ALBION. A Red pyrotechnic light accompanied by a Roman candle throwing White stars to a height not exceeding 50 feet, exhibited simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. UNION-CASTLE LINE. A Blue light burned on the bridge, followed immediately by a Roman candle throwing five Blue balls to a height not exceeding 150 feet. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. WEST INDIA AND PACIFIC. The Chatham light. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. WHITE STAR LINE. 1. A Green pyrotechnic light followed quickly by a rocket throwing two Green stars, the rocket being fol-lowed by another Green pyrotechnic light. Off Browhead, off the Old Head of Kinsale, and off Queenstown Harbour, in the county of Cork. 2. Two Green pyrotechnic lights exhibited simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas.

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WILSON, FURNESS, LEYLAND LINE. A signal consisting of three pyrotechnic lights arranged in the form of a triangle, viz.: one Red light forward, one Green light turning to Red on the bridge, and one Red light aft, with a space of not less than 20 feet be-tween any two of the three lights, and the light upon the bridge being at the apex of the triangle. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. (i) "LLOYD'S" SIGNAL STATION REPORTS Vessels which on passing a Lloyd's Signal Station hoist their ensign and signal letters will, without any charge, be reported immediately in Lloyd's List, the Shipping Gazette and various leading newspapers. If shipowners wish vessels reported to their own offices, notice should be given to the Secretary of Lloyd's. The answering pennant of the International Code of Signals, or Lloyd's Ensign, is hoisted at Lloyd's Signal Stations in fair weather. As soon as the hoist of signals made by a vessel is identified, the Station responds by hoisting the answering pennant sharply from dip to masthead. The vessel then immediately lowers her signals. (j) WIRELESS TELEGRAPH STATIONS Arrangements have been made for messages to be received at the undermentioned stations, and forwarded to their destinations : — North Foreland, Kingsgate. Niton, near St. Catherine's point, I. of W. Haven, northern entrance to Poole Harbour. Lizard, a quarter of mile westward of Lloyd's Signal Station. Holyhead, in the town. Rosslare, three-quarters of a mile north of Railway Station. Crookhaven, half a mile westward of village. Malin Head, Lloyd's Signal Station. Inishtrahull, Lloyd's Signal Station. 11 Lights and Lighthouses

(a) HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT LIGHTHOUSES, or beacons for the aid of the navigator, have been in existence since B.C. 331, when the famous Pharos of Alexandria was first built. In the British Isles some slight remains of a lighthouse, which must have been built during the Roman invasion, are yet to be seen at Dover. The earliest form of lighthouse was that of a tower or beacon, on the top of which wood or some other fuel was burned in a brazier or iron basket; an arrangement which, with but very slight modification and improve-ment, existed in various parts of the world until well into the nineteenth century. The form of the modern lighthouse varies with circumstances. When founded upon an isolated rock, as in the case of the Eddystone, or of the Bishop's Rock in the Scilly Islands, which may at certain states of the tide be wholly or partly submerged, it is either built of masonry, which rests directly upon the rock, or the foundation is sunk into the rock itself. The solid foundation of the tower is carried a score or so of feet above the surface of the water, when it is surmounted by a hollow tower in which the various rooms for the accommodation of the keepers are situated, and in this form it is continued to the top, in which is placed the lantern. In an estuary, or upon a spit or tongue of sand off shore, resting upon screw piles, the form usually adopted is that of a broad-based structure; and on the shore at the foot of a cliff, where the full force of the wind is likely to be felt, a strong structure of masonry, similar to that of the rock-built lighthouse, is the kind usually constructed; whilst on the top of a cliff, beyond the reach of the action of the waves, an ordinary brick or stone tower suffices. This latter form of lighthouse is usually connected with the keepers' rooms, which in this case form a separate structure of themselves.

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The object of a lightship is to indicate the presence of a dangerous shoal, where it would be difficult to secure a foundation for a stationary structure. A lightship, therefore, in addition to performing the function of a shore lighthouse, has the advantage of being situated right over the spot against which it is desired to warn the mariner. The lights of lighthouses have undergone great development from the early days of the wood flare to the electric light of to-day. The early wood or tow-burning beacons were succeeded by candles and oil-lamps, the power of which latter at first was scarcely more effective than the former. In somewhat more modern times, however, Argand and Rumford, by the invention and development of new appliances for the burning of mineral or animal oil, effected considerable improvement, and gas has likewise been used with good results. The electric light has, by its great power, overcome much of the want of penetration of the earlier oil lights, although its power of penetration has proved to be less, comparatively speaking, in a foggy atmosphere than in clear weather. But this objection, and the fact that it is more costly than gas to operate with, are practically the only arguments that can be brought against it. To concentrate the rays of the lamp and disperse them in the desired direction, Thomas Stevenson — the honoured ancestor of the famous novelist — in 1849 employed a lens in front of a reflector, which combined both the direct and the reflected rays into one parallel beam. This light, being a combination of refractor and reflector, produces a light of the "catadioptric" class as distinct from the single reflector, which consists of a small glass mirror, or, in its improved form, of parabolic metal reflectors. This class is known as "catoptric." In 1822 Fresnel introduced the "dioptric" system, in which refraction only is used, the direct rays being sent forth through a spherical lens, surrounded by a series of annular or parabolic prisms. The lights of England and Wales are under the control of the Trinity House Brethren, which was incorporated in 1514, and first controlled the lights in 1680. In Scotland the lights are under the care of the Northern Lighthouse Board (since 1786), and in Ireland the Irish Lighthouse Board perform the same service. (b) LIST OF IMPORTANT LIGHTHOUSES AND LIGHTSHIPS OFF THE BRITISH ISLES The distances here given, from which the lights are visible, are calculated for a height of 15 feet above the sea. Lightships belonging to the Trinity House, London, are coloured red. F. Fixed. A continuous steady light. Fl. Flashing. A single flash, the duration of dark-ness (or eclipse) being always greater than that of the light. Gp. Fl. Group Flashing. Groups of two or more flashes in succession (not necessarily of the same colour) separated by eclipses. F. and Fl. Fixed and Flashing. Fixed light varied by a single white or coloured flash, which may be preceded and followed by a short eclipse. F. and Gp. Fl. Fixed and Group Flashing. The same as the preceding, but with groups of flashes. Rev. Revolving. Light gradually increasing to full effect, then decreasing to eclipse. Occ. Occulting. A steady light with sudden and total eclipse at regular intervals, the duration of the light being always equal to or greater than that of the darkness. Gp. Occ. Group Occulting. A steady light with groups of two or more sudden and total eclipses at regular intervals. Alt. Alternating. Alternating lights of different colours (generally red and white), without any intervening eclipse.

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English Channel SCILLY ISLANDS. — Bishop Rock. White Group Flash (1 min.) vis. 18 miles. St. Agnes. White Rev. (½ min,), visible 8 miles. Round Island. Red Fl. (½ min.), visible 20 miles. SEVEN STONES LIGHTVESSEL. — Group flash, white, 3 times in quick succession, followed by 36 sec. dark. Red hull, ball at mast-head, visible 1 miles. LONGSHIPS (Land's End). — Occ. (1 min.) white, red sectors. Fog explosive. WOLF ROCK. — Rev. (½ min.), alternate red and white, visible 16 miles. Fog bell. LIZARD. — Two fixed white (74 yards apart), visible 21 miles. ST. ANTHONY'S (Falmouth). — One fixed white, visible 11 miles, and one white rev. every 20 sec., visible 14 miles. Fog bell. EDDYSTONE. — White group flash (2 successive flashes of 2½ sec. each, divided by eclipse of 4 sec., the second flash followed by 21 sec. ecl.) visible 17 miles; also a fixed white subsidiary in lower window, visible 15 miles. START POINT. — White, rev. every minute, Visible 20 miles; also fixed white in same tower, Visible 20 miles. PORTLAND BILL. — Two fixed white, 503 yards apart , visible 21 and 18 miles. SHAMBLES LIGHTVESSEL. — White group flash, 30 sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull, ball at masthead. CASQUETS. — White group flash, 3 successive flashes of 2 sec., each followed by 3 sec. ecl,, and the 3rd by 78 sec, eclipse, Visible 17 miles. ANVIL POINT. — White flash, 10 sec., visible 18 miles, NEEDLES. — Occ., white, red and green sectors, eclipsed for 3 sec., every minute, visible 14 miles. ST. CATHARINE'S (Isle of Wight). — White flash, red sector, every 30 sec., visible 17 miles. Fog siren, one. OWERS LIGHTVESSEL. — Rev. white and red alternately, every min., visible 11 miles. Red hull, ball at mast-head. BEACHY HEAD. — White group flash every 20 sec., first flash, sec.; eclipse, 2¾ sec.; second flash, sec.; eclipse, 16¼ sec.; Visible 16 miles. ROYAL SOVEREIGN LIGHTVESSEL. — White group flash (3 flashes occupying 45 sec., eclipse 31½ sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull. Ball, with small ball above, at masthead. DUNGENESS. — One fixed white and red, Visible 16 miles; one white flash 5 sec,, Visible 10 miles. WARNE LIGHTVESSEL. — Red rev. 20 sec., Visible 11 miles. Red hull, ball at masthead. DOVER. — On Admiralty Pier. White F. and Fl., 71 sec., visible 10 miles. Pier Works Lightvessel. — White flash, 30 sec., visible 10 miles. SOUTH FORELAND. — Two fixed white, 385 yards apart, visible 26 and 23 miles. GOODWIN. South Goodwin Lightvessel. — White group flash, 2 flashes occupying ½ min., followed by 17½ eclipse. Visible 11 miles. Red hull. Ball at masthead. East Goodwin Lightvessel. — Green rev., 15 sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull. Inverted triangle over diamond on mast.

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Gull Lightvessel (in fairway). — White rev. 20 sec., visible 10 miles. Red hull, ball at masthead. North Goodwin Lightvessel. — Three quick white flashes in succession, followed by 36 sec. eclipse. Visible 11 miles. Red hull. Three masts, with ball on each. NORTH FORELAND. — White, red sector, disappearing every min. for 5 sec. Visible 20 miles. East Coast of England TONGUE LIGHTVESSEL. — Group flash red and white every min., visible 11 miles. Red hull. Ball at masthead. NORE LIGHTVESSEL. — White rev. every min., visible 10 miles. Red hull. Ball at masthead. MOUSE LIGHTVESSEL. — Green rev. every 20 sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull. Ball at masthead. MAPLIN SAND. — OCC. red, with white sector; ( min.); visible 11 miles. SWIN MIDDLE LIGHTVESSEL — White rev. 30 sec., visible 10 miles. Red hull. Ball at masthead. SUNK LIGHTVESSEL. — Rev. every 45 sec., alternate red and white, visible 11 miles. Red hull. Half ball flat side down over another at masthead. KENTISH KNOCK LIGHTVESSEL. — White rev. every minute, visible 11 miles. Red hull. Small ball over another at masthead. GALLOPER LIGHTVESSEL. — Red group flash every 45 sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull. Two cones pointing up-ward on main and ball on jigger mast. DOVERCOURT. — One fixed white, Visible 11 miles; one fixed white, visible 9½ miles, 208 yards apart. HARWICH (JETTY). — One fixed white, red sector. SHIPWASH LIGHTVESSEL. — White group flash, 3 flashes, followed by 14 sec. eclipse, occupying 30 sec., Visible 11 miles. Red hull, ball at masthead. ORFORDNESS. — Occ. white, red and green sectors, 40 sec., visible 15 miles. OUTER GABBARD LIGHTVESSEL. — White group flash, 4 flashes every min., visible 11 miles. Red hull. Inverted cone at masthead. SOUTHWOLD (Centre). — Group Occ. white, red sectors, 20 sec., visible 17 miles. LOWESTOFT. — High Light on Cliff. White rev. every 30 sec., visible 17 miles. In same tower fixed red sector. Low light (747 yards away); occ. red and white sectors every 30 sec., Visible 11 miles. YARMOUTH. — "Caister Leading Lights," at Sailors' Home and Pier. Two fixed red, Visible 13 and 9 miles. COCKLE LIGHTVESSEL. — White rev. every minute, visible 10 miles. Red hull. Ball at masthead. CROMER. — White rev. every minute, visible 23 miles. HUNSTANTON. — White, red sector. Group Occ. every 30 sec., visible 16 miles. DUDGEON LIGHTVESSEL. — White and red group flash, every 2 min., visible 10 miles. Red hull. Ball at masthead. INNER DOWSING LIGHTVESSEL, — Green rev. every 20 sec., visible 11 miles. OUTER DOWSING LIGHTVESSEL. — Red rev. 30 sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull. Half ball over ball at masthead.

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SPURN HEAD (mouth of Humber). — White flash 20 sec., visible 17 miles (flash 2 sec., eclipse 18 sec.). In same tower fixed White and red, visible 13 miles. FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. — Rev. white and red every 90 sec., visible 21 miles (2 white and 1 red to each rev.). SCARBOROUGH — OCC. every 8 see,, white, red sector, visible 13 miles. WHITBY (Ling Hill). — Occ. white and red, every 30 sec., visible 22 miles. TEES RIVER (Southgare Breakwater). — One white flash, red sector, 12 sec. Visible 10 miles. HARTLEPOOL (Heugh). — Two in one tower, Occ. white every 5 sec., visible 15 miles; fixed red, visible 4 miles. SUNDERLAND (Inner N. Pierhead). — Two fixed (upper white, lower red) in one tower, visible 13 miles and 6 miles. COQUET. — One Occ. white and red sectors, every min., with eclipse of 2½ sec., visible 14 miles. One fixed White and red sectors (same tower), visible 13 miles, FARN ISLANDS (Longstone). — One white, rev. every min., visible 14 miles. BERWICK-ON-TWEED (Pierhead). — Two fixed, white and red, visible 12 miles and 8 miles. Scotland ST. ABB's HEAD. — One white flash every 10 sec., visible 21 miles. FIDRA ISLAND. — White group flash every 15 sec., visible 17 miles. INCH KEITH. — White rev. every 30 sec., Visible 21 miles. NORTH CARR LIGHTVESSEL. — Fixed white, visible 11 miles. Red hull, with red conical cage. BELL ROCK. — White and red flash alternately every min., visible 15 miles. ST. ANDREW'S (Pierhead). — One fixed white and red and green, visible 6 miles. RIVER TAY. Buddonness. — Two fixed white, 401 yards apart, visible 16 miles and 13 miles. Port-on-Craig High Light and Pile Light. — Two fixed white, 1,700 yards apart, visible 12 miles and 10 miles. TOD HEAD. — White group flash every 30 sec., visible 17 miles. GIRDLENESS, — White group flash (2 flashes every 20 sec.), visible 19 miles. ABERDEEN (N. Pierhead). — One fixed white, visible 8 miles. BUCHAN NESS. — One white flash every 5 sec., visible 17 miles. PETERHEAD (S. Harbour), — Fixed white and red, visible 10 miles. RATTRAY HEAD. — White group flash every 30 sec,, visible 15 miles. KINNAIRD HEAD. — Fixed white and red, visible 17 miles. COVESEA SKERRIES. — Rev. white, with red sector, every minute, visible 18 miles. INVERNESS (Thornbush Pier). — Two fixed red.

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TARBET NESS. — White group flash every 30 sec., visible 18 miles. NOSS HEAD. — Rev. White, with red sector, every 30 sec,, visible 18 miles. PENTLAND SKERRIES. — White group flash every 15 sec., visible 19 miles. DUNNET HEAD. — One fixed white, visible 24 miles. ORKNEYS. Noup Head. — White group flash, every minute, visible 22 miles. Skroo. — White group flash (2 flashes every 30 sec.), visible 23 miles. SHETLAND ISLANDS (Sumburgh Head). — One fixed white, visible 24 miles. CAPE WRATH. — White and red rev. alternately every 3 sec., eclipse 57 sec., visible 27 miles. HEBRIDES (Butt of Lewis). — Fixed White, visible 19 miles. STORNOWAY (Arnish Point). — White rev. every 30 sec., visible 13 miles. SKERRYVORE. — White rev. every minute, visible 18 miles. DUART POINT (William Black Memorial Tower). — Group flash white and red sectors, 3 flashes every 15 sec., visible 12 miles. PLADDA ISLAND (Fladda), N. — Fixed white and red, visible 11 miles. MULL OF CANTYRE. — Fixed White, visible 24 miles. SANDA. — White flash every 24 sec., visible 18 miles. PLADDA ISLAND (off S.E. point of Arran). — White group flash every 30 sec., visible 17 miles. LAMLASH (S.W. point of Holy I.). — One fixed green over red, visible 12 miles. CUMBRAE (W. of Little Cumbrae Island). — White group flash, 2 quick flashes every 30 sec., visible 19 miles. ARDROSSAN (S. Breakwater). — Occ. white and red (2 sec. flash and 2 sec. eclipse), visible 10 miles. AILSA CRAIG. — White group flash, 6 flashes in 15 sec., eclipse 15 sec., visible 13 miles. MULL OF GALLOWAY. — OCC. white every 221- sec. (light 15 sec., eclipse 7½ sec.), visible 25 miles. West Coast of England AYRE POINT (Isle of Man). — Rev. white and red every 2 min., visible 16 miles. DOUGLAS HEAD. — White group flash, visible 14 miles. BAHAMA BANK LIGHTVESSEL. — White group flash every 30 sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull, ball at masthead. MORECAMBE BAY LIGHTVESSEL. — White group flash (4 flashes every 30 sec.), visible 11 miles. Hull red. Ball at masthead. LIVERPOOL. N.W. Lightvessel. — White rev. every 30 sec., visible 11 miles. Red hull; 2 masts; red ball on foremast. Bar Lightvessel. — White group flash every 30 sec., visible 10 miles. Red hull; 2 masts; red ball on foremast and jigger masts.

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GREAT ORME'S HEAD. — Fixed white and red, visible 24 miles. SKERRIES. — Group occ. every minute, visible 16 miles. HOLYHEAD (Breakwater). — Red flash every 7½ sec., visible 14 miles. SOUTH STACK. — White rev. every minute, visible 20 miles. BARDSEY. — Occ. white every 30 sec., visible 17 miles. CARDIGAN BAY LIGHTVESSEL, — White group flash every 30 sec., visible 11 miles. MILFORD HAVEN (St. Anne's). — Fixed white and red, visible 20 miles. Low fixed white, visible 18 miles. CALDY ISLANDS. — Group occ. white, red sectors, 30 sec., visible 20 miles. BULL POINT. — White group flash and fixed red in same tower; white shows 3 flashes every 1 min., visible 18 miles and 17 miles. LUNDY ISLAND, N. — White group flash every 20 sec., visible 19 miles. LUNDY ISLAND, S. — Rev. white every minute, visible 20 miles. HARTLAND POINT. — Rev. White and red every 90 sec. (2 white flashes, then one red), visible 17 miles. PENDEEN. — White group flash (4 flashes every 15 sec,), visible 20 miles. Ireland FASTNET. — White, rev. every minute, visible 18 miles. OLD HEAD OF KINSALE. — Fixed white, red sector, visible 21 miles. DAUNT ROCK LIGHTVESSEL. — Red flash every 30 sec. visible 10 miles. Black hull, with globe on main-mast. CORK HARBOUR, QUEENSTOWN (Roche Point, E.). — One occ. white, red sector (visible 15 sec., eclipsed 5 sec.), visible 10 miles, and one fixed white in same tower, visible 8 miles. WATERFORD (Hook Point). — Fixed white, visible 16 miles. TUSKAR. — Rev. red and white alternately every minute; white 6 sec., red 10 sec. Visible 16 miles. WICKLOW. — White occ. every 13 sec,, light 10 sec., eclipse 3 sec. Visible 16 miles. DUBLIN (Kingstown, E., Pier Head). — White group flash every 15 sec., visible 12 miles. LOUGH LARNE (Farres Point), — Fixed white and red, visible 11 miles. Red sector, visible 9 miles. RATHLIN ISLAND. — White, with red sector, occ. (bright 50 sec.), dark 10 sec., visible 21 miles. INISTRAHULL. — Rev. white, every 30 sec., visible 18 miles. TORY ISLAND (N.W.). — White group flash every minute, visible 16 miles. GALWAY (Eeragh Isle). — White rev. every minute, visible 16 miles. ARANMORE ISLAND. — Rev. alternately red and white every 20 sec., visible 25 miles. RIVER SHANNON (Kilcredan). — Fixed red and white, visible 16 miles.

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VALENTIA (Cromwell Point). — Fixed white, visible 12 miles. BULL ROCK — Flash white every 15 sec., visible 23 miles. (c) VIEWS OF CELEBRATED LIGHTHOUSES

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12

The Buoys of the United Kingdom - Their Colour, Shape, and distinctive Marks.

CONICAL BUOYS are Buoys with a pointed top above water. They are always Starboard-hand buoys. Can Buoys are Buoys with a flat top above water. They are always Port-hand buoys. Spherical Buoys are buoys with a domed top above water. They mark the ends of "middle grounds." Pillar Buoys are buoys with a tall central structure on a broad base. Like other special buoys, such as Bell buoys, Gas buoys, Automatic sounding buoys, etc., etc., they are placed so as to mark special positions either on the coast or in the approaches to harbours.

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Spar Buoys are buoys with only a mast above water. The painting of Starboard-hand Buoys is always in a single colour only. The painting of Port-hand buoys is always in some different characteristic colour, which may be either single or particoloured. The painting of Spherical buoys is always distinguished by horizontal stripes of White. The painting of surmounting beacons such as Staffs and Globes, etc., is always in a single dark colour. Staffs and Globes are only used on Starboard-hand buoys; Staffs and Cages on Port-hand buoys, Diamonds at the outer ends of "middle grounds," and Triangles at the inner ends. The colour of Wreck buoys, or ships marking the position of Wrecks, is green. When ships are used their navigable side is marked by means of 2 balls vertically arranged, and the other by 1, or at night by 3 lamps from the yard-arm similarly arranged. The colour of "Watch" buoys, of the "Can" type, is red. They are marked With the word " Watch," pre-ceded by the lightvessel's name in white letters. 13 Ship Canals.

THE SUEZ CANAL. — The Isthmus of Suez has been traversed from remote times by a canal following nearly upon the lines of the present one. The former may have perhaps been made in the time of the Pharaohs. After becoming silted up, it was re-opened by Trajan in the second century A.D. Napoleon I,, recognizing the commercial value and strategic importance of a permanent ship-canal at this point, was desirous of carrying out the project, and actually had the land surveyed for the purpose; but nothing was done until the famous M. de Lesseps commenced, in 1859, the canal which now exists. The first vessel made the passage in 1865, and the work was finally completed in 1869. Between 3,000 and 4,000 ships use the canal during the year, their combined tonnage approximating to 10,000,000 tons, of which rather over three-quarters are British, Germany and France following in the order named. Nearly all of these ships pass through the canal at night. the banks of which are brilliantly illuminated by the electric masthead lights of the steamers. Distances along the canal are marked by mile-posts set up on the banks from north to south. Port Said to Kantara Kantara to El Ferdan El Ferdan to El Guisr El Guisr to Ismailia Ismailia to Toussan Toussan to Serapium Serapium to North Light, Bitter Lakes North Light to South Light South Light to Guerin Guerin to Chalouf Chalouf to Madame Madame to Suez Entrance Total 25 11 3 4 4 3 5 8 8 3 6 7 87

The project Was approved in England by Lord Palmerston and by the Governments of France, Austria, Russia, Turkey, and Egypt. The official opening took place in November, 1869. 400,000 shares in the company are held by the British Government, of which 176,602 were bought of the Khedive in 1875 at a premium of 12½ per cent. Dividends have fluctuated yearly between 5 per cent. and 17 per cent.

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The voyages of full-powered steamships via the Canal to the Far East are as 100 to every 60 via the Cape. The length of the canal is 87 miles, and the average depth 26 feet. In 1898 nearly a quarter of a million passengers were carried by the ships making use of the canal — 142,110 soldiers, 79,825 civilians, and 17,609 emigrants of the steerage class. THE PANAMA CANAL, the object of Which is to connect the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean, though even as yet but a project, in spite of the vast sums spent upon the enterprise, bids fair to be completed before long under the control of the U.S. Government. The scheme, inaugurated by M. de Lesseps in 1879, was set on foot and work commenced in 1881, When it was estimated that the canal would be in operation in 1888. It resulted in one of the most colossal financial fiascos that the world has known. The present scheme for the completion of the canal involves a change of plan, as various locks will now be made, whereas the original idea was to carry the canal through at sea level. Its projected length is 46½ miles, and it will be from 78 feet to 189 feet wide at the top, and from 29 feet to 72 feet wide at the bottom. The estimated time that will be required for transit is 14 hours. THE NICARAGUA CANAL is another inter-oceanic project that has got rather beyond the initial stage. Lord Nelson himself not only foresaw the utility of the plan, but actually endorsed it in the following words: — " . . . . . Here it is that a canal between the two seas may most easily be formed — a work more important in its consequences than any that has been effected by human power." Such a canal, were it brought to completion, would reduce the distance by water from New York to San Francisco from 15,660 miles to less than 5,000. In 1887 a New York company obtained a concession from Nicaragua for an inter-oceanic canal. Beginning at Greytown, the Atlantic terminus, it was intended to follow the San Juan River through Lake Nicaragua and proceed thence to Brito, the Pacific terminus. Out of the entire length, which was estimated at about 169 miles, only about 28.9 were to be constructed by actual cutting; the lake and river, at the lake level, 110 feet above the sea, would have amounted to something over 150 miles. The western outlet was to be reached at sea level by means of three locks, while the eastern entrance was estimated to require 17 locks. The canal itself was to be from 80 to 120 feet wide at the bottom, and the time required for transit 46 hours. It was estimated that about 5,000,000 tons of shipping would annually pass either through this canal or that at Panama. As an effective illustration of the value and importance of these rival projects may be instanced the case of the U.S. battleship Oregon, which took 92 days to cover the 20,306 knots between New York and Manila, at a speed of 220,6 knots per day, with a consumption of 5,417 tons of coal. By way of Nicaragua she would have accomplished the voyage in 51 days, consuming but 3,021 tons of coal — a saving of 40 days and perhaps £3,400 in the cost of coal alone. Much labour has already been spent upon the project, and the capital invested is of no insignificant figure; but the scheme appears to be stagnating at the present writing, owing to the indecision of the U.S. authorities with regard to the development of the Panama route. BALTIC AND BLACK SEA CANAL. — This is a Russian project which, starting at Riga and ending at Kherson, will be over 1,000 miles in length. It will not of course be a canal throughout, but will follow, as far as possible, the course of the rivers Dwina, Beresina, and Dnieper. CALEDONIAN CANAL — This well-known waterway extends across North-west Scotland, from the Atlantic to the German Ocean, a distance of 60 miles, 37 miles of which are natural waterways. It has a depth of 17 feet. CAPE COD CANAL (U.S.). — This project, if carried through as planned, will be of inestimable value to the immense coasting trade between New York and Southern ports and Boston and the East. Since colonial days the subject has continually been brought forward before the public. It is intended to cut through Cape Cod at its narrowest part — from Buzzard's Bay to Barnstable Bay, a distance of somewhat less than eight miles, and work was actually commenced in 1886. This canal will shorten the route to Boston by some 90 miles, besides offering the great advantages derived from escaping the dangerous navigation off the cape. The canal is to be 23 feet in depth at low water and 200 feet wide. The estimated tonnage of the ships that will use it when completed exceeds 15,000,000. CORINTH CANAL. — This canal, which connects the Gulf of Corinth with the Piræus (the Port of Athens), shortens, by some 250 miles, the course from Sicily or the Adriatic to Constantinople and the Black Sea. Though it is less than 4 miles in length, the cutting has been carried in many places through rocks 250 feet high. Its width is 72 feet at the bottom and its depth 27 feet.

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ERIE CANAL (U.S.) — This canal runs for 450 miles through New York State, from Lake Erie at Buffalo, via the Hudson River, to New York. Although, strictly speaking, it is not a ship canal, it has recently attained some prominence as an alternative to the Welland Canal mentioned below. As it is now, grain boats break bulk at Buffalo and load into canal boats, their cargo being rehandled at New York. KIEL (NORTH SEA) CANAL. — This important work, connecting the Baltic with the North Sea, was completed by the German Government on April 1, 1896. Its strategic and commercial value to Germany is un questioned. In the second year of its operation there passed through its gates 23,180 vessels (including both steam and sailing vessels), of which 20,307 were German, 847 Danish, 747 Swedish, 486 Dutch, 344 British, 159 Norwegian, 137 Russian, and which aggregated 2,469,795 tons. The estimated cost of the canal was something over £7,000,000. MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL. — This was formally opened in 1894. The length of the canal proper, from the Mersey to the City of Manchester, is something over 35 miles. It is 26 feet deep by 120 feet wide at the bottom, and is capable of admitting vessels of 6,000 tons to the docks at Manchester, 40 miles from the sea. The cost approximated to £16,000,000. Sea-going traffic amounts to something over 1,000,000 tons per year, and the barge traffic half as much more. NORTH HOLLAND CANAL. — This canal, which runs from Amsterdam to the Helder, was completed in 1825. It is 51 miles in length, 125 feet wide at water level, 20 feet deep, and 31 feet wide at bottom. WELLAND CANAL. — This waterway, which runs through Canadian territory around Niagara Falls, and connects the waters of Lake Erie with those of Lake Ontario, apart from its political value, is in the first rank of commercial importance. As already constructed it is available for sea-going vessels of moderate size carrying cargoes of grain from the ports of the great North-West Territory to Europe. A difficulty is experienced further down, at its junction with the St. Lawrence River, at which point it is necessary to lighten the ship before entering the Lachine Canal (which is of no great depth) in order to pass the rapids — a fault which ought not to be hard to remedy, if this great waterway Were made the most of. 14 The High Seas

THE territory of a State includes the mouths of all rivers, bays, and estuaries, as well as the sea along its coast to the distance of a marine league. This is a regulation dictated by the necessities of self-protection. For the policing of commerce the distance is extended to four leagues; i.e. according to the usage prevailing in Great Britain and the United States, foreign goods coming within that distance cannot be transhipped without the payment of duties. Vessels belonging to the citizens of any nation on the high seas, and public vessels wherever found, have some of the attributes of territory. If a ship is confiscated on account of piracy or of violation of custom-house laws in a foreign port, or is there attached by the owner's creditor and becomes his property, we never think that territory has been taken away. For a crime committed in port a vessel may be chased into the high seas and there arrested, without a suspicion that territorial rights have been violated, though on the other hand to chase a criminal across the borders and seize him on foreign soil is a gross offence against sovereignty. Yet again, a private vessel, when it arrives in a foreign port, ceases to be regarded as territory, unless treaty provides otherwise, and then becomes merely the property of aliens. The qualities of a private ship which resemble rights of territory are (1), as against its own crew on the high seas (for its own territorial or municipal law accompanies it as long as it is beyond the reach of other law, or until it comes within the bounds of some other jurisdiction), and (2), certain rights as against foreigners, who, on the high seas, are excluded from exercising any form of sovereignty over it, just as they would have been if the vessel in question had actually formed part of the soil of its own country. Public vessels, on the other hand, stand on a higher ground; they are not only public property, as being either built or bought by their Government, but they are, as it were, floating barracks, a part of the public organism, and represent the national dignity, and on this account, even in foreign ports, they are exempt from the local jurisdiction. In both cases, however, it is on account of the crew, rather than on that of the ship itself, that they have any territorial quality. Take the crew away, let the forsaken hulk be met at sea, and it becomes mere abandoned property, and nothing more. The high sea is now free and open to all nations, but formerly the ocean, or some portions of it, were claimed as a monopoly. Thus the Portuguese prohibited the ships of other nations, and even half-blood subjects of their own race from sailing in the seas of Guinea and the East Indies. " No native-born Portuguese or alien," says one of their ancient ordinances, "shall traverse the lands or seas of Guinea and the Indias, or any territory conquered by us, without license, on pain of death and the loss of all his goods." So too the Spaniards formerly claimed the right of excluding all others from the Pacific, and it was against such claims,

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especially against those of the Portuguese, that Grotius, in 1609, wrote his Mare Liberum, in which he lays down the general principle of the free right of navigation, and argues that the sea cannot become property, and that the claims of the Portuguese to the discovery of countries which the ancients have left us an account of, as well as their claims through the donation of Pope Alexander VI., were without foundation. And yet the countrymen of Grotius, who had been the defenders of the liberty of the seas, sought to prevent the Spaniards on their way to the Philippines from taking the route of the Cape of Good Hope. The English, in the seventeenth century, claimed property in the seas surrounding Great Britain, as far as to the coasts of the neighbouring countries, and it was only in the eighteenth that they softened down this claim of property into one of sovereignty. Selden, who published his Mare Clausum in 1635, while contending against the monopolising pretensions of Spain and Portugal, contended zealously, on the ground of ancient precedent for this claim of his country. "The shores and ports of the neighbouring States," said he, "are the limits of the British sea-empire, but in the wide ocean to the north and west the limits are yet to be constituted." Russia finally, at a more recent date, based an exclusive claim to the Pacific, north of the 51st degree, upon the ground that this part of the ocean was a passage to shores lying exclusively within her jurisdiction. But this claim was resisted by the U.S. Government, and withdrawn in a temporary convention of 1824. A treaty of the same empire with this country, made in 1825, contained similar concessions, and at the present day it has come to be generally recognised that the rights of all nations to the use of the high sea being the same, their right to fish upon the high seas, or on banks and shoal places in them are equal. — From Woolsey's International Law. 15 Yachting

(a) ITS DEVELOPMENT. THE yacht of to-day is practically the outcome of a development which has been proceeding during the last hundred years. The origin of the word "yacht," as might be readily supposed, is Dutch, and was intro-duced into the English language early in the seventeenth century. In Falconer's Dictionary of 1770 the word was defined as meaning — "A vessel of state usually employed to convey Princes, ambassadors, or other great personages from one kingdom to another." Through a very slight process of evolution the yacht has become the pleasure vessel of the wealthier classes of to-day, and a voyage on such a craft may be said to still carry with it some measure of the honour and distinction which it possessed in former days. Practically, then, all yachts are pleasure-boats, whether propelled by sail or steam, or by a combina-tion of both; and the present luxurious aspect of this kind of vessel is but a natural development of the times. The building and sailing of yachts that were designed for pleasure alone naturally excited a spirit of rivalry when the boats passed each other upon the seas. Charles II., it is known, was himself especially fond of yachting, and it is recorded that he built several yachts for the purpose of trying their speed against those of the Duke of York, who in these competitions often sailed his vessels himself. With so extensive a sea-coast, and such favourable conditions, small wonder it is that the art of yacht-building, no less than the art of sailing and handling them, has reached so great a perfection in the British Isles. The Cork Harbour Water Club (now the Royal Cork Yacht Club), across the Irish Sea, was the first recognised association formed for the promotion of yachting. But the beginning of the nineteenth century saw a large fleet of yachts throughout Great Britain come into being. Some of these boats, owned and sailed in the south of England, met habitually in the waters off Cowes, in the Isle of Wight; and in 1812 a club was formed at East Cowes which was formally organized a year or two later in London. The Prince Regent and the Duke of Clarence favoured the club by becoming members, and soon after the latter came to the throne as William IV. the club's name was caused to be altered to "The Royal Yacht Squadron." Such were the first beginnings of yachting in Great Britain, and from this time forward it grew in favour, not only on account of its healthful and exhilarating nature, but by reason of the large number of people who could at one and the same time participate therein. The original members of the Royal Yacht Squadron were all yacht owners, the qualification for membership being the owning of a pleasure vessel of not less than ten tons burthen. The majority of yachts of that time were, however, of large size and roomy, being cutters of from fifty to one hundred and fifty or more tons, and with a length approximate to 80 feet and a breadth of 30 feet. Apart from the questions of pleasure and hospitality, racing conditions were developed by some of the boats of that day, which were constructed of lighter build and fittings than these craft intended solely for cruising, and the design of these boats began to take shape thus early as being the most suitable for attaining a high speed under favourable

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conditions. Improvements and innovations were the order of the day, various expedients were tried in order to obtain a maximum of lightness, speed and stability, and the methods of ballasting, sparring, and rigging were continually im-proved, so that it is now very doubtful whether any of the "crack" yachts of the past — say even as little as twentyfive years ago — could possibly compete, on at all equal conditions, against any of the advanced types of the same dimensions at the present day. The United States is the only other country which has developed yachting to anything like the same pitch at which it has arrived in Great Britain. With a sea-coast that affords a well-nigh inexhaustible extent of cruising ground, and an enthusiasm and ingenuity capable of obtaining the highest measure of success in competitive work, the Americans early entered into the full appreciation of the possibilities of the sport. The first public recognition given to the pastime in the United States was in 1844, when the New York Yacht Club was founded. Early American yachts were of the shallow centre-board type, though they had a tendency, from the first, to develop the schooner on lines resembling those of the since famous America. At the present day the predominant type of racing-craft in America, as in England, is a big "single-sticker" of the cutter, or fin-keel, type. Steam-yachting, essentially a sport of the very wealthy, only reached a stage of assured development in the early seventies. In Great Britain, in 1877, there were 280 registered steam-yachts, which had increased by fifty per cent. and aggregated 50,000 tons by 1883, since which time the tonnage has practically doubled, until now the number of pleasure craft in Great Britain depending either upon steam alone, or upon steam and sail, is close upon nine hundred. The sailing yachts owned in Great Britain, though something over 3,000 in point of numbers, aggregate less than 60,000 tons, i.e. only about 60 per cent. of the total tonnage of steam yachts. Altogether the pleasure craft of both these types number about 4,000 and their total tonnage amounts to 153,420, representing a capital investment of perhaps £7,000,000, which calls for the further outlay of another million per annum to keep them in commission, and which gives employment to as many as 15,000 men. (b) A LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT STEAM AND SAILING YACHTS OWNED IN GREAT BRITAIN, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE CONTINENT. STEAM YACHTS. STANDART, St. Petersburg; the Emperor of Russia. (Copenhagen, 1895.) Tw. sc., 3 masts, 4,334 r.t., 370 by 50.5 by 36. HOHENZOLLERN, Kiel; the German Emperor. (Stettin, 1893.) Tw. sc., 3,773 r.t., 382.6 by 45.9 by 32.1. MAHROUSSA, Alexandria; the Khedive of Egypt. (London, 1865.) Paddle-schooner, 4,200 r.t., 400 by 42 by 26.5. POLIARNAIA ZVEZDA, St. Petersburg; the Czar of Russia. (St. Petersburg, 1888.) Tw. sc., 3 masts, 3,270 r.t., 336.5 by 46 by 19.7. VICTORIA AND ALBERT. (Pembroke, 1899.) Tw. SC., 3 masts, 4,700 r.t., 439 by 50 by 18; Belleville boilers, 11,000 h.p.; 17 knots. VALIANT, New York; W. K. Vanderbilt. (Birkenhead, 1893.) Tw. sc., 1,886 r.t., 307.7 by 39.1 by 13.8. LYSISTRATA, New York; James Gordon Bennett. (Dumbarton, 1900.) Tw. sc., 2,082 r.t., 285 by 39,9 by 21.5. SUNBEAM, London; Rt. Hon. Lord Brassey, K,C.B. (Seacomb, 1874.) Aux. sc., 3 masts, 334 r.t., 159 by 27,6 by 13.9. NIAGARA, New York; Howard Gould. (Wilmington, U.S., 1898.) Tw. sc. bark; 1,443 r.t., 245 by 3.7 by 19.4. MAYFLOWER, New York. (Glasgow, 1896.) Tw. sc. schooner, 1,778 r.t., 294.1 by 36.7 by 17.4. MARGARITA, Philadelphia; A. J. Drexel. (Greenock, 1900.) Tw. sc. schooner, 1,780 r.t., 288.1 by 36.65 by 17.5. VARUNA, New York; Eugen Higgins. (Glasgow, 1896.)Tw. sc., 2 masts, 1573 r.t., 273.2 by 35.15 by 17.3.

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VALHALLA, Havre; Comte de Castellane. (Leith, 1892.) Aux. sc., 3 masts full rigged, 1,207 r.t., 239.6 by 37.2 by 20.7. ERIN, London; Sir Thos. J. Lipton. (Greenock, 1896.) Sc. schooner, 1,057 r.t., 264.7 by 31.65 by 18.5. NOURMAHAL, New York; J. J. Astor. (Wilmington, U.S.A., 1884.) Sc. bark, 768 r.t., 235 by 29.3 by 18.5. NAMOUNA, New York; James Gordon Bennett. (New-burgh, U.S., 1882.) Sc. schooner, 617 r.t., 219.4 by 26.4 by 18. WHITE LADYE, Cowes; C. Lawson Johnston. (Leith, I891.) Sc. schooner, 568 r.t., 204 by 27.15 by 16.45. (c) THE AMERICA CUP RACES. Including the second attempt of Sir Thomas Lipton, in 1901, when Shamrock II. was beaten by the Columbia, there have been eleven contests in which the American yachts have been uniformly victorious. The famous Cup Was won by the America at Cowes in 1851, and Was contested in the following events which have been sailed since that time: — 1870. 1871. 1876. 1881. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1893. 1895. 1899. 1901. 1903. Magic beat Cambria. Columbia beat Sironia. Madeline beat Countess of Dufferin. Mischief beat Atlanta. Puritan beat Genesta. Mayflower beat Galatea. Volunteer beat Thistle. Vigilant beat Valkyrie II. Defender beat Valkyrie III. Columbia beat Shamrock I. Columbia beat Shamrock II. Challenge by Shamrock III.

(d) PRINCIPAL YACHT CLUBS OF GREAT BRITAIN.* NAME OF CLUB. ROYAL YACHT SQUADRON. ALBERT, ROYAL. ALDEBURGH. ALEXANDRA. ALFRED, ROYAL. ANCHOR SAILING. ANGLESEY, ROYAL. BARROW, ROYAL. BRISTOL CHANNEL. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY CRUISING. CASTLE. CHANNEL ISLANDS, ROYAL. CINQUE PORTS, ROYAL. CLYDE, ROYAL. CLYDE CORINTHIAN. CORINTHIAN, ROYAL. CORK, ROYAL. CORNWALL, ROYAL. CRUISING CLUB, ROYAL. DART, ROYAL. DEE, ROYAL. DORSET, ROYAL. EASTERN, ROYAL. ENGINEERS, ROYAL. ERITH. STATION. Cowes. Southsea. Aldeburgh. Southend-on-Sea. Shankill, co. Dublin. Deal. Beaumaris, Anglesey. Barrow-in-Furness. Mumbles, nr Swansea. Cambridge. Warsash, Hants. Jersey. Dover. Hunter's Quay. Glasgow. Port Victoria. Queenstown. Falmouth. London Dartmouth. Liverpool. Weymouth. Edinburgh. Chatham. Erith.

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NAME OF CLUB. ESSEX. EXE. FORTH, ROYAL. FORTH CORINTHIAN. FOWEY. GALWAY, ROYAL. GUERNSEY. HARWICH, ROYAL. HIGHLAND, ROYAL. HYTHE. IRISH, ROYAL. LARGS, ROYAL. LONDON, ROYAL. LORN CORINTHIAN. LOUGH DERG. LOUGH ERNE. LOUGH NEAGH. MEDWAY. MERSEY, ROYAL. MUNSTER, ROYAL. NAVAL VOLUNTEER CRUISING CLUB. NEWHAVEN AND SEAFORD. NEW THAMES. NORFOLK AND SUFFOLK, ROYAL. NORTH OF IRELAND. NORTHERN, ROYAL. NORTHUMBERLAND. NORTH SHANNON. OCEAN YACHT SQUADRON. ORWELL CORINTHIAN. PENARTH. PLYMOUTH CORINTHIAN, ROYAL. POOLE. PORTSMOUTH CORINTHIAN, ROYAL. RHYL. ST. GEORGE, ROYAL. SALCOMBE. SEAVIEW. SOLENT. SOUTH-WESTERN, ROYAL. SOUTHAMPTON, ROYAL. SOUTHAMPTON CORINTHIAN. SOUTHERN, ROYAL. SOUTHPORT CORINTHIAN. START BAY. SUSSEX. SUSSEX CORINTHIAN. TAY, ROYAL. TEMPLE, ROYAL. THAMES, ROYAL. THAMES ESTUARY CRUISING CLUB. TORBAY, ROYAL. ULSTER, ROYAL. VICTORIA, ROYAL. WELSH, ROYAL. WEST LANCASHIRE. WESTERN OF ENGLAND, ROYAL.

STATION. Leigh. Exmouth. Granton. Edinburgh. Fowey, Cornwall. Galway. Guernsey. Ipswich. Oban. Southampton. Kingstown, co. Dublin. Largs. Cowes. Oban. Nenagh, co. Tipperary. Belturbet, co. Cavan. Northern Ireland. Rochester. Birkenhead. Monkstown, co. Cork. Brighton. Newhaven. Gravesend. Lowestoft. Cultra. Rothesay. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Drumsna, co. Leitrim. Dalmally. Ipswich. Penarth. Plymouth. Poole. Portsmouth. Rhyl. Kingstown, Ireland. Salcombe. Seaview. Yarmouth, I.W. Plymouth. Southampton. Southampton. Southampton. Southport. Dartmouth. Southwick, Sussex. Brighton. Broughty Ferry. London and Ramsgate. London. Queenboro, Kent. Torquay. Bangor. Ryde, I.W. Carnarvon. Southport, Lancs Plymouth.

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NAME OF CLUB. WESTERN OF SCOTLAND, ROYAL. WINDERMERE, ROYAL. YARMOUTH (GREAT). YORKSHIRE, ROYAL. YORKSHIRE CORINTHIAN. YACHT RACING ASSOCIATION.

STATION. Glasgow. Bowness. Yarmouth. Hull. Bridlington Quay. Not specified.

*By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar. (e) THE PRINCIPAL YACHTING FIXTURES IN ENGLAND ARE : — ROYAL DEE ROYAL LONDON NEW THAMES ROYAL HARWICH NEW THAMES ROYAL THAMES ROYAL THAMES ROYAL CINQUE PORTS ROYAL YACHT SQUADRON ROYAL VICTORIA 16 "Lloyd's" Holyhead. River Thames. Southend to Harwich. Harwich. River Thames. River Thames. Nore to Dover. Dover. Cowes, I.W. Ryde, I.W.

(a) HISTORY THE development of Lloyd's from the time of the humble Coffee Tavern in Tower Street, in which its business was transacted over two centuries ago, down to that of the great Maritime Exchange of the present day, was from the first bound to become an eventual success, in view of the extraordinary services which it has continually rendered to the maritime world. The following paragraph is taken from the London Gazette of 1689: — "Run away from Capt. J. Bradlye, a tawney Moor, 20 years of age, bow-legged, light coloured coat, white waistcoat, and a pair of shammy breeches. Whoever gives notice at Mr. Lloyd's coffee-house in Great Tower Street, shall have 20 shillings reward." This allusion gives us an idea of some of the kinds of work in which "Lloyd's" was even in those early days engaged. Richard Steele, in No. 268 of The Tatler (Dec. 23, 1710), devotes himself to the discussion of a letter, dated from "Lloyd's Coffee House," which he had just received, and wherein a number of the habitués of the place had set forth their opinion that all "Coffee Houses" ought to make arrangements, for the benefit of their clientèle, to have the "news" read aloud every day and that such places of resort should be established and duly recognised as marts for the purveying of news. Thus it is seen how the public function of news distribution Was identified with the institution from the very first. And so it is to-day; "Lloyd's" is still the foremost institution in the world for the dissemination of maritime news. In the Secretary's room is preserved the original policy which was effected at Lloyd's upon the life of the great Napoleon. It was intended to run for one month and the premium was three guineas per cent. It was worded thus: — "In consideration of three guineas per one hundred pounds, and according to that rate for every greater or lesser sum received of William Dorrington, we have hereunto subscribed our names, and do for our respective heirs and Ourselves, executors, administrators, and assigns of the other or others of us, assume, engage, and promise that We respectively, or our several re-spective heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, shall and will pay or cause to be paid unto the said William Dorrington the sum and sums of money which we have hereunto respectively subscribed against our names: without any abatement whatsoever, in case Napoleon Bonaparte shall cease to exist, or be taken prisoner on or before the 21st June, 1813. London, 21st May, 1813 £100 R. Heath £150 Anthony Finn Kemp £150 B. I. Mitchell."

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In the Committee Room is preserved the first Insurance Policy of which there is any record, and which was taken in the name of a ship, the Golden Fleece, which was insured for a voyage from Lisbon to Venice for £1,200, at 4 per cent., On January 20, 1600. The wording of the usual policy in use at Lloyd's at the present day is, with one exception, the same that was used in 1779. The exception consists in the substitution of the words, "Be it known that," for "In the name of God, Amen!" The effecting of Marine Insurance is, however, the main duty of underwriters at Lloyd's, and it is in respect of this very important function that the members of and subscribers to Lloyd's may be classified as (1) the underwriters, who accept the risks; and (2) the brokers, who place the insurance on behalf of the owners of the ships or cargoes. Here, then, in a great room, without the slightest pretence to artistic surroundings, sits the army of under-writers whose business it is to assist the brokers who appear before them in effecting the insurance of ships throughout the world. It is very necessary that an underwriter should be possessed of a minute knowledge of ships and of the individual and personal history of the people connected with them, no less than the peculiarities and conditions of the trade in which they may be (or have been) en-gaged, as this information, reinforced by the reports which are constantly being received by Lloyd's Intelligence Department from its correspondents in all parts of the world, places them in a position to determine speedily and correctly the condition of almost every merchant vessel afloat. A great deal of this information is pub-lished daily in Lloyd's List, which is the legitimate successor of Lloyd's News, established in 1696, and which, with the exception of the London Gazette, is the oldest existing newspaper published in Europe. The Captain's Register is a marine "Dictionary of Biography," wherein is recorded as minutely as the history of the vessels themselves, every known fact regarding the seafaring life of every captain, the names of the various ships which he has commanded, the accidents and disasters his ships have met with, as well as any record he may have for creditable performances or for heroic service; in short, every. thing that can possibly have any bearing on any case connected with him. In the instance of a ship that has either met with a serious accident or has been wrecked, the whole circum-stances are recorded in the Loss Book, which is posted up from the records supplied to Lloyd's from day to day. The famous bell which hangs in the Underwriters' Room is tolled twice when an overdue ship is heard from, and once upon the announcement of a ship's being lost. This bell was taken from H.M.S. Lutine, which sank in the Zuider Zee in 1799, carrying down with her treasure amounting to upwards of one million sterling, £40,000 of which were recovered as recently as 1870. A ship is never "posted" at Lloyd's until all hope is gone. This formality consists simply of posting up a notice to the effect that the ship — left the Port of — on a certain day, and has not since been heard of. After this posting at Lloyd's all insurances on the ill-fated ship become payable, and the crew and officers are then considered legally dead. An "Inquiry Office" is also established at Lloyd's, where the relatives of the passengers or crew may obtain without cost information concerning the movements of the vessel in which they are interested. A medal is presented by the Corporation of Lloyd's as an honorary acknowledgment to those who have, by means of extraordinary exertions, contributed to the saving of life at sea, and a medal for "Meritorious Services" is granted to officers and others who, by extraordinary exertions, have contributed to the preservation of their vessels or cargoes. The legal status of Lloyd's is that of a Society incorporated by Act of Parliament. Its main objects are briefly as follows: — I. To carry on the business of Marine Insurance. II. To protect the interests of members of the Society in respect of shipping and cargoes and freight. III. To collect, publish and diffuse marine intelligence and information. The duties of Lloyd's agents throughout the world may be broadly defined as follows: — In case of shipwreck: to render to masters of vessels any advice or assistance they may require; to report by telegraph direct to Lloyd's all casualties which may occur to vessels within their district; and to otherwise report, under rules laid

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down for their guidance, all marine happenings within their ken. Lloyd's has also, with the sanction of the various Governments interested, the control and working of Signal Stations in the United Kingdom and abroad. If a shipowner, charterer, or consignee wishes to communicate with any vessel at any Lloyd's Signal Station he has only to communicate with the head office and instructions will be given accordingly. (b) LIST OF LLOYD'S SIGNAL STATIONS [By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar.] United Kingdom. SOUTHEND. DEAL. DOVER. SAND GATE. DUNGENESS. BEACHY HEAD. NO MAN'S FORT, SPITHEAD. LUNDY ISLAND. BARRY ISLAND. MUMBLES HEAD. ST. ANNE'S HEAD. ROCHE'S POINT. OLD HEAD OF KINSALE. BROW HEAD. TORY ISLAND. INISTRAHULL. MALIN HEAD. RATHLIN ISLAND. TORR HEAD. The more important stations abroad are: — ELSINORE. HELIGOLAND. HOLTENAU (Baltic Entrance of the Kaiser Wilhelm Kiel Canal). BRUNSBUTTELKOOG (Elbe Entrance of the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal). HEYST. GIBRALTAR. MALTA. THE DARDANELLES. PORT SAID. SUEZ. PERIM. ADEN. CAPE SPARTEL. PONTA FERRARIA (St. Michael's). GOODE ISLAND (Torres Straits). CAPE MARIA VAN DIEMAN (New Zealand). (See also SIGNALS.) (c) CLASSIFICATION OF SHIPS [By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar.] HONOLULU. PONTA DO ARNEL (St. Michael's). FAYAL. LAS PALMAS (Grand Canary). CAPE VERDE. ST. HELENA. ASCENSION. CAPE POINT. CAPE L'AGULHAS. BLUFF (Port Natal). FORT SAN SEBASTIAN (Mozambique). POINT DE GALLE. HERNANDO NORONHA (Brazil ). BARBADOS. BERMUDA. CAPE RACE (Newfoundland). FAREWELL SPIT (New Zealand). NUGGET POINT (New Zealand). ST. CATHERINE'S POINT. PORTLAND BILL. BRIXHAM. PRAWLE POINT. THE LIZARD. PENZANCE. SCILLY ISLANDS. LAMLASH. KILDONAN. STORNOWAY. BUTT OF LEWIS. DUNNETT HEAD. PETERHEAD. ST. ABB'S HEAD. TYNEMOUTH. RIVER TEES. FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. SPURN HEAD. ALDEBURGH.

STEEL AND IRON SHIPS are classed by Lloyd's Register as A1, with a numeral prefixed, thus — 100 A1, 95 A1, 90 A1, 85 A1, 80 A1, and 75 A1; also A1 (without a numeral) for special trades; for which they re-tain their characters so long as, on careful annual and periodical surveys, they are found to be in a fit and efficient condition to carry dry and perishable cargoes. Every ship must be submitted to a special survey every four years, or oftener in some cases.

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WOODEN SHIPS are classed A1 as first-classers for a term of years, subject to occasional or annual surveys when practicable, also to half-time or intermediate special surveys. They are eligible for continuation or restoration of the character Al for further periods upon special surveys. WOODEN SHIPS are also classed A1 in red. This also is a class of vessel fit for the safe conveyance of dry and perishable goods. WOODEN SHIPS are likewise classed Æ1, for the conveyance of dry and perishable goods on shorter voyages. (d) LOAD LINE MARKS Under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, all British ships (excepting those under 80 tons register employed solely in the coasting trade or as fishing boats and pleasure yachts) must be marked with load-lines in accordance with the "Freeboard" tables in the Act. These marks, which are sometimes called Plimsoll marks, after the name of their introducer, consist of a disc with a horizontal line running through the centre and extending somewhat on each side of the circle. In addition to this there are, on steamships, a number of lines at right angles to a perpendicular, which indicate the load limit for different seasons of the year and for fresh water. These ships are marked with the following initials : —

F.W. Fresh water. S. Summer. I. S. Indian Summer. W. Winter. W.N.A. Winter, North Atlantic. 1. Markings on the star-board side of a sailing ship engaged in the coasting trade only. 2. Markings on the starboard side of a sea-going sailing ship. 3. Markings on the star-board side of a steamship. 17 Gazetteer

(a) OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PORTS ADELAIDE (South Australia). — Population, 163,430. Capital of South Australia and University town. The port is seven miles distant, on Gulf St. Vincent. Exports: Wool, gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, wine, wheat, and tallow. ADEN. — Population, 42,000. A bare, rocky peninsula, 75 miles square in extent. A strongly fortified coaling station on the Red Sea trade route. Non-productive, but carries on a great trade with Arabia. Aden and Perim are under the Bombay Government. Exports: Coffee, ostrich feathers, tobacco, gum, and hides.

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ALBANY (West Australia). — Population, 3,700. Prin-cipal port of West Australia. Naval base and coal-ing station. Exports: Wool, timber, gold, pearls, and hides. ALEXANDRIA. — Population, 320,000. Principal port of Egypt. Is well fortified and has two harbours, a breakwater 2 miles long, and a large floating dock. Consulate. Exports: Cotton, cotton-seed, wheat, rice, onions and gum. ALGIERS. — Population, 120,000. Has a harbour of 220 acres; two dry docks. Coaling station. Consulate. Exports: Flour, metals, esparto grass, cork, and phosphates. AMSTERDAM. — Population, 523,558. Once the first commercial city of the world; still remains a centre of great commercial activity. The town contains a Royal Palace of enormous size, and remarkable from the fact that it stands upon 13,659 piles driven 70 feet into the ground. Consulate. ANTWERP. — Population, 262,255. One of the busiest seaports of the world, possessing wide thorough-fares and fine buildings. Very extensive quays. Consulate. Exports: Grain, textiles, chemicals, resins, metals, wines. ANTIGUA, see St. John's. APIA (Samoa). — The residence of the Foreign Consuls in Samoa. Much resorted to by whalers. Has an open roadstead for harbour. Coaling station. Consulate. ARGENTINA, see Buenos Ayres. ASCENSION. — Population, about 400. An island in the South Atlantic, on the Cape route between Africa and South America. Coaling station, sanatorium, and Admiralty depôt. Strongly fortified. ATHENS. — Population (including the port of Firmus) 179,755. Capital of Modern Greece. Contains the Royal Palace. The principal city lies 12 miles from the port, with Which it is connected by railway. AUCKLAND (New Zealand). — Population, 67,226. Fortified coaling station, with one of the finest of harbours and two graving docks. Exports: Gold, timber, gum, flax, wool, hides tallow. AZORES (Dependencies of Portugal). — Population, 280,000. Consists of nine volcanic islands with an area of 700 square miles, called St. Michael, St. Mary, Tercera, Graciosa, St. George, Pico, Fayal, Corvo, Flores. BAHAMAS, see Nassau. BAHIA (Brazil). — Population, 200,000. The second sea-port of Brazil. Natural History Museum, Art Gallery, Public Library, Theological Seminary, Technical College, Ship Building Yards. Legation and Consulate. Exports: Tobacco, sugar, coffee, feathers, rubber, coco nuts, tapioca, hides, fine woods, and diamonds. BALTIMORE (U.S.). — Population, 508,957. A thriving city of some commercial importance; on Chesapeake Bay, 180 miles from the open sea, and mid-way between New York and Washington. From its situation on Chesapeake Bay, it is probably destined, as a grain-distributing centre, to secure pre-eminence among the ports of the U.S. Has a dry dock 600 feet long, and a Consulate. Exports: Petroleum, grain, flour, and tobacco.

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BANGKOK (Siam). — Population, 600,000, Chief seaport of Siam. Magnificent Royal Palace of King Chulalongkorn, and many fine pagodas. Legation. Exports: Rice, ebony, fish, woods, gum, teak, pepper, ivory, and hides. BARBADOS (West Indies). — Population, 182,286. An island about the size of Isle of Man, locally known as "Bimshire" or "Bims," and claiming to be "the most densely populated part of the habitable globe." Its chief town, Bridgetown, is the first port of call for Royal Mail Steamers outward bound. Exports: Sugar, rum, and molasses. BARCELONA (Spain). — Population, 510,000. The most important commercial centre of Spain. Fine harbour, floating dock. Consulate. Exports: Cork, wines, fruits, lead, iron, silk, copper, and quicksilver. BATAVIA (Dutch East Indies). — Population, 105,000. Capital of Java. Commercial emporium of the Dutch East Indies. Coaling station and Consulate. Magnificent museum. Exports: Sugar, coffee, pepper, rice, sago, tin, tea, and tobacco. BATOUM (Black Sea). — Population, 23,200. The centre of the corn and petroleum trade of Transcaucasia, Oilrefining works. Consulate. Exports: Petroleum and petroleum products, manganese, walnut, and liquorice. BEIRA (Portuguese East Africa). — Population, 4,055. Nearest port to Rhodesia, and Railway Terminus. Exports: Beeswax, ivory, and hides. BELIZE (Honduras). — Population, 7,000. The chief town of British Honduras. Exports: Mahogany, logwood, cedar, coconuts, sponges, and fruit. BERGEN (Norway), — Population, 55,000. Important fortified city and seaport with fine harbour — deep, sheltered, but rocky. Fishing is the principal industry. Consular Agent. Cathedral, Museum and Naval Academy. Exports: Codfish, herrings, skins, bones, horses, and sheep. BERMUDAS (chief town, Hamilton).--Population, 1,296. Lie some 600 miles east from the coast of the U.S. Important naval base and naval dockyard. Exports: Potatoes, tomatoes, beetroot, arrow-root, and onions. BEYRUT (Syria), — Population, 100,000. The port of Damascus. Tideless harbour. Consulate. English and other Schools and Colleges. Small harbour and mole. Exports: Silk, oils, wool, soap, lemons, oranges, madder, gums, gall, and cotton. BILBAO (Spain). — Population, 50,800. Principal port in the north of Spain. Large deposits of iron ore in vicinity, much of which is exported to England. Consulate. Exports: Iron ore, pig iron, fish, fruits, flour, and wine. BOMBAY. — Population, 776,006. Capital of the Indian Presidency so-called. Built on three islands; magnificent natural harbour, and docks of over 200 acres. University. Chamber of Commerce. Exports: Cotton, wheat, opium, indigo, rice, oil, seeds, etc.

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BORDEAUX (France). — Population, 260,000. On the River Garonne, 55 miles from Bay of Biscay. Numerous docks and shipbuilding yards. The centre of the wine shipping trade. Consulate. Exports: Wines, brandy, grain, fruit, seeds, tur-pentine, and wood. BOSTON (U.S.). — Population, 500,000. Capital of State of Massachusetts. Outer and inner harbours , both excellent; railway termini, large trade with West Indies, Canada, and Newfoundland. Con-sulate. Exports: Cattle, woollens, cottons, beef, pork, fish, ice, petroleum, and lard. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. — Population, 46,001. On the direct route between London and Paris, and within 3/ hours of both capitals. Deep-sea harbour, and wine port. Chief French fishing port. Consular Agent. Exports: Cement, fruit, vegetables, fish, silks, wine, brandy, and eggs. BREMEN (Germany). — Population, 227,832. One of the chief commercial ports of Germany, 50 miles from the North Sea, on the River Weser. Is one of the Free towns of the Hanseatic League, Hamburg and Lübeck being the other two. The port is Bremerhaven, 28 miles distant. Has large docks. Consular Agent. Exports: Woollens, linens, toys, machinery, glass, iron, steel Ware, and beer. BREST (France). — Population, 75,000 (1891). A sea-port of Brittany, on the Atlantic. Arsenal, Observatory, and chief station of the French Navy. BRINDISI (Italy). — Population, 17,111. Starting-point of direct mail and passenger route from Europe to Egypt, Australia, and the East. Consulate. Exports: Olive oil, wines, figs, almonds, oats, and linseed. BRISBANE (Queensland). — Population, 1I9,428. Principal seaport and capital of Queensland. Govern-ment dock. Coaling station. Exports: Wool, hides, ore, tallow, meat, and timber. BUENOS AYRES (Argentina), — Population, 900,000. Capital of the Argentine Republic. On the Rio de la Plata, which is here 36 miles in width. Fine harbour works and docks. Exports: Maize, wheat, flax, sheep, cattle, hides, and horns. CALCUTTA. — Population, 1,026,987, the vast majority being Hindus, about half that number Mohammedans. Capital of Bengal Presidency. University. Cham-ber of Commerce. Observatory, Botanical Garden, and School of Art. Government dockyard. CALLAO (Peru). — Population, 35,596. Principal sea-port of Peru. Exports: Guano, silver ore, sugar, and salt. In 1746 it suffered from an earthquake in which 3,000 of the inhabitants perished. CANARY ISLANDS, see Teneriffe. CAPE TOWN. — Population, 167,200. Situated on Table Bay, and the principal seaport in South Africa, Extensive harbour works in process of con-struction. An Imperial Garrison, and station of the Cape and West African Squadron. Climate healthy and dry with uniform temperature. CAPE VERDE, see St. Vincent. CASTRIES or PORT ISLANDS, (St. Lucia, West Indies). — Population, 8,000. Situated on the largest and most picturesque of the Windward Islands, possessing one of the finest ports in the West Indies, and an important naval and coaling station.

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CHARLESTOWN (U.S.). — Population 55,807. An im-portant southern city in the United States, with a great trade in cotton and lumber. CHERBOURG (France). — Population, 31,100. A Naval Station on the English Channel, nearly opposite the Isle of Wight. Military port and commercial har-bour. Magnificent roadstead. Exports: Agricultural produce, Macadam stone, etc. CHILE, see Valparaiso. CHRISTIANIA (Norway). — Population, 227,600. Capi-tal of Norway, on the Christiania Fiord. Exports: Timber, Wood pulp, fish, paper, skins, minerals, ice, matches, condensed milk, margarine, and horse-shoe nails. COLOMBO (Ceylon). — Population, 154,556. Capital of Ceylon (the population of which numbers 3,576,990, though the area is but 25,365 square miles). Exports: Coffee, tea, cinchona, vanilla, carda-moms, cocoa, cinnamon, precious stones (rubies and cat's-eyes), and pearls. COLON (Colombia, Central America). — Population, 5,000. The Atlantic port of the Isthmus of Panama, founded in 1849, at the commencement of the Panama (Inter-oceanic) Railway, which is 47 miles in length. Until 1896 a free port. Exports: Bananas, india-rubber, live stock, cabinet woods, and medicinal plants. CONSTANTINOPLE. — Population (1885), about 1,000,000. Capital and chief port of the Ottoman Empire, and residence of the Sultan. Possesses a magnificent harbour called the Golden Horn. Arsenal. Exports: Tobacco, cereals, fruits, silk, oil-seeds, valonia, mohair, opium, gum, tragacanth, carpets, and wool. COPENHAGEN. — Population, 408,300. The capital and principal port of Denmark. DANTZIG (Germany). — Population, 140,539. A sea-port and fortress on the Vistula, near the Baltic Sea. Observatory. Its export trade has largely de-creased of late. Royal dockyard. DOMINICA (B.W.I.), see Roseau. DURBAN (South Africa). — Population, 48,410. Also called Port Natal. The only harbour of any import-ance on the South-east Coast of Africa. Possesses a railway to Pietermaritzburg, the capital of Natal. Exports: Coffee, dye-stuffs, hides, and wool. The Colony is also rich in coal and iron. GALVESTON (U.S.). — Population, 37,789. One of the principal cotton shipping ports on the Gulf of Mexico, and a great railway terminus of lines from the interior. Wrecked, a few years ago, by a tidal wave, which caused immense damage and loss of life. GENOA (Italy), — Population, 237,486. On the Gulf of Genoa. Fortress, Archbishopric, numerous palaces and churches, University, and Botanical Gardens. Ample harbour. Exports: Macaroni, vermicelli, oils, metals, arti-ficial flowers, etc. GIBRALTAR. — Population, 20,355. A rocky promontory 3 miles in length by mile broad, and 1,439 feet high, connected with the mainland of Spain by a low isthmus. A free port: it enjoys an extensive shipping trade. Garrison, dockyard, and coaling station. In 1901 nearly 4,000 ships entered the port. Enclosed harbour and docks, to cost £4,000,000, now in course of construction, and further works under consideration. GRENADA (Windward Islands, West Indies), see St. George's.

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HALIFAX (Nova Scotia). — Population, 47,000. The capital of Nova Scotia. Terminus of the Inter-colonial Railway. Magnificent harbour, and prin-cipal Naval Station in North America. Apples, hay, coal, iron, and fisheries. HAMBURG. — Population, 787,446. On the Elbe. The ocean port is Cuxhaven, 65 miles distant. Ham-burg shares with Bremen and Lübeck the major portion of Germany's fast increasing export trade, these three being known as the Free Hanse Towns, and retaining their own sovereignty. HAVANA (Cuba). — Population, 250,000. The capital of Cuba, in the West Indies. The island which formed one of the chief causes of the Spanish-American War. Universally famed for its tobacco. Exports: Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, sugar, coffee, and mahogany. HAVRE (France). — Population, 119,470. Principal commercial port of Northern France, at the mouth of the Seine. Arsenal, Fortifications. HAWAII, see Honolulu. HOBART (Tasmania). — Population, 41,585. The capital of the Island, which contains 26,215 square miles. Mean annual temperature of 54 degrees rainfall, 20 inches. HONDURAS, see Belize. HONG KONG (the name of an island off China, of which the chief town is Victoria). — Population, 248,710. A Crown Colony, consisting of the Island of Hong Kong, and a portion of the main-land, which have been leased to Great Britain for ninety-nine years. Area, 252½ square miles. Fine harbour, excellent docks. Military and Naval Station. Exports: Opium, tea, cotton, ivory, rice, woollens, silks, etc. White population, including garrison, about 14,000. HONOLULU (Hawaii). — Population, about 30,000. Capital and chief port of the Sandwich Islands, on the south coast of Oaku. Natural harbour formed by a coral reef. Cable to San Francisco. Annexed by the United States in 1899. JAFFA (Palestine) — the ancient Joppa. — Population, 16,000. The principal port of Palestine, in Syria, connected with Jerusalem by railway. No har-bour, and poor anchorage. Exports: Oranges, olive oil, and sesame. JAVA, see Batavia. KINGSTON or KINGSTOWN (Jamaica). — The chief city of the British West Indian Island of Jamaica, which has a population of 745,104, and an area of 4,193 square miles. The seat of Government and largest port in the island, recently connected with Bristol by a direct line of steamers (Elder Dempster Line). Exports: Bananas, sugar, molasses, pines, dye-stuffs, drugs and spices. KINGSTOWN (St. Vincent, West Indies). — Population, 4,547. Has been a British possession since 1783. The scene of the terrible eruption of a volcano known as "La Soufrière," Which killed many hundreds of persons, and destroyed crops and buildings throughout a third of the island. LEEWARD ISLANDS. — Antigua (with Barbuda and Redonda), St. Christopher (with Nevis and Anguilla), Dominica, Montserrat, and the Virgin Islands make up the West Indian Colony known as the Leeward Islands. Population, 127,723. LISBON. — Population, 307,661. Capital and chief seaport of Portugal, on the River Tagus, 10 miles from the sea. Castle, Aqueduct, 64 Churches, Archbishopric. MADAGASCAR, see Tamatave. MADRAS. — Population 509,346. The chief city of the Presidency of that name. Possesses a large arti-ficial harbour. University. Chamber of Commerce.

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MALAGA (Spain). — Population, 125,579. Capital of the Province of that name on the Mediterranean. Chief export: A sweet wine. MALTA, see Valetta. MANILA (Philippines). — Population, 244,000. Capital of the Island of Luzon in the Philippine Islands, captured by the U.S. from Spain in the war of 1898. Exports: Hemp, sugar, coffee, indigo, copra, and tobacco. MARSEILLES. — Population, 442,239. French seaport on the Mediterranean. Important port of call for steamers to the Far East, and the largest of all French ports. MONTE VIDEO (Uruguay). — Population, 238,000. The capital of Uruguay, on the north shore of the Rio de la Plata. Possesses architecturally imposing and handsome buildings. It was once a Spanish possession, and the population includes a large pro-portion of Spaniards, Italians, and Frenchmen. Exports: Beef, wool, hides, horns, hair, live stock, and skins. MONTREAL (Canada). — Population, 216,651 (1891). On the River St. Lawrence. The commercial metropolis of the Dominion of Canada, and the centre of the grain export trade north of Newport. MONTSERRAT, see Plymouth. NAPLES. — Population, 544,057. Situated on the Gulf of Naples. Castle, Picture Galleries, Cathedral, University. It is the nearest regular port to Sicily, and Mount Vesuvius, with Herculaneum and Pompeii, are close by. Exports: Wine, olive oil, chemicals, perfumery, hemp, and flax. NASSAU (Bahamas). — The chief town of the Bahamas, situated upon an island called Providence, the group having remained a British possession since 1783. Chief Exports: Sponges, fruits, bananas, coco-nuts, valuable woods, and fibre NEWPORT NEWS (U.S.). — Population, 19,635. Both commercially and strategically an important Atlan-tic port. Ships large cargoes of beef and grain to Great Britain and the Continent. NEW ORLEANS (U.S.). — Population, 287,104. The principal commercial port on the Gulf of Mexico. Originally a French settlement, it still retains much that is characteristic of the Gaul. Ships cotton to Manchester and Liverpool. NEW YORK. — Population, 3,437,202. The commercial metropolis of the United States, and one of the largest and busiest ports of the world. By Railway from Chicago, twenty-six hours; from San Francisco and Pacific coast ports, four and a half days; from Washington, six hours, and from Montreal, twelve hours. ODESSA (Russia). — Population, 338,000. A seaport on the Black Sea. Has three fine harbours, which are seldom frozen. The commercial and intellectual capital of the Province of Novorossoya. Population chiefly Russian, but contains large numbers of Jews, Roumanians, Slays, and Tartars. Exports: Grain, flour, wool, hides, and cattle. OPORTO (Portugal). — Population, 138,860. The sea-port of Portugal, which gave its name to the "port wines" of Douro. Bishopric, Cathedral, Opera, Library, Botanical Garden, Hospital. An artificial harbour has been built at Leixoes. PALERMO (Sicily). — Population, 292,799. In the N.W. Province of Sicily. Fort, Archbishopric, Palaces, Castle, Cathedral, University, Botanical Garden, Mole and Light. Exports: Oranges, lemons, grain, oil, wine, and sulphur.

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PALESTINE, see Jaffa. PANAMA, see Colon. PARAMAIRIBO (Dutch Guiana). — Population, 28,000. The capital of Dutch Guiana, on the left bank of the Surinam, 20 miles from the sea. Exports: Cocoa, sugar, gold, timber, balata, bananas, and coffee. PERNAMBUCO (Brazil). — Population, 111,556. A sea-port of Brazil, situated on a sandy island lying near the mainland. Exports: Sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, hides, dyewoods, etc. PERU, see Callao. PHILADELPHIA (U.S. ). — Population, 1,293,697. A growing port, both for commerce and passenger traffic, on the Atlantic sea-board. One of the oldest cities of the United States; founded by William Penn. PHILIPPINES, see Manila. PLYMOUTH (Montserrat, West Indies), — Population, 1,461. Has been a British possession since 1784. Chief Exports: Limes and sugar. PORT OF SPAIN (Trinidad). — Population, 54,000. One of the most prosperous towns in the West Indies. The capital and chief port of Trinidad, which is the most southerly of all the West India Islands, and is separated by a strait but 7 miles broad from Venezuela and the mainland of South America, of which it is thought to have formed once an integral part. Port of Spain is finely laid out, possessing an electric tramway and an excellent Botanical Garden. At La Brea is the celebrated Pitch Lake of Trinidad. Exports: Sugar, rum, molasses, bitters, cocoa, and coconuts. PORTLAND (U.S.). — Population, 50,145. Situated in the State of Maine. The most northerly trans-atlantic port of the United States. Terminus of the Canadian steamship lines when the Canadian ports are closed with ice. PORTLAND (U.S.). — Population, 90,426. On the Columbia River in Oregon. The great grain-ship-ping port of the Pacific Coast. Headquarters of the Columbia River salmon-canning industry. PORT SAID (Egypt), — Population, 42,000. At the Mediterranean entrance of the Suez Canal. It bears a sinister reputation. QUEBEC. — Population, 68,824. The capital of the Province of that name in Canada, of which it is the great seaport, with a considerable export timber trade. Nearly a million tons of shipping cleared in 1900. The most characteristically " Old World " city on the American continent. On the Heights of Abram, in view of the St. Lawrence, is a monument erected in joint memory of the French and English who fell in the great battle between General Wolfe and Montcalm de Saint Veran, which, on September 14, 1759, decided Canada's future. RANGOON (Burma). — Population, 234,881. RIO DE JANEIRO (Brazil). — Population, 674,972. The chief seaport of Brazil, on a bay of the same name. Fine harbour, Fortifications. Chief Export (forming nearly two-thirds of the total), coffee. Other Exports are: tobacco, cotton, sugar, cocoa, india-rubber, maize, beans, cassava-root, and Brazil nuts.

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ROSEAU (Dominica, Leeward Islands). — The port of Dominica, the "Pearl of the Lesser Antilles," an island famous as the home of the last of the Caribs, and also for its scenery, especially for its chief moun-tain, Morne Diablotin (5,000 feet), named from one of the rarest of birds, and its Boiling Lake, at which an English traveller with one or two native guides recently lost his life. The island, long under a cloud through mal-administration, is now making rapid progress, numerous European estates having been recently formed there. Exports: Sugar and cane products, cocoa, and limes. ROTTERDAM (Holland). — Population, 318,468. The largest commercial city and port in the Nether-lands; situated on the Maas, one of the outlets of the Rhine. SAMOA, see Apia. ST. GEORGE'S (Grenada, West Indies). — The chief town of Grenada, possessing a good harbour and a fort. The island was discovered by Columbus in 1498, and then named " Conception." It became a British possession in 1783. Next to Trinidad, it is one of the most prosperous of these islands, growing cocoa, spices, sugar, cotton, coffee, and fruit. ST. JOHN (New Brunswick, Canada). — Population, 39,179. The principal seaport of New Brunswick, and the principal winter port of Canada, being free of ice usually throughout the year. ST, JOHN'S (Antigua, West Indies). — Population, 9,262. Chief town of Antigua, settled by the British in 1632. Exports: Sugar, rum, molasses. ST. JOHN'S (Newfoundland). — Population, 31,142. The site of two Cathedrals, and the capital of the twelfth largest island in the world, lying six hours by steamer from the mainland. Exports: Codfish, cod and seal oil, sealskins, tinned lobsters, copper and copper ore, and iron pyrites. ST. LUCIA, see Castries. ST. PETERSBURG. — Population, I,267,023. Capital of the Russian Empire, at the head of the Gulf of Finland, and at the mouth of the Neva, which is frozen over for about 150 days in the year. Winter Palace, the residence of the Emperor. Hermitage, Picture Gallery, Cathedral, Academies of Art and Science, Observatory and University. Its Library ranks next to the Bibliothèque Nationale and the British Museum. About 85 per cent. of the population belong to the Greek Church, the remaining 15 per cent. being divided between Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Jews. ST. VINCENT (Cape Verde Islands). — Chief town and port of the Cape Verde Islands, which belong to Portugal, their area being 1,490 square miles, and population 111,000. ST. VINCENT (Windward Islands), see Kingstown. SAN DIEGO (U.S.). — Population, 17,700. The prin-cipal port of Southern California, a few miles from the Mexican border, and one of the finest harbours on the American continent. SAN FRANCISCO. — Population, 342,782. The prin-cipal Pacific port on the North American continent, terminus of the trans-continental railways, and chief shipping port for China, Japan, the Philippines, and Australasia. SAVANNAH (U.S.). — Population, 54,244. An import-ant cotton-shipping port and market on the Atlantic sea-board of the U.S. It has also a considerable export trade in lumber. SCARBOROUGH (Tobago, West Indies). — Population, 1,370. Situated on the island of Tobago, about 18 miles N.E. of Trinidad, of which island it was con-stituted a ward in 1899. One of the healthiest islands in the West Indies. Exports: Sugar and cane products. SEATTLE (U.S.). — Population, 80,671. A thriving city on Puget Sound, and the chief point of embarkation for the Klondyke and the Gold Fields of Alaska.

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SHANGHAI (S. China), — Population, 380,000, including 3,000 foreigners. Situated in the Province of Kiangsu, on the Yang-tse-kiang. It suffers greatly from heat in summer, and, generally speaking, is not over healthy, but in respect of the volume and value of its trade, it is without a rival among the Treaty Ports of China. Exports: Silk, tea, raw cotton, paper, wheat, tobacco, wax, wool, skins and furs, straw and bristles. SICILY, see Palermo. SINGAPORE (Straits Settlements). — Population, 228,555. Founded by Sir Stamford Raffles in February, 1819. Situated upon a small island off the southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula. In respect of its shipping, it is one of the greatest ports of the world, and is well provided with docks, It is also of great strategical importance, and is well fortified, being frequently alluded to as the "Gibraltar of the East." The climate is healthy. It has a small Museum, and fine Botanical Gardens, in which there is a small Menagerie. Chief Export: Tin. STOCKHOLM (Sweden). — Population, 303,356. Capital of Sweden. National Museum, Academy of Science, of Fine Arts, and National Library. The Port, 40 miles from the open sea, has 5 miles of quays, but is often closed by ice three months in the year. Exports: Cattle and butter, paper, matches, stone, iron, steel, oats, timber and wood products, zinc, and machinery. Average temperature, 41.7 degrees. SUEZ (Egypt). — Population, 17,000. Situated on the Gulf of Suez. The southern terminus of the Suez Canal. SYDNEY (New South Wales). — Population, 487,900. The capital of New South Wales, situated on the shores of the finest harbour in the world — Port Jackson. Royal Mint, University, Art Gallery, Library, Observatory, and two Cathedrals. TAMATAVE (Madagascar). — The port of Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, with an area of 230,000 square miles, the capital of which is Tananarive. Madagascar became a French pos-session in 1896, the Malagasy Queen being deposed by a French military expedition, which suffered considerable losses. Exports: Cattle, hides, india-rubber, gum-copal, wax, sugar, coffee, and rice. TENERIFFE (Canary Islands). — Chief port and capital of the Canary Islands, which belong to Spain, their area being 3,000 square miles, and population 300,000. TOBAGO, see Scarborough. TOULON (France), — Population, 80,000. French Naval station, on the Mediterranean. Strongly Fortified Military Station, Magazines, Arsenals, and Naval Hospital. Observatory. Exports: Wine, brandy, olive oil, and fruits. TRIESTE (Austria). — Population, 158,344. The principal seaport of Austria, at the N.E. extremity of the Adriatic. Exports: Corn, rice, wine, oil, sumach, tobacco, hemp, wool, skins, and timber. Trieste has steam-ship communication with the Black Sea, Turkey, Egypt, India, and China. TRINIDAD, see Port of Spain. TUNIS (Barbary, N. Africa). — Population, 153,000. An inland port near the site of Ancient Carthage, and connected by canal with the Mediterranean. The capital and commercial emporium of Barbary. Under French protection. Fortifications. The population consists of: Turks, Moors, Jews, Arabs, Kabyles, and Christians. Exports: Grain, wool, oil, and esparto grass. Its chief manufactures are silk and woollen stuffs, car-pets, shawls, mantles, fezzes, burnouses; also otto of roses and jessamine. URUGUAY, see Monte Video.

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VALETTA (Malta). — Population, 60,763. Fine har-bour, and the most important British port of call in the Mediterranean. Extensive arsenal and dock-yards VALPARAISO (Chile). — Population, 143,000. Chief seaport of Chile. Arsenal, shipbuilding yard, and Naval College. Exports: Nitrate of soda, iodine, gold, copper, silver, iron and coal, skins, wheat, flour, and guano. VANCOUVER (British Columbia). — Population, 30,000. Eighty miles from Victoria, the most important centre of commerce on the Pacific Coast of British North America, the western terminus of the Cana-dian Pacific Railway, and the point of departure for Japan and the Far East. VENICE. — Population, 157,785. A fortified city and port of Italy, built upon 120 islands connected by nearly 500 bridges. Formerly one of the most im-portant commercial and maritime cities of the world. Her trade is now outstripped by that of Trieste, and her commercial supremacy seems to have gone the way of the Campanile of St. Mark's. VERA CRUZ (Mexico). — Population, 24,000 (1889), The chief seaport of Mexico. Exports: Silver and gold, flax and hemp, tobacco, cochineal, sugar, indigo, drugs, vanilla, logwood, timber, hides, and skins. VLADIVOSTOCK. — Population, 14,900 (chiefly Mili-tary, 1891). The chief Naval station of Russia, on the Pacific. A great Naval and Military base, and terminus of the Siberian Railway. WINDWARD ISLANDS. — These include Barbados, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and the Grenadines. Barbados (v. Bridgetown), though included in the list, is a separate colony. YOKOHAMA (Japan). — Population, 193,762. An "open" seaport of Japan. Government dry docks; sheltered harbour. Exports: Silk, rice, tea, fish, copper, coal, matches, camphor, straw plaits, and marine pro-ducts (b) OF IMPORTANT SHIPPING EVENTS [By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar.] 1492 1508 1545 1550 1642 1666 1688 1694 1700 1704 1707 1709 1714 1758 1767 1768 1786 1788 1790 1799 America discovered. First Marine Insurance in England. First Treatise on Navigation issued. Sextant invented. New Zealand discovered. Fire of London. First notice of Lloyd's Coffee House in Tower Street. Bank of England founded. First Dock opened in Liverpool. Gibraltar taken by the English. Union of England and Scotland. First London Daily Paper. First Steam Engine built. First English Canal. Nautical Almanac published. Capt. Cook's first voyage. Shipping first registered in the River Thames, and throughout the Empire in 1787. Board of Trade constituted. London Times established. First Settlement in Australia. Lifeboat first used at South Shields. H.M.S. Lutine wrecked.

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1801 1802 1805 1806 1807 1812 1815 1817 1818 1824 1825 1828 1831 1833 1838 1840 1843 1845 1847 1848 1850 1851 1858 1860 1863 1866 1869 1870 1880 1882 1886 1887 1890 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899

Union of Great Britain and Ireland. West India Docks opened. London Docks opened. East India Docks opened. Gas first used in London. First steamboat (Comet) on the Clyde. First Steam Vessel on the Thames. Present Custom House opened in London. First Steamer crossed the Atlantic. National Lifeboat Institution established. First steam voyage to India. St. Katherine's Docks opened. New London Bridge opened. Trade with India thrown open. First regular steamboat service across Atlantic; voyage 17 days. First Cunard Steamer Britannia sailed. P. & O. Steam Navigation Company opened. Penny Post introduced. Iron Steamships first built in Great Britain. Thames Tunnel opened. Penny Steamers commenced. Gold discovered in California. North-West Passage discovered. Inman Company established. First Submarine Telegraph. Great Eastern Steamer launched. First message by Atlantic cable. First Steam Ironclad launched. Twin screws first used. Atlantic cable laid by Great Eastern. Suez Canal opened. Telegraphs transferred to Government. Royal Albert Docks opened. New Eddystone Lighthouse opened. Tilbury Docks opened. Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Forth Bridge opened. Corinth Ship Canal opened. Tower Bridge opened. Manchester Ship Canal opened. Southampton Graving Dock opened. Kaiser Wilhelm Canal opened. New Docks inaugurated at Cuxhaven. Blackwall Tunnel opened. War between Greece and Turkey. War between United States and Spain. Imperial Penny Postage instituted. Launch of steamship Oceanic.

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1900 1901

1902

1903 18

British Pacific cable authorised. Merchant Shipping (Liability of Shipowners) Act passed. Subsidised Steamship Service with Jamaica arranged. Commonwealth of Australia established. Death of Queen Victoria. Accession of King Edward VII. International Exhibition at Glasgow. Royal tour of the Empire. Atlantic (Morgan) Steamship Trust formed. First successes with Trans-Atlantic Wireless Telegraphy (Marconi). Introduction of Wireless Telegraphy into the Navy. End of South African War. Treaty of Alliance with Japan. Report of Royal Commission on the Port of London issued. Volcanic Eruption at Martinique and St. Vincent. Successful trials of British Submarines. Reform of Naval Education. Nautical Vocabulary

"A.B." — An able seaman. ABAFT. — Towards the stern. ABOUT, TO GO. — To take the opposite tack. ALEE. — On the side away from the wind. APEAK. — Perpendicular, of the anchor, when the cable is drawn so as to bring the ship's bowl directly over it. ASTERN. — In the direction of the stern. ATHWART. — In a line across the ship. AUXILIARY ENGINES. — Small engines for electric light-ing, refrigerating, etc., etc. AWASH. — Level with the surface of the sea, egg, of an anchor. BATTEN. — To fasten down with battens (i.e. pieces of boards, or scantlings), as the hatches of a ship during a storm. BEAM. — The width of a vessel. BEATING, — Sailing against the wind by tacking. BELAY. — To fasten, or make fast, as a rope, by taking several turns with it round a pin, cleat, or kevel. BELAYING PINS, — Strong pins in the side of a vessel, or in the mast, for making fast, or belaying, ropes to. BEND, — To fasten; as, to bend on a rope. BERTH. — A ship's anchorage; a narrow shelf or bunk for sleeping on. BILGE KEEL. — A keel or fin attached to each side of a ship below the water-line, to prevent rolling. BILGE WATER. — Water lying in the bilge or bottom of a boat or vessel. BINNACLE. — The box containing the ship's compass, and a light to show it at night. BLOCK. — A pulley. BOLT ROPE, — The rope edge surrounding a sail (to which it is sewed). BONNET. — An additional part laced to the foot of a sail, in moderate winds. BOOM. — The spar by which a sail is extended at the bottom. BOW OR BOWS. — The front of a vessel. BOWLINE. — A rope fastened near the middle of the leech or perpendicular edge of square sails, to keep their weather edge taut, when the ship is close-hauled. BRACE. — A rope attached to a boom or yard and by which they are moved. BRIDGE. — The small observation-deck occupied by the navigating officers. BULKHEAD. — A partition in the hull. BULWARKS. — The sides of a vessel surrounding and ex-tending above the deck. CABLE. — A strong rope or chain. CABLE'S LENGTH. — About 200 yards, or 1-10th of a sea mile. CABOOSE. — A kitchen on deck. CAMEL. — An arrangement for assisting a ship over shoals. CARRY AWAY. — To break or lose a rope or spar. CAT BLOCK. — The tackle block for hoisting the anchor, CAT'S PAW. — A light puff of wind. CAULK. — To make tight the seams of a vessel.

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CHIPS. — Sailor's name for the carpenter. CLEAT. — A small piece of wood around which a rope may be made fast. CLEW. — To bind up. CLEW LINES. — Ropes for clewing. COCK PIT. — A room for wounded men in a war vessel. COMBINGS OR COAMINGS. — The raised edges around the hatches. COMPANIONWAY. — The cabin stairway. COMPASS. — An instrument showing the vessel's course. COMPOUND ENGINE, — One wherein the steam from boilers is made use of more than once. CONDENSERS. — The apparatus in which the returned steam from cylinders is condensed back into water. COXSWAIN. — The steerer of a small boat. CRINGLE. — An iron ring or thimble attached to the bolt rope of a sail. CROW'S NEST. — A "look-out" place usually on the fore-mast 25 feet or more above the deck. CUTLASS. — A broad curving one-edged sword. CUTWATER. — That portion of a ship's prow which first meets the water. CYLINDER. — The steam-chest in which the steam is forced to give energy to the engines through the piston. DAVITS. — Pieces of timber or iron, projecting over a ship's side, with tackle to raise or lower a boat by. DEADLIGHT. — An iron shutter covering a port hole. DEAD RECKONING. — The keeping of a vessel's course with the use of log line and compass. DERRICK. — A boom with tackle for handling cargo. DINGY. — A small row-boat. DOCTOR. — Sailors' name for the cook. DOG WATCH. — The name given to two short (two-hours') watches, the first being from 4-6 p.m., and the second from 6-8 p.m. DONKEY ENGINE. — A small engine for supplying power to work cargo. DRAUGHT. — The depth of water required to float a vessel. DROGUE. — A particular kind of storm anchor. FATHOM. — SIX feet. FORCED DRAUGHT. — An artificial method of conveying air to the furnaces. FENDER. — A piece of wood or other material used to deaden the impact of two vessels, or of a vessel against the wharves. FOOTROPE. — A rope for standing on which extends along and under a yard. FORE AND AFT. — Used of anything fixed longitudinally between bow and stern. FORECASTLE. — That part of a vessel which is forward of the foremast. FOREMAST. — The mast nearest the bow. FORGE. — To move slowly ahead. FOUNDER, — TO sink. FURL. — To roll up. GAFF. — The upper spar holding up a fore and aft sail. GALLEY. — The kitchen. GANGWAY. — An entrance to a ship. GRAPNEL. — A small anchor. GUNWALE. — The extreme outer edge of the hull. HALYARDS. — Ropes for hoisting sails. HARBOUR-ROIL. — The turbid bottom of a harbour when stirred up by a ship passing over it. HATCH OR HATCHWAY. — An opening in the deck. HAWSER. — A cable. HEAVE TO. — To stop a ship by bringing her bow to the Wind. HOLD. — The interior of a vessel. HULL. — The body (only) of a vessel. JAW. — The mast end of a boom or gaff. JIB. — A triangular sail at the bow. JIBE. — To shift a sail from one side to the other. JURYMAST. — A temporary mast.

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KEEL. — The lowest timber in a ship. KEVEL. — A piece of timber for belaying great ropes to. KNOT. — A nautical mile (equal to 1.151 miles, or 6,082.66 feet) per hour; really a rate of speed, and not a measure of length. LARBOARD. — The left hand of a ship looking toward the bow. LEAD. — A mass of lead used in sounding. LEE. — The side which looks away from the wind, and which hence is sheltered. LEEWAY. — The sideward motion of a ship in travelling. LOCKER, — A chest or box. LOG OR LOGLINE. — The rope used for measuring the speed of a vessel. LOG OR LOGBOOK. — The ship's record or diary. LOOK-OUT. — The seaman posted in the extreme bow or in the crow's nest to give warning of approaching danger. LOOM. — The part of an oar within the rowlocks. LUBBER'S HOLE. — A hole in the top of a vessel next the mast, through which sailors may mount without going over the rim by the futtock-shrouds, so called because considered by sailors to be only fit for lubbers. LUFF. — To bring a ship nearer to the wind. LUFF. — The side of a ship towards the wind, the round-est part of a ship's bow, the forward or weather leech of a sail. MAINMAST. — The central mast or "stick" of a three-masted ship; the aft or hinder mast of a "two-master." See also Foremast, Mizzen-mast, and Jury-mast. MARLINE. — A small line composed of two strands a little twisted, used for winding round ropes and cables, to prevent their being fretted by the blocks, etc. MARLINE-SPIKE. — An iron tool, tapering to a point, used to separate the strands of a rope in splicing. MASTER. — Captain. MASTHEAD. — Head or top of a mast. MAST TABERNACLE. — The socket in which a mast is stepped. MANROPE. — A rope used in going up or down the ship's side. MESS. — A set of men who eat together. MIDSHIPS. — The middle, or widest part of a ship. MIDDY. — An old name for a midshipman. MIZZEN-MAST, MIZZEN-SAIL. — The hinder mast (when there are three). MOOR. — To secure a Ship in any position. MUSTER. — A review of all hands on duty. NAUTICAL MILE.-6,08266 feet, or one geographical mile and 802,66 feet. NIP. — A short turn, as in a rope. ORDINARY SEAMAN. — A seaman of the second rate. PAINTER. — A rope used for making fast a boat. PAY OUT. — To slacken or give out, as to "pay out a rope." PEAK. — The upper and outer corner of a boom sail. PINTLE. — The bolt on which a rudder is hung. PLIMSOLL MARK, — A mark on the outside of the hull indicating the load-line. PORT. — The same as larboard. PORT OR PORTHOLE. — An opening in the ship's side to admit light and air. PROMENADE-DECK. — Usually a covered deck amidships. QUARTER, — The stern portion of a ship's side. QUARTER-MASTER. — The seaman in charge of the wheel. QUARTER-MASTERS. — Picked A,B.'s, with a slight increase in pay. In sailing ships they attend to the steering. In the mail steamers they rank as petty officers; steer; clean and polish binnacles, telegraphs, and care for the wheels and wheelhouses, hoist, or superintend the hoisting of flags and signals; take temperature of air and water; heave the log; read the patent log; and in port usually attend at the gangway. RAKE . — The inclination or curve of a mast. REEF. — A portion of the sail which is clewed up when the wind is too high to expose the whole. REEVE. — To pass the end or a rope through a pulley, etc.

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ROAD. — An open space of water where ships may anchor. ROSTER. — A list of officers and crew. ROWLOCK. — A contrivance for giving leverage to an oar in rowing. SAWBONES. — The familiar name of the doctor among sailors. SCUD. — To sail at great speed before a heavy wind or gale. SCUPPER. — The channel cut through the waterways and side of a ship for carrying off the water from the deck. SEAMS. — The "joins" of a ship's planks. SHEET. — A rope for controlling and moving a sail. SHELTER-DECK, OR AWNING-DECK, Usually erected over the promenade-deck. When the boats are kept thereon, it is often called the boat-deck. SHORE. — A prop giving support to a beam. SKIPPER. — The name generally given to the master of a small vessel. SLOOP. — A vessel with but one mast. SMOKE-STACK, — The funnel. SOUND. — To ascertain the depth of the water. SPAR. — The general name for a mast, boom, gaff, yard, etc. STANCHION. — A pillar or post of slight dimensions giving support to a deck. STARBOARD. — The right side of a ship or boat, looking forward. STAY. — A rope for supporting or keeping a mast in its place. STEM. — The forward part of a vessel. STEM-PIECE. — A curved piece of timber to which the two sides of a ship are united at the fore-end, and the lower end of which is scarfed to the keel. STERN. — The rear portion of a vessel. STEERAGE. — The emigrants' quarters aboard ship. STEERING ENGINE. — The steam steering-gear by which the rudder is controlled. STOKER. — A fireman. STRAKE. — A continuous range of planks on the bottom or sides of a vessel, reaching from the stem to the stern. The range next the keel are called the garboard strokes; the next, bilge strokes; the next, wales. TACK. — TO go against the wind in a zigzag course, and to change a ship's course by shifting her rudder and sails. TACKLE. — Rope and pulley (block). TAFFRAIL, — The rail extending around the stern. TAUT. — Tight. THOWL OR THOLE. — The rowlock. THWARTS. — A boat's seats. TILLER. — The bar for moving the rudder. TRICK. — Duration of a sailor's duty in steering. TWIN SCREWS. — Two screw propellors, in substitution for the more usual single propellor. WAIST. — The portion of the deck between the quarter-deck and forecastle. WARP. — To move a vessel by means of a line or lines made fast to anything immovable at the further end. WATCH. — A portion of time assigned to certain duties. WAKE. — The track left in the water by a moving vessel. WEATHER. — The side which fronts towards or meets the wind. WEIGH ANCHOR. — To raise the anchor. WINCH. — A small windlass. WINDLASS. — A machine for raising the anchor or cargo. WINDSAIL. — Apparatus for directing the wind into cabins, etc. WINDWARD. — The point from whence the wind blows. YACHT. — A sailing vessel used for pleasure. YARD. — A spar supporting and extending a sail. YARDARM. — Either of the two halves of a "yard." YAW. — A slight movement of the vessel involving a temporary change of course

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CRUISER OF TO-DAY - H.M.S. KING ALFRED 19 ILLUSTRATED LIST OF THE SHIPS OF THE ROYAL NAVY

Battleships BATTLESHIPS, I CLASS KING EDWARD VII CLASS. King Edward VII (Laid down 1902). Dominion (Laid down 1902). Commonwealth (Laid down 1902). Maori (Projected 1902). New Zealand (Projected 1902). Length, 425 ft. Beam, 78 ft. Draught, 26 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 16,350 tons. I.H.P. 18,000 — 18.5 kts. Boilers, Babcock and Wilcox, and cylindrical. Armament, 4 12-in. (50 ton wire) in hooded barbettes, 4 9.2-in. singly in turrets, 10 6-in., 24, 12 and 3-pdrs. Torpedo tubes, 4 submerged. DUNCAN CLASS. Duncan (1901). Cornwallis (1901). Exmouth (1901). Russell (1901). Albemarle (1901). Montagu (1901). Length, 429 ft. Beam, 75 ft. 6 in. Draught, 26 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 14,000 tons. I.H.P. 18,000 — 19 kts. Boilers, 24 Belleville. Armament, 4 12-in. (50 ton wire) in pairs in barbettes, 12 6-in., 12 12-pdrs., 6 3-pdrs., 4 submerged torpedo tubes. Torpedo tubes, 4 submerged.

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LONDON CLASS. London (1899). Bulwark (1899). Venerable (1899). Queen (1902). Prince of Wales (1902). Length, 400 ft. Beam, 75 ft. Draught, 26 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 15,000 tons. I.H.P. 15,000 — 18 kts. Boilers, Babcock and Wilcox in Queen, 20 Belleville in others. Armament, 4 12-in. (50 ton wire) 12 6-in. 18 12-pdrs., 6 3-pdrs., 4 submerged torpedo tubes. Formidable (1898). Irresistible (1898). Implacable (1898). Same as above, with Belleville boilers, and 3 sub-merged torpedo tubes and 1 above water-line aft.

MAJESTIC CLASS. Majestic (1895). Magnificent (1894). Victorious (1895). Prince George (1895). Jupiter (1895). Illustrious (1896). Hannibal (1895). Caesar (1896). Mars (1896). Length, 413 ft. Beam, 75 ft. Draught, 27 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 14,900 tons. I.H.P. 12,000 — 17.5 kts. Marine boilers, 8 each with 4 furnaces. Armament, 4 12-in., 12 6-in., 18 12-pdrs., 4 submerged torpedo tubes, and 1 above water-line aft.

ADMIRAL CLASS. Benbow (1885). Anson (1886). Camperdown (1885). Length, 330 ft. Beam, 68 ft. 6 in. Draught, 27 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 10,600 tons. I.H.P. 11,500 — 17.5 kts. Boilers, 12 cylindrical. Armament (Benbow), 2 16,25-in,, (111 ton) 10 6-in., 2 9-pdrs, boat; 12 6-pdrs.; 10 3-pdrs.; 5 torpedo tubes; 6-in., 12 6pdrs., (Anson and Camperdown), 4 67-ton, 6 10 3-pdrs.; 4 torpedo tubes.

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Rodney (1884). Howe (1885). Length, 325 ft. Beam, 68 ft. Draught, 27 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 10,300 tons. I.H.P. 11,500-16.7 kts, Boilers, 12 oval. Armament, 4 67-ton (Rodney, 1 69-ton, 3 67-ton), 6 6-in. Torpedo tubes; Rodney 4; Howe 5. Collingwood (1882) Length, 325 ft. Beam, 68 ft. Draught, 26 ft. 10 in. Displacement, 9,500 tons. I.H.P. 9,500 — 16.5 kts. Boilers, 12 oval, 36 furnaces, Armament, 4 12-in. (67-ton) 6 6-in., 12 6-pdrs., 10 3-pdrs. 4 torpedo tubes (Rodney); 5 (Howe).

CANOPUS CLASS. Vengeance (1899). Albion (1898). Canopus (1897). Glory (1899). Goliath (1898). Ocean (1898). Length, 418 ft. Beam, 74 ft. Draught, 26 ft. Displacement, 12,950 tons. I.H.P. 13,500 — 18.25 kts. Boilers, 20 Belleville. Armament, 4 12-in. (46 ton), 12 6-in., 12 12-pdrs., 6 3-pdrs., 4 submerged torpedo tubes. Renown (1895). Length, 380 ft. Beam, 72 ft. 4 in. Draught, 26 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 12,350 tons. I.H.P. 12,000 — 18 kts. Boilers, cylindrical. Armament, 4 10-in , 10 6-in., 14 12-pdrs., 12 3-pdrs., 5 torpedo tubes (4 submerged).

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Barfleur (1892). Centurion (1892). Length, 360 ft. Beam, 70 ft. Draught, 25 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 10,500 tons. I.H.P. 13,000 — 18.5 kts. Armament, 4 10in., 10 6-in., 2 9-pdrs. boat, 8 6-pdrs., 12 3-pdrs., 7 submerged torpedo tubes.

ROYAL SOVEREIGN CLASS. Empress of India (1891). Ramillies (1892). Repulse (1892). Resolution (1892). Revenge (1892). Royal Oak (1892). Royal Sovereign (1891). Length, 380 ft. Beam, 75 ft. Draught, 27 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 14,150 tons. I.H.P. 13,000 — 17 kts. Boilers, 8 singleended, 32 furnaces. Armament, 413.5 in., 10 6-in., 16 6-pdrs., 2 9-pdrs. boat, 12 3-pdrs., 7 torpedo tubes, 2 submerged.

Hood (1891) — as above with minor differences. Nile (1888). Trafalgar (1887). Displacement, 11,940 tons. I.H.P. 12,000 — 17 kts. (minor differences). Sanspareil (1887) Displacement, 10,470 tons. I.H.P. 14,000 — 17.5 kts. (minor differences). BATTLESHIPS, II CLASS Colossus (1882). Edinburgh (1882). Length, 325 ft. Beam, 68 ft. Draught, 25 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 9,420 tons. I.H.P. 5,500 — 14.2 kts. Boilers, 10 oval, to be replaced by tubular. Armament, 4 12-in., 5 6-in,, 2 torpedo tubes. Inflexible (1876) Length, 320 ft. Beam, 75 ft. Draught, 26 ft. 4 in. Displacement, 11,880 tons. I.H.P. 6,500 — 12,6 kts. Boilers, 12. Armament, 4 12-in. (45-ton), 5 6-in., 4 6-pdrs., 10 3-pdrs., 2 9-pdrs. boat. Torpedo tubes, 2 above water. Alexandra (1875). Superb (1875). With minor differences. Length, 325 and 332 ft. Beam, 63 ft. 8 in. and 59 ft. Draught, 26 ft. 5 in. each. Displacement, 9,490 and 9,170 tons. I.H.P. 7,000 and 8,500-14.5 kts. Boilers, 4 double and 1 single ended. Armament (Superb), 12 10in., 10 6-in., 4 torpedo tubes; (Alexandra), 4 9.2-in., 8 10-in., 4 torpedo tubes.

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Neptune (1874) (non-effective, to be sold). Dreadnought (1875) Length, 320 ft. Beam, 63 ft. 10 in. Draught, 26 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 10,820 tons. I.H.P. 6,500 — 13.5 kts. Armament, 4 12.5-in., 6 6-pdrs,, 12 3-pdrs,, 2 boat guns, 2 Submerged torpedo tubes.

Devastation (1871). Thunderer (1872). Length, 285 ft. Beam, 62 ft. 3 in. Draught, 27 ft, 6 in. Displacement, 9,330 tons. I.H.P. 7,00014.2 kts. Boilers, cylindrical. Armament, 4 10-in., 6 6-pdrs., 8 3-pdrs., 2 7-pdr. Boat-guns, 2 submerged torpedo tubes. BATTLESHIPS, III CLASS Conqueror (1881). Hero (1885). Length, 270 ft. Beam, 58 ft. Draught, 24 ft. Displacement, 6,200 tons. I.H.P. 6,000 — 15.5 kts. Boilers, oval, return tube. Armament, 2 12-in. (45-ton), in each; Conqueror, 4 6-in., 6 6-pdrs., 2 3-pdrs.; Hero, 4 6-in., 7 6-pdrs., 2 9-pdrs. (boat), 5 3-pdrs.; 6 torpedo tubes. Sultan, (1870) Length, 325 ft. Beam, 59 ft. 1 in. Draught, 27 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 9,290 tons. I.H.P. 8,000 — 15 kts. Boilers, 8 single-ended. Armament, 8 10-in., 4 9-in., 4 4.7-in., 9 6-pdrs., 13 3-pdrs., 2 boat guns, 4 torpedo tubes. Hercules (1868) Length, 325 ft. Beam, 59 ft. 1 in., Draught, 26 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 8,680 tons. I.H.P. 8,500-15 kts. Armament, 8 10in., 2 9-in., 2 6-in., 2 7-in. (upper deck); 6 4.7-in., 9 6-pdrs., 13 3-pdrs., 2 boat guns, 4 torpedo tubes. Monarch (1868) Length, 330 ft. Beam, 57 ft. 6 in. Draught, 26 ft. 7 in. Displacement, 8,845 tons. I.H.P. 8,000 — 14.5 kts. Boilers, 8 cylindrical. Armament, 4 12-in,, 2 9-in,, 1 7-in., 4 12-pdrs., 10 3-pdrs., 2 boat guns, 2 torpedo tubes. Swiftsure (1870) (non-effective). Iron Duke (1870) (Training ship). Bellerophon (1865) Length, 300 ft. Beam, 56 ft. 1 in. Draught, 26 ft. 7 in. Displacement, 7,550 tons. I.H.P. 4,000 — 12,2 kts. Armament, 10 8-in., 4 6-in., 6 4-in., 4 6-pdrs., 4 boat guns, 2 torpedo tubes. COAST DEFENCE IRONCLADS Rupert (1872), 5,440 tons. Armament, 2 9.2-in., 2 6-in., 4 6-pdrs., 6 3-pdrs., 2 boat guns, 4 torpedo tubes. Hotspur (1870), 4,010 tons. Armament, 2 12-in., 2 6-in., 6 12-pdrs., 2 boat guns, 2 torpedo tubes.

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Orion (1879), 4,870 tons. Armament, 4 12-in., 6 6-pdrs., 2 boat guns, 4 3-pdrs., 4 torpedo tubes. Glatton (1871), 4,910 tons (non-effective, to be sold). Magdala (1870), 3,340 tons. Armament, 4 8-in. Abyssinia (1870), 2,900 tons. Armament, 4 8-in., 2 boat guns. Wivern (1863), 2,750 tons (to be sold). Above are for coast defence purposes only, being of small engine power, speed, boiler capacity, and coal supply, and only partially armoured. ARMOURED CRUISERS, I CLASS COUNTY CLASS (Improved). Devonshire (1902). Argyll (building). Antrim (building). Hampshire (building). Roxburgh (building). Carnarvon (building). Length, 454 ft. Beam, 68 ft. 6 in. Draught, 24 ft, 6 in. Displacement, 10,800 tons. I.H.P. 22,000 — 23 kts. Boilers, 1/5 cylindrical in each ship. The other 4/5 will be Niclausse in Dev. and Carn., Yarrow in Hamps, and Antr., Dürr in Roxb., and Babcock and Wilcox in Argyll, Armament, 2 7.5-in, 10 6-in., 13 smaller. Two other ships projected, 1903. Displacement, about 10,800 tons.

DRAKE CLASS. Drake (1901). Leviathan (1901). King Alfred (1901). Good Hope (1901). Length, 529 ft., 6 in. Beam, 71 ft. Draught, 26 ft. Displacement, 14,100 tons. I.H.P. 30,000 — 23 kts. Boilers, 43 Belleville. Armament, 2 9-2-in. (120-ton), 16 6-in., 14 12-pdrs., 3 3-pdrs., 2 submerged torpedo tubes. COUNTY CLASS (Unimproved). Essex (1901). Monmouth (1901). Cornwall (1902). Berwick (1902). Donegal (1902). Kent (1901). Bedford (1901). Suffolk (1902). Cumberland (laid down 1901). Lancaster (1902). Length, 440 ft. Beam, 66 ft. Draught, 24 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 9,800 tons. I.H.P. 22,000 — 23 kts. Boilers, 31 Belleville (except Cornwall, Babcock and Wilcox; Berwick and Suffolk, Niclausse). Armament, 4 6-in., in turrets, 10 6-in. in casemates, 10 12-pdrs., 3 3-pdrs., and 2 submerged torpedo tubes. CRESSY CLASS. Cressy (1899). Hogue (1900). Euryalus (1901). Aboukir (1900). Sutlej (1899). Bacchante (1901). Length, 440 ft. Beam, 69 ft. 6 in. Draught, 26 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 12,000 tons, I.H.P. 21,000 — 21 kts, Boilers, 30 Belleville. Armament, 1 9'2-in. (120-ton), 12 6-in., 14 12-pdrs., 3 3-pdrs., 2 submerged torpedo tubes.

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IMMORTALITÉ CLASS. Aurora (1887). Galatea (1887). Narcissus (1886). Undaunted (1886), Australia (1886). Immortalité (1887). Orlando (1886). Length, 300 ft. Beam, 56 ft. Draught, 22 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 5,600 tons. I.H.P. 8,500 — 18 kts. Armament, 2 9.2-in. (22-ton), 10 6-in., 3 9-pdrs. (boat), 6 6-pdrs,, 10 3-pdrs., and 2 torpedo tubes.

Impérieuse (1883). Warspite (1884). Length, 315 ft. Beam, 62 ft. Draught, 27 ft. 4 in. Displacement, 8,400 tons. I.H.P. 10,000 — 16.7 kts. Boilers, cylindrical and oval. Armament, 4 9.2-in. (22-ton), 10 6-in., 4 6-pdrs. in Warspite: 8 in Impérieuse; 9 3-pdrs. in Warspite: 10 in Impérieuse; 2 boat guns in each, 6 torpedo tubes. Northampton (1876) Length, 280 ft. Beam, 60 ft., Draught, 26 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 7,630. I.H.P. 4,500 — 12 kts. Armament, 4 10-in., 8 9in., 6 6-pdrs., 8 3-pdrs., 3 boat guns, 2 torpedo tubes. PROTECTED CRUISERS, I CLASS AMPHITRITE CLASS. Spartiate (1898). Argonaut (1898). Amphitrite (1898). Ariadne (1898). Length, 462 ft. 6 in. Beam, 69 ft. Draught, 25 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 11,000 tons. I.H.P. 18,000 — 2075 kts. Boilers, 30 Belleville. Armament, 16 6-in., 14 12-pdrs., 3 3-pdrs., 3 torpedo tubes.

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DIADEM CLASS. Andromeda (1897). Europa (1897). Diadem (1896). Niobe (1897). Length, 462 ft. 6 in. Beam, 69 ft. Draught, 25 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 11,000 tons. I.H.P. 16,500 — 20.5 kts Boilers, 30 Belleville. Armament, 16 6-in., 14 12-pdrs., 4 3-pdrs., 3 torpedo tubes, 2 submerged.

Terrible (1895). Powerful (1895). Length, 538 ft. Beam, 71 ft. Draught, 28 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 14,200 tons. I.H.P. 25,000 — 22 kts. Boilers, 48 Belleville. Armament, 2 9.2-in., 16 6-in., 18 12-pdrs., 12 3-pdrs., 4 torpedo tubes, all submerged.

ROYAL ARTHUR CLASS. Crescent (1892). Gibraltar (1892). Royal Arthur (1891). St. George (1892). Length, 360 ft. Beam, 60 ft. 8 in. Draught, 23 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 7,700 tons. I.H.P. 12,000 — 19.5 kts. Boilers, 6 double-ended cylindrical. Armament, 1 9.2-in., 12 6-in., 12 6-pdrs., 2 9-pdrs., 5 3-pdrs., 4 torpedo tubes, 2 submerged. EDGAR CLASS. Edgar (1890). Grafton (1892). Endymion (1891). Hawke (1891). Theseus (1892). Length, 360 ft. Beam, 60 ft. Draught, 23 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 7,350 tons. I.H.P. 12,000 — 20 kts. Boilers, 3 cylindrical, 6 double-ended cylindrical. Armament, 2 9.2-in., 10 6-in., 2 9-pdrs. (boat), 12 6-pdrs., 5 3-pdrs., 4 torpedo tubes.

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BLAKE CLASS. Blake (1889). Blenheim (1890). Length, 375 ft. Beam, 65 ft. Draught, 25 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 9,000 tons. I.H.P. (Blenheim), 21,400 — 22 kts.; (Blake), 20,000-21 kts. Boilers, 6 double-ended cylindrical. Armament, 2 9.2-in., 10 6-in., 2 9-pdr. (boat), 16 3-pdrs., 4 torpedo tubes, 2 submerged. CRUISERS, II CLASS CHALLENGER CLASS. Encounter (1902). Challenger (1900). Length, 355 ft. Beam, 56 ft. Draught, 21 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 5,880 tons. I.H.P. 12,50021 kts. Boilers (Encounter), Dürr; (Challenger), Babcock and Wilcox. Armament, 11 6-in., 9 12-pdrs., 6 3-pdrs., 2 submerged torpedo tubes. HIGHFLYER CLASS. Highflyer (1898). Hyacinth (1898). Hermes (1898). Length, 350 ft. Beam, 54 ft. Draught, 20 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 5,600 tons. I.H.P. 10,000-20 kts. Boilers, 18 Belleville (Hermes, Babcock and Wilcox). Armament, 11 6-in., 9 12-pdrs., 6 3-pdrs., 2 submerged torpedo tubes.

FURIOUS CLASS. Furious (1896). Gladiator (1896). Arrogant (1896). Vindictive (1897). Length, 320 ft. Beam, 57 ft. 6 in. Draught, 21 ft. Displacement, 5,750 tons. I.H.P. 10,000 — 19 kts. Boilers, 18 Belleville, without economisers (Arrogant fitted to burn oil fuel in 6 boilers). Armament, 4 6-in., 6 4.7-in., 9 12-pdrs,, 3 3-pdrs., 2 submerged torpedo tubes. DORIS CLASS. Diana (1895). Dido (1896). Doris (1896). Isis (1896). Juno (1895). Venus (1895). Length, 370 ft. 3 in. Beam, 54 ft. Draught, 20 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 5,600 tons. I.H.P. 9,60019.5 kts. Boilers, 8 singleended, 24 furnaces. Armament, 5 6-in., 6 4.7-in., 10 12-pdrs., 7 3-pdrs,, 3 torpedo tubes.

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MINERVA CLASS. Eclipse (1894). Minerva (1895). Talbot (1895). Length, 350 ft. Beam, 53 ft. 6 in. Draught, 20 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 5,600 tons. I.H.P. 9,600 — 19.5 kts. Boilers, 8 single-ended, 24 furnaces. Armament, 5 6-in., 6 4,7-in., 9 12-pdrs., 6 3-pdrs., 3 torpedo tubes. CHARYBDIS CLASS. Astræa (1893). Bonaventure (1892). Cambrian (1893). Charybdis (1893). Flora (1893). Forte (1893). Fox (1893). Hermione (1893). Length, 320 ft. Beam, 49 ft. 6 in. Draught, 19 ft. Displacement, 4,360 tons. I.H.P. 9,000 — 19.5 kts. Armament, 2 6-in., 8 4.7-in., 8 6-pdrs., 1 3-pdr., 4 torpedo tubes.

INDEFATIGABLE CLASS. Æolus (1891). Brilliant (1891). Indefatigable (1891). Intrepid (1891). Iphigenia (1891). Pique (1890). Rainbow (1891). Retribution (1891). Sirius (1890). Spartan (1891). Length, 300 ft. Beam, 43 ft. 8 in. Draught, 17 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 3,600 tons. I.H.P. 9,000 — 191 kts. Boilers, cylindrical. Armament, 2 6-in., 6 4.7-in., 8 6-pdrs-, 1 3-pdr., 4 torpedo tubes. APOLLO CLASS. Apollo (1891). Andromache (1890). Latona (1890). Melampus (1890). Naiad (1890). Sappho (1891). Scylla (1891). Terpsichore (1890). Thetis (1890). Tribune (1891). Length, 300 ft. Beam, 43 ft. Draught, 16 ft. Displacement, 3,400 tons. I.H.P. 9,00020 kts. Armament, 2 6-in., 6 4.7-in., 8 6-pdrs., 1 3-pdr., 4 torpedo tubes. MERSEY CLASS. Forth (1886). Mersey (1885). Severn (1885). Thames (1885). Length, 300 ft. Beam, 46 ft. Draught, 19 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 4,050 tons. I.H.P. 5,700 — 17.2 kts. Boilers, 6 cylindrical. Armament, 2 8-in. (15-ton), 10 6-in., 3 6-pdrs., and other small guns. Torpedo tubes, from 2 to 4.

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LEANDER CLASS. Amphion (1883). Arethusa (1882). Leander (1882). Phaeton (1883). Length, 300 ft. Beam, 46 ft. Draught, 20 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 4,300 tons. I.H.P. 5,000 — 16,5 kts. Boilers, cylindrical. Armament, 10 6-in., 4 3-pdrs. (Arethusa 8 3-pdrs.), 4 torpedo tubes. Iris (1877). Mercury (1878). Length, 300 ft. Beam, 46 ft. Draught, 22 ft. Displacement, 3,730 tons. I.H.P. 6,000 — 17 kts. Boilers, oval and cylindrical. Armament, 13 5-in., 4 3-pdrs., 1 boat gun, 4 torpedo tubes. Inconstant (1868). Length, 333 ft. Beam, 50 ft. 1 in., Draught, 23 ft. Displacement, 5,780 tons. I.H.P. 4,200 — 15 kts. Armament, 10 9-in., 6 7-in., 2 3-pdrs., 6 20-pdrs., 2 torpedo tubes. CRUISERS, III CLASS Two ships projected (1903), Details unknown. Amethyst (building). Topaze (building). Length, 360 ft. Beam, 40 ft. Draught, 14 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 3,000 tons. I.H.P. 9,80021.75 kts. Boilers (Amethyst), Yarrow; (Topaze), Laird. Armament, 12 4-in., 8 3-pdrs. "P" CLASS. Pandora (1900). Psyche (1898). Pioneer (1899). Pomone (1897). Pactolus (1896). Perseus (1897). Prometheus (1898). Pegasus (1897). Pyramus (1897). Pelorus (1896). Proserpine (1896). Length, 300 and 305 ft. Beam, 36 ft. 6 in.-36 ft. 9 in. Draught, 13 ft. 6 in.-15 ft. Displacement, 2,135 tons-2,200 tons. I.H.P. 7,000 — 20 kts. Boilers, Normand, Reed, Blechynden and Thorneycroft. Armament, 8 4-in., 8 3-pdrs., 2 torpedo tubes.

Pallas (1890). Pearl (1890). Philomel (1890). Phoebe (1890). Katoomba (1889). Mildura (1889). Ringarooma (1889). Tauranga (1889). Wallaroo (1890). Length, 265 ft. Beam, 41 ft. Draught, 15 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 2,575 tons. I.H.P. 4,977 — 17 kts. Boilers, 4 cylindrical. Armament, 8 4.7-in., 8 3-pdrs,, 1 7-pdr. (boat), 4 torpedo tubes. "B" CLASS. Barham (1889). Bellona (1890). Length, 280 ft. Beam, 35 ft. Draught, 13 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 1,830 tons. I.H.P. 4,70019 kts. Boilers, Thorneycroft water-tube. Armament, 6 4.7-in., 4 3-pdrs., 2 torpedo tubes.

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Barracouta (1889). Barrosa (1889). Blanche (1889). Blonde (1889). Length, 233 ft. Beam, 35 ft. Draught, 14 ft. Displacement, 1,580 tons. I.H.P. 3,000 — 16.5 kts. Boilers, Blonde has one fitted for oil fuel. Armament, 6 4.7, 4 3-pdrs., 2 torpedo tubes.

"M" CLASS. Magicienne (1888), Marathon (1888). Melpomene (1888). Length, 265 ft. Beam 41 ft. Draught, 17 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 2,950 tons. I.H.P. 9,000 — 19 kts. Armament, 6 6-in., 9 6-pdrs., 1 3-pdr,, 1 9-pdr, (boat), 4 torpedo tubes. Medea (1888). Medusa (1888). Length, 265 ft. Beam, 41 ft. Draught, 16 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 2,800 tons. I.H.P. 9,000 — 19 kts. Boilers, (Medea), Yarrow tube; (Medusa), Dürr. Armament, 6 6-in., 9 6-pdrs., 1 3-pdr,, 1 9-pdr. (boat), 4 torpedo tubes. Calliope (1884). Calypso (1883). Length, 235 ft. Beam, 44 ft. 6 in. Draught, 19 ft. 11 in. Displacement, 2,770 tons. I.H.P. 4,000 — 14.6 kts. Boilers, single-ended fire tube. Armament, 4 6-in., 12 5-in., 2 boat guns. (Torpedo tubes have been removed.) Champion (1878). Cleopatra (1878). Comus (1878) (non-effective). Cordelia (1879) (non-effective). Curaçoa (1878) (non-effective). Length, 225 ft. Beam, 44 ft. 6 in. Draught, 18 ft. Displacement, 2,380 tons. I.H.P. 2,000 — 12.7 kts. Boilers, single-ended fire tube. Armament, 4 6-in., 8 5-in., 4 3-pdrs, 2 boat guns, 2 torpedo tubes. Pylades (1884). Royalist (1883). Length, 200 ft. Beam, 38 ft. Draught, 14 ft. 7 in. Displacement, 1,420 tons. I.H.P. 1,400 — 13.1 kts. Boilers, cylindrical low-pressure naval, and Laird. Armament (Pylades), 14 5-in., 1 boat gun; (Royalist), 2 6-in,, 10 5-in., 1 boat gun. No torpedo tubes. Archer (1885). Brisk (1886). Cossack (1886). Mohawk (1886). Porpoise (1886). Racoon (1887). Tartar (1886). Length, 240 ft. Beam, 36 ft. Draught, 14 f b. 6 in Displacement, 1,770 tons. I.H.P. 3,500 — 16.5 kts. Racoon, 4,500 — 17.5 kts. Boilers, 4 navy type. Armament, 6 6-in., 8 3-pdrs., 1 9-pdr. (boat), 3 torpedo tubes. Fearless (1886). Scout (1885). Length, 220 ft. Beam, 34 ft. Draught, 14 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 1,580 tons. I.H.P. 3,200 — 16.7 kts. Boilers, 4 navy type. Armament, 4 4.7-in., 8 3-pdrs., 1 field gun, 3 torpedo tubes.

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GUNBOATS, I CLASS (TORPEDO-BOAT CATCHERS) Dryad (1893). Halcyon (1894). Harrier (1894). Hazard (1894). Hussar (1894). Length, 250 ft. Beam, 30 ft. 6 in. Draught, 9 ft. Displacement, 1,070 tons. I.H.P. 3,500 — 18.5 kts. Boilers, marine-loco. Armament, 2 4.7-in., 4 6-pdrs., 6 torpedo tubes.

Alarm (1892). Antelope (1893). Circe (1892). Hebe (1892). Jaseur (1892). Jason (1892). Leda (1892). Niger (1892). Onyx (1892). Renard (1892). Speedy (1893). Length, 230 ft. Beam, 27 ft. Draught, 8 ft. 8 in. Displacement, 810 tons. I.H.P. 3,500 to 6,282 — 19.25 to 22.5 kts. Boilers, (except Speedy and Niger), locomotive; (Speedy), Thorneycroft water tube; (Niger), Reed. Armament, 2 4.7-in., 4 3-pdrs., 3 torpedo tubes.

Plassy (1890). Assaye (1891). Boomerang (1889). Gossamer (1890), Gleaner (1890). Karrakatta (1889). Salamander (1889). Seagull (1889), Sharpshooter (1888), Sheldrake (1889). Skipjack (1889). Spanker (1889). Speedwell (1889). Length, 230 ft. Beam, 27 ft. Draught, 8 ft. 3 in. Displacement, 735 tons. I.H.P. 3,500 to 6,000 — 19 to 20.5 kts. Boilers, various: Belleville, Babcock and Wilcox, Du Temple, Mumford, Palmer, Niclausse. Armament, 2 4.7-in., 4 3-pdrs. Torpedo tubes (Plassy and Assaye) 3; others 5. Grasshopper (1887). Sandfly (1887). Spider (1887). Rattlesnake (1886). Length, 200 ft. Beam, 23 ft. Draught, 8 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 525 tons. I.H.P. 2,700 — 19 kts. Boilers, locomotive. Armament, 1 4-in., 6 3-pdrs., 4 torpedo tubes.

97

GUNBOATS III CLASS (COAST DEFENCE AND AUXILIARY) Excellent (1883). Length, 115 ft. Beam, 37 ft. Draught, 8 ft. Displacement, 508 tons. I.H.P. 380 — 9.2 kts. Bouncer (1881). Griper (1879). Insolent (1881). Tickler (1879). Pincher (1879). Length, 85 ft. Beam, 26 ft. Draught, 6 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 265 tons. I.H.P. 110 — 7.5 kts. Ant (1873). Arrow (1871.) Badger (1872). Blazer (1870). Bloodhound (1871). Bonetta (1871). Bulldog (1872). Bustard (1871). Comet (1870). Cuckoo (1873). Fidget (1872). Hyæna (1873). Kite (1871). Mastiff (1871). Pickle (1872). Pike (1872). Scourge (1871). Snake (1871). Snap (1872). Weazel (1873).

Length, 85 ft. Beam, 26 ft. Draught, 6 ft. 4 in. Displacement, 254 tons. I.H.P. 110 — 8 kts. Dee (1877). Don (1877). Esk (1877). Medina (1876). Medway (1876). Sabrina (1876). Slaney (1877). Spey (1876). Tay (1876). Tees (1876). Trent (1877). Tweed (1877).

Length, 110 ft. Beam, 34 ft. Draught, 5 ft. 8 in. Displacement, 363 tons. I.H.P. 200 — 8.5 kts. Plucky (1870). Length, 80 ft. Beam, 25 ft. Draught, 5 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 195 tons. I.H.P. 90 — 7 kts. Staunch (1867). Length, 80 ft. Beam, 25 ft. Draught, 6 ft. 5 in. Displacement, 180 tons. I.H.P. 60 — 7 kts. SCOUTS. Provided for in estimates (1902-3). No details specified. PROJECTED NEW CLASS OF SHIPS. Four ships are projected of a new class similar to enlarged torpedo-boat destroyers.

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TORPEDO-BOAT DESTROYERS Name. Albatross Angler Arab Ardent Ariel Avon Banshee Bat Bittern Boxer Brazen Bruiser Bullfinch Chamois Charger Cheerful Conflict Contest Coquette Crane Cygnet Cynthia Daring Dasher Decoy Desperate Dove Dragon Earnest Electra Express Fairy Falcon Fame Fawn Ferret Fervent Flirt Flying Fish Foam Gipsy Greyhound Griffon Handy Hardy Hart Hasty Haughty Havock Hornet Hunter Janus Kangaroo Kestrel Lee Leopard Tons. 430 310 430 265 310 355 295 360 355 265 345 265 345 360 250 355 320 295 335 360 335 335 265 255 260 310 345 295 360 350 430 355 376 310 360 290 275 360 360 310 355 360 360 275 270 275 250 270 240 240 275 280 370 350 335 350 I.H.P. 7,500 5,400 8,000 4,300 5,400 6,000 4,400 5,900 6,000 4,300 5,800 4,300 5,800 5,900 3,100 5,800 4,500 4,400 5,400 5,900 5,400 5,400 4,200 3,800 4,200 5,600 5,800 4,400 6,300 5,800 9,250 6,300 6,250 5,700 5,900 4,400 3,850 5,900 5,900 5,400 6,000 6,000 6,000 4,000 4,200 4,000 3,100 4,200 3,000 3,800 4,000 3,900 6,100 5,800 6,000 6,000 Guns. 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 6 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 L'nched. 1898 1897 1901 1894 1897 1896 1894 1896 1897 1894 1896 1895 1898 1896 1894 1897 1894 1894 1897 1896 1898 1898 1893 1894 1894 1896 1898 1894 1896 1896 1897 1897 1899 1896 1897 1893 1895 1897 1897 1896 1897 1900 1896 1895 1895 1895 1894 1895 1893 1893 1895 1895 1900 1898 1899 1897 Name. Leven Lightning Lively Locust Lynx Mallard Mermaid Myrmidon Opossum Orwell Osprey Ostrich Otter Panther Peterel Porcupine Quail Racehorse Ranger Recruit Rocket Roebuck Salmon Seal Shark Skate Snapper Sparrowhawk Spiteful Spitfire Sprightly Stag Star Starfish Sturgeon Success Sunfish Surly Swordfish Sylvia Syren Taku Teazer Thorn Thrasher Tiger Vigilant Violet Virago Vixen Vulture Whiting Wizard Wolf Zebra Zephyr Tons. 370 280 365 360 290 310 355 370 295 360 355 376 350 360 374 280 360 360 295 350 280 360 280 360 280 270 280 360 365 295 365 325 360 270 270 350 295 280 295 350 365 320 383 360 383 383 350 360 370 355 360 320 360 310 280 I.H.P. 6,000 3,900 6,000 6,300 4,400 5,700 5,800 6,200 4,000 6,000 6,000 6,200 6,300 6,300 6,200 3,900 6,300 6,000 4,000 5,800 4,100 6,000 3,600 6,000 4,100 4,000 3,600 6,300 5,900 4,500 6,000 5,800 5,900 4,000 4,000 6,000 4,000 4,100 4,500 6,000 6,200 6,500 4,500 6,400 6,300 6,400 6,400 6,300 6,300 6,000 5,800 5,900 4,500 6,000 4,800 3,850 Guns. 6 6 6 6 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 L'nched. 1898 1895 1900 1896 1894 1896 1898 1900 1895 1898 1897 1900 1896 1897 1899 1895 1895 1900 1895 1896 1894 1901 1895 1897 1894 1895 1895 1895 1899 1895 1900 1899 1896 1895 1894 1901 1895 1894 1895 1897 1900 1898 1895 1900 1895 1900 1900 1897 1895 1900 1898 1896 1895 1897 1895 1895

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Nine others building and nine projected in naval estimates for 1902 - 1903.

TORPEDO BOATS. One hundred and sixteen of the First Class. R.T. 28-194 tons; 87-166 ft. length; 16-25 kts.; 360-2,900 I.H.P. Sixty-three of the Second Class. R.T. 12-16 tons; 60-64 ft. length; 12-17 kts.; 120-230 I.H.P. SUBMARINES (five of the Holland U.S.A. type). No. 1. (1901). No. 2. (1902). No. 3. (1902). No. 4. (1902). No. 5. (1902). No. 6. (1902). Length, 63 ft. 4 in, (No. 6, 100 ft.), Beam, 11 ft. 9 in. Displacement, 120 tons. I.H.P. 190; surface speed, 10-12 kts.; submerged speed, 7 to 8 kts. Motive power, on surface, from gasoline. Motive power, submerged, electric motors. Armament, 1 torpedo tube in bow. GUNBOATS, I CLASS Bramble (1898). Britomart (1899). Dwarf (1898). Thistle (1899). Length, 180 ft. Beam, 33 ft. Draught, 8 ft. Displacement, 710 tons. I.H.P. 1,300-13.5 kts. Boilers, Yarrow. Armament, 2 4-in., 4 12-pdrs. Goldfinch (1889). Lapwing (1889). Magpie (1889). Redbreast (1898). Redpole (1889). Ringdove (1889). Sparrow (1889). Thrush (1889). Widgeon (1889). Slightly smaller dimensions and varying details. Armament: 6 4-in., 2 3-pdrs.

Partridge (1888). Peacock (1888). Pheasant (1888). Pigeon (1888), Pigmy (1888). Plover (1888). Displacement, 755 tons. I.H.P. 1,200-13.2 kts. Curlew (1885). Landrail (1886). Displacement, 950 tons. I.H.P. 1,200 — 14.5 kts. Armament various: 6, 5, 4-in. Cockatrice (1886). Rattler (1886). Lizard (1887). Length, 160 ft. Beam, 27 ft. Draught, 11 ft. 2 in. Displacement, 715 tons. I.H.P. 1,00013 kts. Armament, 6 4-in.

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GUNBOATS, II CLASS Albacore (1883). Firebrand (1877). Raven (1882). Length, 125-135 ft. Beam, 23 ft. 6 in.-26 ft, Draught, 10 ft.-10 ft. 6 in. Displacement, 455-560 tons. I.H.P. 360-500. Sp. 9.5-10.9 kts. Armament, 2 5-in., 2 4-in. (Raven, 2 64-pdrs., 2 20-pdrs.). Skylark (1855), 284 tons. Kinsha (1900), 160 tons. Herald (1890), 82 tons. Mosquito (1890), 82 tons. Heron (1897), 85 tons. Jackdaw (1897), 85 tons. Nightingale (1897), 85 tons. Robin (1897), 85 tons. Sandpiper (1897), 85 tons. Snipe (1897), 85 tons. Woodcock (1897), 150 tons. Woodlark (1897), 150 tons. Teal (1901), 180 tons. Moorhen (1901), 180 tons. Slightly varied details. SLOOPS Modern unarmoured ships of approximately 1,000 tons and 1,400 I.H.P. and a speed of 14 kts. General dimensions, 160 to 180 ft. in length, with a beam of 33 ft., and draught of 11 ft. Espiegle (1900). Fantome (1901). Odin (1901). Merlin (1901). Clio (1902). Cadmus (1902). Rosario (1898). Shearwater (1900). Vestal (1900). Mutine (1900). Rinaldo (1900). Algerine (1895). Phoenix (1895). Alert (1894). Torch (1894). Basilisk (1889). Beagle (1889). Buzzard (1887). Daphne (1888). Nymphe (1888). Swallow (1885). Icarus (1885). Melita (1888) (condemned). Racer (1884). AUXILIARY SHIPS Vulcan (1889), 6,620 tons. I.H.P. 12,000 — 20 kts. Torpedo depôt ship. Hecla (1878), 6,400 tons. I.H.P. 2,400 — 11.7 kts. Torpedo depôt ship; repairing ship for Wei-hai-Wei. Polyphemus (1881), 2,640 tons. I.H.P. 5,500 — 17,8 kts. Torpedo ram, now dismantled to serve as tender to Vernon. 20 Merchant Ships Available for War Purposes

As we are going to press comes an announcement that the Government intend to discontinue the policy of subsidising merchant vessels for war purposes. Name. ALLAN LINE. Gross Tonnage. 10,376 10,576 5,395 8,453 5,495 8,669 8,607 6,833 13,401 13,400 6,919 6,849 7,057 Speed - Kts. 16 16 15 17 15 14½ 14½ 14 15 15 13 13½ 13½

Bavarian Tunisian Parisian

ANCHOR LINE. City of Rome Furnessia INTERNAT. S. NAV. CO. Kensington Southwark ATLANT. TRANSPORT CO. Mesaba Minneapolis Minnehaha Menominee Manitou Marquette

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Name. BIBBY LINE. Staffordshire Derbyshire Cheshire Shropshire LEYLAND LINE. Winifredian Devonian Armenian Cestrian Victorian Canadian Omrah Ophir Ormuz Austral Orient Ortona Orizaba Orotava Oroya Oruba Oravia Iberia Liguria Orissa Oropesa Orcana Orella ORIENT LINE.

Gross Tonnage. 6,005 6,636 5,708 5,721 10,405 10,405 8,825 8,823 8,825 10,405 8,291 6,910 6,387 5,524 5,631 7,945 6,298 5,857 6,297 5,857 5,321 4,689 4,677 5,317 5,303 4,803 4,821 7,558 7,903 7,912 7,912 7,911 7,900 6,901 6,898 6,603 6,525 6,603 6,527 5,284 5,287 7,376 7,380 5,545 5,198 4,099 4,362 5,026 4,748 4,756

Speed - Kts. 14½ 14/ 14 14 14½ 14½ 14 14 14 14½ 18 18 18 17 16 18 16½ 16½ 16½ 16½ 164 15½ 15½ 15½ 15½ 15½ 15½ 18½ 18 18 18 18 18 17½ 17½ 17 17 17 17 16½ 16½ 16 16 15½ 15 15 15 14½ 14½ 14½

PACIFIC S. N. CO

P. & O. S. N. CO. Caledonia Arabia China Egypt India Persia Australia Himalaya Arcadia Britannia Oceana Victoria Oriental Peninsular Assaye Plassy Rome Carthage Clyde Shannon Massilia Ballaarat Parramatta

102

Name. CAN. PAC. RAILWAY CO. Empress of China Empress of India Empress of Japan CUNARD LINE. Campania Lucania Etruria Umbria Aurania Servia Ivernia Saxonia Ultonia UNION-CASTLE LINE. Briton Carisbrook Castle Kildonan Castle Kinfauns Castle Norman Saxon Scot Dunottar Castle Dunvegan Castle Hawarden Castle Norham Castle Roslin Castle ROYAL MAIL S. N. CO. Atrato Clyde Danube Magdalena Nile Tagus Thames Trent Orinoco Para La Plata (ex Moor) Elbe WHITE STAR LINE. Oceanic Majestic Teutonic Celtic Germanic Britannic Coptic Cymric Doric Gothic Cevic Georgic Afric Medic

Gross Tonnage. 5,905 5,905 5,905 12,950 12,952 8,128 8,120 7,269 7,392 13,800 13,800 8,845 10,248 7,626 9,652 9,664 7,537 12,570 7,815 5,465 5,958 4,380 4,392 4,487 5,140 5,645 5,946 5,140 5,946 5,545 5,645 5,573 4,434 4,028 4,464 3,140 17,274 9,965 9,984 20,880 5,071 5,004 4,356 12,647 4,676 7,755 8,301 10,077 11,948 11,985

Speed - Kts. 16½ 16½ 16½ 22 22 19½ 19½ 16½ 16 15½ 151 13 17½ 17½ 17½ 17½ 17½ 17½ 171 16 16 15 15 15 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 17 17 16 15 15 15 15 13 13 13 13

103

Persic Runic Suevic

Name. WHITE STAR LINE

Gross Tonnage. 11,973 11,985 11,985 12,097 11,394 8,806 6,618 5,231

Speed - Kts. 13 13 13 13½ 13½ 13½ 13½ 13½

DOMINION LINE. Commonwealth New England Canada Dominion Vancouver DESPATCH VESSELS. Alacrity (1885), 1,700 tons. I.H P. 3,000 — 17.8 kts. Surprise (1885), 1,650 tons. I.H.P. 3,000 — 17.8 kts. Armament, (Alacrity) 10 6-pdrs.; (Surprise) 2 6-pdrs. SAILING TENDERS. Cruiser (1879) Dolphin (1882) Wanderer (1883) Wave (1874) Wooden Sailing Brigs. Martin (1890) Nautilus (1890) Pilot (1890) Liberty (1850) Seaflower (1837) Special Service Torpedo Vessel Vesuvius (1874) 245 tons. Tw. Sc. I.H.P. 350 — 9.7 kts..

1,130 tons. 925 tons. 925 tons. 308 tons.

Barque-rigged. Barque-rigged. Barque-rigged Barque-rigged.

508 tons. 501 tons. 501 tons. 447 tons. 454 tons.

STORESHIPS, TROOPSHIPS, SURVEYING SHIPS. Discovery Wye (1873) Industry (1854) Humber (1878) Tyne (1878) Columbine Imogene (1882) Sphinx (1882) Hearty (1885) Jackal (1885) Magnet (1883) Seahorse (1880) Traveller (1883) Dart (1882) 1,570 tons. 1,370 tons. 1,126 tons. 1,640 tons. 3,560 tons. 260 tons. 460 tons. 1,130 tons. 1,300 tons. 750 tons. 430 tons. 670 tons. 700 tons. 470 tons. I.H. P. 450. I.H.P. 700 Sp. 8 kts. Sp. 10 kts. Sp. 10 kts. Sp. 9 kts. Sp. 11 kts. Sp. 12.5 kts. Sp. 14.1 kts. Sp. 12.8 kts. Sp. 12.3 kts. Sp. 12.6 kts. Sp. 12.1 kts. Sp. 8.7 kts. (Antarctic Discovery Ship). — 10.4 kts.

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Penguin (1876) Rambler (1880) Research (1888) Stork (1882) Triton (1882) Water Witch (1878) Egeria (1873) YACHTS.

1,130 tons. Sp. 10 kts. 836 tons. Sp. 10 kts. 520 tons. Sp. 9.5 kts. non-effective. 410 tons. Sp. 9.7 kts. 620 tons. Sp. 10 kts. 940 tons. Sp. 10 kts.

Victoria and Albert (new), 1899. Cost £512,034. Length, 439 ft. Beam, 50 ft. Draught, 18 ft. Displacement, 4,700 tons. I.H.P. 11,000 — 20 kts. Boilers, 18 Belleville. Victoria and Albert (old), 1855. Length, 338 ft. Beam, 40 ft. 3 in. Draught, 16 ft. 11 in. Displacement, 2,470 tons. I.H.P. 2,400 — 15.7 kts. Osborne (1870) Alberta (1863) Enchantress (1865) Vivid (1883) Fire Queen (1881) Wildfire (1887) Mavourneen (1900) 1,850 tons. I.H.P. 3,360 — 15 kts. 370 tons. I.H.P. 1,000 — 13 kts. 1,000 tons. I.H.P. 1,100 — 12.8 kts. 550 tons. I.H.P. 425 — 11.5 kts. 446 tons. I.H.P. 500 — 11 kts. 453 tons. I.H.P. 360 — 9 kts. 160 tons, wooden schooner sailing yacht.

COASTGUARD STEAM CRUISERS. Nine vessels of approximately 300-500 tons and 150-650 I.H.P. COASTGUARD SAILING CRUISERS. Thirteen vessels of 30 to 130 tons - Six coastguard station tenders - Four coastguard watch vessels. AUXILIARY CRAFT. Comprise some hundreds of vessels stationed in various home and foreign ports. TUGS, NAVAL ORDNANCE STORE SHIPS, CARGO BOATS, TANKS, LAUNCHES AND MINERS, STATIONARY SHIPS, COAL DEPÔTS, COAL LIGHTERS, MOORING LIGHTERS; MAGAZINES, HOSPITAL SHIPS, HULKS, TRAINING SHIPS. In completing the foregoing list of Ships in the Royal Navy, the Editor desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Messrs. Thacker & Co., the publishers of the "Naval Pocket Book," for kind permission to use their valuable Work.

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21

Fleets of Principal Steamship Companies. LONDON — AUSTRALIA (via THE CAPE).

ABERDEEN LINE

FUNNELS: Yellow. HOUSE FLAG: Red and Blue Stripe with White Star in centre.

SOPHOCLES. — Belfast, 1883. R.T. 4,784. Ds. 427.6 X 44.2 X 28.9. I.H.P. 3,000 — 14 knots. SALAMIS, — Aberdeen, 1899. R.T. 4,508. Ds. 392.7 X 47.2 X 29.5. I.H.P. 4,000 — 15 knots. NINEVEH. — R.T. 3,808. Ds. 365.0 X 45.1 X 28-5. I.H.P. 3,000 — 13 knots. MORAVIAN. — R.T. 4,573. Ds, 390.4 X 47.0 X 29-5. I.H.P. 4,000 — 15 knots. AUSTRALASIAN. — Glasgow, 1884. R.T. 3,662. Ds. 361.6 x 44.2 x 29.1. I.H.P. 2,800 — 13 knots. ABERDEEN. — Glasgow, 1881. R.T. 3,659. Ds. 362.5 X 44.4 x 31.2. I.H.P. 2,700 — 13 knots. DAMASCUS. — Glasgow, 1887, R.T. 3,609. Ds. 362.0 X 44,3 X 31.6. I.H.P. 3,000 — 13 knots. ALLAN LINE LIVERPOOL — MONTREAL (via MOVILLE).

FUNNELS: Red with White Band and Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: Red next mast, then White and Blue, overtopped by a Pennant, Red, Blue, Red. BAVARIAN (Tw. Sc.). — R.T. 10,576. Ds. 500 X 59.2 X 39.8.

TUNISIAN (Tw. So.). — Glasgow, 1900. R.T. 10,576. Ds. 500.6 X 59.2 X 39.8.

PARISIAN. — Glasgow, 1881. R.T. 5,595. Ds. 440.8 X 46.2 X 25.2.

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ASSYRIAN, R.T. 4,017; AUSTRIAN, R.T. 2,704; BUENOS AYREAN, R.T. 4,163; BRAZILIAN, R.T. 3,046; CALIFORNIAN, R.T. 4,436; CANADIAN, R.T. 2,910; CARTHAGINIAN, R.T. 4,187; COREAN, R.T. 3,487; CORINTHIAN, R.T. 5,961; GRECIAN, R.T. 3,481; HIBERNIAN, R.T. 2,996; IONIAN (Tw. Sc.), R.T. 9,000; LAURENTIAN, R.T. 4,522; LIVONIAN, R.T. 4,017; MONGOLIAN, R.T. 4,837; MONTE VIDEAN, R.T. 2,951; NORWEGIAN, R.T, 3,523; NUMIDIAN, R.T. 4,835; ONTARIAN, R.T. 4,309; ORCADIAN, R.T. 3,546; PERUVIAN, R.T, 3,262; PHOENICIAN, R.T. 2,425; POMERANIAN, R.T. 4,257; PRETORIAN, R.T. 8,000; ROSARIAN, R.T. 2,950; SARDINIAN, R.T. 4,348; SARMATIAN, R.T. 3,920; SIBERIAN, R.T. 3,845; SICILIAN, R.T. 6,285; STATE OF NEBRASKA, R.T. 3,986; WALDENSIAN, R.T. 2,306. AMERICAN LINE (1) SOUTHAMPTON — NEW YORK (via CHERBOURG),

FUNNELS: Black with white bands. HOUSE FLAG: White, with Blue Eagle.

ST. LOUIS (Tw. Sc.). — American built, 1895. R.T. 11,629. Ds. 535.5 X 63.0 X 26.8. I.H.P. 20,000 — 21½ knots. ST. PAUL (Tw. Sc.). — American built, 1895. R.T. 11,629. Ds. 535.5 X 63.0 x 26.8. I.H.P. 20,000 — 21½ knots.

PHILADELPHIA (Tw. Sc.). — Glasgow, 1888. R.T. 10,803. Ds. 527.6 X 63.2 X 32.0. I.H.P. 20,000 — 20½ knots. NEW YORK (Tw. Sc.). — Same as Philadelphia.

HAVERFORD (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast. R.T. 11500. Ds. 530-0 x 59.0 x 39.0. MERLON (Tw. Sc.). — Same as Haverford.

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AMERICAN LINE

(2) LIVERPOOL — PHILADELPHIA (via QUEENSTOWN)

WESTERNLAND. — R.T. 5,783. Ds. 455.0 x 47.0. PENNLAND. — Glasgow, 1870. R.T. 3,867. Ds. 361.2 X 41.1 X 26.0. NOORDLAND. — R.T. 5,212. Ds. 419.0 x 47.0. BELGENLAND. — RHYNLAND. — AMERICAN-AUSTRALIAN LINE FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: (not specified). SIERRA, SONOMA, VENTURA. — Philadelphia, 1900. R.T. 5,500. Ds. 398.0 X 50-0 X 38.0. ALAMEDA and MARIPOSA.-Philadelphia, 1883. R.T. 3,158. Ds. 314.0 x 41.0 X 17.3. 16 knots. AUSTRALIA. — Glasgow, 1875. R.T. 2,755. Ds. 376.9 X 37.4 x 18.7. ANCHOR LINE GLASGOW — BOMBAY. GLASGOW — NEW YORK (via MOVILLE). MEDITERRANEAN — NEW YORK. SAN FRANCISCO — HONOLULU & SYDNEY.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red Anchor.

CITY OF ROME. — Barrow, 1881. R.T. 8,453. Ds. 560.2 x 52.3 x 37.0. COLUMBIA. — R.T. 8,000. FURNESSIA. — R.T. 5,495. I.H.P. 3,856. ASTORIA. — R.T. 5,086. I.H.P. 4,200.

ASSYRIA. — Glasgow, 1900. R.T. 6,280. D. 450 0 X 55.0 X 30.0.

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ALGERIA, R.T. 4,510, H.P. 3,000; ALSATIA, R.T. 2,766, H.P. 1,938; ANCHORIA, R.T. 4,156, H.P. 2,854; ARABIA, R.T. 3,598, H.P. 1,920; AR-MENIA, R.T. 3,395, H.P. 1,744; ASIA, R.T. 3,611, H.P. 1,920; AUSTRALIA, R.T. 3,595, H.P. 1,350; BAVARIA, R.T. 4,711, H.P. 3,256; BOHEMIA, R.T. 3,189, H.P. 2,000; BOLIVIA, R.T. 3,999, H.P. 2,914; BRITANNIA, R.T. 3,069, H.P. 1,451; CALABRIA, R.T. 4,500, H.P. 4,000; CALIFORNIA, R.T. 3,413, H.P. 1,653; COLUMBIA (building), H.P. 10,000; DALMATIA, R.T. 3,318, H.P. 1,700; ETHIOPIA, R.T. 4,004, H.P. 2,846; HESPERIA, R.T. 2,993, H.P. 1,312; HISPANIA, R.T. 3,380, H.P. 1,478; KARAMANIA, R.T. 3,148, H.P. 1,792; NUBIA, R.T. 3,551, H.P. 1,928; NUMIDIA, R.T. 6,399, H.P. 3,680; OLYMPIA (building) H.P. 3,200; PERSIA, R.T. 3,596, H.P. 1,920; PERUGIA (building) H.P. 4,000; SCINDIA, R.T. 4,803, H.P. 3,111; SCOTIA, R.T. 2,846, H.P. I,100; VICTORIA, R.T. 3,358, H.P. 1,924. ARGO S.S. CO. FLEET. ADLER, ALBATROSS, FALKE, MOWE, REIHER, SCHWAN, SCHWALBE, SPERBER, STRAUSS, CONDOR. ATLANTIC TRANSPORT LINE LONDON — NEW YORK. LONDON & HULL — BREMEN

FUNNELS: Red with Black Top. HOUSE FLAG: Red, White and Blue horizontal Stripes with Stars of alternate colours.

MINNEAPOLIS, MINNEHAHA, MINNEWASKA, MINNETONKA. — Belfast, 1900. R.T. 13,402. Ds. 600.7 x 65.5 X 39.7. MARQUETTE. — Glasgow. R.T. 7,057. Ds. 486.5 X 52.3 X 34.0. I.H.P- 5,000-13½ knots. MENOMINEE. — Glasgow. R.T. 6,919. Ds. 475 X 34.8 X 52.3. I.H.P. 5,000 — 13½ knots. MESABA. — Belfast. R.T. 6,833. Ds. 482.1 X 52.25 X 35.3. I.H.P. 5,000 — 14 knots. MANITOU. — Hartlepool. R.T. 6,849. Ds. 475.5 X 56.25 X 31.15. I.H.P. 5,000-13½ knots. ATLAS LINE (Hamburg-American Line Owners) NEW YORK — KINGSTON, SAVANILLA, CARTAGENA, PORT LIMON & GREYTOWN. FUNNELS: Buff. HOUSE FLAG: White Square. FLEET. ALTAI. — R.T. 2,480. ALLEGHANY. — R.T. 1,725. ADIRONDOCK. — R.T. 2,494. ALINE. — R.T. 2,293. ATHOS. — R.T. 1,994. ANDES. — R.T. 1,864. ALPS. — R.T. 1725.

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AUSTRIAN LLOYD LINE TRIESTE — MEDITERRANEAN PORTS, CONSTANTINOPLE & BLACK SEA FUNNELS: Black HOUSE FLAG: Blue with anchor and motto in gold. FLEET. IMPERATRIX, G.T. 4,194, H.P. 4,400; IMPERATOR, G.T. 4,119, H.P. 4,000; CLEOPATRA, G.T. 4,070, H.P. 5,000; SEMIRAMIS, G.T. 4,017, H.P. 5,000; HABSBURG, G.T. 4,014, H.P. 5,000; BOHEMIA, G.T. 4,000, H.P. 5,300; POSEIDON, G.T. 3,878, H.P. 3,147; AMPHITRITE, G.T. 3,820, H.P. 3,147; ELEKTRA, G.T. 3,185, H.P. 1,990; MARIA TERESA, G.T. 3,042, H.P. 1,990; ORION, G.T. 2,841, H.P. 1,732; STYRIA, G.T. 2,771, H.P. 1,850; CARINTHIA, G.T. 2,771, H.P. 1,850; CARNIOLIA, G.T. 2,771, H.P. 1,850; TIROL, G.T. 2,771, H.P. 1,850; BUCOVINA, G.T. 2,771, H.P. 1,850; URANO, G.T. 2,618, H.P. 1,684; VORWÆRTS, G.T. 2,476, H.P. 2,300; THALIA, G.T. 2.371, H.P. 2,554; EUTERPE, G.T. 2,296, H.P. 2,633; HUNGARIA, G.T. 2,011. H.P. 1,521; ACHILLE, G.T. 1,964, H.P. 1,517; HELIOS, G.T. 1,956, H.P. 1,499; ETTORE, G.T. 1,935, H.P. 1,517; DAPHNE, G.T. 1,902, H.P. 1,291; AGLAJA, G.T. 1,898, H.P. 1,291; CASTORE, G.T. 1,839, H.P. 1,132; AURORA, G.T. 1,829, H.P. 1,560; MEDEA, G.T. 1,826, H.P. 1,291; ESPERO, G.T. 1,822, H.P. 1,417; SATURNO, G.T. 1,812, H.P. 1,337; VENUS, G.T. 1,811 H.P. 1,560; VESTA, G.T. 1,810, H.P. 1,417; TEBE, G.T. 1,769, H.P. 910; APOLLO, G.T. 1,710, H.P. 1,243, JUPITER, G.T. 1,708, H.P. 1,337; JUNO, G.T. 1,685; H.P. 1,243; FLORA, G.T. 1,372, H.P. 812; SELENE, G.T. 1,347, H.P. 751; GALATEA, G.T. 1,339, H.P. 892, LEDA, G.T. 1,329, H.P. 751; THETIS, G.T. 1,133, H.P. 685; GRAF WURMBRAND (Tw. Sc.), G.T. 952, H.P. 2,500; METCOVICH, G.T. 879, H.P. 700; ALMISSA, G.T. 859, H.P. 800; DANUBIO, G.T. 817; H.P. 800; SULTAN, G.T. 752, H.P. 700; BOSNIA, G.T. 370, H.P. 650; AUSTRIA, G.T. 6,500, H.P. 3,400: ERZH. FRANZ FERDINAND, G.T. 6,043, H.P. 3,859; CHINA, G.T. 5,400, H.P. 3,000; NIPPON, G.T. 5,600, H.P. 3,000; SILESIA, G.T. 5,159, H P. 2,500; TRIESTE, G.T. 5,095, H.P. 3,200; MARQ. BACQUE-HEM, G.T. 4,409, H.P. 2,800; VINDOBONA, G.T. 4,351, H.P. 2,800; GISELA, G.T. 4,253, H.P. 2,800; MARIA VALERIE, G.T. 4,235, H.P. 2,800; MORAVIA, G.T. 3,504, H.P. 1,760; MELPOMENE, G.T. 2,968, H.P. 1,854; INDIA, G.T. 2,650, H.P. 1,600; ISTRIA, G.T. 2,507, H.P. 1,300; POLLUCE, G.T. 2,046, H.P. 1,500; CALIPSO, G.T. 1,702, H.P. 800; PERSIA (building), G.T. 6,000, H.P. 3,500; ASIA (Tw. Sc,), G.T. 4,800, H.P. 4,300; AFRICA (Tw. Sc,), G.T. 4,400, H.P. 4,000; DALMATIA, G.T. 2,950, H.P. 2,200; GORICIA, G.T. 2,950, H.P. 2,200; SALZBURG, G.T. 2,950, H.P. 2,200; GALICIA, G.T. 2,771, H.P. 1,850. BAILEY & LEETHAM LINE LONDON — ST. PETERSBURG.

FUNNELS: White, perpendicular Black Stripe and Black Top. HOUSE FLAG: Square White, Red St. George Cross, Red Centre. FLEET. URIA. — R.T. 1,407. JAFFA. — R.T. 1,594. ZARA. — R.T. 1,566. BEAVER LINE LIVERPOOL — QUEBEC & MONTREAL.

FUNNELS: Black, with two White Bands.

110

HOUSE FLAG: Blue with White Centre, containing a Beaver in Black. LAKE ONTARIO. — Sunderland, 1887. R.T. 4,289. Ds. 400,0 x 44.2 X 24.2. Sp. 13 knots. LAKE SUPERIOR. — Glasgow, 1884. R.T. 4,562. Ds. 400.0 x 44.2 X 24.2. Sp. 13 knots. LAKE MEGANTIC. — Dumbarton, 1884. R.T. 5,060. Ds. 439.6 X 46.3 X 28.9. LAKE ERIE (Tw. Sc.). — Glasgow, 1900. R.T. 7,550. Ds. 446.0 X 52.0 X 35.5. LAKE CHAMPLAIN (Tw. Sc.). — Glasgow, 1900. R.T. 6,546. Ds. 446.0 X 52.0 X 27.8. LAKE SIMCOE. — Not specified. MONTROSE. — Middlesboro', 1897. R.T. 5,440. Ds. 444.3 X 52.0 x 27.5. MONTEREY. — Not specified. MONTEAGLE (Tw. Sc.). — Newcastle, 1899. R.T. 6,955. Ds. 445.0 X 52.2 X 27.7. BELGIAN STATE RAILWAYS FLEET. RAPIDE, LEOPOLD II, MARIE HENRIETTE, PRINCESSE CLEMENTINE, PRINCESSE HENRIETTE, PRINCESSE JOSEPHINE, PRINCE ALBERT, LA FLANDRE. BENNETT LINE GOOLE & LONDON — BOULOGNE. DOVER — OSTEND.

HOUSE FLAG: Black with Red Cross. FUNNELS: White with Blue Border and Red Cross. FLEET. CHINA. — Not specified. BURMA. — R.T. 760. INDIA. — R.T. 760. COREA. — R.T. 760. BIBBY LINE LIVERPOOL — RANGOON & TUTICORIN.

FUNNELS: Yellow with horizontal Red Stripes, Black Top. HOUSE FLAG: Square Red.

STAFFORDSHIRE (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1894. R.T. 6,005. Ds- 445.5 x 49.1 x 29.9. I.H.P. 4,000 — 14 knots. WARWICKSHIRE. — Belfast, 1901. R.T. 7,820. Ds. 470.0 x 58.0 x 30.5. I.H.P. 5,500 — 14½ knots. DERBYSHIRE (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1897. R.T. 6,635. Ds. 445.5 X 52.2 X 29.9. I.H.P. 5,000 — 14 knots.

111

SHROPSHIRE (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1891. R.T. 5,721, De. 445.5 x 49.1 x 29.7. I.H.P. 4,000 — 14 knots. CHESHIRE. — Belfast, 1891. R.T. 5,775. Ds. 445.5 X 49.1 X 29.7. I.H.P. 4,000 — 14 knots. LANCASHIRE. — Belfast, 1889. R.T. 4,244. Ds, 400.7 X 45.2 X 28.1. I.H.P. 3,800 — 14 knots. YORKSHIRE. — Belfast. R.T. 4,261. Ds. 400.7 X 45.2 X 28.2. I.H.P. 3,500 — 14 knots. BRITISH & AFRICAN STEAM NAVIGATION CO. LIVERPOOL — WEST AFRICAN PORTS, MADEIRA, & THE CANARIES.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: Blue Burgee with White Cross.

ALBERTVILLE. — Middlesboro', 1897 — R.T. 3,805. Ds, 351.9 x 39.5 x 19.6. I.H.P. 2,000 — 12 knots.

BIAFRA. — Middlesboro', 1895 — R.T. 3,363. Ds. 332 X 43.2 X 23. I.H.P. 1,100 — 11 knots. MONMOUTH, R.T. 7,300; AKABO, R.T. 4,000; MONTROSE, R.T. 5,410; ALBERTVILLE, R.T. 3,500; NIGERIA, R.T. 5,200; SEKONDI, R.T. 5,000; FANTEE, R.T. 5,000; SOBO, R.T. 5,000; JEBBA, R.T. 5,000; BIAFRA, R.T. 4,000; ILARO, R.T. 3,500 ; ANGOLA, R.T. 2,800 ; DAHOMEY, R.T. 2,800 ; CABENDA, R.T. 2,777 ; COOMASSIE, R.T. 2,625 ; ETOLIA, R.T. 3,270; ETHIOPIA, R.T. 2,523; WARRI, R.T. 4,000; ANCOBRA, R.T. 4,000; LYCIA, R.T. 3,282; MAYUMBA, R.T. 2,516; MEMNON, R.T. 3,176; LOANGO, R.T. 2,935; PALMAS, R.T. 2,428; MONROVIA, R.T. 2,402; BENIN, R.T. 2,223; NIGER, R.T. 1,958; CONGO, R.T. 1,800; ELMINA, R.T. 1,764; MANDINGO, R.T. 1,700; WHYDAH, R.T. 1,800; AKASSA, R.T. 1,466; BIDA, R. T. 1,000; KANO, R.T. 1,000; KWARRA, R.T. 812; ILORIN, R.T. 1,000; ASABA, R.T. 1,000; EKO, R.T. 400; IDDO, R.T. 1,000; EGGA, R.T. 1,000; HAUSSA, R.T. 1,000; OLENDA, R.T. 3,000; AXIM, R.T. 3,000; BAKANA, R.T. 3,000; BATANGA, R.T. 3,000; BATHURST, R.T. 3,000; ACCRA, R.T. 3,000; VOLTA, R.T. 3,000; LOANDA, R.T. 3,000; BONNY, R.T. 3,000; BOMA, R.T. 3,000; TENERIFFE, R.T. 2,200; MADEIRA, R.T. 2,200; ROQUELLE, R.T. 2,500; LAGOS, R.T. 2,000; SHERBRO, R.T. 1,800; MONTREAL, R.T. 7,000; BURUTU (building), R.T. 5,200; AKABO (building), R.T. 5,200; TARQUAH (building), R.T. 5,200; MONMOUTH, R.T. 4,500; MONTAUK, R.T. 4,500; SANGARA, R.T. 3,000; PRAH, R.T. 3,000; BORNU, R.T. 3,000; SOKOTO, R.T. 3,000; ORON, R.T. 3,000; BENGUELA, R.T. 1,860; CAMEROON, R.T. 1.860; DODO, R.T. 500; FORCADOS, R.T. 455; LAGOON, R.T. 720; EKURO, R.T. 500; DELTA, R.T. 500. BRITISH & COLONIAL LINE LONDON — NATAL (via MADEIRA & CAPE).

FUNNELS: Black with Red B on White Band. HOUSE FLAG: Red Border with Red B on White ground. FLEET. JOHANNESBURG. FORT SALISBURY. BULUWAYO.

112

BRITISH INDIA LINE

FUNNELS: Black with two White Bands. HOUSE FLAG: White Burgee with Diagonal Red Cross.

JELUNGA. — Dumbarton, 1890. R.T. 5,186. Ds. 410.5 X 48.2 X 30.5. Sp. 14½ knots. GOLCONDA. — Sunderland, 1887. R.T. 5,874. Ds. 422.0 X 48.1 X 24.0. Sp. 13½ knots. REWA. — Glasgow, 1882. R.T. 3,922. Dc. 390.0 X 43.6 X 27.6. Sp. 12½ knots. MOMBASSA. — Sunderland, 1889. R.T. 4,662. Ds. 404.0 X 47.3 X 20.1. Sp. 12½ knots. AVOCA. — Dumbarton, 1891. R.T. 5,324. Ds. 420.0 X 48.2 X 30.6. Sp. 14 knots. DILWARA. — Glasgow, 1891. R.T. 5,441. Ds. 425.4 X 48.2 X 30.6. Sp. 14 knots. INDIA. — Dumbarton, 1881. R.T. 4,074. Ds. 390.0 X 42.2 X 21.6. Sp. 12½ knots. DIMERA. — Not specified. MATIANA. — Glasgow, 1894. R.T. 5,264. Ds. 420.4 X 49.1 X 29.5. Sp. 13 knots. MANORA. — Dumbarton, 1883. R.T. 4,697. Ds. 4100 X 45.2 X 21.7. Sp. 13 knots. GOORKHA. — Dumbarton, 1882. R.T. 4,107. Ds. 390.0 X 42.2 X 21.6. Sp. 12; knots. JUMNA. — Dumbarton, 1886. R.T. 4,749. Ds. 410.5 X 48.2 X 22.4. Sp. 13½ knots. (And a large fleet employed in the Intercolonial trade.) CANADIAN-AUSTRALIAN LINE FLEET. AORANGI. — Glasgow, 1883. R.T. 4,268. Ds. 389 X 46 X 33.4. I.H.P. 5,000 — 16 knots. WARRIMOO. — Newcastle, 1892. R.T. 3,326. Ds. 360 X 42-2 X 28. I.H.P. 4,500 — 17 knots. MIOWERA. — Newcastle, 1892. R.T. 3,393. Ds. 360 X 42.2 X 28. I.H.P. 4,500 — 15 knots. CANADIAN-PACIFIC SS. CO. VANCOUVER — YOKOHAMA. VANCOUVER — SYDNEY (via HONOLULU).

FUNNELS: Yellow. HOUSE FLAG: Divided into Six Squares, alternately Red and White.

113

EMPRESS OF INDIA, EMPRESS OF CHINA, EMPRESS OF JAPAN. — Barrow, 1891. R.T. 5,905, Ds. 485 x 51 X 33.1. I.H.P. 10,000 — 18 knots. CARRON LINE LONDON — BO'NESS & GRANGEMOUTH.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: Square Red with Company's Device in centre. FLEET. AVON. — R.T. 1,722. GRANGE. — R.T. 1,518. THAMES. — R.T. 929. CLYDE SHIPPING CO. FUNNELS: Black. ARANMORE. — R.T. 1,170 COPELAND. — R.T. 1,184 DUNGENESS.-R.T. I,183. EDDYSTONE.-R.T. 1,036. FASTNET. — R.T. 1,158. GARMOYLE. — R.T. 1,229. LIZARD. — R.T. 1,176. PLADDA. — R.T. 1,169. PORTLAND. — R.T. 1,138. RATHLIN. — R.T. 945. SALTEES. — R.T. 1,245. SANDA. — R.T. 1,154. SKERRYVORE. — R.T. 1,226. TOWARD. — R.T. 1,245. TUSKAR. — R.T. 1,159. VALENTIA. — R.T. 446. ANTWERP & CONGO PORTS. FORTH. — R.T. 929. CARRON. — R.T. 695. CAROLINE. — R.T. 674. LONDON — GLASGOW (via BELFAST).

COMPAGNIE BELGE MARITIME DU CONGO FLEET.

ALBERTVILLE. PHILLIPVILLE. BRUXELLESVILLE. COMPAGNIE GEN. TRANSATLANTIQUE HAVRE — NEW YORK.

FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops HOUSE FLAG: White Square with Red Ball and Name as above in Red. LA LORAINE & LA SAVOIE. — St. Nazaire, 1900. R.T. 11,200. Ds. 563.1 X 60.0 X 35.9. Sp. 21 knots. LA TOURAINE (Tw. Sc.). — 1890. R.T. 8,893. Ds. 520-2 X 56.0 X 34.6. LA CHAMPAGNE. — 1885. R.T. 7,087. Ds. 493.4 X51.8 X 34.5. LA NORMANDIE. — Barrow, 1882. R.T. 6,283. Ds, 459.3 X 49.2 X 34.1. L'ACQUITAINE (Tw. Sc.). — Glasgow, 1890. R.T. 8,242. Ds. 500.0 X 57.5 X 34.0. Sp. 19 knots.

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LA BRETAGNE. — 1886. R.T. 7,112. Ds. 4954 X 51.8 X 34.5. LA NAVARRE (Tw. Sc.). — 1892. R.T. 6,648. Ds. 471.0 X 50.5 X 36.4.

LA GASCOIGNE. — 1886. R.T. 7,395, Ds. 495 4 X 52.2 X 34.8. COMPANIA TRANSATLANTICA FLEET. ALICANTE. P. DE SATRUSTEGUI. BUENOS AIRES. CUNARD LINE MONTE VIDEO. ISLA DE LUZON. ISLA DE PANAY. LIVERPOOL — NEW YORK (via QUEENSTOWN). LIVERPOOL — MANILLA (via SPANISH PORTS).

FUNNELS: Red with Black Band and two Black Lines beneath. HOUSE FLAG: Red with Lion holding Globe in Gold.

CAMPANIA. — Glasgow, 1893, R.T. 12,950. Ds. 601 X 65.2 X 37.8. I.H.P. 28,000 — 22 knots. LUCANIA. — (Same as Campania).

UMBRIA. — Glasgow, 1884. R.T. 8,128. Ds. 501.6 X 57.2 X 38.2. I.H.P. 15,000 — 20 knots. ETRURIA. — (Same as Umbria).

115

IVERNIA. — Wallsend, 1900. R.T. 13,800. Ds. 600 X 64.6 x 41.6. I.H.P. 10,000 — 15 knots. SAXONIA (Tw. So.). — Clydebank. R.T. 13,963. Ds. 600.0 X 64.3 X 41.6. I.H.P. 10,000 — 15 knots.

ULTONIA (Tw. Sc.). — Wallsend, 1898. R.T. 8,845. Ds. 500.0 X 57.4 X 33.9. I.H.P. 4,500 — 13 knots. CARPATHIA. — 1902. R.T. 12,000. CATALONIA. — Glasgow, 1881. R.T. 4,841. Ds. 429.6 X 43.0 X 33.8. I.H.P. 2,700 — 13 knots. CITY LINE GLASGOW & LIVERPOOL — BOMBAY & KURRACHEE.

FUNNELS: Yellow Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: Red with initials SS in white. CITY OF ATHENS. — R.T. 5,160. CITY OF BENARES (building). — R.T. 6,200. CITY OF BOMBAY. — R.T. 4,548. CITY OF CAMBRIDGE.--R.T. 3,844. CITY OF CORINTH. — R.T. 5,443. CITY OF DELHI.-R.T. 4,443. CITY OF DUNDEE. — R.T. 3,427. CITY OF KHIOS. — R.T. 3,496. CITY OF LUCKNOW. — R.T. 3,669. CITY OF MADRID. — R.T. 4,899. CITY OF OXFORD. — R.T. 4,019. CITY OF PERTH. — R.T. 3,427. CITY OF SPARTA. — R.T. 5,179. CITY OF VENICE. — R.T. 3,456. CITY OF VIENNA. — R.T. 4,672. DEUTSCHE OST-AFRIKA LINE HAMBURG — NATAL (via ANTWERP, ROTTERDAM, & SUEZ CANAL). FUNNELS: Yellow with Black Tops and Red Band. HOUSE FLAG: Yellow with Black, White and Red Diamonds in centre. FLEET. KOENIG. HERZOG. KANZLER. KAISER. REICHSTAG. BUNDESRATH. PRÆSIDENT. SULTAN.

116

KRONPRINZ. GOUVERNEUR. ADMIRAL. GENERAL. DOMINION LINE

SETOS. SAFARI. PETERS.

LIVERPOOL — BOSTON. LIVERPOOL — QUEBEC & MONTREAL

FUNNELS: Red, with Black Tops and White Band. HOUSE FLAG: Red Pennant with White Diamond enclosing Blue Ball.

CANADA. — Belfast, 1896. R.T. 8,806. Ds. 500.4 X 58.2 X 31.1. Sp. 16 knots.

COMMONWEALTH. — Belfast. R.T. 13,000. Ds. 600 X 59'3 X 40. Sp. 16 knots. NEW ENGLAND (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1898, R.T. 11,394. Ds. 550.3 X 59.3 X 35.9. DOMINION (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1894. R.T, 6,618. Ds. 445.5 X 50.2 X 29.9.

CAMBROMAN. — Birkenhead, 1892. R.T. 4,920. Ds. 429.9 x 46.3 x 30.1. COLUMBUS, VANCOUVER, LABRADOR (Bldg.). DUNDEE, PERTH & LONDON SHIPPING CO. LONDON — DUNDEE, ETC. FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: Square Blue. FLEET. LONDON. — R.T. 1,700. H.P. 3,000. PERTH. — R.T. 1,700. H.P. 3,000. DUNDEE. — R.T. 1,300. H.P. 2,000. FINLAND LINE (NO details specified.) HULL TO FINLAND (via COPENHAGEN).

117

FORWOOD LINE FLEET. ZWEENA. — R.T. 1,618. MOROCCO. — R.T. 2,042. ORATAVA. — R.T. 1,621. TELDE. — R.T. 1,461. WOZZAN. — R.T. 1,484. FURNESS LINE

LONDON — MADEIRA & WEST AFRICA.

LONDON — HALIFAX.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: Union Jack with small F on White Square in centre. FLEET. EVANGELINE. LOYALIST. DAHOME. — Middlesboro'. R.T. 2,854. Ds. 312 X 40 X 24.6. I.H.P. 1,200 — 10 knots. GENERAL STEAM NAVIGATION CO. LONDON & HARWICH — CONTINENT: LONDON — BORDEAUX & MEDITERRANEAN: LONDON — EDINBURGH.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: White Square, Red Globe in centre. Red initials in corner: G.S.N. Co. FLEET. ADJUTANT, ALBATROSS, AUK, BENBOW, BITTERN, CAPULET, CONDOR, CORMORANT, CYGNET, EGRET, FALCON, GANNET, GRANTON, GREBE, GUILLEMOT, HERON, HIRONDELLE, IRIS, LAPWING, LINNET, MALLARD, MERLIN, NAUTILUS, OSPREY, PEREGRINE, PETREL, PLOVER, PRESTON, PTARMIGAN, RAINBOW, RAVEN, REDSTART, SEAMEW, SHELDRAKE, STARLING, SWAN, SWALLOW, SWIFT, TEAL, TERN, TETUAN, VIRGO, WIDGEON. SALOON PASSENGER STEAMERS. EAGLE, HALCYON, LAVEROCK, MAVIS, ORIOLE, PHILOMEL. Steam Tender — GULL. GLEN LINE LONDON — YOKOHAMA (via STRAITS).

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: Blue Burgee with White Circle enclosing initial G in Blue. FLEET. GLENROY. GLENSHIEL. GLENGARRY. GLENFARG. GLENARTNEY. GLENESK. GLENOGLE. GLENLOCHY. GLENLOGAN. GLENGYLE. GLENTURRET. GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY CO. FLEET. AMSTERDAM, VIENNA, BERLIN, DRESDEN CHELMSFORD, CAMBRIDGE, COLCHESTER. HARWICH — HOOK OF HOLLAND & ANTWERP.

118

GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY CO. FLEET. IBEX, ROEBUCK. HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE

WEYMOUTH — GUERNSEY & JERSEY.

HAMBURG — NEW YORK (via CHERBOURG & SOUTHAMPTON). HAMBURG — NEW YORK (via BOULOGNE). GENOA — NEW YORK. SOUTHAMPTON — YOKOHAMA. SOUTHAMPTON — AUSTRALIA.

FUNNELS: Bug on Express Steamers, Black on Intermediate. HOUSE FLAG: Square divided diagonally into quarters, alternately Blue and White & Shield with Letters H. A. P. A, Co. superimposed on an anchor.

DEUTSCHLAND (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1900. R.T. 16,502. DS. 662.7 X 67.0 X 40.8.

AUGUSTA VICTORIA (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1889. R.T. 7,148. Ds. 459.3 X 55.7 X 33.8. Sp. 18. knots.

PENNSYLVANIA (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1896. R.T. 13,333. Ds. 559.4 X 62.2 X 30.0.

FUERST BISMARCK (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1890. R.T. 8,430. Ds. 504.4 X 57.6 X 34.1. PRETORIA (Tw. Sc.). — Hamburg, 1897. R.T. 13,190. Ds. 561.0 x 62.2 X 37.9.

119

PATRICIA (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1899. R.T. 13,424. Ds. 584.0 X 62.3 X 37.1. COLUMBIA (Tw. Sc.). — Birkenhead, 1889. R.T. 7,241. Ds. 463.5 X 55.6 X 35.5.

PRINCESSIN VICTORIA LUISE (Tw. Sc.). — (Cruising Yacht). R.T. 5,000. Ds. 450.0 X 47M X 30.0. BLUCHER, MOLTKE. — 1902. R.T. 12,372. OTHER TWIN-SCREW PASSENGER STEAMERS. ALESIA, R.T 5,167; AMBRIA, R.T. 5,148 ; ARAGONIA, R.T. 5198; BATAVIA, R.T. 11,046 ; BELGIA, R.T. 7,507; BELGRAVIA R.T. 10,982; R.T. 13,193; HAMBURG, R.T. 10,600; KIAUTSCHOU, R.T. 10,911; PALATIA, R.T. 7,979; PHOENICIA, R.T. 7,412. OTHER STEAMERS. ABESSINIA, R.T. 5,697; ACILIA, R.T. 5,697; ADRIA, R.T. 5,472; ALEXANDRIA, R.T. 5,697; ALLEMANNIA, R.T. 1,818; ANDALUSIA, R.T. 5,441; ARCADIA, R.T. 5,454; ARMENIA, R.T. 5,471; ARTEMISIA, R.T. 5,697; ASCANIA, R.T. 2,046; ASSYRIA, R.T. 6,581; ASTURIA, R.T. 5,290; ATHEN, R.T. 2,199; ATHESIA, R.T. 5,751; AUS-TRALIA, R.T. 2,151; BENGALIA, R.T. 7,661; BETHANIA, R.T. 7,492; BOLIVIA, R.T. 2,646; BOSNIA, R.T. 7,437; BRISGAVIA, R.T. 7,419; CALABRIA, R.T. 3,004; CANADIA, R.T. 2,404; CASTILIA, R.T. 2,911; C. FERD. LAEISZ, R.T. 5,872; CHERUSKIA, R.T. 3,254; CHRISTIANIA, R.T. 2,811; CONSTANTIA, R.T. 2,997; CROATIA, R.T. 1,991; DACIA, R.T. 3,511; DORTMUND, R.T. 5,150; ETRURIA, R.T. 4,408; FLANDRIA, R.T. 2,041; FRANCIA, R.T. 2,110; FRISIA, R.T. 3,738; GALICIA, R.T. 2,860; GEORGIA, R.T. 3,143; GOUVERNEUR JAESCHKE, R.T. 1,738; GRANADA, R.T. 5,125; HELLAS, R.T. 2,458; HELVETIA, R.T. 2,825; HERCYNIA, R.T. 2,630; HISPANIA, R.T. 2,578; HOERDE, R.T. 5,150; HOLSATIA, R.T. 3,349; HUNGARIA, R.T. 1,991; ITHAKA, R.T. 2.268; KARTHAGO, R.T. 2,860; LYDIA, R.T. 2,734; MACEDONIA, R.T. 4,304; MARKOMANNIA, R.T. 3,335; NASSOVIA, R.T. 3,858; NAUPLIA, R.T. 3,500; NICARIA, R.T. 3,500; NICOMEDIA, R.T. 4,250; NUBIA, R.T. 3,494; NUMANTIA, R.T. 4,250; NUMIDIA, R.T. 3,044; PARTHIA, R.T. 2,727; POLARIA, R.T. 2,673; POLYNESIA, R.T. 2,171; PONTOS, R.T. 5,679; RHENANIA, R.T. 1,820; SAMBIA, R.T. 5,623; SARDINIA, R.T. 3,601; SARNIA, R.T. 3,206; SAVOIA, R.T. 2,595; SAXONIA, R.T. 5,176; SCOTIA. R.T. 2,558; SEGOVIA, R.T. 5,872; SERBIA, R.T. 3,694; SEVILLA, R.T. 5,135; SIBIRIA, R.T. 3,347; SICILIA, R.T. 2,922; SILESIA, R.T. 4,861; SILVIA, R.T. 6,700; SITHONIA, R.T. 6,700; SPARTA, R.T. 2,832; SUEVIA, R.T. 4,149; SYRIA, R.T. 3,607; TEUTONIA, R.T. 3,066; TROJA, R.T. 2,719; VALDIVIA, R.T. 2,176; VALENCIA, R.T. 2,194; VALESIA, R.T. 2,295; WESTPHALIA, R.T. 3,095. HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE ROTTERDAM — NEW YORK (via BOULOGNE).

FUNNELS: Yellow with White Stripe and Green Bands. HOUSE FLAG: Green Stripes, with NASM on White Stripe.

120

POTSDAM, RIJNDAM and NOORDAM (Tw. Sc.). — T. 12,500. R.T. 12,600. Ds. 565.0 x 62.0 x 46.0. STATENDAM. — Belfast, 1900. R.T. 10,475. Ds. 513.3 X 59.8 X 23.8. ROTTERDAM (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1897. R.T. 8,200. Ds. 467.9 X 53.0 X 22.0. H.P. — 15 knots. SPAARNDAM. — Belfast, 1881. R.T. 4,539. Ds. 427.8 X 41.9 X 32.0. H.P. — 13 knots. AMSTERDAM. — Belfast, 1879. R.T. 3,629. Ds. 410.3 X 39.0 X 28.9. H.P. — 13 knots. MAASDAM. — Belfast, 1871. R.T. 3,984. Ds. 420.0 X 40.9 X 31.0. H.P. — 13 knots. HOULDER LINE LIVERPOOL — RIVER PLATE.

FUNNELS: Red with White Maltese Cross. HOUSE FLAG: Red with White Maltese Cross.

ROYSTON GRANGE. — R.T. 6,400. Ds. 370 X 47.6 X 30.9. I.H.P. 2,720 — 13 knots. HORNBY GRANGE. — Newcastle, 1890. R.T. 2,473. Ds. 300.0 X 40.3 X 19.9. I.H.P. 2,000 — 10½ knots. OVINGDEAN GRANGE. — Middlesboro', 1890. R.T. 2,413. Ds. 297.3 X 40.2 X 18.7. I.H.P. 2,000 — 10 knots. URMSTON GRANGE. — Belfast, 1894. R.T. 3,444. Ds. 340.0 X 46.5 X 17.6. I.H.P. 2,300 — 13 knots. LANGTON GRANGE. — Belfast, 1896. R.T. 5,803. Ds. 420.0 X 54.2 X 33.0. I.H.P. 3,250 — 13 knots. DRAYTON GRANGE (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1901. R.T. 6,500. Ds. 450.0 x 55.0 X 33.4. I.H.P. 3,500 — 13 knots. ELSTREE GRANGE. — Sunderland, 1892. R.T. 3,930. Ds. 365.0 x 45.0 X 30.0. I.H.P. 1,500 — 12 knots. BEACON GRANGE. — Belfast. R.T. 4,000. Ds. 3700 X 47.6 x 30.0. I.H.P. 2,720 — 13 knots. RIPPINGHAM GRANGE. — Belfast. R.T. 6,000. Ds. 420.0 X 54.2 x 33.0. I.H.P. 3,250 — 13 knots. OSWESTRY GRANGE (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1901. RT. 6,500. Ds. 450.0 X 55.0 X 33.4. I.H.P. 3,500 — 13 knots. SOUTHERN CROSS. — Belfast, 1892. R.T. 5,050. Ds. 400.4 X 48.1 x 29.6. I.H.P. 2,880 — 14 knots. HOUSTON LINE LIVERPOOL — RIVER PLATE (BUENOS AYRES).

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: White Union Jack and Red Cross in centre, surmounted by letter H. FLEET. HELIADES. HORTENSIUS. HOSTILIUS. HYADES. HYANTHES. HYLAS. HELLOPES. HERACLIDES. HIPPOMENES. HELIOS. HERMES. HERMINIUS. HESPERIDES. HILARIUS. HONORIUS. HORATIUS.

121

HARMODIUS. HELLENES. IMPERIAL WEST INDIA MAIL SERVICE FUNNELS: Yellow. HOUSE FLAG: (Not specified.) BRISTOL — JAMAICA.

PORT ROYAL. — Middlesboro'-on-Tees, 1901. R.T. 4,455. Ds. 385 X 46.6 X 22. H.P. — 15 knots. PORT ANTONIO (Tw. Sc,), — Middlesboro'-on-Tees, 1901. R.T, 4,455. Ds. 385.0 x 46.6 x 22.0. H.P. — 15 knots. PORT MORANT (Tw. Sc.). — Glasgow, 1901. R.T. 2,900. Ds. 330.0 X 40.1 X 17.6. H.P. — 17 knots. PORT MARIA (Tw. Sc.). — R.T. 2.900. Ds. 334.7 X 35.0 X 24.0. H.P. — 15 knots. LAMPORT AND HOLT LINE LIVERPOOL — RIVER PLATE & CALLAO. NEW YORK. — RIVER PLATE.

FUNNELS: Black Tops, White Band, Blue Base. HOUSE FLAG: Two Red Stripes with White Band and initials L. & H. in Red. FLEET. CANOVA. CERVANTES. CAVOUR. CANNING. BELLAGIO. LEYLAND LINE GARRICK. HOMER. SALLUST. ROMNEY.

LIVERPOOL — BOSTON.

FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: (Not specified.)

DEVONIAN. — Belfast, 1900. R.T. 10,418. Ds. 552.0 X 59.0 X 41.0.

122

WINIFREDAN. — Belfast. R.T. 10,405. Ds. 552.2 X 59.35 X 36.85. I.H.P. 5,500 — 14 knots. ATLANTIAN. — Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1899. R.T. 9,300. Ds. 482.0 X 573.0 X 32 8. I.H.P. 3,500-12 knots. HANOVERIAN (building), R.T. 13,000; two new steamers (building), R.T. 12,000 each; CANADIAN, R.T. 9,301; INDIAN, R.T. 9,121; ARMENIAN, R.T. 8,825; VICTORIAN, 8,825; CESTRIAN, R.T. 8,823; BOHEMIAN, R.T. 8,548; AMERICAN, RT. 8,195; EUROPEAN, R.T. 8,194; PINEMORE, R.T. 7,803; MAPLEMORE, R.T. 7,803; KINGSTONIAN, R.T. 7,000; COLONIAN (building), R.T. 6,600; CALI-FORNIAN (building), R.T. 6,600; CHICAGO, R.T. 6,438; CAMBRIAN, R.T. 5,626; COLOMBIAN, R.T. 5,613; ANTILLIAN, R.T. 5,608; ANGLIAN, R.T. 5,532; IBERIAN, R.T. 5,223; LANCASTRIAN , R.T. 5,120; PHILADELPHIAN, R.T. 5,120; COLUMBIAN, R.T. 5,088; GEORGIAN, R.T. 5,088; CALEDONIAN, R.T. 4,986; TAMPICAN, R.T. 4,833; BOSTONIAN, R.T. 4,668; ALEXANDRIAN (building), R.T. 4,600; BARBADIAN, R.T. 4,501; JAMAICAN, R.T. 4,501; CUBAN, R.T. 4,202; VIRGINIAN, R.T. 4,195; LOUISIANIAN, R.T. 3,642; NICARAGUAN, R.T. 3,642; DARIEN, R.T. 3,362; WILLIAM CLIFF, R.T. 3,352; FLORIDIAN, R.T. 3,257; TEXAN, R.T. 3,257; COSTA RICAN, R.T. 3,251; YUCATAN, R.T. 2,816; BERNARD HALL, R.T. 2,678. LIVERPOOL & MARANHAM STEAMSHIP CO. LIVERPOOL — MARANHAM. LIVERPOOL — PARNAHIBA.

FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: White with White and Blue Squares alternately. FLEET. BRUNSWICK. BOURBON. NEWHAVEN — DIEPPE & CAEN.

LONDON, BRIGHTON AND SOUTH COAST RAILWAY CO.

SUSSEX. — H.P. 5,000. ARUNDEL. — H.P. 5,000. FRANCE. — H.P. 5,000. MANCHE. — H.P. 5,000. TAMISE. — H.P. 5,000. SEINE. — H.P. 4,000. PARIS. — H.P. 3,500. BRITTANY. — H.P. 2,300. ROUEN. — H.P. 3,500. NORMANDY. — H.P. 2,700.

123

TOYO KISEN KAISHA

SAN FRANCISCO — HONG KONG (via YOKOHAMA).

AMERICA MARU. — Newcastle, 1898. R.T. 6,210. Ds. 423 X 51.1 X 29.5. NIPPON MARU (Tw. Sc.). — Sunderland, 1898. R.T. 6,048. Ds. 431.0 x 50.7 x 29.7. HONG KONG MARQ (Tw. Sc,), — Sunderland, 1898, R.T. 5,878. Ds. 431.0 X 50.7 X 29.7. MANCHESTER LINE FLEET. MANCHESTER MERCHANT. — R.T. 3,635. MANCHESTER COMMERCE. — R.T. 3,444. MANCHESTER CITY. — R.T. 3,727. MANCHESTER SHIPPER. — R.T. 2,542. MANCHESTER IMPORTER. — R.T. 2,538. MANCHESTER CORPORATION. — R.T. 3,586. MANCHESTER TRADER. — R.T. 2,136. McIVER LINE LIVERPOOL — BUENOS AYRES. MANCHESTER — QUEBEC & MONTREAL.

FUNNELS: Red, Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: Square White with Red Diamond. FLEET. BRITTANY, SAXONY, NORMANDY, LOMBARDY, PATAPSCO, J. W. TAYLOR. Building — BARBARY, TARTARY, BURGUNDY. MESSAGERIES MARITIMES CALEDONIA). MARSEILLES — AUSTRALIA (via COLOMBO & NEW

FUNNELS : Black. HOUSE FLAG: Square White, Red corners, with M M in, centre. ARMAND BEHIC. — 1892. R.T. 6,467. Ds. 486.6 X 50.1 X 36.8. I-H.P. 7,200. POLYNESIAN--1890. R.T. 6,506. Ds. 482 x 49.2 X 34.1. I.H.P. 7,200. AUSTRALIEN. — 1889. R.T. 6,428. Ds. 482.3 X 49.2 X 34.1. I.H.P. 7,200. VILLE DE LA CIOTAT. — 1892. R.T. 6,461. Ds. 485.8 X 47.9 x 36.8. I.H.P. 7,200. PACIFIQUE.-1899. R.T. 2,379. Ds. 312.3 X 38 X 29.7. I.H.P. 2,000.

124

MOSS LINE

LIVERPOOL — BORDEAUX, ALEXANDRIA & CONSTANTINOPLE.

FUNNELS: Black with White Band. HOUSE FLAG: Red Pennant with White Maltese Cross. FLEET. MEULS. — R.T. 2,495. RAMESES. — R.T. 2,495. TABOR. — R.T. 2,406. NATAL LINE ANUBIS. — R.T. 2,406. GUIENNE. — R.T 1,134. GASCONY. — R.T. 1,134. LONDON — DURBAN, ETC.

FUNNELS: Yellow with Black Band and Black Top. HOUSE FLAG: Red with White Cross, and letters B. K. & Co. in centre. FLEET. UMVOTI. — R.T. 2,625. I.H.P. 2,000. UMFULI — R.T. 2,370. I.H.P. 1,300. UMTATA. — R.T. 2,655. I.H.P. 2,000. UMTALI. — R.T. 2,641. I.H.P. 2,000. UMGENI. — R.T. 2,662. I.H.P. 2,000. UMHLOTI. — R.T. 2,173. I.H.P. 3,000. UMBILO. — R. T. 1,923. I.H.P. 1,100. UMZINTO. — R.T. 1,802. I.H.P. 1,000. UMBAZI. — R.T. I,793. I.H.P. 1,000. UMKUZI. — R.T. 2,050. I.H.P. 1,000. NAVIGAZIONE GENERALE ITALIANA GENOA — BOMBAY. GENOA — MEDITERRANEAN PORTS.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red St. George's Cross with word Postale in Black. FLEET. MANILLA. — Newcastle, 1873. R.T. 3,910. Ds. 399.5 x 42.2 x 28.4. I.H.P. 2,633 — 14 knots. RAFFEL RUBBATIONO. — Newcastle, 1882. R.T . 4,580. Ds. 399.3 x 44 x 31.4. I.H.P. 2,683 — 14 knots. DOM BALDUINO. — Newcastle, 1882. R.T. 4,580. Ds. 400.3 X 44.6 x 31.2. I.H.P. 3,555. SINGAPORE. — Newcastle, 1874. R.T. 3,685. Ds. 389.5 x 42.1 x 28.9. I.H.P. 1,827 — 14 knots. MARCO MINGHETTI. — Glasgow, 1876. R.T. 2,489. Ds. 350.7 X 36.8 X 25.7. ARCHIMEDE. — Glasgow, 1881. R.T. 2,853. Ds. 350.1 X 40 X 26.1. (And a very large fleet of subsidiary steamers.) NETHERLANDS STEAMBOAT CO. FLEET. BATAVIER I. — R.T. 731. BATAVIER II. — R.T. 1,096. BATAVIER III. — R.T. 1,096. LONDON-ROTTERDAM.

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NEDERLAND STEAMSHIP CO. FLEET. KONINGIN WILHELMINA PRINSES AMALIA. PRINSES SOPHIE. BURGEMEESTER DEN TEX. KONING WILLEM III. KONING WILLEM I. PRINS HENDRIK. KONINGIN REGENTES. KONING WILLEM II. NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING CO.

SOUTHAMPTON-STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.

LONDON — NEW ZEALAND.

FUNNELS: Yellow. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red St. George's Cross and letters N. Z. S. Co. in each corner.

TONGARIRO. — 1901. R.T. 7,661. Ds. 457 X 58 X 34. I.H.P. 5,000 — 14 knots. PAPANUI. — R.T. 6,372. Ds, 430.0 X 54.0 X 30.1. I.H.P. 4,000 — 14 knots. PAPAROA. — (Tw. Sc.). R.T. 6,563. Ds. 400.0 X 54.0 X 30.1. I.H.P. 4,000 — 14 knots. RAXAIA. — Newcastle, 1895. R.T. 5,628. Ds. 420.0 X 54.0 X 28.7. H.P.-12 knots. WAIMATE. — Newcastle, 1896. R.T. 5,610, Ds. 420.0 X 54.0 X 28.6. H.P.-12 knots. WAKANUI. — R.T. 5,706. Ds. 420.0 X 54.0 X 28.6. I.H.P. 3,500 — 12 knots, WAKATANE. — R.T. 5,700. Ds. 4200 X 54.0 X 28.6. I.H.P. 3,500 — 12 knots. WAIKATO. — R.T. 4,767. Ds. 4000 X 48.0 X 21.7. I.H.P. 2,000 — 10 knots. TEKOA. — R.T. 4,050. Ds. 365.1 X 47.1 X 26.5. I.H.P. 2,000 — 10 knots. OTARAMA. — R.T. 3,808. Ds- 365.0 X 44.2 X 19.4. I.H.P. 2,000 — 10 knots. RIMUTAKA (TW. Sc.). — 1901. R.T. 7,765. Ds. 457.7 X 58.25 X 30.8. I.H.P. 5,000 — 14 knots. RUAPEKU. RUAHINE. NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA LONDON & ANTWERP — YOKOHAMA.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red Cross. Red Dagger in upper corner.

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AWA MARU. — R.T. 6,000. Ds. 445.0 X 49.4 X 30.4. Sp. 14 knots. INABA MARU, R.T. 6,000; SHINANO MARU, R.T. 6,000; HITACHI MARU, R.T. 6,000; WAKASA MARU, R.T. 6,000; KANAGAWA MARU, R.T. 6,000; SADO MARU, R.T. 6,000; KAWACHI MARU, R.T. 6,000; BINGO MARU, R.T. 6,000; TAMBA MARU, R.T. 6,000; SANUKI MARU, R.T. 6,000; HAKATA MARU, R.T. 6,000. NORD-DEUTSCHER LLOYD BREMEN — BALTIMORE. BREMEN — RIVER PLATE (via SOUTHAMPTON). BREMEN — AUSTRALIA (via SOUTHAMPTON).

FUNNELS: Yellow. HOUSE FLAG: White with crossed Key and Anchor under Wreath in Blue.

KRONPRINZ WILHELM. — Stettin, 1901. R.T. 15,000. Length 630.0 ft. I.H.P. 33,000.

KAISER WILHELM II. — Stettin, 1902. R.T. 19,500. Length 706.5 ft. I.H.P. 38,000. KAISER WILHELM DER GROSSE. — Stettin, 1897. R.T. 14,350. Ds. 648.6 x 66.0 x 43.0. I.H.P. 28,000 2235 knots.

GROSSER KURFUERST. — Danzig, 1899. R.T. 12,500.

BREMEN AND BARBAROSSA. — Danzig, 1897. R.T. 10,500. Ds. 525.1 X 60.3 X 34.8. I.H.P. 8,000 — 17 knots.

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LAHN. — Glasgow, 1887. R.T. 5,351. Ds. 448.4 X 490. X 34.9. I.H.P. 9,000 — 181 knots. TRAVE. — Glasgow, 1886. R.T. 5,222. Ds. 438 X 48 X 34.6. I.H.P. 9,000 — 18 knots. ALLER. — Glasgow, 1886. R.T. 5,217. Ds. 438 X 48 X 34.6. I.H.P. 7,000 — 17½ knots.

KAISER FRIEDRICH. — Elbling, 1897. R.T. 12,480. Ds. 581.7 X 63.9 x 44. I.H.P. 27,000 — 22 knots.

KAISERIN MARIA THERESA (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1890. R.T. 8,286. Ds. 528.4 X 5F8 X 36.9. I.H.P. 17,500 — 19 knots. KOENIGIN LOUISE (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1896. R.T. 10,566. Ds. 525.0 x 60.0 X 34.8. I.H.P. 7,000-16 knots. FRIEDRICH DER GROSSE (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1896. R.T. 10,536. Ds. 523 X 60M X 34.8. I.H.P. 7,000 — 16 knots.

KOENIG ALBERT (Tw. Sc.). — Stettin, 1899. R.T. 10,000.

MAINZ. — R.T. 3,204. I.H.P. 1,500.

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DRESDEN. — Glasgow, 1888. R.T. 4,527. Ds. 390.5 X 46.7 X 33M. I.H.P. 3,200 — 13 knots. RHEIN (Tw. Sc.). — Hamburg, 1899. R.T. 10,200. Ds. 500 X 58.0 X 37.0. HOHENZOLLERN, PRINZESSIN IRENE, MAIN, PRINZ-REGENT LUITPOLD, PRINZ HEINRICH, KŒLN, FRANKFURT, HANNOVER, TAI CHIOW, PHRA CHOM KLAO, PHRA CHULA CHOM KLAO, DEVAWONGSE, CHOW FA, PHRA NANG, LOO SOK, MACHEW, KEONG WAI, CHOW TAI, WONG KOI, MENAM, PAKNAM, TANGLIN, KUDAT, PATANI, KELANTAN, KEDAH, TRING-GANU, SANDAKAN, SINGGORA, KORAT, BANGKOK, CHIENGMAI, NUEN TUNG, DAGMAR, MEI LEE, MEI SHUN, SACHSEN, PREUSSEN, WEIMAR, WITTEKIND, WILLEHAD, PFALZ, MARK, H. H. MEIER, ROLAND, CREFELD, AACHEN, BONN, HALLE, COBLENZ, TRIER, NIXE, NAJADE, SEE-ADLER, KEHREWIEDER, RETTER, LLOYD, FORELLE, HECHT, LACHS, LIBELLE, VULCAN, HERKULES, CENTAUR, SATURN, MERCUR, HELIGOLAND, NORDENEY, BORKUM, NUERNBERG, FREIBURG, WUERZBURG, MARBURG, STRASSBURG. OCCIDENTAL & ORIENTAL SAN FRANCISCO — HONOLULU, YOKOHAMA & HONG KONG.

GAELIC. — (Owned by White Star Line). Belfast, 1885. R.T. 4,206. Ds. 420.3 X 42.4 X 29.6. I.H.P. 2,800 — 14 knots.

DORIC. — (Owned by White Star Line). Belfast, 1883. R.T. 4,676. Ds. 440.9 X 44.2 X 29.2. I.H.P. 3,200 — 14½ knots. GOTHIC. — (Owned by White Star Line — Tw. Sc.). Belfast, 1893. R.T. 7,755. Ds. 490.7 X 53.2 x 33.5. I.H.P. 4,40015 knots. ORIENT-PACIFIC LINE LONDON AND PLYMOUTH — AUSTRALASIA.

FUNNELS: Blue HOUSE FLAG: White, with Blue Cross and Crown. Letters O. S. N. Co. in corners in Red.

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OPHIR. — Glasgow, 1891. R.T. 6,910. Ds- 465.0 X 53.4 x 34.1. I.H.P. 10,000 — 18 knots.

ORMUZ. — Glasgow, 1886. R.T. 6,387. Ds. 465.5 X 52.1 X 34.1. I.H.P. 9,000-18 knots. ORIENT. — Glasgow, 1879. R.T. 5,631. Ds. 445.6 X 46.3 X 35.1. I.H.P. 7,500-17 knots. OMRAH (Tw. Sc.). — Glasgow, 1889. R.T. 8,291. Ds. 490.0 X 56.7 X 34.2. I.H.P. 10,000 — 18 knots. AUSTRAL. — Glasgow, 1881. R.T. 5,524. Ds. 4560 X 48.2 X 33.9. I.H.P. 7,000 — 16½ knots. CUZCO. — Glasgow, 1871. R.T. 3,898. Ds. 3812 X 41.4 X 35.3. I.H.P. 4,000 — 15 knots. ORTONA. — Barrow, 1899. R.T. 7,945. Ds. 4980 55.0 x 37.0. I.H.P. 10,000 — 18 knots. ORIZABA. — Barrow, 1886. R.T. 6,298. Ds. 460X 49.3 X 19.4. Sp. 16½ knots. OROYA. — Barrow, 1886. R.T. 6,297. Ds. 4600 X 49.3 X 35.3. I.H.P. 7,000 — 16 knots. ORUBA. — Barrow, 1889. R.T. 5,857. Ds. 430.0 X 49.0 X 34.2. I.H.P. 7,000 — 15 knots. ORONTES. — 1902. R.T. 9,000. PACIFIC MAIL SS. CO. SAN FRANCISCO — HONG KONG (via YOKOHAMA). SAN FRANCISCO — PANAMA (via MEXICAN PORTS).

FUNNELS: White. HOUSE FLAG: Square, two Red Stripes, two White and one Blue. FLEET. KOREA, SIBERIA. — Newport News, 1901-2. R.T. 12,000. Ds. 572.4 x 63.0 X 41.10. I.H.P. 17,500.

CHINA. — (Pacific Mail). Glasgow, 1889. R.T. 5,061. Ds. 440.4 X 48.1 X 32.8. CITY OF SYDNEY. — Chester (U.S.), 1875. R.T. 3,017. Ds. 339.0 X 40.0 X 20.5. Other ships are: — PERU, R.T. 3,528; AZTEC, R.T. 3,508; NEWPORT, R.T. 2,735 , COLON, R.T. 2,686; ACAPULCO, R.T. 2,572; SAN JOSE, SAN JUAN, SAN BLAS, COSTA RICA, BARRACOUTA, CITY OF PANAMA. PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION CO. FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: White with Blue Cross surmounted by Gold Crown and letters P. S. N. C. in corners. (1) ORIENT-PACIFIC LINE. GALICIA (Tw. Sc.). — Building. R.T. 4,250. I.H.P. 4,250. SORATA. — R.T. 4,581. I.H.P. 3,500. CORCOVADO. — R.T. 4,568. I.H.P. 3,550. SARMIENTO. — R.T. 3,603. I.H.P. 3,000. INCA. — R.T. 3,593. I.H.P. 3,000. MAGELLAN. — R.T. 3,590. I.H.P. 3,000. ANTISANA. — R.T. 3,584. I.H.P. 3,000.

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(2)

LIVERPOOL — W. COAST S. AMERICA (via STRAIT OF MAGELLAN). CALIFORNIA (Tw. Sc.). — Building. R.T. 6,000. I.H.P. 4,500. MEXICO (TW. Sc.). — Building. R.T. 6,000. I H.P. 4,500. PANAMA (Tw. Sc.). — Building. R.T. 6,000. I.H.P. 4,500. VICTORIA (Tw. Sc.). — Building. R.T. 6,000. I.H.P. 4,500. OROTAVA. — R.T. 5,857. I.H.P. 7,000. ORAVIA (Tw. Sc-), — R.T. 5,321. I.H.P. 5,500. ORISSA (Tw. Sc. ). — R.T. 5,317. I.H.P. 5,000. OROPESA (Tw. Sc. ). — R.T. 5,303. I.H.P. 5,000. ORELLANA. — R.T. 4,821. I.H.P. 4,500. ORCANA. — R.T. 4,803. I.H.P. 4,500. IBERIA. — R.T. 4,689. I.H.P. 4,500. LIGURIA. — R.T. 4,677. I.H.P. 4,500. COLOMBIA (Tw. Sc. ). — R.T. 3,500. I.H.P. 3,000. GUATEMALA (Tw. Sc.). — R.T. 3,500. I.H.P. 3,000. CHILE (Tw. Sc. ). — R.T. 3,225. I.H.P. 3,000, PERU (Tw. Sc,). — R.T. 3,225. I.H.P. 3,000. AREQUIPA. — R.T. 2,953. I.H.P. 3,000. SANTIAGO. — R.T. 2,953, I.H.P. 3,000. PUNO. — R.T. 2,398. I.H.P. 2,000. SERENA, — R.T. 2,394. I.H.P. 2,000. PIZARRO. — R.T. 2,160. I.H.P. 2,000. MENDOZA. — R.T. 2,160. I.H.P. 2,000. ARICA. — R.T. 1,771. I.H.P. 1,250. ECUADOR. — R.T. 1,768. I.H.P. 1,250. QUITO. — R.T. 1,089. I.H.P. 1,000. MANAVI. — R.T. 1,041. I.H.P. 1,000. TALCA (Tw. Sc.). — R.T. 1,018. I.H.P. 1,000. TABOGA. — R. T. 649. I.H.P. 500. CHIRIQUI. — R.T. 643. I.H.P. 400. ASSISTANCE (Tug). — R.T. 214. I.H.P. 120. PERICO (Tw. Sc. Tug). — R.T. 170. I.H.P. 100. PERLITA (Tug). — R.T. 49. I.H.P. 50.

PAPPAYANNI LINE FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: Blue Pennant. FLEET. ADALIA. — R.T. 5,600. ANATOLIA. — R.T. 5,600. BRITANNIA. — R.T. 4,000. ROUMELIA. — R.T. 2,780. AGIA SOFIA. — R.T. 2,650. PLANTAIN. — R.T. 2,455. LACONIA. — R.T. 2,196. ARARAT. — R.T. 2,170.

LIVERPOOL — MEDITERRANEAN.

PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL S. N. CO.

131

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: Square divided into quarters diagonally, colours White, Red, Blue and Yellow.

CALEDONIA. — Greenock, 1894. R.T. 7,558. Ds. 486.0 X 54-2 x 26.2. I.H.P. 11,000 — 18½ knots.

ASSAYE. — Greenock, 1899- R.T. 7,376. Ds. 450.0 X 54.0 X 31.6. I.H.P. 6,500.

EGYPT. — Greenock, 1897. R.T. 7,912. Ds. 4997 X 54.0 X 36.7. I.H.P. 11,000 — 18 knots. AUSTRALIA.--Greenock, 1892. R.T. 6,901. Ds. 4,656 X 52.2 X 26.4. I.H.P. 10,000 — 17½ knots. HIMALAYA . — Greenock, 1892. R.T. 6,898. DS. 465.6 X 522 X 26.4. I.H.P. 10,000 — 17½ knots. BRITANNIA. — Greenock, 1887. R.T. 6,525. Ds. 465.8 X 52.0 X 18.7. I.H.P. 7,500 — 16½ knots. PENINSULA. — Greenock, 1888. R.T. 5,287. Ds. 410.5 48.0 X 18.3. I.H.P. 6,000 — 16 knots. SARDINIA. — Building. T. 6,600. I.H.P. 4,500. MOLDAVIA. — Building. T. 10,000. I.H.P. 11,000. MONGOLIA. — Building. T. 10,000. I.H.P. 11,000. PERSIA. — R.T. 7,951. I.H.P. 11,000. CHINA. — R.T. 7,912. I.H.P. 11,000. INDIA. — R.T. 7,911. I.H.P. 11,000. ARABIA. — R.T. 7,903. I.H.P. ]1,000. PLASSY. — R.T. 7,405. I.H.P. 6,500. SOMALI. — R.T. 6,708. I.H.P. 4,500. SICILIA. — R.T. 6,696. I.H.P. 4,500. SOUDAN. — R. T. 6,680. I.H.P. 4,500. SYRIA. — R.T. 6,650. I.H.P. 4,500. OCEANA. — R.T. 6,603. I.H.P. 7,500. ARCADIA. — R.T. 6,603. I.H.P. 7,500. VICTORIA. — R.T. 6,527. I.H.P. 7,500 CANDIA. — R.T. 6,482. I.H.P. 4,500. MALTA. — R.T. 6,064. I.H.P. 4,500. SOCOTRA. — R.T. 6,009. I.H.P. 4,500. BANCA. — R.T. 5,995. I.H.P. 3,500. NUBIA. — R.T. 5,914. I.H.P. 4,500. SIMLA. — R.T. 5,884. I.H.P. 4,500. ROME. — R.T. 5,545. I.H.P. 6,000. ORIENTAL. — R.T. 5,284. I.H.P. 6,000. CARTHAGE. — R.T. 5,198. I.H.P. 5,250. VALETTA. — R.T. 5,048. I.H.P. 5,250. MASSILIA. — R.T. 5,026. I.H.P. 5,250. MAZAGON. — R.T. 4,997. I.H.P. 2,500.

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BALLAARAT. — R.T. 4,890. I.H.P. 5,000. PARRAMATTA. — R.T. 4,886. I.H.P. 5,000. PALAWAN. — R.T. 4,686. I.H.P. 3,500. SUNDA. — R.T. 4,674. I.H.P. 3,500. BENGAL. — R.T. 4,656. I.H.P. 4,500. COROMANDEL. — R.T. 4,652. I.H.P. 4,500. CHUSAN. — R.T. 4,636. I.H.P. 4,500. SUMATRA. — R.T. 4,607. I.H.P. 3,500. BORNEO. — R.T. 4,573. I.H.P. 3,500. JAPAN. — R.T. 4,319. I.H.P. 3,000. MANILA. — R.T. 4,210. I.H.P. 3,000. CEYLON. — R.T. 4,094. I.H.P. 3,000. JAVA. — R.T. 4,093. I.H.P. 3,000. FORMOSA.---R.T. 4,045. I.H.P. 3,000. MALACCA. — R.T. 4,045. I.H.P. 3,000. NANKIN. — R.T. 3,960. I.H.P. 3,000. PE KIN. — R. T. 3,957. I.H.P. 3,000. TIENTSIN. — R.T. 3,950. I.H.P. 3,000. CANTON. — R.T. 3,317. I.H.P. 2,500. SHANGHAI. — R.T. 3,315. I.H.P. 2,500. BOMBAY. — R.T. 3,168. I.H.P. 2,500. ISIS. — R.T. 1,728. I.H.P. 6,500. OSIRIS. — R.T. 1,728. I.H.P. 6,500. PRINCE LINE MANCHESTER & LONDON — MEDITERRANEAN. GENOA — NEW YORK.

FUNNELS: Red with White Prince's Feather. HOUSE FLAG: Red with White Prince's Feather.

CARIB PRINCE. — Sunderland, 1893. R.T. 2,048. Ds. 282.0 X 37.7 X 14.9. Sp. 10 knots. CREOLE PRINCE. — Sunderland, 1893. R.T. 2,047. Ds. 282.0 X 37.7 X 14.9. Sp. 10 knots. SYRIAN PRINCE. — Sunderland, 1893. R.T. 1,914. Ds. 277.0 X 37.2 X 14.3. Sp. 12 knots. TARTAR PRINCE. — Sunderland, 1895. R.T. 3,272. Ds. 342.7 x 43.2 X 18.8. Sp. 12 knots. TROJAN PRINCE. — South Shields, 1896. R.T. 3,273. DS. 351.4 x 44.6 X 17.9. Sp. 12 knots. SPARTAN PRINCE. — Sunderland, 1897. R.T. 3,299. DS. 351.0 X 44.5 X 17.8. Sp. 12 knots. RED CROSS AND BOOTH LINE LIVERPOOL — MANAOS (via HAVRE, OPORTO & LISBON).

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: Square White, St. Andrew's Cross and initial B. in Blue. MADEIRENSE. OBIDENSE. GRANGENSE. CAMETENSE. FLUMINENSE. SOBRALENSE. MARANHENSE. CEARENSE. AMAZONENSE. PARAENSE. LISBONENSE.

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RED STAR LINE

ANTWERP — NEW YORK. ANTWERP — PHILADELPHIA.

FUNNELS: Black with White Stripe. HOUSE FLAG: White with Blue Eagle. ZEELAND (Tw. Sc.). — and VADERLAND (Tw. Sc,), Belfast, 1890. R.T. 11,898. Ds. 580.0 X 60.0. KROONLAND (Tw. Sc.). — Philadelphia (U.S.A.), 1902. R.T. 12,000. Ds. 580.0 X 60.0. FINLAND (Tw. Sc.). — Philadelphia (U.S.A.), 1902. R.T. 12,000. Ds. 580.0 X 60.0.

KENSINGTON (Tw. Sc.) and SOUTHWARK (Tw. Sc.). — Dumbarton, 1893. R.T. 8,607. Ds. 494.0 X 57.0 X 31.1. SWITZERLAND. — R.T. 2,839. Ds. 338.0 X 39.0. NEDERLAND. — R.T. 2,839. Ds. 338.0 x 39.0. FRIESLAND. — R.T. 7,116. Ds. 455.0 x 51.0. PENNLAND. — R.T. 3,867. Ds. 374,0 X 42.0. ROYAL DUTCH WEST INDIA MAIL SERVICE FLEET. ORANJE NASSAU. — R.T. 1,304. PRINS FREDERIK HENDRIK. — R.T. 1,642. PRINS WILLEM I. — R.T. 1,723. PRINS WILLEM II. — R.T. 1,641. PRINS WILLEM III. — R.T. 1,682. PRINS WILLEM IV. — R.T. 1,741. PRINS WILLEM V. — R.T. 1,700. ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET CO. SOUTHAMPTON — BRAZIL & RIVER PLATE (via CHERBOURG). AMSTERDAM--WEST INDIES.

FUNNELS: Black. HOUSE FLAG: White, red diagonal cross and gold crown.

NILE. — Glasgow, 1893. R.T. 5,496. Ds. 420.0 x 52.0 x 33.5. I.H.P. 3,208 — 12 knots. TAGUS. — Glasgow, 1889. R.T. 5,500. Ds. 410.0 X 50.0 x 32.4. THAMES. — Glasgow, 1890. R.T. 5,645. Ds. 436.3 X 50.0 x 25.4.

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ATRATO. — Glasgow, 1888. R.T. 5,366. Ds. 421.2 X 50.0 X 25.0. DANUBE. — Glasgow, 1893. R.T. 5,946. Ds. 420.0 X 52.0 X 33.5. TRENT. — Glasgow, 1899. R.T. 5,500. Ds. 410.0 X 50.0 x 32.4. CLYDE. — Glasgow, 1890. R.T. 5,645. Ds. 436.3 X 50.2 x 25.4. MAGDALENA. — Glasgow, 1889. R.T. 5,362. Ds. 421.2 X 50.0 X 25.4. SEVERN, R.T. 3,760; TYNE, R.T. 2,960; MINHO, R.T. 3,445; EBRO, R.T. 3,445; ELBE, R.T. 3,140; LA PLATA, R.T. 3,445; SOLENT, R.T. 1,908; DEE, R.T. 1,864; TYNE, R.T. 2,902; SPEY, R.T. 470; TAW, R.T. 180; TEES, R.T. 180; WEAR, R.T. 180; ORINOCO, R.T. 4,581; PARA, R.T. 4,028; DON, R.T. 4,028; DERWENT, R.T. 2,466; AVON, R.T. 2,162; EDEN, R.T. 2,145; ESK, R.T. 2,145; ESSEUIBO, R.T. 1,831; EIDER, WALTHAM, EXE (not specified). SHAW SAVILLE AND ALBION CO.

FUNNELS: Yellow with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: Blue in corner with White Stars. Red Cross on White Square Flag.

KUMARA. — R.T. 6,034. Length, 425.0. I.H.P. 4,400. AOTEA. — R.T. 6,364. I.H.P. 4,500. KARAMEA. — R.T. 5,563. I.H.P. 4,000. MAMARI. — R.T. 3,583. I.H.P. 3,000. MAORI. — R.T. 5,317. I.H.P. 4,200. MATATUA. — R.T. 3,322. I.H.P. 2,500. PAKEHA. — R.T. 4,331. I.H.P. 3,000. RANGATIRA. — R.T. 4,045. I.H.P. 3,000. TOKOMARU. — R.T. 6, 238. I.H.P. 4,500. WAIWERA. — R.T. 6,237. I.H.P. 4,500. SHIRE LINE FLEET. CARMARTHENSHIRE. FLINTSHIRE. MERIONETHSHIRE. MONMOUTHSHIRE. PEMBROKESHIRE. RADNORSHIRE. DENBIGHSHIRE. GLAMORGANSHIRE. LONDON — YOKOHAMA (via STRAITS).

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SOUTH-EASTERN AND CHATHAM RAILWAY FLEET. MARY BEATRICE. VICTORIA LOUISE. CALAIS-DOUVRES. LORD WARDEN. DUCHESS OF YORK. ALBERT VICTOR. LOUISE DAGMAR. EMPRESS. VICTORIA. DOVER. CALAIS. PRINCESS OF WALES.

DOVER — CALAIS. FOLKESTONE — BOULOGNE.

SOUTH-WESTERN RAILWAY CO. SOUTHAMPTON — HAVRE, CHERBOURG, ST. MALO & CHANNEL ISLES. FLEET. COLUMBIA. ALMA. VERA. LYDIA. HILDA. SOUTH-WESTERN. ELLA. VICTORIA. LONDON & GRANTON — GOTHENBURG.

THULE STEAMSHIP COMPANY

FUNNELS: White with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: White Pennant with Blue Border, and Blue Ball and Gold Star in centre. FLEET. THULE. ALBERT EDWARD. THORSTEN. CARL XV. UNION CASTLE LINE BALDER. RING. BELE.

SOUTHAMPTON — CAPE TOWN & EAST COAST OF AFRICA.

FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: Blue with Red Diagonal Cross, superimposed on White Cross. SAXON. — Belfast, 1899. R.T. 12,970. Ds. 585.6 X 64.0 X 42.9.

SCOT. — Dumbarton, 1891. R.T. 7,815. Ds. 514.0 X 54.8 X 37.6. BRITON. — Belfast, 1897. R.T. 10,248. Ds. 530 X 60.3 X 36.1. NORMAN. — Belfast, 1894. R.T. 7,537. Ds. 490.8 X 53.2 X 37.6.

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DUNOTTAR CASTLE. — Glasgow, 1890. R.T. 5,465. Ds. 420.0 X 49.8 X 33.2. I.H.P. 7,000 — 16½ knots. KINFAUNS CASTLE. — Glasgow, 1899. R.T. 9,652. Ds. 515.5 X 59.25 X 34.7. I.H.P. 10,000 — 17½ knots. KILDONAN CASTLE. — Glasgow, 1899. R.T. 9,664. Ds. 515.5 X 59.25 X 34.7. I.H.P. 10,000 — 17½ knots. CARISBROOK CASTLE. — Glasgow. 1898. R.T. 7,626. Ds. 485.0 X 56.0 X 32.1. I.H.P. 8,500 — 17½ knots. BRAEMAR CASTLE.--Glasgow, 1898. R.T. 6,200. Ds. 450.0 X 52.3 X 30.3. I.H.P. 4,500 — 15 knots. DUNVEGAN. — Glasgow, 1896. R.T. 5,958. Ds. 450.5 X 50.9 X 31.7. I.H.P. 8,00017 knots. WALMER CASTLE. — 1902. R.T. 12,570. Other Ships ALNWICK CASTLE, TINTAGEL CASTLE, AVONDALE CASTLE, DUNOLLY CASTLE, RAGLAN CASTLE, ARUNDEL CASTLE, ROSLIN CASTLE, NORHAM CASTLE, HAWARDEN CASTLE, PEMBROKE CASTLE, DOUNE CASTLE, LISMORE CASTLE, GARTH CASTLE, HARLECH CASTLE. GERMAN, GALEKA, GASCON, GAIKA, GOORKHA, GUELPH, GREEK, GAUL, GOTH, MOOR, TITAN, SABINE, SUSQUEHANNA, NATAL. UNITED STEAMSHIP CO. OF COPENHAGEN (No details specified.) WHITE STAR LINE HARWICH & NEWCASTLE — COPENHAGEN.

FUNNELS: Buff with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: Red Burgee with White five-pointed Star. (1) LIVERPOOL — NEW YORK (via QUEENSTOWN). OCEANIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1899. R.T. 17,274. 705.0 x 68.0 X 49½. I.H.P. 28,000.

MAJESTIC and TEUTONIC (Tw. Se.). — Belfast, 1889-90. R.T. 10,000. Ds. 582.0 x 58.0 x 39.0. I.H.P. 18,000.

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CELTIC (Tw. Se.), and CÉDRIC. — Belfast, 1901. R.T. 20,904. DS. 700.0 X 75.0 X 49. I.H.P. 14,000.

BRITANNIC, GERMANIC. — Belfast, 1875. R.T. 5,070.0. Ds. 468.0 X 45.0 X 34.0. I.H.P. 6,000. CYMRIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1898. R.T. 12,647. Ds. 600.0 x 64.0 x 38.0. I.H.P. 6,700. GEORGIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1895. R.T. 10,077. Ds. 573.0 X 60.0 X 36.0. I.H.P. 4,500. CEVIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1894. R.T. 8,301. Ds. 515.0 x 60.0 x 34.0. I.H.P. 3,700. BOVIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1892. R.T. 6,583. Ds. 484.0 X 53.0 X 32.0. I.H.P. 3,700. NOMADIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1891. R.T. 5,749. Ds. 474.0 X 49.0 X 31.0. I.H.P. 3,500. TAURIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1891. R.T. 5,727. Ds. 474.0 X 49.0 X 31.0. I.H.P. 3,500. BRITANNIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1874. R.T. 5,004. Ds. 468.0 X 45.0 X 34.0. I.H.P. 5,000. ATHENIC. — 1902. R.T. 12,500. (2) LIVERPOOL — AUSTRALIA (via CAPE TOWN).

PERSIC, SHEVIC, RUNIC, MEDIC, AFRIC (Tw. Sc.). — Belfast, 1899. R.T. 11,984. Ds. 550.0 X 63.40. I.H.P. 4,800 — 13½ knots. ATHENIC, CORINTHIC, IONIC (Tw. Sc.). T. 12,500 (building). CEDRIC. — R.T. 21,000. Ds. 700.0 x 75.0 x 494. WILSON LINE (1) HULL — NEW YORK. HULL — BOSTON.

FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. HOUSE FLAG: White Burgee with Red Ball. CONSUELO (Tw. Sc.).-1900. R.T. 6,025. Ds. 461.5 x 52.1 x 31.1. Sp. 12 knots. TORONTO (Tw. Sc.). — 1900. R.T. 6,035. Ds. 456.0 X 52.0 X 31.0. Sp. 12 knots.

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BUFFALO. — Yarrow, 1895. R.T. 4,427. Ds. 385.0 X 45.3 X 27.9. Sp. 12 knots. IDAHO. — R.T. 6,308. Ds. 460.0 x 50.1 X 31.6. Sp. 14 knots.

(2) HULL. — NORWAY & BALTIC. HULL. — MEDITERRANEAN.

ROMEO. — 1881. R.T. 1,855. Ds. 275.0 X 34.6 X 19.9. Sp. 12½ knots.

ROLLO. — R.T. 1,610. Ds. 2747 X 32.3 x 19.0. Sp. 12 knots. ALECTO, R.T. 3,607; ALEPPO, R.T. 3,870; ANGELO, R.T. 1,541; ARGO, R.T. 1,102; ARIOSTO, R.T. 2,377; BORODINO, R.T. 1,264; BRAVO, R.T. 1,076; BRUNO, R.T. 841; CAIRO, R.T. 1,671; CALYPSO, R.T. 1,337; CAMEO, R.T. 1,244; CASTELLO (Turret Steamer), R.T. 3,635; CATO, R.T. 1,094: CICERO, R.T. 1,834; CITO, R.T. 820; CLARO, R.T. 2,400; CLIO, R.T. 2,733; COLENSO, R.T.. 3,800: COLORADO, R.T. 4,235; COMO, R.T. 1,497; CONGO, R.T. 2,906; DIDO, R.T. 4,769; DOURO, R.T. 2,442; DRACO, R.T. 1,713; DYNAMO, R.T. 504; EBRO, R.T. 2,464; ELDORADO, R.T. 1,514; ERATO, R.T. 1,522; FIDO, R.T. 954; FINLAND, R.T. 1,828; GALILEO, R.T. 3,008; GITANO, R.T. 1,243; GRODNO. R.T. 1,695; HERO, R.T. 775; HIDALGO, R.T. 1,581; HINDOO, R.T. 3,720; HORATIO, R.T. 3,197; IAGO, R.T. 2,400; JUNO, R.T. 905; KOLPINO, R.T. 2,352; KOVNO, R.T. 1,700; LEO, R.T. 1,083; LORENZO, R.T. 3,191; MARTELLO, R.T. 3,721; MIKADO, R.T. 3,557; MILO, R.T. 1,057; MONTEBELLO, R.T. 1,735; MOROCCO, R.T. 3,841; MURILLO, R.T. 2,419; NERO, R.T. 1,083; OHIO, R.T. 3,967; ONTARIO, R.T. 4,036; ORLANDO, R.T. 1,535; OTHELLO, R.T. 5,059; OTTO, R.T. 850; POLO, R.T. 510; RINALDO, R.T. 1,663; ROSARIO, R.T. 1,862; SALERNO, R.T. 2,729; SALMO, R.T. 1,721; SCIPIO, R.T. 1,735; SILVIO, R.T. 1,193; SPERO, R.T. 1,132; TASSO, R.T. 1,467; THOS. WILSON, R.T. 1,546; TOKIO, R.T. 3,827; TOLEDO, R.T. 1,470; TORPEDO, R.T. 487; TRURO, R.T. 836; URBINO, R.T. 2,429; VASCO, R.T. 1,914; VOLO, R.T. 1,289; VOLTURNO, R.T. 2,396; YEDDO, R.T. 1,850; ZERO, R.T. 1,140. WOERMANN LINE FLEET. ADOLPH WOERMANN, ALEXANDRA WOERMANN, ALINE WOERMANN, ANNA WOERMANN, CARL WOERMANN, EDUARD BOHLEN, ELLA WOERMANN, ERNST WOERMANN, GERTRUD WOERMANN, GRETCHEN BOHLEN, HANS WOERMANN, HEDWIG WOERMANN, HELENE WOERMANN, JEANNETTE WOERMANN, IRMA WOERMANN, KURT WOERMANN, LOTHAR BOHLEN, LULU HAMBURG-MADEIRA, CANARIES & WEST COAST OF AFRICA.

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BOHLEN, MARIE WOERMANN, MELITA BOHLEN, PAUL WOERMANN, PROFESSOR WOERMANN, HEKLA BOHLEN, OGUN, EPE, OYO. ZEELAND STEAMSHIP CO. FLEET. KONINGEN WILHELMINA. KONINGEN REGENTES. PRINS HENDRICK. 22 The Navy League. Taken, by kind permission, from the Navy League Journal, January, 1902. QUEENBORO' — FLUSHING.

SEVEN YEARS' WORK

THE Navy League was founded in January, 1895, so that in the month of January, 1902, it completed the first seven years of its existence. It therefore seems timely to consider what has been accomplished by it for the Navy and Nation in its brief life. 1895. — The first year was largely occupied in organizing the work of the League, which at the very outset sustained a cruel loss in the death of its first President, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Geoffrey Hornby. The journal was first commenced in July of that year, and consisted of a single sheet. The first branches were formed in Bristol, Bath, Windsor, Cape Town, Natal, Toronto, Malta and Hong-Kong, and it is pleasant to notice that with one exception these earlier branches are now more active than ever. The Navy League was doubtless largely instrumental in drawing the declaration from the Duke of Devonshire, Chairman of the National Defence Committee, that "the maintenance of sea supremacy has been assumed as the basis of the system of Imperial Defence." This was followed by the significant pronouncement of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Michael Hicks Beach, that it was " the policy not merely of one party, but of both parties, of everybody in the United Kingdom, to maintain our supremacy at sea, and that whatever happened we would maintain our supremacy." These were brave Words, and the Navy League seeks to impress them upon the mass of our countrymen. 1895. — In the same year the Trafalgar celebration was also inaugurated. 1896. — Eleven branches of the League were established, and it was in that year that the influence of the Hong-Kong branch commenced to make itself felt. In that year also Lord Charles Beresford made his first appearance on a Navy League platform at the Cannon Street Hotel, and the practice of taking Navy League members down to Portsmouth to visit the establishments there was initiated. The Nelson column was in the same year decorated from Summit to base, and the Trafalgar celebration was general throughout the Empire. 1897. — A return published by Mr. Clark Hall, the Registrar-General of Shipping and Seamen, attracted a very great amount of attention. From this Blue Book it appeared that the number of British seamen employed in British Sea-going merchant vessels had steadily decreased for many years, and that the loss was unfortunately most marked and serious in the class knOwn as young seamen and boys. The Committee, after careful consideration of the figures, addressed a letter to various county councils who had control of the money available for technical education, inquiring whether they would feel disposed to devote some portion of it to the establishment of training-ships, with a view to increasing the facilities for boys to enter the British mercantile marine. That work has been continued up to the present time, and an association was formed (in 1901) for the purpose of securing the establishment of training-ships for boys of good character and physique desirous of entering the mercantile marine and Royal Naval Reserve, and of preparing a scheme under which these ships might be worked, The communications that have since passed between the Association, the Admiralty, and the Board of Trade, have been of au eminently satisfactory nature. In the same year a memorial prepared by the Toronto branch for presentation to His Excellency the Governor-General of Canada was widely circulated among Chambers of Commerce in Great Britain. The memorial dealt with the formation of a Colonial Naval Reserve to consist of Canadian seamen and fishermen. This matter was brought to the

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notice of Admiral Hopkins, then commander-in-chief on the Mediterranean Station, who stated that if North America would furnish a tithe of its magnificent sea-faring population to the Naval Reserve it would produce a force in quantity and quality unsurpassable anywhere, and that this would have the effect of binding in closer union Britain and a very important portion of Greater Britain. It may fairly be considered that the movement which took place to establish a reserve of Newfoundland fishermen was the outcome of this work of the League. Mr. McHardy in the same year published for the League a book entitled The British Navy for 100 Years. To say that this work is invaluable would be to give it small praise. Mr., H. F. Wyatt also produced a pamphlet entitled The Use of the Navy to You, for boys in elementary schools. This pamphlet has since been circulated in thousands of schools throughout the country. In the same year was published a Guide to the Naval Review, which met with considerable pecuniary success. Special arrangements were made for members of the League to witness the Review, and, the Government having failed to invite the Colonial troops to visit Portsmouth on that occasion, the Navy League opened a fund and organized an expedition for that purpose. At the last moment, however, the Admiralty decided to act as hosts, and the League arrangements were cancelled. A deputation from the Executive Committee also waited upon the Colonial Premiers when they were in England, and the League may justly consider that the offer of the Cape Colony to provide a battleship was largely due to the action of its Cape Town branch. 1898. — There was a great accession in that year to the number of Vice-Presidents of the League. Influential gentlemen now began to take their proper place in the movement, notably headmasters of some of the great public schools. The League in that year carried its educational propaganda still further by the publication of the Navy League Map, which has since run to more than one edition. The League also, in conjunction with the proprietors of the National Review, offered a prize of £50 for the best essay giving a forecast of the probable effect upon the United Kingdom of an indecisive war between two first-class Powers. Captain Sir John Colomb, K.C.M.G., M.P., acted as judge. In the same year the League convened a Conference at the United Service Institution to consider the probable position of the country if involved in war, with regard to the adequacy (1) of the Navy; (2) of the food supply. The Conference was attended by very many influential gentlemen, and the proceedings were of much interest. The lecture programme was energetically carried out, and still further efforts were made to increase the number of British merchant seamen. 1899. — The Windsor and Eton branch initiated a scheme for giving elementary instruction in seamanship to boys who wish to go to sea, and a barge was established on the Thames at Windsor. This undertaking is notable for having received the support of the late Queen Victoria. The same year was notable in the League's history for the adverse response given by the Right Hon. Mr. Ritchie, who with the Right Hon. Mr. Goschen received a deputation from the League on the manning question. Looking at it, however, by the light of past experiences, it is perhaps not an altogether regrettable incident, as it cleared the air. 1900. — In the following year the Executive Committee adopted the plan of drawing attention to certain serious defects in the fleet by means of sandwich men, and the effect of this may be judged by the reduction of the number of ships on the active list of the Navy that are still armed with muzzle-loading guns. In the same year the Earl of Drogheda, who had been President of the League since the death of Sir Geoffrey Hornby, expressed a wish to resign his position as he was setting out on an extended foreign tour. His place was filled by Mr. Robert Yerburgh, M.P. The Liverpool branch in the same year made enormous strides, increased its membership very largely, and became a powerful organization. The second edition of the handbook to the Navy League Map, written by Mr. Crofts, of Tonbridge, was also issued, and the second edition of the map taken in hand.

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The Southern County Councils held a Conference at the League Offices, under the presidency of Admiral the Hon. Thomas Brand, and further steps were taken towards the establishment of training-vessels. In the month of March a meeting was held at the Queen's Hall to protest against retaining battleships armed with muzzle-loading guns on the active list. 1901. — The work of the year 1901 will be familiar to most of our readers. Mr. Arnold White, a member of the Executive Committee, accompanied by Mr. Yer-burgh, visited the Mediterranean fleet, and, as the result of inquiries which he made in the Mediterranean, was satisfied that the position of that fleet left much to be desired. His conclusions were embodied in an article entitled "A Message from the Mediterranean," and though this article was bitterly attacked, his facts were confirmed by the admissions of Ministerial speakers in Parliament. The net result has been a considerable increase in the strength of the Fleet. The honorary secretary of the League, Lieut. Knox (late R.N.), continued the work of propaganda by means Of lecturing in the schools. Owing to current reports that, through the interference of the Treasury, the expenditure considered necessary by the Admiralty for the maintenance of the Fleet in a condition of efficiency has been reduced, there is now great need for the Navy League to watch the Estimates with vigilance, and to be prepared, if necessary, to support the Admiralty by public meetings should it protest against these reductions. THE END

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