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The Essays of Francis Bacon
THE ESSAYS OR COUNSELS, CIVIL AND MORAL, OF FRANCIS Ld. VERULAM VISCOUNT ST. ALBANS THE ESSAYS Of Truth Of Death Of Unity in Religion Of Revenge Of Adversity Of Simulation and Dissimulation Of Parents and Children Of Marriage and Single Life Of Envy Of Love
The Essays of Francis Bacon Of Great Place Of Boldness Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature Of Nobility Of Seditions and Troubles Of Atheism Of Superstition Of Travel Of Empire Of Counsel Of Delays Of Cunning Of Wisdom for a Man's Self Of Innovations Of Dispatch Of Seeming Wise Of Friendship Of Expense Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms and Estates Of Regiment of Health Of Suspicion Of Discourse Of Plantations Of Riches Of Prophecies Of Ambition
The Essays of Francis Bacon Of Masques and Triumphs Of Nature in Men Of Custom and Education Of Fortune Of Usury Of Youth and Age Of Beauty Of Deformity Of Building Of Gardens Of Negotiating Of Followers and Friends Of Suitors Of Studies Of Faction Of Ceremonies and Respects Of Praise Of Vain-glory Of Honor and Reputation Of Judicature Of Anger Of Vicissitude of Things Of Fame TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE MY VERY GOOD LORD
as with poets. of the lie itself. as well as in acting. of a number of men. which men take in finding out of truth. Doth any man doubt. A good Name is as a precious oyntment. My Instauration. poor shrunken things. as it seemes. though corrupt love. then he breathed light. yet truth. called poesy vinum daemonum. examineth the matter. and to see ships tossed upon the sea. to stand in the window of a castle. both in Number. and open day-light. that when it is found.The Essays of Francis Bacon THE DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM HIS GRACE. vain opinions. and settleth in it. and Merit both. imaginations as one would. where neither they make for pleasure. that doth bring lies in favor. of the world. and unpleasing to themselves? One of the fathers. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure. and Weight. LORD HIGH ADMIRAL OF ENGLAND EXCELLENT LORD: 4 SALOMON saies. and the adventures thereof below: but no pleasure is comparable to the standing upon the vantage . such wil your Graces Name bee. which is the love-making. ST. upon the face of the matter or chaos. into the face of man. (which I have now also translated into Latine) and my Portions of Naturall History. as was in those of the ancients. But howsoever these things are thus in men's depraved judgments. that men should love lies. but for the lie's sake. ALBAN Of Truth WHAT is truth? said jesting Pilate. was the light of the sense. that showeth best by day. and count it a bondage to fix a belief. though there be not so much blood in them. Your Graces most Obliged and faithfull Servant. false valuations. that if there were taken out of men's minds. in the works of the days. which is the presence of it. that are like to last. FR. they come home. and mummeries. but it will not rise to the price of a diamond. is a naked. or wooing of it. as long as Bookes last. And I assure my selfe. teacheth that the inquiry of truth. affecting free-will in thinking. And though the sects of philosophers of that kind be gone. have beene most Currant: For that. as with the merchant. which is the enjoying of it. which. but the lie that sinketh in. nor for advantage. and triumphs. The poet. Being of the best Fruits. or carbuncle. to think what should be in it. and is at a stand. and still he breatheth and inspireth light. The first creature of God. to Mens Businesse. to the Prince: And these I dedicate to your Grace. For your Fortune. which only doth judge itself. this same truth. Truth may perhaps come to the price of a pearl. God leade your Grace by the Hand. it imposeth upon men's thoughts. and Obligation to your Grace. but a natural. and the like. But it is not only the difficulty and labor. that the Latine Volume of them. For I doe conceive. to prefix your Name before them. and in Latine. yet there remain certain discoursing wits. saith yet excellently well: It is a pleasure. which God gives to my Pen and Labours. and Bosomes. the last. First he breathed light. And you have planted Things. that doth the hurt. of all my other workes. But I cannot tell. half so stately and daintily as candle-lights. was the light of reason. flattering hopes. and the belief of truth. I could yeeld. and to see a battle. both in English. but it would leave the minds. into the face of his chosen. But it is not the lie that passeth through the mind. such as we spake of before. Certainly there be. to my Affection. One of the later school of the Grecians. to stand upon the shore. is the sovereign good of human nature. it is but with the shadow of a lie. and his sabbath work ever since. I thought it therefore agreeable. in great severity. nor again.and would not stay for an answer. that by the good Encrease. So that they are indeed a New Worke. that delight in giddiness. that doth not show the masks. have been Eminent. full of melancholy and indisposition. because it fireth the imagination. with Posteritie. is the illumination of his Spirit. that beautified the sect. I dedicated to the King: My Historie of Henry the Seventh. and affections. I doe now publish my Essayes. that showeth best in varied lights. (being in the Universall Language) may last. and yet. I have enlarged them. which are of the same veins. that was otherwise inferior to the rest. the knowledge of truth. a pleasure.
fear preoccupateth it. as children fear to go in the dark. holding forth his neck. and to a little infant. You shall read. which may make the metal work the better.The Essays of Francis Bacon ground of truth (a hill not to be commanded. made it appear more fearful. that when Christ cometh. Of Unity . though he were neither valiant. Surely the wickedness of falsehood. nor miserable. the approaches of death make. and a discolored face. and by their great preparations. non dissimulatio. and crooked courses. it is heaven upon earth. and of superstition. And the like. as a tribute due unto nature. but the fear of it. when he inquired the reason. above all. as the wages of sin. honor aspireth to it. and dissolved. to the truth of civil business. to call the judgments of God upon the generations of men. And by him that spake only as a philosopher. and not upon the feet. that clear. si ex re sit populi Romani. it being foretold. and mists. sitting upon the stool. and blacks. And therefore Montaigne saith prettily. is holy and religious. as Tacitus saith of him. and as that natural fear in children. If it be well weighed. mori velle. death is no such terrible enemy. as that he is brave towards God. Seneca adds niceness and satiety: Cogita quamdiu eadem feceris. non tantum fortis aut miser. is the honor of man's nature. or tortured. so always that this prospect be with pity. and wanderings. Certainly. so weak. and friends weeping. nay. is like alloy in coin of gold and silver. and thereby imagine. only upon a weariness to do the same thing so oft. is like one that is wounded in hot blood. and breach of faith. qui finem vitae extremum inter munera ponat naturae. Better saith he. when many times death passeth. Pompa mortis magis terret. till the last instant. what the pain is. that a man should think with himself. the contemplation of death. for they appear to be the same men. Feri. scarce feels the hurt. to observe. A man would die. and round dealing. and not with swelling. and shrinks from man. and as the truest sort of followers. Septimius Severus in despatch. Augustus Caesar died in a compliment. Nunc dimittis. so is the other. love slights it. out of mere compassion to their sovereign. and where the air is always clear and serene). conjugii nostri memor. are not the quickest of sense. 5 To pass from theological. or pride. It is worthy the observing. what the pains of death are. it will be acknowledged. Tiberius in dissimulation. doth avert the dolors of death. as the other. there is sometimes mixture of vanity. he shall not find faith upon the earth. it was well said. For a lie faces God. Vespasian in a jest. when a man hath obtained worthy ends. for the time. sed etiam fastidiosus potest. over and over. but it mates. Galba with a sentence. deserebant. with less pain than the torture of a limb. and turn upon the poles of truth. He that dies in an earnest pursuit. and masters. Yet in religious meditations. in the vale below. we read. are the goings of the serpent. is increased with tales. . Certainly the Stoics bestowed too much cost upon death. and tempests. and to see the errors. as in that it shall be the last peal. if he have but his finger's end pressed. and convulsions. when a man hath so many attendants about him. is as much to say. Revenge triumphs over death. why the word of the lie should be such a disgrace. is weak. Livia. But. Nay. cannot possibly be so highly expressed. and philosophical truth. after Otho the emperor had slain himself. and the like. and a coward towards men. that can win the combat of him. and such an odious charge? Saith he. Certainly. even by those that practise it not. who. in some of the friars' books of mortification. to say that a man lieth. Ut puto deus fio. and that mixture of falsehoods. Death hath this also. the one is as painful. how little alteration in good spirits. that doth so cover a man with shame. and passage to another world. vive et vale. grief flieth to it. There is no vice. It is as natural to die. and expectations. as to be born. Groans. show death terrible.Extinctus amabitur idem. It is no less worthy. pity (which is the tenderest of affections) provoked many to die. perhaps. to have a man's mind move in charity. and bent upon somewhat that is good. quam mors ipsa. the sweetest canticle is'. which goeth basely upon the belly. that there is no passion in the mind of man. rest in providence. the fear of death. that it openeth the gate to good fame. for the most vital parts. and extinguisheth envy. but it embaseth it. and therefore. as to be found false and perfidious. and obsequies. Jam Tiberium vires et corpus. Adeste si quid mihi restat agendum. For these winding. Of Death MEN fear death. and therefore a mind fixed. believe it. and natural man. when the whole body is corrupted.
? What hast thou to do with peace? turn thee behind me. it kindleth charity. that is. yea. shall sometimes hear ignorant men differ. and party. and therefore. that he is a jealous God. and contrary opinions in religion. is great. but the church's vesture was of divers colors. more than corruption of manners. or cringe by themselves. to be vouched in so serious a matter. of rending God's church. another saith. concerning the unity of the church. Contrariwise. nor partner. but yet it expresseth well the deformity. when some men seek Christ. penned by our Savior himself. Of this I may give only this advice. by two kinds of controversies. The quarrels. as it is noted. Both these extremes are to be avoided. which will be done. towards those that are without the church. every sect of them. that is. what kind of faith theirs was. It establisheth faith. that heresies. and yet they themselves would never agree. and schisms. is too small and light. if an heathen come in. are of all others the greatest scandals. will endure no mixture. or good intention. A man that is of judgment and understanding. importeth exceedingly. were in two cross clauses thereof. and maketh them. will he not say that you are mad? And certainly it is little better. Jehu. the other. that in his catalogue of books of a feigned library. when itself is well contained within the true band of unity. Concerning the bounds of unity. But the true God hath this attribute. and profane persons. Ecce in deserto. in an outward face of a church. if the points fundamental and of substance in religion. the outward peace of the church. and done already. to sit down in the chair of the scorners. when the chief doctors. Nolite exire. and drive men out of the church. which is all in all) are two: the one. And therefore. For the former. than in any constant belief. when the matter of the point controverted. by middle way. is worse than a corrupt humor. from points not merely of faith. as if they would make an arbitrament between God and man. when the matter of the point controverted. in that distance of judgment. For to certain zealants. unity and uniformity. The reason was. distilleth into peace of conscience. it is peace.We shall therefore speak a few words. This is a thing may seem to many a matter trivial. In veste varietas sit. that those which so differ. it is a happy thing. who are apt to contemn holy things. The Morris-Dance of Heretics. and know well within himself.The Essays of Francis Bacon IN RELIGION 6 RELIGION being the chief band of human society. whereupon he saith. but of opinion. were truly discerned and distinguished. by one of the fathers. and lukewarm persons. the true placing of them. it would be embraced more generally. The one is. doth so much keep men out of the church. and divisions about religion. Men ought to take heed. and it turneth the labors of writing. in the conventicles of heretics. Christ's coat indeed had no seam. and what the means. and fathers of their church. not worth the heat and strife about it. sets down this title of a book. Ecce in penetralibus. if the league of Christians. For. soundly and plainly expounded: He that is not with us. that one saith. they be two things. kindled only by contradiction. and obscurity. but it is driven to an over-great subtilty. according to my small model. The other is. As for the fruit towards those that are within. when atheists. There is a master of scoffing. consisted rather in rites and ceremonies. it doth avert them from the church. It is but a light thing. or solution of continuity. and reading of controversies. do hear of so many discordant. For as in the natural body. towards those that are within. and others. is with us. For you may imagine. and witty reconcilements. Is it peace. and again. a wound. hath a diverse posture. mean one thing. think they may accommodate points of religion. The doctor of the Gentiles (the propriety of whose vocation. which is between man . so that it becometh a thing rather ingenious. There appear to be two extremes. and depraved politics. The fruits of unity (next unto the well pleasing of God. . that voice had need continually to sound in men's ears. is against us. drew him to have a special care of those without) saith. So that nothing. but following. For indeed. Peace is not the matter. scissura non sit. because the religion of the heathen. And if it come so to pass. certain Laodiceans. whensoever it cometh to that pass. what are the fruits thereof . his worship and religion. which cannot but move derision in worldlings. what the bounds. were evils unknown to the heathen. But if it were done less partially. order. so in the spiritual. all speech of pacification is odious. into treaties of mortification and devotion. and hear you speak with several tongues. as breach of unity.Go not out. He that is not against us. it is certain. than substantial. and taking part of both. which containeth infinite blessings. were the poets.
but the revenge of that wrong. as whereas the meaning ought to govern the term. or intermixture of practice against the state. Some. and accepteth of both? The nature of such controversies is excellently expressed. a flag of a bark of pirates. that the church. That which is past is gone. which are not. I will ascend. than he was. but it is greater blasphemy. by doctrine and decree. that is. but thereby to purchase himself profit. when he beheld the act of Agamemnon. themselves. or honor. Ira hominis non implet justitiam Dei. why. in the toes of Nebuchadnezzar's image. that knows the heart. This is the more . in the maintenance of religion. but then let a man take heed. What would he have said. and wise men have enough to do. out of the bark of a Christian church. to make the cause of religion to descend. Devita profanas vocum novitates. to the cruel and execrable actions of murthering princes. and what is it better. is for those wrongs which there is no law to remedy. intend the same thing. are like the iron and clay. but they will not incorporate. and so to consider men as Christians. and subversion of states and governments? Surely this is to bring down the Holy Ghost. they do not dissolve and deface the laws of charity. as we forget that they are men. the party should know. that could endure the sacrificing of his own daughter.. in such things. Let that be left unto the Anabaptists. in some of their contradictions. they may cleave. and it is two for one. in fundamental points. putteth the law out of office. and irrevocable. and all learnings. for it is a prince's part to pardon. that those which held and persuaded pressure of consciences. It was great blasphemy. Concerning the means of procuring unity. shall we not think that God above. much less to nourish seditions. and be like the highest. he is superior. and atheist. Of Revenge REVENGE is a kind of wild justice. and be like the prince of darkness. or the like. but in passing it over. the spiritual and temporal. yet it is but like the thorn or briar. else a man's enemy is still before hand. And it was a notable observation of a wise father. that labor in past matters. and assassins. to pass by an offence.The Essays of Francis Bacon 7 and man. were commonly interested therein. exclaimed: Tantum Religio potuit suadere malorum. The most tolerable sort of revenge. It is the glory of a man. There is no man doth a wrong. blasphemy. to personate God. Men create oppositions. princes by their sword. and of human society. so it is a thing monstrous to put it into the hands of the common people. in the shape of a vulture or raven. to authorize conspiracies and rebellions. therefore they do but trifle with themselves. Certainly. Paul. Surely in counsels concerning religion. and put them into new terms. if he had known of the massacre in France. which the more man' s nature runs to. or the powder treason of England? He would have been seven times more Epicure. Lucretius the poet. and bring him in saying. which prick and scratch. which is Mahomet's sword. Therefore why should I be angry with a man. for all colors will agree in the dark: the other. et oppositiones falsi nominis scientiae. for the wrong's sake. so fixed. for loving himself better than me? And if any man should do wrong. I am sure. with things present and to come.There be also two false peaces. saith. and other furies. to propagate religion by wars. upon a direct admission of contraries. and the like. it doth but offend the law. that counsel of the apostle would be prefixed. For as the temporal sword is to be drawn with great circumspection in cases of religion. the revenge be such as there is no law to punish. I will descend. a man is but even with his enemy. For truth and falsehood. the more ought law to weed it out. butchery of people. or like unto it. do damn and send to hell for ever. are desirous. But we may not take up the third sword. merely out of ill-nature. those facts and opinions tending to the support of the same. which is the ordinance of God. because they can do no other. For this is but to dash the first table against the second. for their own ends. tending to the subversion of all government. when they take revenge. the term in effect governeth the meaning. or by sanguinary persecutions to force consciences. when the devil said. in the warning and precept. or reuniting. whence it cometh. that in the procuring. And Solomon. that he giveth concerning the same. to put the sword into the people's hands. but upon an implicit ignorance. or pleasure. There be two swords amongst Christians. and no less ingenuously confessed. men must beware. when the peace is grounded. For as for the first wrong. except it be in cases of overt scandal. of religious unity. Therefore it is most necessary. by St. and both have their due office and place. as by their Mercury rod. when it is pieced up. and set. doth not discern that frail men. or unities: the one. in taking revenge. as hath been already in good part done. both Christian and moral. instead of the likeness of a dove.
It is yet a higher speech of his. than the other (much too high for a heathen). and the security of a God. and to have some approach to the state of a Christian. Certainly if miracles be the command over nature. but adversity doth best discover virtue. there it is good to take the safest. keeps his own wounds green. which figured in that strange fiction of the ancient poets. to him. or wisdom. not so much in doing the hurt. by one that cannot well see. But if a man cannot obtain to that judgment. is fortitude. sailed the length of the great ocean. securitatem Dei. most fragrant when they are incensed. so end they infortunate. Prosperity is not without many fears and distastes. and a dissembler. when Mucianus encourageth Vespasian. that a man that studieth revenge. upon a sad and solemn ground. by the pleasure of the eye. but you never read. But in private revenges. and to whom and when (which indeed are arts of state. Yet even in the Old Testament. This would have done better in poesy. as they are mischievous. to be close. that we are commanded to forgive our friends. of arts or policy. of dealing. that saileth in the frail bark of the flesh. in an earthen pot or pitcher. to take arms against Vitellius. upon a lightsome ground: judge therefore of the pleasure of the heart. for the death of Pertinax. Of Simulation AND DISSIMULATION DISSIMULATION is but a faint kind of policy. they appear most in adversity. are to be admired. and what to be secreted. when he went to unbind Prometheus (by whom human nature is represented). are to be wished. which belong to prosperity. Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testament. It is true greatness. and dissimulation of her son. where transcendences are more allowed. and a name of certainty and veracity. to know when to tell truth. through the waves of the world. for it asketh a strong wit. vindictive persons live the life of witches. he saith. you shall hear as many hearse-like airs as carols. Vere magnum habere fragilitatem hominis. nor the extreme caution or closeness of Tiberius. adversarum mirabilia. Certainly the ablest men that ever were. attributing arts or policy to Augustus. duke of Florence. and wariest way. if you listen to David's harp. for the death of Henry the Third of France. and what to be showed at half lights. the virtue of adversity. but then they were like horses well managed. and adversity is not without comforts and hopes. But base and crafty cowards. Tacitus saith. For where a man cannot choose. like the going softly. Public revenges are for the most part fortunate. which in morals is the more heroical virtue.The Essays of Francis Bacon 8 generous. We see in needle-works and embroideries. But to speak in a mean. are indeed habits and faculties several. that are the great dissemblers. Bona rerum secundarum optabilia. to have in one the frailty of a man. Therefore it is the weaker sort of politics. are like the arrow that flieth in the dark. The virtue of prosperity. as if those wrongs were unpardonable. Of Adversity IT WAS an high speech of Seneca (after the manner of the Stoics). You shall read (saith he) that we are commanded to forgive our enemies. a habit of dissimulation is a hinderance and a poorness. or crushed: for prosperity doth best discover vice. Nay rather. that belong to adversity. had a desperate saying against perfidious or neglecting friends. as that for the death of Caesar. as Tacitus well calleth them). which seemeth not to be without mystery. and a strong heart. for it is in effect the thing. then it is left to bim generally. This is certain. which otherwise would heal. and not be content to take evil also? And so of friends in a proportion. that the good things. For the delight seemeth to be. and the clearer revelation of God's favor. adversity is the blessing of the New. and many more. But yet the spirit of Job was in a better tune: Shall we (saith he) take good at God's hands. but the good things. who. and arts of life. than the felicities of Solomon. as he can discern what things are to be laid open. as in making the party repent. and dissimulation to Tiberius. nay. and frankness. when to . and the pencil of the Holy Ghost hath labored more in describing the afflictions of Job. for they could tell passing well. it is more pleasing to have a lively work. Livia sorted well with the arts of her husband. These properties. lively describing Christian resolution. than to have a dark and melancholy work. it is not so. in general. and to be distinguished. And the poets indeed have been busy with it. and do well. For if a man have that penetration of judgment. which carrieth the greater benediction. Cosmus. and dissimulation or closeness. We rise not against the piercing judgment of Augustus. and to do it. is temperance. that Hercules. Certainly virtue is like precious odors. And again. have had all an openness. or vary in particulars.
as well in mind as body. secrecy. it inviteth discovery. The best composition and temperature. the secret man heareth many confessions. except it be in great and rare matters. that he is. without an absurd silence. closeness. There be three degrees of this hiding and veiling of a man's self. the revealing is not for worldly use. it is indeed the virtue of a confessor. so that he that will be secret. is both politic and moral. they cannot hold out long. to a blab or a babbler? But if a man be thought secret. it came to pass that the former opinion. they will gather as much by his silence. and believed. when they thought the case indeed required dissimulation. secrecy in habit. which is trust and belief. if there be no remedy. and to be secret. Of Parents . and it addeth no small reverence. he must go through or take a fall. if then they used it. that perhaps would otherwise co-operate with him. so secret men come to the knowledge of many things in that kind. And therefore it is a good shrewd proverb of the Spaniard. of their good faith and clearness of dealing. but by simulation. reservation. The third and greatest is. and at such times. than impart their minds. the better to discover the mind of another. in the negative. and pick it out of him. spread abroad. as by his speech. or if he do not. by the tracts of his countenance. and a power to feign. to his own ends. to set it even. In few words. or without hold to be taken. that simulation and dissimulation commonly carry with them a show of fearfulness. Tell a lie and find a troth. it is an alarum. And the third. The second is. For the second. if they be not altogether open. except he give himself a little scope of dissimulation. The first. it followeth many times upon secrecy. to men's manners and actions. There be also three disadvantages. lest his hand should be out of use. that he is not. when a man leaveth himself without observation. to suffer a man to keep an indifferent carriage between both. without swaying the balance on either side. For he that talketh what he knoweth. as the more close air sucketh in the more open. which is. and secrecy. As if there were no way of discovery. dissimulation. which because a man must needs disguise. to freedom of thought. doth spoil the feathers. that an habit of secrecy. that. which is dissimulation. First. they are commonly vain and credulous withal. but for the ease of a man's heart. and makes a man walk almost alone. than a man's words. As for equivocations. is to have openness in fame and opinion. For to him that opens himself. Besides (to say truth) nakedness is uncomely. which is simulation. and to surprise. For where a man's intentions are published. of round flying up to the mark. men will hardly show themselves adverse. dissimulation in seasonable use. and less politic. The third is. to lay asleep opposition. simulation. And therefore a general custom of simulation (which is this last degree) is a vice. The second. For if a man engage himself by a manifest declaration. when a man lets fall signs and arguments. using either of a natural falseness or fearfulness. will also talk what he knoweth not. that it puzzleth and perplexeth the conceits of many. As for talkers and futile persons. that he is not. it maketh him practise simulation in other things. in the affirmative. And assuredly. by how much it is many times more marked. For the first of these. but the skirts or train of secrecy. or oraculous speeches. which in any business. is a great weakness and betraying. that I hold more culpable. or of a mind that hath some main faults. The first. and false profession. that it depriveth a man of one of the most principal instruments for action. Therefore set it down. And in this part. while men rather discharge their minds. But for the third degree. must be a dissembler in some degree. For men are too cunning. The great advantages of simulation and dissimulation are three. as it were. and draw him on. it is good that a man's face give his tongue leave to speak. and turn their freedom of speech.The Essays of Francis Bacon 9 stop or turn. For the discovery of a man' s self. to call up all that are against them. So that no man can be secret. to reserve to a man's self a fair retreat. mysteries are due to secrecy. what he is. but will fair let him go on. he must show an inclination one way. made them almost invisible. by a necessity. when a man industriously and expressly feigns and pretends to be. The second. and as in confession. For who will open himself. They will so beset a man with questions.
Yea. but generally the precept is good. It is true. and another except to it. which are so sensible of every restraint. especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous minds. there are some foolish rich covetous men. but in the midst. and so are their griefs and fears. have married and endowed the public. as they will go near to think their girdles and garters. is many times unequal. and sometimes unworthy. And surely a man shall see the noblest works and foundations have proceeded from childless men. nevertheless. that if the affection or aptness of the children be extraordinary. They increase the cares of life. for they are impediments to great enterprises. and the youngest made wantons. not only of their kind. which both in affection and means.The Essays of Francis Bacon AND CHILDREN 10 THE joys of parents are secret. especially in the mothers. the vocations and courses they mean their children should take. but as bills of charges. or a kinsman. For soldiers. have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men. And. is liberty. A man shall see. The difference in affection. A wise son rejoiceth the father. Some there are. that account wife and children. I find the generals commonly in their hortatives. Certainly wife and children are a kind of discipline of . where there is a house full of children. merit. and I think the despising of marriage amongst the Turks. they care not though they pass not through their own body. in having no children. nor they will not utter the other. as thinking they will take best to that. for then they are most flexible. Of Marriage AND SINGLE LIFE HE THAT hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune. either of virtue or mischief. beholding them as the continuance. best servants. but so they be of the lump. Yet it were great reason that those that have children. are proper to men. in nature it is much a like matter. and makes them surfeit more when they come to plenty. who though they lead a single life. put men in mind of their wives and children. who many times. The illiberality of parents. It is indifferent for judges and magistrates. but memory. which have sought to express the images of their minds. for charity will hardly water the ground. Children sweeten labors. are of that condition. and noble works. but an ungracious son shames the mother. So the care of posterity is most in them. you shall have a servant. is an harmful error. that take a pride. Unmarried men are best friends. Men have a foolish manner (both parents and schoolmasters and servants) in creating and breeding an emulation between brothers. but not their purse. and so both children and creatures. should have greatest care of future times. that have no posterity. For perhaps they have heard some talk. prove the best. best masters. then it is good not to cross it. Younger brothers are commonly fortunate. to say truth. during childhood. of parents towards their several children. and disturbeth families. for they are light to run away. Certainly the best works. The perpetuity by generation is common to beasts. but of their work. for if they be facile and corrupt. where it must first fill a pool. A single life doth well with churchmen. which many times sorteth to discord when they are men. maketh the vulgar soldier more base. optimum elige. there are some other. as Solomon saith. They that are the first raisers of their houses. but they mitigate the remembrance of death. which they have most mind to. because they may be thought so much the richer. yet their thoughts do end with themselves. suave et facile illud faciet consuetudo. where those of their bodies have failed. acquaints them with shifts. as the blood happens. but they make misfortunes more bitter. and nephews or near kinsfolks. in allowance towards their children. when men keep their authority towards the children. five times worse than a wife. Nay more. Such an one is a great rich man. and let them not too much apply themselves to the disposition of their children. unto which they know they must transmit their dearest pledges. and of greatest merit for the public. more than his own parent. are most indulgent towards their children. but not always best subjects. as if it were an abatement to his riches. insomuch that we see a nephew sometimes resembleth an uncle. Nay. and account future times impertinences. But the most ordinary cause of a single life. to be bonds and shackles. makes them base. but he hath a great charge of children. And therefore the proof is best. some that are as it were forgotten. The Italians make little difference between children. They cannot utter the one. and almost all fugitives. makes them sort with mean company. one or two of the eldest respected. Let parents choose betimes. but seldom or never where the elder are disinherited.
and Agesilaus and Tamberlanes. if any such thing there be. and the astrologers. if the bad husbands were of their own choosing. when he will. They both have vehement wishes. will do what he can. whether it be. and heroical nature. that an eunuch. that mindeth but his own business. A man that is busy. For men's minds. a redemption of their own sufferings. and walketh the streets. will either feed upon their own good. which thinketh to make his natural wants part of his honor. what persons are apt to envy others. and it is like a deceit of the eye. when a man should marry. for that sets an edge upon envy: and besides. by depressing another's fortune. . led by custom. For he that cannot possibly mend his own case. in the act of envy. to impair another's. if she find him jealous. in the wife. find much matter for envy. and they come easily into the eye. Nay. and eunuchs. Wives are young men's mistresses. as was said of Ulysses. as to note. do come forth most into the outward parts. is commonly envious. But leaving these curiosities (though not unworthy to be thought on. if she think her husband wise. It is one of the best bonds. and so meet the blow. Deformed persons. evil aspects. It is often seen that bad husbands. they frame themselves readily into imaginations and suggestions. and old men's nurses. and think other men's harms. and what is the difference between public and private envy. or a lame man. affecting the honor of a miracle. But this never fails. or upon others' evil. Grave natures. they think themselves. companions for middle age. . as it was in Narses the eunuch. will seek to come at even hand. and who wanteth the one. we will handle. Chaste women are often proud and froward. have very good wives. quin idem sit malevolus. which she will never do. For to know much of other men's matters. and whoso is out of hope. and old men. and doth not keep home: Non est curiosus. that made answer to the question. that the times when the stroke or percussion of an envious eye doth most hurt.A young man not yet. they are more cruel and hardhearted (good to make severe inquisitors). that when others come on. for then they will be sure to make good their own folly. in fit place). are envious. at such times the spirits of the person envied.The Essays of Francis Bacon 11 humanity. For envy is a gadding passion. and bastards. call the evil influences of the stars. but love and envy. therefore it must needs be. will prey upon the other. both of chastity and obedience. in that it should be said. because their tenderness is not so oft called upon. A man that hath no virtue in himself. the Scripture calleth envy an evil eye. ever envieth virtue in others. an elder man not at all. that were lame men. are noted to be envious towards new men. are when the party envied is beheld in glory or triumph. except these defects light upon a very brave. in looking upon the fortunes of others. an ejaculation or irradiation of the eye. what persons are most subject to be envied themselves. as presuming upon the merit of their chastity. and single men. are commonly loving husbands. Of Envy THERE be none of the affections. that he taketh a kind of play-pleasure. so that still there seemeth to be acknowledged. against their friends' consent. when they rise. We see likewise. But yet he was reputed one of the wise men. and inquisitive. go back. cannot be because all that ado may concern his own estate. on the other side. which are the points that conduce to fascination. though they may be many times more charitable. which have been noted to fascinate or bewitch. did such great matters. For the distance is altered. Neither can he. or that the wives take a pride in their patience. and therefore constant. The same is the case of men. because their means are less exhaust. For they are as men fallen out with the times. So as a man may have a quarrel to marry. some have been so curious. that rise after calamities and misfortunes. especially upon the present of the objects. that it raiseth the price of their husband's kindness. when it comes. vetulam suam praetulit immortalitati. Men of noble birth. to attain to another's virtue. yet.
of business that is laid upon men. and the like. are more apt to envy their equals. who. there seemeth not much added to their fortune. and envy ever redoubleth from speech and fame. Wherefore you shall observe. or steep rising ground. than for a great person to preserve all other inferior officers. and those that have been bred together. But this is to be understood. and pity them sometimes. that unworthy persons are most envied. that the more deep and sober sort of politic persons. near kinsfolks. to envy him. Lastly. that are apt to envy. For which purpose. that beat hotter upon a bank. there was no body to look on. as we said in the beginning. either by outward pomp. that the carriage of greatness. it being impossible. And nothing doth extinguish envy more. as they call unto themselves. the wiser sort of great persons. are ever envious. in suffering themselves sometimes of purpose to be crossed. but due unto them. Persons of noble blood. in some one of those things. Concerning those that are more or less subject to envy: First. at their first coming in. out of levity and vain glory. some persons of violent and undertaking natures. Lastly. Thus much for those. when they are advanced. what a life they lead. sometimes upon ministers and servants. in their full lights and pre-eminences of their places. are less envied in their rising. being never well. but many. or by triumphing over all opposition or competition. For their fortune seemeth . Again. but by kings. to conclude this part. And for the same reason.The Essays of Francis Bacon 12 They that desire to excel in too many matters. persons of eminent virtue. than upon a flat. those that are advanced by degrees. and doth but teach others. bring in ever upon the stage somebody upon whom to derive the envy. and incurreth likewise more into the note of others. when they are raised. those are most subject to envy. yet it hath not the same lustre. chanting a quanta patimur! Not that they feel it so. . envy is ever joined with the comparing of a man's self. For nothing increaseth envy more. but the cure of witchcraft. in a plain and open manner (so it be without arrogancy and vain glory) doth draw less envy. there be so many screens between him and envy. cares. which carry the greatness of their fortunes. persons of worth and merit are most envied. and afterwards overcome it better. For by that time. but only to abate the edge of envy. so much is true. but rewards and liberality rather. a man doth but disavow fortune. For in that course. For it doth upbraid unto them their own fortunes. Those that have joined with their honor great travels. For they cannot want work. should surpass them. are less envied than those that are advanced suddenly and per saltum. and pointeth at them. and for that turn there are never wanting. Which was the character of Adrian the Emperor. are less subject to envy. Nevertheless it is to be noted. in their greataess. For by that means. Above all. so there is no other cure of envy. and painters. and seemeth to be conscious of his own want in worth. sometimes upon colleagues and associates. whereas contrariwise. to remove the lot (as they call it) and to lay it upon another. For it seemeth but right done to their birth. are ever bemoaning themselves. than if it be in a more crafty and cunning fashion. no envy. and not such. and fellows in office. and pity ever healeth envy. or perils. but while they are showing how great they are. and that is. when their fortune continueth long. and envy is as the sunbeams. whereas wise men will rather do sacrifice to envy. that would come upon themselves. and therefore kings are not envied. For men think that they earn their honors hardly. will take it at any cost. than an unnecessary and ambitious engrossing of business. and no man envieth the payment of a debt. so they may have power and business. for fresh men grow up that darken it. Besides. that the act of envy had somewhat in it of witchcraft. Cain's envy was the more vile and malignant. and artificers. towards his brother Abel. in an insolent and proud manner. are less envied. and overborne in things that do not much concern them. though their virtue be the same. and where there is no comparison. that mortally envied poets. in works wherein he had a vein to excel. because when his sacrifice was better accepted. and cometh oftener into their remembrance. Notwithstanding.
It is also the vilest affection. for which cause it is the proper attribute of the devil. By how much the more. But this is a sure rule. should do nothing but kneel before a little idol. It is a poor saying of Epicurus. Of Love THE stage is more beholding to love. goeth in the modern language. but the latter was an austere and wise man: and therefore it seems (though rarely) that love can find entrance. by intermingling of plausible actions. and the most depraved. and make himself a subject. This public envy. And it is also noted. It is a disease. that soweth tares amongst the wheat by night. that envy worketh subtilly. Satis magnum alter alteri theatrum sumus. except the love be reciproque. as the lover doth of the person loved. which loseth not only other things. and sever it wholly from . either with the reciproque. quitteth both riches and wisdom. There is yet some good in public envy. For there was never proud man thought so absurdly well of himself. but also into a heart well fortified. and to the prejudice of good things. made for the contemplation of heaven. For it is a true rule. certainly the lover is more. which are great prosperity. but itself! As for the other losses. but in life it doth much mischief. And so much of public envy or discontentment. the decemvir and lawgiver. that the arch-flatterer. that the speaking in a perpetual hyperbole. so when envy is gotten once into a state. or with an inward and secret contempt. of which we shall speak. For as infection spreadeth upon that which is sound. and how it braves the nature. in handling sedition. and make it more fervent. to speak of public envy. there is occasion given. the half partner of the empire of Rome. by this. Neither doth this weakness appear to others only. which was given him for higher purposes. yet make it keep quarters. in very times of weakness. men ought to beware of this passion. who is called. This envy. and not to the party loved. there is none. or if the envy be general. in a manner upon all the ministers of an estate. and estates themselves. and fear of envy. that love is ever rewarded. that love and envy do make a man pine. and great adversity. and great business. You may observe. to keep them within bounds. and tainteth it. For as to the stage. And therefore there is little won. and in the dark. sometimes like a fury. in a state. then the envy (though hidden) is truly upon the state itself. And therefore it is a bridle also to great ones. such as is the wheat. and all noble objects. do keep out this weak passion. yet of the eye. They do best. That it is impossible to love. seemeth to beat chiefly upon principal officers or ministers. and inordinate. is a man's self. rather than upon kings. which other affections do not. which if you fear them. We will add this in general. You must except. and therefore it was well said. and to be wise. being in the Latin word invidia. by the name of discontentment. as it is likewise usual in infections. For of other affections. either ancient or recent) there is not one. but to the loved most of all. This passion hath his floods. than the life of man. because they are not so continual. quitted the gifts of Juno and Pallas. that eclipseth men. whereof the former was indeed a voluptuous man. Marcus Antonius. whereas in private. that of all other affections. is as an ostracism. and Appius Claudius. who if they cannot but admit love. is comely in nothing but in love. Invidia festos dies non agit: for it is ever working upon some or other. that if the envy upon the minister be great. touching the affection of envy. that amongst all the great and worthy persons (whereof the memory remaineth. It is a strange thing. the envious man. which hurteth so much the more. and the difference thereof from private envy. though this latter hath been less observed: both which times kindle love. as it always cometh to pass. like to infection. to note the excess of this passion. and turneth them into an ill odor. Neither is it merely in the phrase. with whom all the petty flatterers have intelligence. though not of the mouth (as beasts are). when the cause of it in him is small. and now and then of tragedies. it is the most importune and continual. not only into an open heart. it traduceth even the best actions thereof. nevertheless. and therefore it was well said. which was handled in the first place. love is ever matter of comedies. For public envy. For that doth argue but a weakness. For whosoever esteemeth too much of amorous affection. and value of things. you call them upon you. as if man. but now and then.The Essays of Francis Bacon 13 Now. that hath been transported to the mad degree of love: which shows that great spirits. if watch be not well kept. when they grow too great. sometimes like a siren. and therefore show it to be the child of folly. the poet's relation doth well figure them: that he that preferred Helena. for whereas it hath been well said.
it is but as they are given to wine. what is fittest. and interlace not business. Reduce things to the first institution. that will be still sitting at their street door. neither in their persons. Therefore always. set before thee the best examples. and maketh men. than to be busy in all. the second. the best condition is not to win.The Essays of Francis Bacon 14 their serious affairs. and examine thyself strictly. and commanding ground. by report. and while they are in the puzzle of business. that men may know beforehand. than voice it with claims. though thereby they offer age to scom. touching the execution of thy place. and the regress is either a downfall. of life. and servants of business. corruption. in silence and de facto. I know not how. nor in their times. Reform therefore. and do not think to steal it. In the discharge of thy place. There is in man's nature. Nuptial love maketh mankind. and with a manifest detestation of bribery. as they are. Seek to make thy course regular. And after a time. but if they think with themselves. from taking. and observe wherein. For integrity used doth the one. and actions. for imitation is a globe of precepts. But power to do good. Preserve likewise the rights of inferior places. Et conversus Deus. roughness. it troubleth men's fortunes. as it is seen sometime in friars. even in age and sickness. ut aspiceret opera quae fecerunt manus suae. and to lose power over a man's self. Embrace and invite helps. together with the reasons that move thee to change. A servant or a . The rising unto place is laborious. not to set off thyself. It is a strange desire. vidit quod omnia essent bona nimis. doth the other. Certainly great persons had need to borrow other men's opinions. but stir not questions of jurisdiction. profess it plainly. which require the shadow. by taxing their memory. servants of fame. whereof the latter is a curse: for in evil. but are impatient of privateness. men come to dignities. then they are happy. towards men. and by pains. and rather assume thy right. Illi mors gravis incubat. without power and place. what other men think of them. but be not too positive and peremptory. men come to greater pains. and changeth manifestly without manifest cause. and maketh men become humane and charitable. and challenges. as the vantage. whether thou didst not best at first. but yet set it down to thyself. which if it be not spent upon some one or a few. Nay. or scandal of former times and persons. which is a melancholy thing. in the same place. for perils commonly ask to be paid in pleasures. of those that have carried themselves ill. For they are the first. and facility. he shall likewise be partaker of God's rest. The vices of authority are chiefly four: delays. Of Great Place MEN in great place are thrice servants: servants of the sovereign or state. giveth suspicion of corruption. that they can no ways be true to their own ends. Whosoever is found variable. but to direct thyself. from offering. as bring thee information. nor in their actions. they have degenerate. Neglect not also the examples. and that other men would fain be. And avoid not only the fault. qui notus nimis omnibus. or at least an eclipse. and advices. and think it more honor. though they be the last. when thou changest thine opinion or course. not to can. non esse cur velis vivere. set before thee thine own example. to think themselves happy. but integrity professed. except they be put in act. that find their own griefs. is the true and lawful end of aspiring. but the suspicion. when it were reason. In place. and express thyself well. doth naturally spread itself towards many. what they may expect. but wanton love corrupteth. but of necessity. but yet ask counsel of both times. they have no time to tend their health. towards love of others. without bravery. a secret inclination and motion. Cum non sis qui fueris. for if it check once with business. ignotus moritur sibi. neither will they. keep times appointed. is the end of man's motion. Merit and good works. Certainly men in great fortunes are strangers to themselves. as meddlers. as it were. of the ancient time. and embaseth it. but bind the hands of suitors also. and it is sometimes base. For good thoughts (though God accept them) yet. For if a man can be partaker of God's theatre. or thy servants' hands. and conscience of the same is the accomplishment of man's rest. what is best. but martial men are given to love: I think. and evil. but accept of them in good part. when thou digressest from thy rule. when perhaps they find the contrary within. and that cannot be. to seek power and to lose liberty: or to seek power over others. retire men cannot when they would. are little better than good dreams. that find their own faults. and declare it. go through with that which is in hand. and then the sabbath. as to follow them. Preserve the right of thy place. either of body or mind. The standing is slippery. For delays: give easy access. and how. what to avoid. for if they judge by their own feeling. to direct in chief. like old townsmen. they cannot find it. and of the latter time. there is license to do good. friendly love perfecteth it. For corruption: do not only bind thine own hands. and by indignities. and do not drive away such. as well to create good precedents. So as they have no freedom.
A strange thing. Especially it is a sport to see. than soon after. of invention. when a bold fellow is out of countenance. Even reproofs from authority. If thou have colleagues. Of Goodness & GOODNESS OF NATURE . as there are mountebanks for the natural body. when they look not for it. Mahomet called the hill to come to him. he shall never be without. ought to be grave. It is an assured sign of a worthy and generous spirit. that that part of an orator. and perhaps have been lucky. the spirits do a little go and come. so that the right use of bold persons is. above those other noble parts. of thy place in conversation. Mahomet made the people believe that he would call an hill to him. whom honor amends. When he sits in place. but yet worthy a wise man's consideration. that knew it best. and rather call them. nay. and under the direction of others. And yet boldness is a child of ignorance and baseness. but said. If the hill will not come to Mahomet. for it seeth not danger. for the observers of his law. what second and third? boldness. and therefore cannot hold out. again and again. and the rest. things move violently to their place. except they be very great. whilst he is in the rising. by nature. Therefore we see it hath done wonders. but a by-way to close corruption. himself no advantage in that he commended. by which the foolish part of men's minds is taken. nay. and more ever upon the first entrance of bold persons into action. and failed most shamefully. but be seconds. and if there be factions. and calmly in their place. he is another man. nisi imperasset. and to balance himself when he is placed. and from the top of it offer up his prayers. for boldness is an ill keeper of promise. Omnium consensu capax imperii. the other of manners. As Solomon saith. upon like occasion. This is well to be weighed. are most potent. All rising to great place is by a winding star. Use the memory of thy predecessor. when they have promised great matters. For in counsel. those that are either shallow in judgment. and affection. but want the grounds of science. and some to the worse. in authority settled and calm. in popular states. what next? action. and therefore those faculties. that was anciently spoken. so virtue in ambition is violent. what next again? action. almost alone. that they never command in chief. or idle respects. But nevertheless it doth fascinate. is commonly thought. they stand at a stay. as if it were all in all. he was never a whit abashed. And it showeth some to the better. but if importunity. and make a turn. boldness has somewhat of the ridiculous. Therefore it is ill in counsel. and princes less. and private answers to suitors. should be placed so high. Wonderful like is the case of boldness in civil business: what first? boldness.The Essays of Francis Bacon 15 favorite. not to see them. So these men. and inconveniences. elocution. when they have reason to look to be called. or too remembering. But this last were fitter for a satire than for a serious observation. and no other apparent cause of esteem. and not taunting. saith Tacitus of Galba. that boldness is ever blind. A place showeth the man. As for facility: it is worse than bribery. where it is no mate. though the one was meant of sufficiency. Of Boldness IT IS a trivial grammar-school text. For roughness: it is a needless cause of discontent: severity breedeth fear. if he be inward. For bribes come but now and then. than exclude them . but roughness breedeth hate. respect them. good in execution. Be not too sensible. but with senates. action. more of the fool than of the wise. it is good to see dangers. and as in nature. and to the vulgar also. doubt you not but great boldness is seldom without some absurdity. yea and prevaileth with wise men at weak times. Solus imperantium. To respect persons is not good. and bind hand and foot. but of Vespasian he saith. It is most true. Surely. but let it rather be said. For honor is. There is in human nature generally. fairly and tenderly. which is but superficial. but yet the game cannot stir. and had. far inferior to other parts. bold persons are a sport to behold. in two or three experiments. and in execution. as needs it must. for that puts his face into a most shrunken. like a stale at chess. which are the greatest part. yet (if they have the perfection of boldness) they will but slight it over. lead a man. Vespasianus mutatus in melius. The people assembled. Certainly to men of great judgment. or should be. what was the chief part of an orator? he answered. and rather the virtue of a player. For if absurdity be the subject of laughter. it is good to side a man's self. and wooden posture. men that undertake great cures. Question was asked of Demosthenes. for if thou dost not. or weak in courage. and when the hill stood still. the place of virtue. but with bold men. Mahomet will go to the hill. so are there mountebanks for the politic body. for such a man will transgress for a piece of bread. you shall see a bold fellow many times do Mahomet's miracle. Nay. and no more ado. it is a debt will sure be paid when thou art gone. He said it. for in bashfulness. But the reason is plain.
Goodness I call the habit. it shows that his mind is planted above injuries. and a kind of conformity with Christ himself Of Nobility WE WILL speak of nobility. This of all virtues. and goodness of nature. had like to have been stoned. For nobility attempers sovereignty. somewhat aside from the line royal. that joins to them. and the word humanity (as it is used) is a little too light to express it. Tanto buon che val niente: so good. or if upon the . directed by right reason. or charity. or frowardness. and remits offences. but be not in bondage to their faces or fancies. almost in plain terms. a Christian boy. that licked Lazarus' sores. where there is no nobility at all. but error. Therefore. If he be compassionate towards the afflictions of others. that is. is imprinted deeply in the nature of man. The parts and signs of goodness. to avoid the scandal and the danger both. maketh the love of ourselves the pattern. and happier. A monarchy. the desire of knowledge in excess. with little means as with great. that in their nature do not affect the good of others. it shows that his heart is like the noble tree. and give alms. Nicholas Machiavel. If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers. being the character of the Deity: and without it. it shows he is a citizen of the world. and are ever on the loading part: not so good as the dogs. except thou come and follow me. with choice. mischievous. that make it their practice. charity. man is a busy. that he is good for nothing. misanthropi. is the greatest. for gagging in a waggishness a long-billed fowl. teacheth the lesson truly: He sendeth his rain. but like flies. as that of the Turks. that shall stand firm. For there be. to envy and mere mischief. turneth but to a crassness. that are still buzzing upon any thing that is raw. first as a portion of an estate. and follow me: but. to bring men to the bough. or aptness to oppose. it shows that he weighs men's minds. did so much magnify goodness. may be committed. or difficulties. had the confidence to put in writing. the affecting of the weal of men. neither can angel. and maketh his sun to shine. who would be better pleased. thou driest the fountain. The desire of power in excess. come in dan ger by it. who nevertheless are kind to beasts. and yet they are the fittest timber. are to be communicate with all. For men's eyes are upon the business. so that he cannot be shot. If he easily pardons. as it were. but peculiar benefits. to make great politics of. for the salvation of his brethren. as the Christian religion doth. and that his heart is no island. that if it issue not towards men. which is that the Grecians call philanthropia. insomuch. And one of the doctors of Italy. nor man. sell not all thou hast. which taketh an honest mind prisoner. but there is in some men. thou breakest the pattern. wherein thou mayest do as much good. or softness. but he doth not rain wealth. if he have St. Such men. are. Which he spake. The lighter sort of malignity. a cruel people. it shows much of a divine nature. Neither give thou AEsop's cock a gem. if he had had a barley-corn. even in nature. Such dispositions. and less subject to sedition. insomuch. as Busbechius reporteth. but the deeper sort. Paul's perfection. like to knee timber. in prey to those that are tyrannical and unjust. in feeding the streams. or sect. for otherwise. to dogs and birds. and draws the eyes of the people. nor shine honor and virtues. when it gives the balm. caused man to fall: but in charity there is no excess. Seek the good of other men. it will take unto other living creatures. or the like. Neither is there only a habit of goodness. and dignities of the mind. that is good for ships. that is wounded itself. but not for building houses. there is a natural malignity. but a continent. and yet never a tree for the purpose in their gardens. But for democracies. are many. or opinion. the inclination. upon the just and unjust. and not their trash. Goodness answers to the theological virtue. The example of God. caused the angels to fall. That the Christian faith. for that is but facility. that he would wish to be anathema from Christ. in other men's calamities. The Italians have an ungracious proverb. Errors indeed in this virtue of goodness. then as a condition of particular persons. wretched thing. and not upon the persons. is ever a pure and absolute tyranny. And beware how in making the portraiture. the love of our neighbors. Common benefits. they need it not. are the very errors of human nature. and admits no excess.The Essays of Francis Bacon 16 I TAKE goodness in this sense. but the portraiture. that are ordained to be tossed. and give it to the poor. no better than a kind of vermin. in season. and they are commonly more quiet. But above all. upon men equally. to take knowledge of the errors of an habit so excellent. as it is seen in the Turks. because indeed there was never law. had given up good men. Sell all thou hast. cut off from other lands. in Constantinople. a disposition towards it. If he be thankful for small benefits. The inclination to goodness. For divinity. as on the other side. than where there are stirps of nobles. except thou have a vocation. as Timon had. it is good.
she was sister to the Giants: Illam Terra parens. it is for the business' sake. and assay of disobedience. than their descendants. many times checks them best. kings that have able men of their nobility. before it come on too fast upon the majesty of kings. saith. noble persons cannot go much higher. between honor and means. cavilling upon mandates and directions. We see the Switzers last well. but they are no less. for where there is an equality. it maketh a kind of disproportion. as natural tempests are greatest about the Equinoctia. audaciously. that the suppressing of them with too much severity. or to see a fair timber tree. disputing. Those that are first raised to nobility. and yet maintained in that height. that the best actions of a state. should be a remedy of troubles. It is well. sed tamen qui mallent mandata imperantium interpretari quam exequi. speak fearfully and tenderly. irra irritata deorum. so are there in states: --Ille etiam caecos instare tumultus Saepe monet. How much more. For the despising of them. but ancient nobility is the act of time. to behold an ancient noble family. and the most plausible. Extremam (ut perhibent) Coeo Enceladoque sororem Progenuit. A numerous nobility causeth poverty. for it is a surcharge of expense. excusing. and the going about to stop them.As if fames were the relics of seditions past. nobility extinguisheth the passive envy from others. and inconvenience in a state. and seditious fames. but less innocent. Besides. The united provinces of the Low Countries. masculine and feminine. they which are for the direction. and not for flags and pedigree. which Tacitus speaketh of. and a better slide into their business. and he that standeth at a stay. but by a commixture of good and evil arts. Neither doth it follow. and which ought to give greatest contentment. can hardly avoid motions of envy. excel. for people naturally bend to them. envieth him that is. and of cantons. the memory of their virtues remain to their posterity. towards them. to the disadvantage of the state. especially if it come to that. and besides. are amongst the signs of troubles. seu bene seu male gesta premunt. as born in some sort to command. differ no more but as brother and sister.The Essays of Francis Bacon 17 persons. sound and perfect. as fittest. not in decay. A great and potent nobility. which has stood against the waves and weathers of time! For new nobility is but the act of power. fraudesque et operta tunescere bella. and hastily embraced. but presseth their fortune. to see an ancient castle or building. when others rise. had need know the calendars of tempests in state. when things grow to equality. Virgil. because they are in possession of honor. On the other side. is to be held suspected: Erant in officio. that seditious tumults. that because these fames are a sign of troubles. and their faults die with themselves. notwithstanding their diversity of religion. But it is reason. and putteth life and spirit into the people. Howsoever he noteth it right. And as there are certain hollow blasts of wind. Also that kind of obedience. Nobility of birth commonly abateth industry. Of Seditions AND TROUBLES SHEPHERDS of people. is a kind of shaking off the yoke. As for nobility in particular persons. false news often running up and down. and he that is not industrious. it being of necessity. addeth majesty to a monarch. and those that are against it. more cheerful. . and the payments and tributes. when nobles are not too great for sovereignty nor for justice. Libels and licentious discourses against the state. the preludes of seditions to come. especially if in those disputings. for there is rarely any rising. which are commonly greatest. the consultations are more indifferent. when they are frequent and open. giving the pedigree of Fame. but diminisheth power. to be weak in fortune. and in like sort. as the insolency of inferiors may be broken upon them. doth but make a wonder long-lived. it is a reverend thing. For utility is their bond. and not respects. that many of the nobility fall. and traduced: for that shows the envy great. in time. Certainly. are taken in ill sense. are commonly more virtuous. shall find ease in employing them. and secret swellings of seas before a tempest. conflata magna invidia. in their government. as Tacitus saith. indeed.
The Essays of Francis Bacon
Also, as Machiavel noteth well, when princes, that ought to be common parents, make themselves as a party, and lean to a side, it is as a boat, that is overthrown by uneven weight on the one side; as was well seen, in the time of Henry the Third of France; for first, himself entered league for the extirpation of the Protestants; and presently after, the same league was turned upon himself. For when the authority of princes, is made but an accessory to a cause, and that there be other bands, that tie faster than the band of sovereignty, kings begin to be put almost out of possession. Also, when discords, and quarrels, and factions are carried openly and audaciously, it is a sign the reverence of government is lost. For the motions of the greatest persons in a government, ought to be as the motions of the planets under primum mobile; according to the old opinion: which is, that every of them, is carried swiftly by the highest motion, and softly in their own motion. And therefore, when great ones in their own particular motion, move violently, and, as Tacitus expresseth it well, liberius quam ut imperantium meminissent; it is a sign the orbs are out of frame. For reverence is that, wherewith princes are girt from God; who threateneth the dissolving thereof; Solvam cingula regum. So when any of the four pillars of government, are mainly shaken, or weakened (which are religion, justice, counsel, and treasure), men had need to pray for fair weather. But let us pass from this part of predictions (concerning which, nevertheless, more light may be taken from that which followeth); and let us speak first, of the materials of seditions; then of the motives of them; and thirdly of the remedies. Concerning the materials of seditions. It is a thing well to be considered; for the surest way to prevent seditions (if the times do bear it) is to take away the matter of them. For if there be fuel prepared, it is hard to tell, whence the spark shall come, that shall set it on fire. The matter of seditions is of two kinds: much poverty, and much discontentment. It is certain, so many overthrown estates, so many votes for troubles. Lucan noteth well the state of Rome before the Civil War, Hinc usura vorax, rapidumque in tempore foenus, Hinc concussa fides, et multis utile bellum. This same multis utile bellum, is an assured and infallible sign, of a state disposed to seditions and troubles. And if this poverty and broken estate in the better sort, be joined with a want and necessity in the mean people, the danger is imminent and great. For the rebellions of the belly are the worst. As for discontentments, they are, in the politic body, like to humors in the natural, which are apt to gather a preternatural heat, and to inflame. And let no prince measure the danger of them by this, whether they be just or unjust: for that were to imagine people, to be too reasonable; who do often spurn at their own good: nor yet by this, whether the griefs whereupon they rise, be in fact great or small: for they are the most dangerous discontentments, where the fear is greater than the feeling. Dolendi modus, timendi non item. Besides, in great oppressions, the same things that provoke the patience, do withal mate the courage; but in fears it is not so. Neither let any prince, or state, be secure concerning discontentments, because they have been often, or have been long, and yet no peril hath ensued: for as it is true, that every vapor or fume doth not turn into a storm; so it is nevertheless true, that storms, though they blow over divers times, yet may fall at last; and, as the Spanish proverb noteth well, The cord breaketh at the last by the weakest pull. The causes and motives of seditions are, innovation in religion; taxes; alteration of laws and customs; breaking of privileges; general oppression; advancement of unworthy persons; strangers; dearths; disbanded soldiers; factions grown desperate; and what soever, in offending people, joineth and knitteth them in a common cause. For the remedies; there may be some general preservatives, whereof we will speak: as for the just cure, it must answer to the particular disease; and so be left to counsel, rather than rule. The first remedy or prevention is to remove, by all means possible, that material cause of sedition whereof we spake; which is, want and poverty in the estate. To which purpose serveth the opening, and well-balancing of
The Essays of Francis Bacon
trade; the cherishing of manufactures; the banishing of idleness; the repressing of waste, and excess, by sumptuary laws; the improvement and husbanding of the soil; the regulating of prices of things vendible; the moderating of taxes and tributes; and the like. Generally, it is to be foreseen that the population of a kingdom (especially if it be not mown down by wars) do not exceed the stock of the kingdom, which should maintain them. Neither is the population to be reckoned only by number; for a smaller number, that spend more and earn less, do wear out an estate sooner, than a greater number that live lower, and gather more. Therefore the multiplying of nobility, and other degrees of quality, in an over proportion to the common people, doth speedily bring a state to necessity; and so doth likewise an overgrown clergy; for they bring nothing to the stock; and in like manner, when more are bred scholars, than preferments can take off . It is likewise to be remembered, that forasmuch as the increase of any estate must be upon the foreigner (for whatsoever is somewhere gotten, is somewhere lost), there be but three things, which one nation selleth unto another; the commodity as nature yieldeth it; the manufacture; and the vecture, or carriage. So that if these three wheels go, wealth will flow as in a spring tide. And it cometh many times to pass, that materiam superabit opus; that the work and carriage is more worth than the material, and enricheth a state more; as is notably seen in the Low-Countrymen, who have the best mines above ground, in the world. Above all things, good policy is to be used, that the treasure and moneys, in a state, be not gathered into few hands. For otherwise a state may have a great stock, and yet starve. And money is like muck, not good except it be spread. This is done, chiefly by suppressing, or at least keeping a strait hand, upon the devouring trades of usury, ingrossing great pasturages, and the like. For removing discontentments, or at least the danger of them; there is in every state (as we know) two portions of subjects; the noblesse and the commonalty. When one of these is discontent, the danger is not great; for common people are of slow motion, if they be not excited by the greater sort; and the greater sort are of small strength, except the multitude be apt, and ready to move of themselves. Then is the danger, when the greater sort, do but wait for the troubling of the waters amongst the meaner, that then they may declare themselves. The poets feign, that the rest of the gods would have bound Jupiter; which he hearing of, by the counsel of Pallas, sent for Briareus, with his hundred hands, to come in to his aid. An emblem, no doubt, to show how safe it is for monarchs, to make sure of the good will of common people. To give moderate liberty for griefs and discontentments to evaporate (so it be without too great insolency or bravery), is a safe way. For he that turneth the humors back, and maketh the wound bleed inwards, endangereth malign ulcers, and pernicious imposthumations. The part of Epimetheus mought well become Prometheus, in the case of discontentments: for there is not a better provision against them. Epimetheus, when griefs and evils flew abroad, at last shut the lid, and kept hope in the bottom of the vessel. Certainly, the politic and artificial nourishing, and entertaining of hopes, and carrying men from hopes to hopes, is one of the best antidotes against the poison of discontentments. And it is a certain sign of a wise government and proceeding, when it can hold men's hearts by hopes, when it cannot by satisfaction; and when it can handle things, in such manner, as no evil shall appear so peremptory, but that it hath some outlet of hope; which is the less hard to do, because both particular persons and factions, are apt enough to flatter themselves, or at least to brave that, which they believe not. Also the foresight and prevention, that there be no likely or fit head, whereunto discontented persons may resort, and under whom they may join, is a known, but an excellent point of caution. I understand a fit head, to be one that hath greatness and reputation; that hath confidence with the discontented party, and upon whom they turn their eyes; and that is thought discontented, in his own particular: which kind of persons, are either to be won, and reconciled to the state, and that in a fast and true manner; or to be fronted with some other, of the same party, that may oppose them, and so divide the reputation. Generally, the dividing and breaking, of all factions and combinations that are adverse to the state, and setting them at distance, or at least distrust, amongst themselves, is not one of the worst remedies. For it is a desperate case, if those that hold with the proceeding of the state, be full of discord and faction, and those that are against it, be entire and united.
The Essays of Francis Bacon
I have noted, that some witty and sharp speeches, which have fallen from princes, have given fire to seditions. Caesar did himself infinite hurt in that speech, Sylla nescivit literas, non potuit dictare; for it did utterly cut off that hope, which men had entertained, that he would at one time or other give over his dictatorship. Galba undid himself by that speech, legi a se militem, non emi; for it put the soldiers out of hope of the donative. Probus likewise, by that speech, Si vixero, non opus erit amplius Romano imperio militibus; a speech of great despair for the soldiers. And many the like. Surely princes had need, in tender matters and ticklish times, to beware what they say; especially in these short speeches, which fly abroad like darts, and are thought to be shot out of their secret intentions. For as for large discourses, they are flat things, and not so much noted. Lastly, let princes, against all events, not be without some great person, one or rather more, of military valor, near unto them, for the repressing of seditions in their beginnings. For without that, there useth to be more trepidation in court upon the first breaking out of troubles, than were fit. And the state runneth the danger of that which Tacitus saith; Atque is habitus animorum fuit, ut pessimum facinus auderent pauci, plures vellent, omnes paterentur. But let such military persons be assured, and well reputed of, rather than factious and popular; holding also good correspondence with the other great men in the state; or else the remedy, is worse than the disease. Of Atheism I HAD rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind. And therefore, God never wrought miracle, to convince atheism, because his ordinary works convince it. It is true, that a little philosophy inclineth man's mind to atheism; but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to religion. For while the mind of man looketh upon second causes scattered, it may sometimes rest in them, and go no further; but when it beholdeth the chain of them, confederate and linked together, it must needs fly to Providence and Deity. Nay, even that school which is most accused of atheism doth most demonstrate religion; that is, the school of Leucippus and Democritus and Epicurus. For it is a thousand times more credible, that four mutable elements, and one immutable fifth essence, duly and eternally placed, need no God, than that an army of infinite small portions, or seeds unplaced, should have produced this order and beauty, without a divine marshal. The Scripture saith, The fool hath said in his heart, there is no God; it is not said, The fool hath thought in his heart; so as he rather saith it, by rote to himself, as that he would have, than that he can thoroughly believe it, or be persuaded of it. For none deny, there is a God, but those, for whom it maketh that there were no God. It appeareth in nothing more, that atheism is rather in the lip, than in the heart of man, than by this; that atheists will ever be talking of that their opinion, as if they fainted in it, within themselves, and would be glad to be strengthened, by the consent of others. Nay more, you shall have atheists strive to get disciples, as it fareth with other sects. And, which is most of all, you shall have of them, that will suffer for atheism, and not recant; whereas if they did truly think, that there were no such thing as God, why should they trouble themselves? Epicurus is charged, that he did but dissemble for his credit's sake, when he affirmed there were blessed natures, but such as enjoyed themselves, without having respect to the government of the world. Wherein they say he did temporize; though in secret, he thought there was no God. But certainly he is traduced; for his words are noble and divine: Non deos vulgi negare profanum; sed vulgi opiniones diis applicare profanum. Plato could have said no more. And although he had the confidence, to deny the administration, he had not the power, to deny the nature. The Indians of the West, have names for their particular gods, though they have no name for God: as if the heathens should have had the names Jupiter, Apollo, Mars, etc., but not the word Deus; which shows that even those barbarous people have the notion, though they have not the latitude and extent of it. So that against atheists, the very savages take part, with the very subtlest philosophers. The contemplative atheist is rare: a Diagoras, a Bion, a Lucian perhaps, and some others; and yet they seem to be more than they are; for that all that impugn a received religion, or superstition, are by the adverse part branded with the name of atheists. But the great atheists, indeed are hypocrites; which are ever handling holy things, but without feeling; so as they must needs be cauterized in the end. The causes of atheism are: divisions in religion, if they be many; for any one main division, addeth zeal to both sides; but many divisions introduce atheism. Another is, scandal of priests; when it is come to that which St. Bernard saith, non est jam dicere, ut populus sic sacerdos;
men should say. the stratagems of prelates. tamen nec numero Hispanos. so good forms and orders corrupt. Superstition. without that confidence of a better nature than his own. nos amemus. and in like manner. that it depriveth human nature of the means to exalt itself. and erecteth an absolute monarchy. The causes of superstition are: pleasing and sensual rites and ceremonies. for troubles and adversities do more bow men's minds to religion. upon divine protection and favor. so in this. nec artibus Graecos. if he be not of kin to God. as Plutarch. for their own ambition and lucre. goeth to school. in a reversed order. without a veil. But superstition hath been the confusion of many states. nec calliditate Poenos. who to him is instead of a God. the other is contumely. for certainly man is of kin to the beasts. in the younger sort. to be so like a man. could never attain. as the poets speak of Saturn. when he finds himself maintained by a man. overgreat reverence of traditions. above human frailty. or melior natura. He that travelleth into a country. is the people. makes it the more deformed. barbarous times. and. and such engines of orbs. is a part of education. Therefore theism did never perturb states. that ravisheth all the spheres of government. that there was one Plutarch. there was no such man at all. as atheism is in all respects hateful. patres conscripti. quod deorum immortalium numine omnia regi gubernarique perspeximus. It was gravely said by some of the prelates in the Council of Trent. and arguments are fitted to practice. And as the contumely is greater towards God. destroy man's nobility. if they go furthest from the superstition. by little and little. to laws. than such an opinion. learned times. as that creature. deface the reverence of religion. and certainly superstition is the reproach of the Deity. which courage is manifestly such. that the Schoolmen had framed a number of subtle and intricate axioms. Of this state hear what Cicero saith: Quam volumus licet. and . therefore care would be had that (as it fareth in ill purgings) the good be not taken away with the bad.The Essays of Francis Bacon 21 quia nec sic populus ut sacerdos. which cannot but load the church. For the one is unbelief. for take an example of a dog. by his spirit. wise men follow fools. which did feign eccentrics and epicycles. by his body. is a deformed thing. when the people is the reformer. that would eat his children as soon as they were born. There is a superstition in avoiding superstition. as it addeth deformity to an ape. Plutarch saith well to that purpose: Surely (saith he) I had rather a great deal. and in all superstition. in the elder. before he hath some entrance into the language. as is unworthy of him. the favoring too much of good intentions. formerly received. atque hac una sapientia. specially with peace and prosperity. It destroys likewise magnanimity. ac religione. though religion were not. than that they should say. A third is. sed pietate. As it is in particular persons. And lastly. the taking an aim at divine matters. And as wholesome meat corrupteth to little worms. especially joined with calamities and disasters.The master of superstition. all which may be guides to an outward moral virtue. which commonly is done. Therefore. for. That young men travel under some tutor. Atheism leaves a man to sense. he is a base and ignoble creature. They that deny a God. and bringeth in a new primum mobile. which human nature in itself could not obtain. so that he be such a one that hath the language. lastly. So man. and theorems. I allow well. to natural piety. Of Superstition IT WERE better to have no opinion of God at all. which openeth the gate to conceits and novelties. nec denique hoc ipso hujus gentis et terrae domestico nativoque sensu Italos ipsos et Latinos. or grave servant. Of Travel TRAVEL. a part of experience. to save the practice of the church. gathered a force and faith. to reputation. when he resteth and assureth himself. that the Schoolmen were like astronomers. and not to travel. excess of outward and pharisaical holiness. as looking no further: and we see the times inclined to atheism (as the time of Augustus Caesar) were civil times. which cannot but breed mixture of imaginations: and. when men think to do best. Never was there such a state for magnanimity as Rome. omnes gentes nationesque superavimus. to philosophy. but superstition dismounts all these. so it is in nations. so the similitude of superstition to religion. so the danger is greater towards men. and the raising of human nature. where the doctrine of the Schoolmen bare great sway. custom of profane scoffing in holy matters. though they knew there were no such things. in the minds of men. into a number of petty observances. to save the phenomena. for it makes men wary of themselves. and mark what a generosity and courage he will put on. which doth. nec robore Gallos. by human.
nay. burses. being at the highest. with those of his acquaintance. and in his discourse. cabinets and rarities. For multitude of jealousies. and words. to have few things to desire. the place yieldeth. with much profit. but sky and sea. funerals. in one city or town. the walls and fortifications of cities. for those of foreign parts. that in sea voyages. Let him. near great cities. That the king's heart is inscrutable. but maintain a correspondence by letters. First. fencing. as was said. therefore. let him change his lodging from one end and part of the town. Thus he may abridge his travel. masks. altogether behind him. It is a strange thing. colleges. For quarrels. Let him not stay long. let him not leave the countries. and visit. exercises of horsemanship. whatsoever is memorable. young men shall go hooded. sometimes upon erecting of an order. and have many representations of perils and shadows. Of Empire IT IS a miserable state of mind. shipping and navies. and diet in such places. sometimes upon the advancing of a person. ought to make diligent inquiry. into the customs of his own country. and so of consistories ecclesiastic. where there is nothing to be seen. upon his removes from one place to another. After all which. such whereunto the better sort of persons do resort. place.The Essays of Francis Bacon 22 hath been in the country before. than forward to tell stories. where he hath travelled. sometimes upon a building. Let him carry with him also. and the like. capital executions. describing the country where he travelleth. and. while they sit and hear causes. but in land-travel. feasts. Let diaries. which makes their minds more languishing. as Nero for playing on the harp. with the monuments which are therein extant. and towns. as if chance were fitter to be registered. that the mind of man. and set their hearts upon toys. antiquities and ruins. hard to find or sound. which are of great name abroad. how he keepeth company with choleric and quarrelsome persons. or feat of the hand. Hence it comes likewise. treasuries of jewels and robes. And let a man beware. the churches and monasteries. as was likewise said. who. arsenals. unto those that know not the principle. Caracalla for driving chariots. which are of most worth. they are with care and discretion to be avoided. what exercises. but only prick in some flowers. that he may be able to tell. yet are they not to be neglected. for the most part they omit it. for they will engage him into their own quarrels. what acquaintances they are to seek. is more cheered and refreshed by profiting in small things. warehouses. in the country where they go. than by . Let him sequester himself. eminent persons in all kinds. procure recommendation to some person of quality. some card or book. this you must do. For else. from the company of his countrymen. which will be a good key to his inquiry. he shall suck the experience of many. men need not to be put in mind of them. residing in the place whither he removeth. or servants. When a traveller returneth home. than his apparel or gesture. of that he hath learned abroad. in those things he desireth to see or know. where there is good company of the nation where he travelleth. to another. armories. libraries. wherein so much is to be observed. comedies. This seemeth incredible. and let it appear that he doth not change his country manners. healths. the courts of justice. where any are. and lectures. men should make diaries. or discipline. They are commonly for mistresses. especially when they give audience to ambassadors. And this is one reason also. or tutor. houses and gardens of state and pleasure. sometimes upon obtaining excellency in some art. weddings. that princes many times make themselves desires. to conclude. be brought in use. exchanges. the tutors. how the life agreeth with the fame. that which is most of all profitable. Let him also see. more or less as the place deserveth. let him be rather advised in his answers. in the places where they go. and the like. magazines. than observation. Let him keep also a diary. As for triumphs. which is to be sought in travel. whereby he may be able to tell them what things are worthy to be seen. training of soldiers. that he may use his favor. and look abroad little. and such shows. when he stayeth in one city or town. as knoweth the country. Commodus for playing at fence. which is a great adamant of acquaintance. and lack of some predominant desire. and in short time to gather much. and so the heavens and harbors. but not long. he must have some entrance into the language before he goeth. And let his travel appear rather in his discourse. which makes their minds the less clear. want matter of desire. maketh any man's heart. Domitian for certainty of the hand with the arrow. of that effect which the Scripture speaketh of. The things to be seen and observed are: the courts of princes. Then he must have such a servant. is acquaintance with the secretaries and employed men of ambassadors: for so in travelling in one country. and many things to fear. As for the acquaintance. and yet that commonly is the case of kings. If you will have a young man to put his travel into a little room. that should marshal and put in order all the rest. disputations.
King Henry the Eighth of England. and their men of war. to mingle contraries. but in government. by Constantinus the Great. but after that Julianus had taken arms against him. how they neglect and suffer matter of trouble to be prepared. that princes do keep due sentinel. was in like manner fatal to his house. which is. though there be no blow given. as the succession of the Turks. For it is common with princes (saith Tacitus) to will contradictories. Sultan Mustapha. who died indeed of sickness. This is true. turned upon the father. hath been ever unfortunate. if need were. and melancholy. if care and circumspection be not used. The answer of Apollonius to Vespasian. by a war. their commons. Kings have to deal with their neighbors. is then to be feared chiefly. when the wives have plots. Charles the Fifth. Solyman's wife. And this is generally the work of standing counsels. but a just fear of an imminent danger. that a war cannot justly be made. is often in their own mind. save one. their nobles. than solid and grounded courses to keep them aloof. the entering of fathers into suspicion of their children. and yet not to endure the mean. which ever holdeth. First for their neighbors. and relaxed too much. Nero could touch and tune the harp well. had the principal hand in the deposing and murder of her husband. or arrest in their fortunes. there are cruel examples of them. The destruction of Demetrius. Diocletian. it is a thing rare and hard to keep. But this is but to try masteries with fortune. falleth out of his own favor. and others: for he that is used to go forward. their merchants. turn in their latter years to be superstitious. or. the tragedies likewise of dangers from them. and Ludovicus Sforza. the one of Florence. and otherwise troubled his house and succession. for both Constantinus and Constance. For it is the solecism of power. but the greatest difficulty. for that Selymus the Second. by embracing of trade. for both temper. and distemper. that none of the three could win a palm of ground. But it is one thing. For their children. that the wisdom of all these latter times. Edward the Second of England. is a lawful cause of a war. and from all these arise dangers. when they are near. and shiftings of dangers and mischiefs. nor tell whence it may come. as the unequal and untimely interchange of power pressed too far. died violent deaths. by approaches. there can no general rule be given (for occasions are so variable). it being not possible for them to go forward infinitely. did little better. potentates. For their wives. The difficulties in princes' business are many and great. his queen. but that they must have some check. and of strange blood. in their first years. either by confederation. and Charles the Fifth Emperor. who . and is not the thing he was. in princes' affairs. as they become more able to annoy them. their children. and in our memory. for the raising of their own children. to be received. for no man can forbid the spark. is rather fine deliveries. his sons. or the like). their prelates or clergy. is suspected to be untrue. The destruction of Mustapha (that we named before) was so fatal to Solyman's line. Vespasian asked him. for the poisoning of her husband. the other of Milan. and Constantius. than they were. Francis the First King of France. For there is no question. and would not in any wise take up peace at interest. Neither is the opinion of some of the Schoolmen. son to Philip the Second of Macedon. his father. to foresee and to hinder it. their second-nobles or gentlemen. Sunt plerumque regum voluntates vehementes. sometimes he used to wind the pins too high. This kind of danger. have been many. to think to command the end. or else that they be advoutresses. And certain it is. his other son. And generally. their wives. a young prince of rare towardness. During that triumvirate of kings. but the other two would straightways balance it. as did Alexander the Great. was thought to be suppositious. The destruction of Crispus. To speak now of the true temper of empire. but upon a precedent injury or provocation. that nothing destroyeth authority so much. et inter se contrariae. And let men beware. Roxalana. sometimes to let them down too low. and findeth a stop. consist of contraries. from Solyman until this day. And the like was done by that league (which Guicciardini saith was the security of Italy) made between Ferdinando King of Naples.The Essays of Francis Bacon 23 standing at a stay. was the destruction of that renowned prince. What was Nero's overthrow? He answered. is full of excellent instruction. Livia is infamed. Lorenzius Medici. that none of their neighbors do ever grow so (by increase of territory. another to interchange them. in great. there was such a watch kept. We see also that kings that have been fortunate conquerors.
and pretorian bands of Rome. did almost try it with the king's sword. but by the people. a kingdom may have good limbs. between man and man. but the total bulk of trading. was first rent. and yet they had to deal with stout and haughty kings. except it be. and Thomas Becket. Archbishops of Canterbury. but few or none. For the beloved kingdom of God. I have noted it. being the most immediate in authority. being a body dispersed. like the reeling of a drunken man. they commit the whole: by how much the more. besides. in my History of King Henry the Seventh of England. that his times were full of difficulties and troubles. Solomon's son found the force of counsel. for the . the two marks whereby bad counsel is for ever best discerned. not by the collation of the king. They may sometimes discourse high. and are used to donatives. as was Selymus the First against Bajazet. it is a dangerous state. some particular affair. rather decreased. is the trust of giving counsel. and be full of inconstancy. where they live and remain in a body. there are set for our instruction. For in other confidences. he was fain to do all things himself. where the sons were up in open arms against them. and nourish little. and arming them in several places. God himself is not without. but where it hath a dependence of foreign authority. and if they flourish not. it is not amiss. yet did they not co-operate with him in his business. For their men of war. and. do seldom good to the king's revenue. may make a king more absolute. but hath made it one of the great names of his blessed Son: The Counsellor. and the three sons of Henry the Second. King of England. their lands. Princes are like to heavenly bodies. are in effect comprehended in those two remembrances: memento quod es homo. and violent counsel. but will have empty veins. that in counsel is stability. The wisest princes need not think it any diminution to their greatness. For their merchants. they will be tossed upon the waves of fortune. And many like examples there are. their credit. William Rufus. and without donatives. that they grow not too potent. by ill counsel. All precepts concerning kings. For their nobles. as it was in the times of Anselmus. but less safe. men commit the parts of life. and less able to perform. upon which counsel. they are vena porta. or their customs. and the other their will. and broken. but to such as they make their counsellors. but no rest. The danger is not from that state. lastly. that it was young counsel. Solomon hath pronounced. So that in effect. there is not much danger from them. are things of defence. there is also danger from them. as his father saw the necessity of it. and which have much veneration. doing and undoing. with the common people. or where you meddle with the point of religion. who. they do best temper popular commotions. there is little danger from them. and memento quod es Deus. or where the churchmen come in and are elected. or derogation to their sufficiency. Henry the First. Of Counsel THE greatest trust. For their commons. their goods.The Essays of Francis Bacon 24 died of repentance. except it were. to rely upon counsel. the particular rates being increased. to keep them at a distance. but trainings of men. where they have great and potent heads. for that that he wins in the hundred. Taxes and imposts upon them. Things will have their first. or vice Dei. they are a counterpoise to the higher nobility. or particular patrons. who depressed bis nobility. and under several commanders. but that doth little hurt. for the person. they are obliged to all faith and integrity. with their croziers. though they continued loyal unto him. where the fathers had good by such distrust. when they are proud and great. but to depress them. whereupon it came to pass. any thing that he desires. and no danger. for the nobility. For their prelates. their children. For their second-nobles. or second agitation: if they be not tossed upon the arguments of counsel. he leeseth in the shire. the one bridleth their power. and Henry the Second. which cause good or evil times. whereof we see examples in the janizaries. or means of life.
moulded. is rather exalted than diminished. do set forth in figure. Secondly. and especially true and trusty to the king's ends. and direct. but eat her up. As to secrecy.The Essays of Francis Bacon matter. Thirdly. Neither is it necessary. But then it must be a prudent king. draw to themselves such natures. and inseparable conjunction. as if it depended on them. with an eye to themselves. Let us now speak of the inconveniences of counsel. and practice of France. will do more hurt than many. should declare what he will do. The inconveniences that have been noted. with all counsellors. and of the remedies. of the nature of times. whereby he became himself with child. except it were to Morton and Fox. that maketh it his glory to tell. after Jupiter was married to Metis. which is the first begetting. and was delivered of Pallas armed. such as is able to grind with a handmill. in calling and using counsel. that are in nature faithful. above all. counsellors should not be too speculative into their sovereign's person. but (the more to add reputation to themselves) from their head and device. and more for the good of them that counsel. but Jupiter suffered her not to stay. than in his nature. the weakening of the authority of princes. comes not from themselves. in that they say Jupiter did marry Metis. if princes know their counsellors. both the incorporation. but may extract and select. and ready to be brought forth. which require extreme secrecy. with prudence and power. as well as their counsellors know them: Principis est virtus maxima nosse suos. are three. how kings are to make use of their counsel of state. For weakening of authority. let princes. but take the matter back into their own hands. a remedy worse than the disease. so that if any do counsel out of faction or private ends. but that one counsellor. certainly. princes are not bound to communicate all matters. that the unsecreting of their affairs. either an over-greatness in one counsellor. that know it their duty to conceal. is married to Counsel: the other in that which followeth. which are things soon found. as it was with King Henry the Seventh of England. they ought to refer matters unto them. they conunonly go on constantly. if they take the opinions of their . who. But the best remedy is. than of him that is counselled. imparted himself to none. non inveniet fidem super terram is meant. and plain. But let princes beware. it commonly comes to the king's ear. It is of singular use to princes. And on the other side. which signifieth counsel. are resembled to Pallas armed) proceeded from themselves. is rather to be skilful in their master's business. without distraction. in one spirit of direction. that then they suffer not their counsel to go through with the resolution and direction. which will hardly go beyond one or two persons. because they come forth. that men will counsel. The true composition of a counsellor. that the decrees and final directions (which. and sincere. for then he is like to advise him. and holpen. in some kings' times. the majesty of kings. out of his head. Nay. and shaped in the womb of their counsel. neither was there ever prince. And as for cabinet counsels. besides the king: neither are those counsels unprosperous. but when they are elaborate. the doctrine of Italy. plenus rimarum sum: one futile person. or impregnation. That first. besides the secrecy. and the wise and politic use of counsel by kings: the one. and make it appear to the world. as if they were less of themselves. counsellors are not commonly so united. by his counsel. except where there hath been. and grow ripe. whereby they become less secret. not crafty and involved. hath introduced cabinet counsels. till she brought forth. that he that consulteth what he should do. Which monstrous fable containeth a secret of empire. the fable showeth the remedy. of counsel with kings. or an over-strict combination in divers. For the last inconvenience. 25 The ancient times. First. and not feed his humor. she conceived by him. bereaved of his dependences. the danger of being unfaithfully counselled. and not only from their authority. For which inconveniences. whereby they intend that Sovereignty. Besides. the revealing of affairs. and not of all particular persons. There be. when they are in the chair of counsel. and those inward counsellors had need also be wise men. which was thus: They say. in his great business. for. and was with child. keepeth sentinel over another. it may be their motto. It is true there be some affairs.
and after the belly. in nocte consilium. sing him a song of placebo. that they may hoc agere. in the choice of individuals. than well to time the beginnings. For occasion (as it is in the common verse) turneth a bald noddle. and then. to meet some dangers half way. no more than standing commissions: save that they have greater authority. in effect. The ripeness. sway all the business. or mathematical description. by putting in those. after she hath presented her locks in front. Nay. for that is to clamor counsels. and shone on their enemies' back). as for trade.The Essays of Francis Bacon 26 counsel. On the other side. which flieth so swift. to take counsel concerning matters. and in consort. and not spoken to till the next day. It is in vain for princes. There is surely no greater wisdom. for some provinces. for treasure. It was truly said. or act. or seats about the walls. of things. it is odds he will fall asleep. for where there be divers particular counsels. first to watch. for all matters are as dead images. to preserve respect. which was a grave and orderly assembly. specially the books of such as themselves have been actors upon the stage. men are more obnoxious to others' humors. seamen. And let them not come in multitudes. or unripeness. And they run too swift. I commend also standing commissions. and so to shoot off before the time. to commit the beginnings of all great actions to Argus. or at least turneth the handle of the bottle. Of Cunning . comparable to celerity.Therefore it is good to be conversant in them. with his hundred hands. not to inform them. and still holdeth up the price. and of the inferior sort. For the helmet of Pluto. So was it done in the Commission of Union. the price will fall. in effect. to the order. I commend set days for petitions. it is better to choose indifferent persons. than forced them. than debated. for ripening business for the counsel. that are strong on both sides. to preserve freedom. rather in private. but are things of substance. For when things are once come to the execution. and then to speed. like the motion of a bullet in the air. A long table and a square table. of counsel. and more dangers have deceived men. when counsellors blanch. let him beware how he opens his own inclination too much. it is sometimes like Sibylla's offer. if they take no counsel likewise concerning persons. but in the other form. seem things of form. they are. when the moon was low. for if a man watch too long. what the kind and character of the person should be. Of Delays FORTUNE is like the market. It were better that in causes of weight. and onsets. men are more bold in their own humors. as it outruns the eye. For private opinion is more free. for at a long table a few at the upper end. it were better. for else counsellors will but take the wind of him. of the greater. but opinion before others. with his hundred eyes. to consult concerning persons secundum genera. there is no secrecy. out of their particular professions (as lawyers. before the counsel. and generally it is good. and the most judgment is shown. between England and Scotland. then consumeth part and part. and no hold taken. which at first. and instead of giving free counsel. or to teach dangers to come on. A king. in that which he propoundeth. and but one counsel of estate (as it is in Spain). for war. offereth the commodity at full. are but familiar meetings. Neither is it enough. In choice of committees. than to keep too long a watch upon their approaches. the matter were propounded one day. resteth in the good choice of persons. is secrecy in the counsel. when he presides in counsel. In private. The counsels at this day. and the ends to Briareus. which is hard to clasp. optimi consiliarii mortui: books will speak plain. that sit lower. Dangers are no more light. where matters are rather talked on. and celerity in the execution. is another extreme. first to be received. Let such as are to inform counsels. and the like) be first heard before committees. for both it gives the sudtors more certainty for their attendance. both separately and together. for suits. therefore it is good to take both. is more reverent. as occasion serves. by over early buckling towards them. which maketh the politic man go invisible. Again. there is more use of the counsellors' opinions. of the occasion (as we said) must ever be well weighed. if they once seem light. as in an idea. rather in consort. and it frees the meetings for matters of estate. than to make an indifferency. though they come nothing near. or in a tribunitious manner. to be deceived with too long shadows (as some have been. and the life of the execution of affairs. in most places. for the greatest errors are committed. mintmen. where many times if you can stay a little.
he would pass over that. breeds a greater appetite in him with whom you confer. than if you offer it of yourself. relating to Claudius the marriage of Messalina and Silius. for many are perfect in men's humors. for the party to ask. with some other discourse. I knew one that. but he would always first put her into some discourse of estate. when he came to have speech. or doing somewhat which they are not accustomed. that can pack the cards. and countenance. Some procure themselves. and thereupon take advantage. and speak of it as of a thing. and go forth. which was most material. that are otherwise weak men. than you are wont. so that he may be asked the question upon the other's speech: as Narcissus did. in the midst of that one was about to say. with whom you deal. will suddenly come upon them. and they are good. that he had almost forgot. and cannot stay to consider advisedly of that is moved. than for counsel. so as the old rule. it is a point of cunning. and they have lost their aim. and move it himself in such sort as may foil it. Such men are fitter for practice. to wait upon him with whom you speak. If a man would cross a business. that never came to Queen Elizabeth of England. you may lay a bait for a question. The like surprise may be made by moving things. Mitte ambos nudos ad ignotos. and yet cannot play well. that are not greatly capable of the real part of business. and to reserve the more weighty voice. I knew another that. that she mought the less mind the bills. In things that a man would not be seen in himself. and use. as the Jesuits also do use. that when you have anything to obtain. not only in point of honesty. to know more. and transparent countenances. and to be found with a letter in their hand. when he wrote a letter. It is a point of cunning. it is one thing to understand persons. as the Jesuits give it in precept: for there be many wise men. that he intended most. and a wise man. that have secret hearts. which is the constitution of one that hath studied men. they may be apposed of those things. as if it had been a by-matter. to the end. in the postscript. In things that are tender and unpleasing. to the end to give occasion. as to say. but in their own alley: turn them to new men. and another thing to understand matters. of present despatch. let him pretend to wish it well. And I had not before that time. And because it works better. I knew two. The world says. it is not amiss to set forth their shop. what the matter is of the change? As Nehemias did.The Essays of Francis Bacon 27 WE TAKE cunning for a sinister or crooked wisdom. when the party is in haste. to know a fool from a wise man. to come in as by chance. to borrow the name of the world. It is a point of cunning. by some whose words are of less weight. as if he took himself up. you entertain and amuse the party. Another is. which of themselves they are desirous to utter. and come back again. Again. when anything seemeth to be gotten from you by question. that he doubts some other would handsomely and effectually move. but in point of ability. sometimes. so there are some that are good in canvasses and factions. doth scarce hold for them. with your eye. it is good to break the ice. to be surprised. that he be not too much awake to make objections. with bills to sign. I knew a counsellor and secretary. et videbis. The breaking off. more than books. And certainly there is a great difference. he would put that. been sad before the king. or There is a speech abroad. by showing another visage. are like haberdashers of small wares. between a cunning man. And because these cunning men. that were competitors for the secretary's place in Queen . Yet this would be done with a demure abasing of your eye. to let fall those words in a man's own name. which he would have another man learn. There be. at such times as it is like the party that they work upon.
that he had no reason to desire to be secretary. but they can wrap it into a tale. it is not easy. but their good and evil is at the peril of the public fortune. Prudens advertit ad gressus suos. upon the business. that have affinity with the heavens. but yet it is a greater extreme. when such a matter passed between two. one with another. and petty points. was a ticklish thing. specially to thy king and country. whereat straightways he looked back. having changed his name. stultus divertit ad dolos. by justifying themselves by negatives. in the declination of a monarchy. But it is a desperate evil. It is a way that some men have. sed incolumitatem imperatoris simpliciter spectare. of cunning. and would be thought wits of direction. between selflove and society. and it were a good deed to make a list of them. than that cunning men pass for wise. and how far about they will fetch. for the servant's good to be preferred before the master's. It is a thing of great patience. for that nothing doth more hurt in a state. who. and walking in Paul's. shall . as have not this mark. the turning of the cat in the pan. and unexpected question doth many times surprise a man. and the one of them said. waste the public. and yet kept good quarter between themselves. like a house that hath convenient stairs and entries. It is a poor centre of a man's actions. which serveth both to keep themselves more in guard. in an orchard or garden. in the declination of a monarchy. Divide with reason. and would confer. to glance and dart at others. For whatsoever affairs pass such a man's hands. but are no ways able to examine or debate matters. move upon the centre of another. and to make others carry it with more pleasure. to make it appear from which of them it first moved and began. men that are great lovers of themselves. or state. to come near it. and found means it was told the Queen. and called him by his true name. Se non diversas spes. but it is a shrewd thing. is more tolerable in a sovereign prince. It is right earth. than upon soundness of their own proceedings. except they mean their service should be made but the accessory. as to say. you shall see them find out pretty looses in the conclusion. But certainly some there are that know the resorts and falls of business. That to be a secretary. whereas all things. which they benefit. choose such servants. And certainly. For that only stands fast upon his own centre. It is a good point of cunning. Therefore. let princes.The Essays of Francis Bacon 28 Elizabeth's time. another suddenly came behind him. which is. and discoursed with divers of his friends. The first man took hold of it. himself. took it so ill. but yet of much use. which we in England call. This I do not. when that which a man says to another. for it makes the other party stick the less. Therefore. It is strange how long some men will lie in wait to speak somewhat they desire to say. and that he did not affect it: the other straight caught up those words. he crooketh them to his own ends. as thou be not false to others. It were disproportion enough. or states. are infinite. The referring of all to a man's self. That which maketh the effect more pernicious. hearing of a declination of a monarchy. in his own words and propositions. is that all proportion is lost. that cannot sink into the main of it. But these small wares. And to say truth. A sudden. Some build rather upon the abusing of others. because themselves are not only themselves. in a servant to a prince. for a man to shape the answer he would have. and be so true to thyself. and lay him open. as Tigellinus did towards Burrhus. There is a cunning. and (as we now say) putting tricks upon them. Of Wisdom FOR A MAN'S SELF AN ANT is a wise creature for itself. which must needs be often eccentric to the ends of his master. he lays it as if another had said it to him. And yet commonly they take advantage of their inability. when a little good of the servant. Some have in readiness so many tales and stories. bold. Like to him that . as there is nothing they would insinuate. But Solomon saith. or a citizen in a republic. as she would never after hear of the other's suit. and how many other matters they will beat over. but never a fair room.
but good. And as in races it is not the large stride or high lift that makes the speed. to abbreviate by contracting. all their times. but quietly. and those things which have long gone together. For otherwise. of their own petty ends and envies. because they may seem men of dispatch. to have pinioned. another by cutting off . but though they help by their utility. I knew a wise man that had it for a byword. the good such servants receive. Stay a little. more admired. And lastly. It is the wisdom of crocodiles. the keeping close to the matter. who digged and made room for him. that men in their innovations would follow the example of time itself. Of Innovations AS THE births of living creatures. strongest in continuance. It is the wisdom of the fox. and he that is holpen. that we make a stand upon the ancient way. they are like strangers. Therefore measure not dispatch. that we may make an end the sooner. as those that first bring honor into their family. to man's nature. whose wings they thought. or the utility evident. themselves sacrifices to the inconstancy of fortune. and. which the physicians call predigestion. and wisdom and counsel shall not alter them to the better. sacrificed to themselves. therefore. But it is one thing. whereas new things piece not so well. and well to beware. It were good. and imputeth it to the author. in many branches thereof. by degrees scarce to be perceived. that it be the reformation. are commonly more worthy than most that succeed. yet at least it is fit. Besides. and then look about us. confederate within themselves. and he that is hurt. It is the wisdom of rats. that draweth on the change. And yet that is the case of bad officers. for time is the greatest innovator. which contrariwise moveth so round. a depraved thing. that thrusts out the badger. that the novelty. and profit themselves. It is good also. that shed tears when they would devour. at several sittings or meetings. though it be not good. and ever it mends some. and so to walk in it. by their self-wisdom. by the times of sitting. is after the model of their own fortune. are. and less favored. if time stood still. goeth commonly backward and forward in an unsteady manner. And business so handled. they will abandon the good of their affairs. and thanks the time. takes it for a fortune. they become in the end. is after the model of their master's fortune. It is like that. so in business. only to come off speedily for the time. which is sure to fill the body full of crudities. And certainly it is the nature of extreme self-lovers. sine rivali. but the hurt they sell for that good. Of Dispatch AFFECTED dispatch is one of the most dangerous things to business that can be. not to try experiments in states. and it were but to roast their eggs. For ill. as they will set an house on fire. somewhat before it fall. which are the births of time. Yet notwithstanding. Wisdom for a man's self is. are but a scorn to the new. because their study is but to please them. and not taking of it too much at once. for a wrong. what shall be the end? It is true. except the necessity be urgent. so the first precedent (if it be good) is seldom attained by imitation. that will be sure to leave a house. that a froward retention of custom. and pairs others. is as turbulent a thing as an innovation. procureth dispatch. as the Scripture saith. whatsoever is new is unlooked for. Surely every medicine is an innovation. at first are illshapen. which set a bias upon their bowl. so are all innovations. that pretendeth the reformation. or hasty digestion. and they that reverence too much old times. and for either respect. and he that will not apply new remedies. and discover what is the straight and right way. which indeed innovateth greatly. and other false and corrupt servants. and secret seeds of diseases. ambassadors. but by the advancement of the business. generals. yet they trouble by their inconformity. treasurers. as it stands perverted. and if time of course alter things to the worse. hath a natural motion.The Essays of Francis Bacon 29 carry things against a great good of the master's. when he saw men hasten to a conclusion. though it be not rejected. and not the desire of change. that those which (as Cicero says of Pompey) are sui amantes. as it were. yet be held for a suspect. . And whereas they have. All this is true. It is the care of some. And for the most part. that what is settled by custom. as a forced motion. must expect new evils. are many times unfortunate. But that which is specially to be noted is. to the overthrow of their master's great and important affairs. strongest at first. or to contrive some false periods of business. and yet these men many times hold credit with their masters.
doth for the most part facilitate dispatch: for though it should be wholly rejected. than interrupt them in the continuance of their speeches. Let my death come from Spain. and go on. order. Some help themselves with countenance and gesture. But there is no such gain of time. as to iterate often the state of the question. as these empty persons have. is for race. Of Seeming Wise IT HATH been an opinion. will go forward and backward. as it is coming forth. that the French are wiser than they seem. but denying the power thereof. for he that is put out of his own order. the preparation. and take by admittance. and seem always to keep back somewhat. Of which kind also. Gellius saith. if you look for dispatch. Some are never without a difference. and are wise by signs. But howsoever it be between nations. Seeming . as impertinent or curious. crudelitatem tibi non placere. than an indefinite. Mi venga la muerte de Spagna. To conclude. will never come out of it clearly. as ashes are more generative than dust. It is a ridiculous thing. true dispatch is a rich thing. yet that negative is more pregnant of direction. and excusations. for it chaseth away many a frivolous speech. bringeth in Prodius in scorn. than he could have been. Whereof. to maintain the credit of their sufficiency. and business is bought at a dear hand.The Essays of Francis Bacon 30 On the other side. hath so many tricks to uphold the credit of their wealth. and fit for a satire to persons of judgment. and though they seem to proceed of modesty. for pre-occupation of mind ever requireth preface of speech. is to save time. The Spartans and Spaniards have been noted to be of small dispatch. the debate or examination. and other speeches of reference to the person. he fetched one of his brows up to his forehead. would nevertheless seem to others. and the first and last the work of few. and be more tedious. with a long train. and bent the other down to his chin. to see what shifts these formalists have. of whom A. Some. let the middle only be the work of many. they speak of that they do not well know. and an unseasonable motion. than the actor. that consisteth of distinction from the beginning to the end. Hominem delirum. but by a dark light. for when propositions are denied. Generally. altero ad mentum depresso supercilio. certainly it is so between man and man. and he that divideth too much. Some think to bear it by speaking a great word. it requireth a new work. like a fomentation to make the unguent enter. and maketh him make a speech. where there is small dispatch. that which they cannot make good. and what prospectives to make superficies to seem body. Having a show of godliness. as a robe or mantle. that the moderator is more troublesome. but if they be allowed. whatsoever is beyond their reach. that give the first information in business. as Cicero saith of Piso. Long and curious speeches. For as the Apostle saith of godliness. so certainly there are. or inward beggar. and when they know within themselves. Respondes. that when he answered him. Give good hearing to those. that hath depth and bulk. and distribution. To choose time. in point of wisdom and sufficiently. or make light of it. blanch the matter. and being peremptory. For time is the measure of business. will never enter well into business. while he waits upon his memory. such men in all deliberations find ease to be of the negative side. are as fit for dispatch. as they will not show their wares. Prefaces and passages. there is an end of them. is the life of dispatch. that do nothing or little very solemnly: magno conatu nugas. and so would have their ignorance seem judgment. there is no decaying merchant. to know of that which they may not well speak. and affect a credit to object and foretell difficulties. they are bravery. will seem to despise. for then it will be sure to be long in coming. There be three parts of business. But sometimes it is seen. is but beating the air. Above all things. so as the distribution be not too subtle: for he that doth not divide. and rather direct them in the beginning. Plato. Yet beware of being too material. qui verborum minutiis rerum frangit pondera. when there is any impediment or obstruction in men's wills. and the Spaniards seem wiser than they are. and the perfection. in his Protagoras. and singling out of parts. which false point of wisdom is the bane of business. are great wastes of time. Some are so close and reserved. The proceeding upon somewhat conceived in writing. altero ad frontem sublato. Iterations are commonly loss of time. if he had gone on in his own course. as money is of wares. and commonly by amusing men with a subtilty.
as if he had enchanted Caesar. in any man. and faces are but a gallery of pictures. whosoever in the frame of his nature and affections. he had made him so great. than in that speech. castoreum for the brain. than the sun setting. you may take sarza to open the liver. counsels. But we may go further. for certainly you were better take for business. so that there is not that fellowship. and how far it extendeth. there was no third way. when he commanded Rome. in divers of the ancient hermits and holy fathers of the church. telling him he hoped he would not dismiss the senate. and that Sylla did a little resent thereat. without which the world is but a wilderness. as it were. at the hazard of their own safety and greatness. Maecenas took the liberty to tell him. But little do men perceive what solitude is. fears. Pompey turned upon him again. naming them participes curarum. and it is not much otherwise in the mind. calleth him venefica. in regard of some ill presages. hath somewhat of the savage beast. to draw him forth to his death. And it seemeth his favor was so great. but it is most untrue. and whatsoever lieth upon the heart to oppress it. hopes. but out of a love and desire to sequester a man's self. is the ease and discharge of the fulness and swellings of the heart. Empedocles the Sicilian. as they purchase it. and not from humanity. because in a great town friends are scattered. We know diseases of stoppings. of the divine nature. against the pursuit of Sylla. It is a strange thing to observe. after his nephew. and allowed other likewise to call them in the same manner. for it is that which tieth the knot. than over-formal. that a natural and secret hatred. that he must either marry his daughter to Agrippa. till his wife had dreamt a better dream. which many times sorteth to inconvenience. For when he had carried the consulship for a friend of his. and suffocations. And this was the man that had power with him. For it is most true. Whatsoever is delighted in solitude. A principal fruit of friendship. many times. in regard of the distance of their fortune from that of their subjects and servants. and aversation towards society. where there is no love. whereof we speak: so great. joys. who have oftentimes joined to themselves some of their servants. For princes. and even in this sense also of solitude. witch. Decimus Brutus had obtained that interest as he set him down in his testament. except (to make themselves capable thereof) they raise some persons to be. companions and almost equals to themselves. not out of a pleasure in solitude. or conversation. as Epimenides the Candian. flowers of sulphur for the lungs. Augustus raised Agrippa (though of mean birth) to that height. is either a wild beast or a god. but let no man choose them for employment. Of Friendship IT HAD been hard for him that spake it to have put more truth and untruth together in few words. With Julius Caesar. And we see plainly that this hath been done. For when Caesar would have discharged the senate. which passions of all kinds do cause and induce. L. using the word which is received between private men. is unfit for friendship. or take away his life. steel to open the spleen. for a higher conversation: such as is found to have been falsely and feignedly in some of the heathen. With .The Essays of Francis Bacon 31 wise men may make shift to get opinion. as when he consulted with Maecenas. and affirm most truly. about the marriage of his daughter Julia. that Pompey vaunted himself for Sylla's overmatch. that it should have any character at all. and truly and really. raised Pompey (after surnamed the Great) to that height. For a crowd is not company. cannot gather this fruit. and Apollonius of Tyana. but a true friend. and specially a dream of Calpurnia. he taketh it of the beast. The Latin adage meeteth with it a little: Magna civitas. or privadoes. magna solitudo. for that more men adored the sun rising. Numa the Roman. and talk but a tinkling cymbal. suspicions. in a kind of civil shrift or confession. but by the wisest and most politic that ever reigned. this man lifted him gently by the arm out of his chair. how high a rate great kings and monarchs do set upon this fruit of friendship. But the Roman name attaineth the true use and cause thereof. and in effect bade him be quiet. in a letter which is recited verbatim in one of Cicero's Philippics. except it proceed. whom both themselves have called friends. to whom you may impart griefs. are the most dangerous in the body. for the most part. The modern languages give unto such persons the name of favorites. for heir in remainder. which is in less neighborhoods. that it is a mere and miserable solitude to want true friends. as Antonius. Sylla. but no receipt openeth the heart. not by weak and passionate princes only. and began to speak great. a man somewhat absurd. as if it were matter of grace.
certain it is. and falleth within vulgar observation. or more. he seeth how they look when they are turned into words: finally. which itself cuts not. namely. the other concerning business. Certainly. in opening the understanding. for man's body. or picture. Now if these princes had been as a Trajan. and so extreme lovers of themselves. which lieth more open. if a man would give it a hard phrase. that imparteth his joys to his friend. The like. whose closeness was indeed his tormentor. But yet without praying in aid of alchemists. is drier and purer. is healthful and sovereign for the understanding. For the first. and the whole senate dedicated an altar to Friendship. to make this second fruit of friendship complete. But one thing is most admirable (wherewith I will conclude this first fruit of friendship). a man learneth of himself. For there is no man. Neither is this second fruit of friendship. and that a man giveth himself. and drenched. but being men so wise. as the liberty of a friend. So as there is as much difference between the counsel. and reckoned. For there is no such flatterer as is a man's self. which is faithful counsel from a friend. Lewis the Eleventh. as all these were. So that it is in truth. Add now. (they indeed are best. Tiberius in a letter to him saith. Sejanus had ascended to that height. and no man that imparteth his griefs to his friend. in the ordinary course of nature. opened and put abroad. and on the other side. a man might have thought that this had proceeded of an abundant goodness of nature. sons. or a Marcus Aurelius. they were princes that had wives. whereby the imagery doth appear in figure. was between Septimius Severus and Plautianus. and there is no such remedy against flattery of a man's self. Heraclitus saith well in one of his enigmas. that it worketh all contrary effects. that a friend giveth. For friendship maketh indeed a fair day in the affections. of like virtue as the alchemists use to attribute to their stone. that this communicating of a man's self to his friend. but before you come to that. Neither is this to be understood only of faithful counsel. in respect of the great dearness of friendship. nephews. which is more.The Essays of Francis Bacon 32 Tiberius Caesar. in the communicating and discoursing with another. but still to the good and benefit of nature. except they mought have a friend. in doing affronts to his son. as the first is for the affections. For he forced his eldest son to marry the daughter of Plautianus. and of a flatterer. those secrets which troubled him most. And certain it is. That speech was like cloth of Arras. as they two were termed. which is ever infused. of such strength and severity of mind. his wits and understanding do clarify and break up. weakeneth and dulleth any violent impression: and even so it is of minds. are carnnibals of their own hearts. that other point. The parable of Pythagoras is dark. which is. For in bodies. as there is between the counsel of a friend. to make it entire. restrained only to such friends as are able to give a man counsel. Haec pro amicitia nostra non occultavi. he tosseth his thoughts more easily. works two contrary effects. to open themselves unto. those that want friends. In a word. Counsel is of two sorts: the one concerning manners. in his affections and customs. out of darkness. that closeness did impair. and confusion of thoughts. and bringeth his own thoughts to light. than to suffer his thoughts to pass in smother. of operation upon a man's mind. and yet. to the king of Persia. that whosoever hath his mind fraught with many thoughts. if it had pleased him. that he would communicate his secrets with none. as a pair of friends. of his second master. It is not to be forgotten. but true. than by a day's meditation.) but even without that. for it redoubleth joys. Cor ne edito. by these words: I love the man so well. and did write also in a letter to the senate. he waxeth wiser than himself. as I wish he may over-live me. Eat not the heart. and that more by an hour's discourse. which a man receiveth from his friend. but he grieveth the less. It was well said by Themistocles. from storm and tempests. whereas in thoughts they lie but as in packs. a man were better relate himself to a statua. and yet all these could not supply the comfort of friendship. Dry light is ever the best. and would often maintain Plautianus. that the light that a man receiveth by counsel from another. and least of all. Duke Charles the Hardy. and cutteth griefs in halves. as to a goddess. union strengtheneth and cherisheth any natural action. he marshalleth them more orderly. The second fruit of friendship. it proveth most plainly that they found their own felicity (though as great as ever happened to mortal men) but as an half piece. but it maketh daylight in the understanding. than that which cometh from his own understanding and judgment. what Comineus observeth of his first master. and whetteth his wits as against a stone. there is a manifest image of this. and saith that towards his latter time. Whereupon he goeth on. but he joyeth the more. and a little perish his understanding. Surely Comineus mought have made the same judgment also. . between them two.
and therefore may put you in way for a present cure. for the greatest to descend and look into their own estate. but doubting to bring themselves into melancholy. even as if you would call a physician. After these two noble fruits of friendship (peace in the affections. what gross errors and extreme absurdities many (especially of the greater sort) do commit. But to enumerate these things were endless. Here the best way to represent to life the manifold use of friendship. and ordered to the best show. and if he think to wax rich. sometime too piercing and corrosive. is that which setteth business straight. much less extol them. that two eyes see no more than one. A man cannot speak to his son but as a father. and a number of the like. and not as it sorteth with the person. and so cure the disease. where a man cannot fitly play his own part. two lives in his desires. to say. with any face or comeliness. perhaps. not upon negligence alone. how he dasheth upon other inconvenience. than settle and direct. to work. But a friend that is wholly acquainted with a man's estate. a man may think. I have given the rule. they are as men that look sometimes into a glass. that he shall not be faithfully counselled. Therefore extraordinary expense must be limited by the worth of the occasion. as St. his ordinary expenses ought to be but to the half of his receipts. of one man. or that a musket may be shot off as well upon the arm. but is unacquainted with your body. the help of good counsel. of another man. Men have their time. than if he asked none at all). for voluntary undoing. and his deputy. I say. in desire of some things which they principally take to heart. I mean aid. and kill the patient. ought to be limited by a man's estate. that is thought good for the cure of the disease you complain of. but he runneth two dangers: one. say or do himself? A man can scarce allege his own merits with modesty. and governed with such regard. he may rest almost secure that the care of those things will continue after him. or that a gamester seeth always more than a looker-on. is a little flat and dead. and presently forget their own shape and favor. is the faithful admonition of a friend.The Essays of Francis Bacon 33 the best preservative to keep the mind in health. But ordinary expense. and support of the judgment). James saith. which is like the pomegranate. and die many times. the bestowing of a child. If a man have a true friend. and not subject to deceit and abuse of servants. to have counsel given. as upon a rest. Certainly. and such other fond and high imaginations. in respect they shall find it broken. and that body is confined to a place. is sometimes improper for our case. if he win. As for business. But when all is done. and spending for honor and good actions. A man hath a body. if he have not a friend. and then it will appear. Some forbear it. For he may exercise them by his friend. for it is a rare thing. How many things are there which a man cannot. asking counsel in one business. to his wife but as a husband. which a man cannot do himself. as it were. It is no baseness. to the great damage both of their fame and fortune: for. hurtful and unsafe (though with good meaning). The calling of a man's self to a strict account. a man's person hath many proper relations. It is a strange thing to behold. but such as shall be bowed and crooked to some ends. and bearing a part. by furthering any present business. for that a friend is far more than himself. which he hath. is to cast and see how many things there are. may be as well for a man's country. that it was a sparing speech of the ancients. a man cannot sometimes brook to supplicate or beg. The other. except it be from a perfect and entire friend. that a friend is another himself. for want of a friend to tell them of them. that the bills may be less than the estimation abroad. But all these things are graceful. So again. But wounds cannot be cured without searching. they will rather distract and mislead. to think himself all in all. And if any man think that he will take counsel. as it be within his compass. it is well (that is to say. had need both choose well . And therefore rest not upon scattered counsels. he may quit the stage. and mixed partly of mischief and partly of remedy. as for the kingdom of heaven. But the best receipt (best. Reading good books of morality. He that cannot look into his own estate at all. will beware. in a friend's mouth. Observing our faults in others. but where friendship is. followeth the last fruit. is as wise as he that hath said over the four and twenty letters. Of Expense RICHES are for spending. and best to take) is the admonition of a friend. the finishing of a work. to his enemy but upon terms: whereas a friend may speak as the case requires. but to the third part. and in another business. in all actions and occasions. So that a man hath. but overthroweth your health in some other kind. but it shall be by pieces. that he shall have counsel given. better. is a medicine. which he cannot put off. all offices of life are as it were granted to him. if a man will keep but of even hand. full of many kernels. that giveth it. or that a man in anger. which are blushing in a man's own. or the like.
he may as well hurt himself in being too sudden. means. artillery. and he answered. he may be more magnificent.DOMS AND ESTATES THE speech of Themistocles the Athenian. as on the other side. a great city. let us speak of the work. had been a grave and wise observation and censure. he made himself merry with it. being encamped upon a hill with four hundred thousand men. and commonly it is less dishonorable. And certainly whose degenerate arts and shifts. and to keep them from precipices and manifest inconveniences. for (as Virgil saith) It never troubles a wolf. that is. And the defeat was easy. An argument fit for great and mighty princes to have in their hand. stored arsenals and armories. nor on the other side. number (itself) in armies importeth not much. In clearing of a man's estate. they leese themselves in vain enterprises. goodly races of horse. he said. all this is but a sheep in a lion's skin. to abridge petty charges. and yet cannot fiddle. When Tigranes the Armenian. may not despise small things. For hasty selling. as in letting it run on too long. being things rather pleasing for the time. and the like. where the people is of weak courage. applied at large to others. but yet are so far from being able to make a small state great. induceth a habit of frugality. which was haughty and arrogant. He that can look into his estate but seldom. was such a vast sea of people. it behooveth him to turn all to certainties. Walled towns. and the greatness of finances and revenue. there may be found (though rarely) those which can make a small state great. he will revert to his custom: but he that cleareth by degrees. and graceful to themselves only. who came to him therefore. the true greatness of kingdoms and estates. which nevertheless are far from the ability to raise and amplify an estate in power. that can fiddle very cunningly. and the like. than tending to the weal and advancement of the state which they serve. and fortune. but to a grain of mustard-seed: which is one of the least grains. in bulk and territory. who hath a state to repair. to be as saving again in some other. and too few for a fight. chariots of war. to the end that neither by over-measuring their forces. and said. and estimation with the vulgar. So are there states. and yet not apt to enlarge or command. doth fall under computation. For he that is plentiful in expenses of all kinds. A man ought warily to begin charges which once begun will continue. he found them enow to give him the chase with infinite slaughter. marching towards him. But yet there is not any thing amongst civil affairs more subject to error. and wished him to set upon them by night. As if he be plentiful in diet. but yet he could make a small town. and gaineth as well upon his mind. doth fall under measure. The greatness of an estate. except the breed and disposition of the people. than to stoop to petty gettings. But before the sun set. but in matters that return not. . Besides. Desired at a feast to touch a lute. as upon his estate. not to any great kernel or nut. Of the True GREATNESS OF KING. ordnance. to bring a great and flourishing estate. and the means thereof. There are also (no doubt) counsellors and governors which may be held sufficient (negotiis pares). These words (holpen a little with a metaphor) may express two differing abilities. in taking so much to himself. and some that have but a small dimension of stem. discovered the army of the Romans. if he be plentiful in the hall. Nay. and the number and greatness of cities and towns by cards and maps. whereby many counsellors and governors gain both favor with their masters. than the right valuation and true judgment concerning the power and forces of an estate. how many the sheep be. in the plains of Arbela. Yonder men are too many for an embassage. and yet apt to be the foundations of great monarchies. is commonly as disadvantageable as interest. will hardly be preserved from decay. great in territory. by undervaluing them. for new are more timorous and less subtle. be stout and warlike.The Essays of Francis Bacon 34 those whom he employeth. there will be found a great many. elephants. he that clears at once will relapse. Certainly. to ruin and decay. But be the workmen what they may be. they descend to fearful and pusillanimous counsels. in those that deal in business of estate. to be saving in apparel. able to manage affairs. For if a true survey be taken of counsellors and statesmen. He could not fiddle. being not above fourteen thousand. as their gift lieth the other way. A man had need. to be saving in the stable. The army of the Persians. The kingdom of heaven is compared. deserve no better name than fiddling. as it did somewhat astonish the commanders in Alexander's army. He would not pilfer the victory. if he be plentiful in some kind of expense. and change them often. for finding himself out of straits. The population may appear by musters. but hath in it a property and spirit hastily to get up and spread.
Neither is that state (which. that is. take heed how their nobility and gentlemen do multiply too fast. hath been nowhere better seen. and so there will be great population. grow to be a peasant and base swain. on the other side. but shrubs and bushes. And therefore out of all questions. in regard the middle people of England make good soldiers. By all means it is to be procured. Their manner was to grant naturalization (which they called jus civitatis). that hath better iron. and you will bring it to that. he will be master of all this gold. and.The Essays of Francis Bacon 35 Many are the examples of the great odds. And let princes. contrariwise. all examples show. And herein the device of king Henry the Seventh (whereof I have spoken largely in the History of his Life) was profound and admirable. and hardly to be found anywhere else. upon the sudden. it may hold for a time. And thus indeed you shall attain to Virgil's character which he gives to ancient Italy: Terra potens armis atque ubere glebae. whereof England. Whereas. or nation. For to think that an handful of people can.Therefore all states that are liberal of naturalization towards strangers. do abate men's courage less: as it hath been seen notably. but he will mew them soon after. for they grew to the greatest monarchy. and to grant it in the highest degree. that not the hundred poll. than by comparing of England and France. they stood firm. as may breed a subject to live in convenient plenty and no servile condition. and attendants upon noblemen and gentlemen. For that maketh the common subject. This which I speak of. is to have a race of military men. are failing. will be fit for an helmet. that we speak now of the heart. is almost peculiar to England. in some degree. For Solon said well to Croesus (when in ostentation he showed him his gold). As for mercenary forces (which is the help in this case). doth much conduce unto martial greatness. which is the nerve of an army. which are no ways inferior unto the yeomanry for arms. and not mere hirelings. so that a man may truly make a judgment. and not of the purse. is fit for empire. for any thing I know. Even as you may see in coppice woods. the splendor and magnificence. Therefore it sorted with them accordingly. bear a sufficient proportion to the stranger subjects. except it be perhaps in Poland) to be passed over. except his militia of natives be of good and valiant soldiers. Let states that aim at greatness. should be both the lion's whelp and the ass between burthens. they became a windfall. and in effect but the gentleman's laborer. as were the Romans. So in countries. laid by consent or by imposing. I mean the state of free servants. causeth a penury of military forces. be all one to the purse. you shall never have clean underwood. are fit for empire. yet it works diversely upon the courage. if the gentlemen be too many. So that although the same tribute and tax. that the natural subjects of the crown or state. that no people overcharged with tribute. that the trunk of Nebuchadnezzar's tree of monarchy. received into custom. if any other come. maintained with such a proportion of land unto them. the commons will be base. that they govern. It is true that taxes levied by consent of the estate. be great enough to bear the branches and the boughs. embrace too large extent of dominion. that the principal point of greatness in any state. if you leave your staddles too thick. hath been (nevertheless) an overmatch. Neither is money the sinews of war (as it is trivially said). that is. know their own strength. though far less in territory and population. For you must note. that the same people. the close and reserved living of noblemen and gentlemen. but when they did spread. between number and courage. but it will fail suddenly. with the greatest courage and policy in the world. in the excises of the Low Countries. that whatsoever estate or prince doth rest upon them. So that you may conclude. should ever become valiant and martial. of noblemen and gentlemen. The blessing of Judah and Issachar will never meet. in the subsidies of England. unless they be otherwise wanting unto themselves. neither will it be. which the peasants of France do not. while they kept their compass. especially as to the infantry. that . in making farms and houses of husbandry of a standard. and their boughs were becomen too great for their stem. in base and effeminate people. and to keep the plough in the hands of the owners. he may spread his feathers for a time. and little strength. Never any state was in this point so open to receive strangers into their body. than you. Sir. The Spartans were a nice people in point of naturalization. whereby. Therefore let any prince or state think solely of his forces. and great retinues and hospitality. driven out of heart. where the sinews of men's arms. that have subjects of martial disposition. that a people overlaid with taxes.
for a state to have those laws or customs. and sometimes in their highest commands. for that purpose. As for the wars which were anciently made. within those three kinds. now published. for cause of war. as by the Pragmatical Sanction. and others. that they had the use of slaves. merchants. in the ancient states of Sparta. yea. I have marvelled. on the behalf of a kind of party. almost indifferently. notwithstanding. The Turk hath at hand. Goths.The Essays of Francis Bacon 36 is. in effect. First. Germans. But that is abolished. the propagation of his law or sect. had it for a time. a quarrel that he may always command. for the liberty of Grecia. and that was the sure way of greatness. may look to have greatness fall into their mouths. Neither must they be too much broken of it. which maintained them long after. that is.. not reckoning professed soldiers. which commonly did rid those manufactures. you will say that it was not the Romans that spread upon the world. though they have not had that usage. that a nation do profess arms. made wars to set up or pull down democracies and oligarchies. that above all. The Turks have it at this day. For the things which we formerly have spoken of. but also jus suffragii. yet they have that which is next to it. have. Nay. not only jus commercii. in greatest part. when their profession and exercise of arms hath grown to decay. yea to cities. jus haereditatis. as it ever was with the Romans. to their confederates. insomuch. and leave it to none other to have the honor. free servants. let nations that pretend to greatness have this. And on the other side. he most intendeth. I do not see how they may be well justified: as when the Romans made a war. but sure the whole compass of Spain. a contrariety to a military disposition. which may reach forth unto them just occasions (as may be pretended) of war. and then they should prove the greatest empire of the world. Of Christian Europe. or tacit conformity of estate. And putting both constitutions together. for empire and greatness. but likewise to whole families. carpenters. to be great honor to their generals. far above Rome and Sparta at the first. masons. by the Christian law. have. is to leave those arts chiefly to strangers (which. it importeth most. under the pretence of justice or protection. But above all. and others. that it needeth not to be stood upon. as their principal honor. That which cometh nearest to it. and that they sit not too long upon a provocation. upon invasion offered. and what is habilitation without intention and act? Romulus. Secondly. or politic ministers. to naturalize liberally. all warlike people are a little idle. The Persians and Macedonians had it for a flash. or when the Lacedaemonians and Athenians. It is enough to point at it. of this want of natives. it is a most certain oracle of time. in their nature. and within-door arts. whereby the Roman plant was removed into the soil of other nations. either upon borderers. to begin a war. to that scope and end. The Gauls. And this not to singular persons alone. And generally. or when wars were made by foreigners. sent a present to the Romans. that no nation which doth not directly profess arms. sometimes. jus connubii. and. in that age. Rome. at Spain. and delicate manufactures (that require rather the finger than the arm). that they enter not upon wars (whereof so many calamities do ensue) but upon some. that those states that continue long in that profession (as the Romans and Turks principally have done) do wonders. let them be prest. commonly attained that greatness. if they shall be preserved in vigor.tillers of the ground. at the least specious. The Romans. with divers other states. yet the Romans would ever be the foremost. For there is that justice. and to contain the principal bulk of the vulgar natives. but it was the world that spread upon the Romans. are the more easily to be received). with so few natural Spaniards. Normans. Incident to this point is. when it was done. are but habilitations towards arms. is a very great body of a tree. and sometimes to nations. grounds and quarrels. and jus honorum. And besides. as smiths. . But it is so plain. The fabric of the state of Sparta was wholly (though not wisely) framed and composed. as if the confederate had leagues defensive. all nations in their militia of ordinary soldiers. imprinted in the nature of men. how they clasp and contain so large dominions. it seemeth at this instant they are sensible. Saxons. to employ. though they esteemed the extending the limits of their empire. and occupation. It is certain that sedentary. only the Spaniards. that they be sensible of wrongs. though in great declination. therefore. to deliver the subjects of . Athens. and ready to give aids and succors. yet they never rested upon that alone. and handicraftsmen of strong and manly arts. And those that have professed arms but for an age. and love danger better than travail. appeareth. they should intend arms. study. Add to this their custom of plantation of colonies. did implore their aids severally. they that have it are. that every man profiteth in that. after his death (as they report or feign). etc. Therefore it was great advantage.
upon the battles. if upon vain confidence. for wars achieved by subjects. is that which commonly giveth the law. which hath had. in one part or other. the vantage of strength at sea (which is one of the principal dowries of this kingdom of Great Britain) is great. and their sons. 37 No body can be healthful without exercise. But above all. was not pageants or gaudery. and some remembrance perhaps. and what he finds hurt of. qui mari potitur. A civil war. it is in the power of princes or estates. The wars of latter ages seem to be made in the dark. and customs. upon the disbanding of the armies. and as little. from tyranny and oppression. Let it suffice. is like the heat of a fever. where sea-fights have been final to the war. or his sons. but in the great frame of kingdoms and commonwealths. and such like things. The battle of Lepanto. and the strength of a veteran army (though it be a chargeable business) always on foot. and left only. and donatives to the army. for such wars as they did achieve in person. Cicero. in this little model of a man's body. Of Regiment OF HEALTH THERE is a wisdom in this. and may take as much. But that honor. he had not left that way. they may sow greatness to their posterity and succession. now by the space of six score years. arrested the greatness of the Turk. eum rerum potiri. is at great liberty. of the war as he will. There be many examples. both courages will effeminate. To conclude: no man can by care taking (as the Scripture saith) add a cubit to his stature. There be now. that is not awake upon any just occasion of arming. is the best physic to preserve health. is an abridgment of a monarchy. as may well be seen in Spain. but girt with the sea most part of their compass. as it came to pass in the times of the Roman emperors. which nevertheless are conferred promiscuously. and because the wealth of both Indies seems in great part. Consilium Pompeii plane Themistocleum est. upon soldiers and no soldiers. some degrees and orders of chivalry. except it be in the person of the monarch himself. the crowns and garlands personal. upon their return. But it is a safer conclusion to say. And. riches to the treasury out of the spoils. both because most of the kingdoms of Europe. Pompey had tired out Caesar. But howsoever it be for happiness. it maketh to be still for the most part in arms. This agreeth not . the style of emperor. without doubt. the funeral laudatives and monuments for those that died in the wars. putat enim. with us of Europe. To be master of the sea. were things able to inflame all men's courages. for by introducing such ordinances.The Essays of Francis Bacon others. is the true exercise. and certainly to a kingdom or estate. For it contained three things: honor to the general. and manners corrupt. and serveth to keep the body in health. who did impropriate the actual triumphs to themselves. decided the empire of the world. or at least the reputation. a veteran army almost continually. saith. constitutions. perhaps were not fit for monarchies. are not merely inland. in respect of the glory. the triumphs of the generals. indeed. amongst all neighbor states. but one of the wisest and noblest institutions. for greatness. and honor. which the great kings of the world after borrowed. beyond the rules of physic: a man's own observation. But thus much is certain. but this is when princes or states have set up their rest. But these things are commonly not observed. the great donatives and largesses. to add amplitude and greatness to their kingdoms. But in ancient times. but an accessory to the command of the seas. what he finds good of. Whereas those that be strongest by land. writing to Atticus of Pompey his preparation against Caesar. the trophies erected upon the place of the victory. which reflected upon men from the wars. amongst the Romans. in ancient time. are many times nevertheless in great straits. that no estate expect to be great. and the like. that ever was. at this day. that of the triumph. a just and honorable war. without all question. for martial encouragement. and some hospitals for maimed soldiers. but left to take their chance. neither natural body nor politic. but a foreign war is like the heat of exercise. Surely. as we have now touched. upon the scutcheon. We see the great effects of battles bv sea. for in a slothful peace. that he that commands the sea. some triumphal garments and ensigns to the general. The battle of Actium.
by procuring to know more. if necessity enforce it. rather. and contemplations of nature. not to give further cause of suspicion. it will be too strange for your body. and put into men's heads. if they find themselves once suspected. is frankly to communicate them with the party. are like bats amongst birds. For so far a man ought to make use of suspicions. as to provide. and in health. Certainly. Entertain hopes. are saints? Do they not think. except it be grown into a custom. anger fretting inwards. action. they leese friends. that he suspects. therefore I may use it. Take one of a middle temper. fables. to kindle it to discharge itself. Suspicions that the mind of itself gathers. which are not very sharp. but rather exercise. I will not continue it. and studies of the mind. But in fearful natures they gain ground too fast. thou come back to it again: for it is hard to distinguish that which is generally held good and wholesome. sleep. and some other are so regular. and trouble it less. than to account upon such suspicions as true. as if suspicion. studies that fill the mind with splendid and illustrious objects. There was not a more suspicious man. If you make it too familiar. avoid envy. anxious fears. Certainly they are to be repressed. so pleasing and conformable to the humor of the patient. yet it may do him no hurt. Sospetto licentia fede. They dispose kings to tyranny. in any thing thou shalt judge hurtful. There is nothing makes a man suspect much. and tendering. and forget not to call as well. to discontinue it. to moderate suspicions. If you fly physic in health altogether. and try. but so. What would men have? Do they think. may in most sicknesses. For commonly they are not admitted. but rather full eating. watching and sleep. have stings. will never be true. respect health principally. fit the rest to it. the best mean. nor a more stout. but with examination. and of sleep. passeth over many excesses. As for the passions. and yet taught masteries. as if thou dost find any inconvenience by the change. than frequent use of physic. apparel. for age will not be defied. variety of delights. and think not to do the same things still. and they check with business. they will have their own ends. as they respect not sufficiently the condition of the patient. They are defects. which are owing a man till his age. Despise no new accident in your body. For strength of nature in youth. and be truer to themselves. sadness not communicated.The Essays of Francis Bacon 38 well with me. rather than surfeit of them. and of exercise. and therefore novelties. not in the heart. as the best reputed of for his faculty. as in the example of Henry the Seventh of England. and the like. for they take place in the stoutest natures. in any great point of diet. that it is safer to change many things. for thereby he shall be sure to know more of the truth of them. is one of the best precepts of long lasting. And in such a composition they do small hurt. and the like. but suspicions that are artificially nourished. be cured only with diet. sitting and exercise. when he giveth it for one of the great precepts of health and lasting. or if it may not be found in one man. by little and little. exercise. but rather sleep. combine two of either sort. for they. but with an inclination to the more benign extreme: use fasting and full eating. as they press not the true cure of the disease. whether they be likely or no. For those that put their bodies to endure in health. subtle and knotty inquisitions. whereby business cannot go on currently and constantly. or at least well guarded: for they cloud the mind. the best acquainted with your body. they ever fly by twilight. husbands to jealousy. I commend rather some diet for certain seasons. than he did before. in proceeding according to art for the disease. than to them? Therefore there is no better way. than one. and withal shall make that party more circumspect. but ask opinion of it. when you shall need it. that he suspects. For those diets alter the body more. and yet to bridle them as false. I find no offence of this. therefore. and therefore men should remedy suspicion. Of Suspicion SUSPICIONS amongst thoughts. and not to keep their suspicions in smother. did give a passport to faith. Examine thy customs of diet. from that which is good particularly. some of them. For it is a secret both in nature and state. . more than to know little. to clear the way in this same wood of suspicions. and fit for thine own body. mirth rather than joy. But this would not be done to men of base natures. wise men to irresolution and melancholy. that a man do vary. than this. The Italian says. Discern of the coming on of years. and. So shall nature be cherished. had he not been a wise man withal. it will work no extraordinary effect. as histories. but it ought. at hours of meat. In sickness. wonder and admiration. by the tales and whisperings of others. To be free-minded and cheerfully disposed. those they employ and deal with. Physicians are. as if that should be true. joys and exhilarations in excess. Celsus could never have spoken it as a physician. when sickness cometh. but in the brain. and interchange contraries. are but buzzes. Beware of sudden change.
which ought to be privileged from it. and to speak agreeably to him. and not fall to work. Tell truly. or in good order. for they will ever live like rogues. as if it were a praise. are yet nimblest in the turn. matters of state. to be the people with whom you plant. he speaks so much of himself: and there is but one case. if there be any. should be sparingly used. than a plantation. He that questioneth much. which kind of poverty is for the most part tedious. Such and such a thing passed. is to give the occasion. and spend victuals. except they dart out somewhat that is piquant. Speech of a man's self ought to be seldom. is blunt. was there never a flout or dry blow given? To which the guest would answer. and wicked condemned men. is like planting of woods. and any case that deserveth pity. That is a vein which would be bridled: Parce. men ought to find the difference. sometimes. to jade. but no further. in being able to hold all arguments. to please themselves in speaking. he that hath a satirical vein. was wont to say in scorn. but it spoileth the plantation. he would mar a good dinner. and heroical works. for discourse ought to be as a field. there be certain things. their turns to speak. and when it is once perceived. and then certify over to their country. and content much. I thought. for then a man leads the dance. you shall be thought. If you dissemble. another time. Yet there be some. with telling of opinions. and well chosen. with whom we deal. as he maketh others afraid of his wit. primitive. to the end. and to bring others on. in discourse and speech of conversation. great persons. for he shall give them occasion. Of Plantations PLANTATIONS are amongst ancient. The honorablest part of talk. and. to know that you know not. To use too many circumstances. The lord would say. any man's present business of importance. tales with reasons. And generally. When the world was young. puer. Certainly. without coming home to any man. of the west part of England. your knowledge of that you are thought to know. that is. let him find means to take them off. is more than eloquence. It is a shameful and unblessed thing. if he apply his questions to the skill of the persons whom he asketh. asking of questions. and be quickly weary. showeth shallowness and weakness. For the principal thing. to use none at all.The Essays of Francis Bacon Of Discourse 39 SOME. and himself shall continually gather knowledge. and again to moderate. whereunto himself pretendeth. Planting of countries. it begets fewer: for I may justly account new plantations. And let him be sure to leave other men. and not only so. as far as may stand with the good of the plantation. speedy profit is not to be neglected. that would reign and take up all the time. and pass to somewhat else. and not. and that is in commending virtue in another. than of judgment. the other would ask. He must needs be a wise man. I like a plantation in a pure soil. As we see in beasts. shows slowness: and a good reply or second speech. any thing too far. so he had need be afraid of others' memory. desire rather commendation of wit. is wearisome. ridiculous. especially if it be such a virtue. whereof the one was given to scoff. as it is betwixt the greyhound and the hare. that those that are weakest in the course. but be lazy. I knew one. A good continued speech. in the first years. to know what might be said. to vary and intermingle speech of the present occasion. but especially. it begat more children. what should be thought. but kept ever royal cheer in his house. and jest with earnest: for it is a dull thing to tire. But let his questions not be troublesome. hath been the base and hasty drawing of profit. stimulis. and to the quick. It is good. without a good settled speech. It is true. namely. As for jest. to be the children of former kingdoms. with those that dance too long galliards. ere one come to the matter. and do mischief. to plant in others. without a good speech of interlocution. that hath been the destruction of most plantations. where people are not displanted. Speech of touch towards others. wherein they are good and want variety. religion. for you must make account to leese almost twenty years' profit. For else it is rather an extirpation. of those that had been at the other's table. is more than to speak in good words. Some have certain common places. in discerning what is true. for that is fit for a poser. Nay. with arguments. to take the scum of people. and expect your recompense in the end. as musicians use to do. as we say now. et fortius utere loris. wherein a man may commend himself with good grace. shall learn much. and themes. that think their wits have been asleep. in their discourse. The people wherewith . but now it is old. I knew two noblemen. between saltness and bitterness. to the discredit of the plantation. Discretion of speech.
with some few apothecaries. where they may make their best of them. would be put in experience. but so. but freedom to carry their commodities. will not fail. Then consider what victual or esculent things there are. Wood commonly aboundeth but too much. yea. for they look ever to the present gain. goats. oat-meal. in the country that planteth. and commend it when they return. and the like. with certain allowance. and it is a kind of meat. though you begin there. or a fame of them. that they may some way help to defray the charge of the plantation (so it be not. Consider likewise what commodities. doth naturally yield. that is. the soil where the plantation is. but for their defence it is not amiss. and because they serve for meat. what kind of victual the country yields of itself to hand. smiths. and within the year. that they have good store of salt with them. take chiefly such as are least subject to diseases. in the beginning. For government. which grow speedily. and the like. but the sight of it with his eyes? The personal fruition in any man. wild honey. Soap-ashes likewise. maize. laborers. the rest is but conceit. of being in the wilderness. It cannot be spared. cherries. if the climate be proper for it. radish. For beasts. before their eyes. or birds. ought to be expended almost as in a besieged town. so is riches to virtue. Growing silk likewise. but rather harken how they waste. cannot but yield great profit. Let there be freedom from custom. but . Making of bay-salt. and other things that may be thought of. then it is time to plant with women. for the hope of mines is very uncertain. But moil not too much under ground. but with pease and beans you may begin. onions. and not be ever pieced from without. by sending too fast company after company. with sufficient guard nevertheless. but use them justly and graciously. and send oft of them. and stored up. geese. and what hath the owner. and to be laid in. and streams whereupon to set the mills. And of rice. to the untimely prejudice of the main business). except it be in the distribution. hens. barley. Let not the government of the plantation. depend upon too many counsellors. over to the country that plants. If you plant where savages are. For wheat. artichokes of Hierusalem. Pitch and tar. do not only entertain them. turkeys. that they may see a better condition than their own. and undertakers. impedimenta. for besides the dishonor. walnuts. employed to gardens or corn. but upon a temperate number. and let those be rather noblemen and gentlemen. and then delivered out in proportion. if any be. except there be some special cause of caution. they ask too much labor. house-doves. assisted with some counsel. It is the sinfullest thing in the world. turnips. that they may use it in their victuals. it is the guiltiness of blood of many commiserable persons. with some limitation. as they have God always. meal. Therefore. and the like. as parsnips. fowlers. Of great riches there is no real use. flour. and the care of it. that the plantation may spread into generations. It concerneth likewise the health of the plantation. carrots. fishermen.The Essays of Francis Bacon 40 you plant ought to be gardeners. let it be in the hands of one. till the plantation be of strength. as well as for bread. first look about. with trifles and gingles. And above all. The Roman word is better. pineapples. sometimes loseth or disturbeth the victory. iron is a brave commodity where wood aboundeth. or a power of dole. and therefore timber is fit to be one. there are many to consume it. When the plantation grows to strength. than merchants. Cram not in people. than along. cooks. cocks. And let the main part of the ground. Of Riches I CANNOT call riches better than the baggage of virtue. The victual in plantations. that they have built along the sea and rivers. and make use of them. So drugs and sweet woods. but it hindereth the march. and let them have commission to exercise martial laws. and bakers. and his service. yet build still rather upwards from the streams. as was said. Above all. when it shall be necessary. dates. and send supplies proportionably. as swine. For as the baggage is to an army. in marish and unwholesome grounds. and not only freedom from custom. as chestnuts. plums. and the like. In a country of plantation. to forsake or destitute a plantation once in forwardness. and oats. carpenters. and useth to make the planters lazy. is a likely commodity. and multiply fastest. besides some spots of ground. joiners. So saith Solomon. there ought to be brought store of biscuit. let men make that profit. and donative of them. nor left behind. in other things. and not by surcharge be in penury. as the number may live well in the plantation. where they are. where store of firs and pines are. that any particular person will manure for his own private. till bread may be had. as it hath fared with tobacco in Virginia. both because they ask less labor. cannot reach to feel great riches: there is a custody of them. and do not win their favor. be to a common stock. surgeons. ploughmen. If there be iron ore. by helping them to invade their enemies. to avoid carriage and like discommodities. likewise cometh a great increase. It hath been a great endangering to the health of some plantations. olives. Where much is. as well as with men.
and so of iron. is the most natural obtaining of riches. . Seek not proud riches. he may do great matters. riches have wings. in an invention or in a privilege. for good and fair dealing. especially if the times be fit. that himself came very hardly. prosper best in both. Riches are as a strong hold. them that seem to despise riches. to seize on him. and unjust means). Meaning that riches gotten by good means. But distinguish. The fortune in being the first. if a man weigh it rightly. it is yet worse. a great grazier. he limps and goes slowly. broke by servants and instruments to draw them on. and none worse. than of his own. and corrupt inwardly. feeding humors. and is swift of foot. for they despise them. and but the painted sepulchres of alms. But yet certain though it be. and a number of the like points of husbandry. than in service. in respect of the perpetual importation. In studio rei amplificandae apparebat. certainly. testaments. So as the earth seemed a sea to him. for that the scriveners and brokers do value unsound men. and beware of hasty gathering of riches. that are trusted. that would be better chapmen. and coemption of wares for re-sale. which soon will putrefy. But this is excellently expressed. as it was with the first sugar man. The ways to enrich are many. and by a good name. yet when they are gotten by flattery. for it withholdeth men from works of liberality and charity. a great corn-master. what things are like to come into request. but it is slow. when they come to them. Harken also to Solomon. and other servile conditions. are like sacrifices without salt. if he be not the better stablished in years and judgment. they come upon speed. It was truly observed by one. As for the chopping of bargains. but when he is sent from Pluto. non avaritiae praedam. Men leave their riches. which are crafty and naught. Monopolies. they may be of use. but when they come by the death of others (as by the course of inheritance. to great riches. and furthered by two things chiefly: by diligence. But the gains of bargains. and just labor. and very easily. that may uphold losses. and overcome those bargains. Qui festinat ad divitias. are set upon little stones and rarities? and what works of ostentation are undertaken. but such as thou mayest get justly. non erit insons. and be partner in the industries of younger men. And yet where men of great wealth do stoop to husbandry. are great means to enrich. they come tumbling upon a man. especially if the party have intelligence. in the Canaries. to have as well judgment. Therefore if a man can play the true logician. where they are not restrained. in sudore vultus alieni. For certainly great riches. to guard adventures with certainties. it hath flaws. For when riches come from the devil (as by fraud and oppression. that he can expect the prime of markets. the earth's. As Solomon saith. as Cicero saith well of Rabirius Posthumus. as invention. sed instrumentum bonitati quaeri. either to their kindred. Be not penny-wise. both upon the seller. A great state left to an heir. a great sheep-master. taking him for the devil. they may be placed amongst the worst. pace slowly. and so store himself beforehand. Therefore measure not thine advancements. that had the greatest audits of any man in my time. if the hands be well chosen. to serve their own turn. shall hardly grow to great riches. because there might seem to be some use of great riches? But then you will say. Sharings do greatly enrich. that despair of them. use soberly. The gains of ordinary trades and vocations are honest. is rather liberal of another man's. Yet have no abstract nor friarly contempt of them. sometimes they must be set flying. for. Believe not much. to buy men out of dangers or troubles. He that resteth upon gains certain. The poets feign. by quantity.The Essays of Francis Bacon 41 no solid use to the owner. which for their greatness are few men's money. doth plough upon Sundays. Usury is the certainest means of gain. that when Plutus (which is Riches) is sent from Jupiter. and the like practices. and besides. a great collier. testamenta et orbos tamquam indagine capi). Do you not see what feigned prices. and yet is not innocent. and the like). in the imagination of the rich man. but frame them by measure: and defer not charities till death. a great lead-man. to bring in more. by how much men submit themselves to meaner persons. therefore. For when a man's stock is come to that. to a little riches. he that doth so. I knew a nobleman in England. and most of them foul. he runs. for it is our great mother's blessing. and sometimes they fly away of themselves. than they have bought out. and leave contentedly. a great timber man. though it be of the best rise. put off others cunningly. But it mought be applied likewise to Pluto. and he that puts all upon adventures. it multiplieth riches exceedingly. Riches gotten by service. and not always in fact. and upon the buyer. The improvement of the ground. doth oftentimes break and come to poverty: it is good. though one of the worst. that commonly grindeth double. that it is in imagination. or to the public. have sold more men. Likewise glorious gifts and foundations. As for fishing for testaments and executorships (as Tacitus saith of Seneca. when men shall wait upon others' necessity. is as a lure to all the birds of prey round about. he cannot but increase mainly. are of a more doubtful nature. distribute cheerfully. Parsimony is one of the best. doth cause sometimes a wonderful overgrowth in riches. and moderate portions. when a man buys not to hold but to sell over again. as that whereby a man doth eat his bread.
the splinters of the staff of Montgomery going in at his beaver. When hempe is spun England's done: whereby it was generally conceived. Philippis iterum me videbis. but Aristander the soothsayer. and the rain washed it. nec sit terris Ultima Thule: a prophecy of the discovery of America. the succession that followed him for many years. before the year of '88. the night before he was slain. is verified only in the change of the name. that are empty. A prophecy. There was also another prophecy. out of the nape of his neck: and indeed. Philip of Macedon dreamed. that after the princes had reigned. As for Cleon's dream. Pena. of the Roman empire. Edward. Henry the Sixth of England. thanks be to God. nor of natural predictions. The trivial prophecy. nor of heathen oracles. Philip. which I heard when I was a child. under a false name. caused the King her husband's nativity to be calculated. that a golden head was growing. as they say. at which the Queen laughed. Et nati natorum. whereby he did expound it. I think it was a jest. Between the Baugh and the May.The Essays of Francis Bacon Of Prophecies I MEAN not to speak of divine prophecies. It was generally conceived to be meant. This is the lad that shall enjoy the crown. Seneca the tragedian hath these verses: 42 --Venient annis Saecula seris. I heard from one Dr. Tu quoque. where the sun made his body run with sweat. England should come to utter confusion. of the Spanish fleet that came in '88: for that the king of Spain's surname. and it was expounded of a maker of sausages. but only of prophecies that have been of certain memory. The black fleet of Norway. et qui nascentur ab illis. and the astrologer gave a judgment. that he should be killed in a duel. there went a prophecy in the East. and Apollo anointed him. Octogesimus octavus mirabilis annus. When that that is come and gone. Tiphysque novos Detegat orbes. in his tent. et ingens Pateat Tellus. for that the King's style. that the Queen Mother. told him his wife was with child. It was. To-morrow thou and thy son shall be with me. In Vespasian's time. dreamed that Jupiter bathed her father. Brutus. is Norway. and Queen Elizabeth was in the flower of her years. thinking her husband to be above challenges and duels: but he was slain upon a course at tilt. was thought likewise accomplished in the sending of that great fleet. which. degustabis imperium. For after wars shall you have none. yet Tacitus expounds it of Vespasian. said of Henry the Seventh. as it seems. that he was crucified in an open place. When I was in France. Domitian dreamed. he sealed up bis wife's belly. . though not in number. when he was a lad. that those that should come forth of Judea. and from hidden causes. is now no more of England but of Britain. for which we strive. Homer hath these verses: At domus AEneae cunctis dominabitur oris. that he was devoured of a long dragon. that troubled him exceedingly. quibus Oceanus Vincula rerum laxet. which had the principal letters of that word hempe (which were Henry. A phantasm that appeared to M. which I do not well understand. being the greatest in strength. and Elizabeth). who was given to curious arts. Galba. and it came to pass. Mary. was. Saith the Pythonissa to Saul. said to him. should reign over the world: which though it may be was meant of our Savior. The daughter of Polycrates. There shall be seen upon a day. made golden times. and gave him water. because men do not use to seal vessels. The prediction of Regiomontanus. that his wife should be barren. Tiberius said to Galba. England build houses of lime and stone. of all that ever swam upon the sea.
if the affairs require it. if it be not stopped. and never mark when they miss. He that seeketh to be eminent amongst able men. the spreading. As for the pulling of them down. Honor hath three things in it: the vantage ground to do good. as are more sensible of . hath a great task. My judgment is. because he cannot see about him. that almost all of them. and be. they become secretly discontent. But I have set down these few only. Generally. to keep things steady. to ambitions men. but it is. it may precipitate their designs. lieth by the favorite. and by idle and crafty brains merely contrived and feigned. that mounts and mounts. is to balance them by others. of all others. except he be like a seeled dove. is an honest man. and cannot have his way. The third and last (which is the great one) is. of certain credit. as proud as they. As that of Seneca's verse. but that is ever good for the public. or state. in pulling down the greatness of any subject that overtops. which. the approach to kings and principal persons. than that other. than grown cunning. the ambition to prevail in great things. in being screens to princes in matters of danger and envy. of favors and disgraces. in the pulling down of Sejanus. after the event past. Of ambitions. to appear in every thing. that plots to be the only figure amongst ciphers. and the raising of a man's own fortunes. when things go backward. But since we have said. and predictions of astrology. and ought to serve but for winter talk by the fireside. Since. because it cannot be without inconvenience. for example. it is fit we speak. that men mark when they hit. especially if you include dreams. and if they be rather harsh of nature. for that breeds confusion. it is good not to use such natures at all. there resteth to speak. As for the having of them obnoxious to ruin. it mought encourage one to turn it to a prediction. in a wood. But he. and look upon men and matters with an evil eye. is in no sort to be despised. they are rather busy than dangerous. as Tiberius used Marco. than great in dependences. is a wise prince. There is also great use of ambitious men. which coveteth divination. full of alacrity. let princes and states choose such ministers. There is less danger of them. and to take a soldier without ambition. The second is. For if they rise not with their service. in their greatness. that they may be less dangerous. and his Atlanticus. which is an humor that maketh men active. and that prince. how they are to be bridled. to have favorites. of them. Though when I say despised. and still get forward. it may do well. a prince may animate and inure some meaner persons. to be as it were scourges. if they use ambitious men. But yet it is less danger. That that hath given them grace. it were good not to use men of ambitious natures. There is use also of ambitious men. in what cases they are of necessity. For so much was then subject to demonstration. For when the way of pleasuring. but if they be stout and daring. or publishing. So ambitious men. Of Ambition AMBITION is like choler. for no man will take that part. so as they be still progressive and not retrograde. Another means to curb them. I mean it as for belief. and are best pleased. it is impossible any other should be overgreat. be they never so ambitious. dispenseth with the rest. whereby they may not know what to expect. being infinite in number. continually. that can discern of these intentions in another that aspireth. is to pull off his spurs. But if it be stopped. which is the worst property in a servant of a prince. when he aspireth. and stirring. it is less harmful. they must be used in such cases. At the least. to handle it. to make their service fall with them. for without that ballast. and some credit. earnest. have been impostures. they will take order. if they find the way open for their rising. to suppress them. and displeasuring. than gracious and popular: and if they be rather new raised. as they do generally also of dreams. and I see many severe laws made. a weakness in princes. if they be of fearful natures. or obscure traditions. and fortified. the best remedy against ambitious great-ones. Good commanders in the wars must be taken. It is counted by some. and prove dangerous. to have an ambitious man stirring in business. For they have done much mischief. the ship will roll too much. and mars business. than if they be noble. if they be of mean birth. that probable conjectures.The Essays of Francis Bacon 43 There are numbers of the like kind. therefore. and that it may not be done with safety suddenly. but if they be checked in their desires. it becometh adust. that the globe of the earth had great parts beyond the Atlantic. many times turn themselves into prophecies. and thereby malign and venomous. that they ought all to be despised. for otherwise. for the use of their service. while the nature of man. He that hath the best of these intentions. First. is the decay of a whole age. except it be upon necessity. Therefore it is good for princes. the only way is the interchange. as it were. consisteth in three things. which mought be probably conceived not to be all sea: and adding thereto the tradition in Plato's Timaeus. thinks it no peril to foretell that which indeed they do but collect. But then there must be some middle counsellors.
The colors that show best by candle-light are white. especially in dialogues. to come amongst such serious observations. wherein the challengers make their entry. Several quires. are. Some sweet odors suddenly coming forth. Let the songs be loud and cheerful. Let the scenes abound with light. nymphs. and tourneys. are things of great beauty and pleasure. As for rich embroidery. then to go less in quantity. He that seeketh victory over his nature. as if one should. one of men. in such a company as there is steam and heat. As for angels. come from drinking healths. things of great pleasure and refreshment. and let them discern a busy nature. Turke. for they feed and relieve the eye. But enough of these toys. not nice or dainty. and with some strange changes. But chiefly. But yet. than daubed with cost. with great pleasure. and not respect petty wonderments. let the music of them be recreative. It is true. and such as become the person. to . the alterations of scenes. the glories of them are chiefly in the chariots. and makes it. camels. And generally let it be noted. for the first will make him dejected by often failings. sometimes overcome. soldiers. give great pleasure. not dancing (for that is a mean and vulgar thing). Let the suits of the masquers be graceful. and accompanied with some broken music. statuas moving. maketh nature more violent in the return. that those things which I here set down. that are to come down from the scene. and the like. is a childish curiosity. to discontinue altogether. when the vizors are off. since princes will have such things. rustics. sprites. and taking the voice by catches. and therefore the victory hard. or spangs. antics. as they are of no great cost. but custom only doth alter and subdue nature. Let anti-masques not be long. specially colored and varied. turquets. without any drops falling. and a kind of sea-water-green. and the like. satyrs. first to stay and arrest nature in time. and such as love business rather upon conscience. they have been commonly of fools. Where nature is mighty. as swimmers do with bladders or rushes. or in the goodly furniture of their horses and armor. and the second will make him a small proceeder. And at the first let him practise with helps. pigmies. that it cannot perfectly discern. and let the masquers. carnation. to a draught at a meal. witches. is a thing of great state and pleasure. maketh nature less importune. Let the music likewise be sharp and loud. Of Masques AND TRIUMPHS THESE things are but toys. and resolution. Turning dances into figure. Of Nature IN MEN NATURE is often hidden. mariners'. addeth state and variety. Ethiops. seldom extinguished. no treble). is on the other side as unfit. but after a time let him practise with disadvantages. and the like. But all is nothing except the room be kept clear and neat. and the voices of the dialogue would be strong and manly (a base and a tenor. another of ladies. I say acting. it is better they should be graced with elegancy. Dancing to song. for it draws the eye strangely. if the practice be harder than the use. anthem-wise. to desire to see. or in the bravery of their liveries. the degrees had need be. nor too small tasks. as devils. doctrine and discourse.The Essays of Francis Bacon 44 duty than of using. and anything that is hideous. For justs. and barriers. baboons. are such as do naturally take the sense. before their coming down. as dancers do with thick shoes. than upon bravery. Double masques. and not chirpings or pulings. I understand it. that the song be in quire. it is not comical enough. Cupids. before it be full of the same object. For it breeds great perfection. beasts. Force. or in the devices of their entrance. placed aloft. and well placed. giants. Acting in song. to put them in anti-masques. let him not set himself too great. not after examples of known attires. like to him that would say over the four and twenty letters when he was angry. But if a man have the fortitude. have some motions upon the scene itself. and lastly. and the ditty high and tragical. and the ditty fitted to the device. and oes. so they are of most glory. or any other. especially if they be drawn with strange beasts: as lions. placed one over against another. it is lost and not discerned. though by often prevailings. in forbearing wine. from a willing mind. bears. hath an extreme good grace. wild-men. so it be quietly and without noise.
put up a petition to the deputy. We see also the reign or tyranny of custom. turned from a cat to a woman. to hear men profess. let him take no care for any set times. in effect. were wont to be scourged upon the altar of Diana. for there is no affectation. of ancient time. is made equipollent to custom. whereby to set it right. where the contrary extreme is no vice. that he might be hanged in a withe. multum incola fuit anima mea. a man should not rest upon the fierceness of any man's nature. whose natures sort with their vocations. to obtain good customs. be great. and then do. In studies. as Machiavel well noteth (though in an evil-favored instance). they do not affect. let him set hours for it. and engines moved only by the wheels of custom. nor a Baltazar Gerard. or studies. protest. or put himself often to it. for penance. Certainly custom is most perfect. in youth than afterwards. because it had been so used. Nay. but take such an one. runs either to herbs or weeds. Let not a man force a habit upon himself. But Machiavel knew not of a Friar Clement. A man's nature. both upon mind and body. are as firm as butchers by occupation. just as they have done before. but whatsoever is agreeable to his nature. be ever in practice. and in a new case or experiment. But let not a man trust his victory over his nature. are much according to their inclination. but their deeds. that late learners cannot so well take the ply. and not in an halter. and prepared to receive continual amendment. and so sacrifice themselves by fire. the wives strive to be burned. till a mouse ran before her. Many examples may be put of the force of custom. as custom. too far. or his resolute undertakings. insomuch as a man would wonder. in languages. They are happy men. yet his rule holdeth still. who sat very demutely at the board's end. till they be engaged with hard ice. There be monks in Russia. dedoluitque semel. Like as it was with AEsop's damsel. as hath had his hands formerly in blood. with former rebels. according to their learning and infused opinions. and destroy the other. but with some intermission. to all feats of activity and motions. 45 Neither is the ancient rule amiss. but by seasonable intermissions. for his thoughts will fly to it. so as the spaces of other business. that is the best: Optimus ille animi vindex laedentia pectus Vincula qui rupit. in passion. nor the engagement of words. what it is. for that putteth a man out of his precepts. in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's time of England. the predominancy of custom is everywhere visible. let men by all means endeavor. since custom is the principal magistrate of man's life. nor a Jaureguy. and votary resolution. engage. let a man either avoid the occasion altogether. there is no trusting to the force of nature. with a perpetual continuance. So we see. that will sit a whole night in a vessel of water. will suffice. are after as they have been accustomed. The lads of Sparta. the tongue is more pliant to all expressions and sounds. are not so forcible. understanding it. upon the occasion or temptation. In other things. when they converse in those things. Of Custom AND EDUCATION MEN'S thoughts. and induce one habit of both. with the corpses of their husbands. for there custom leaveth him. Therefore. company comforteth. give great words. their discourse and speeches. and yet revive. the force of custom copulate and conjoined and collegiate. otherwise they may say. but have kept themselves open. whatsoever a man commandeth upon himself. an Irish rebel condemned. Only superstition is now so well advanced. which is. the joints are more supple. therefore let him seasonably water the one. For there example teacheth. that for the achieving of a desperate conspiracy. even in matter of blood. I remember. but an early custom. he shall as well practise his errors. except it be corroborate by custom. A man's nature is best perceived in privateness. as a wand. nor a Ravillac. for nature will lay buried a great time. is far greater. And therefore. as his abilities. as if they were dead images. that have not suffered themselves to fix. to bend nature. and there is no means to help this. that he may be little moved with it. But if the force of custom simple and separate. which is exceeding rare. to a contrary extreme. emulation . that men of the first blood.The Essays of Francis Bacon enfranchise himself at once. nor to the bravery of words. except it be in some minds. His instance is. and if a man that is not perfect. of themselves. without so much as queching. Therefore. The Indians (I mean the sect of their wise men) lay themselves quietly upon a stock of wood. For it is true. For both the pause reinforceth the new onset. that nature. when it beginneth in young years: this we call education.
whose fortunes are like Homer's verses. are now applied to the ends. I say this only. which was. Some others. besides. And that this shoulld be. no doubt it is much. but giving light together. That the usurer breaketh the first law. occasion fitting virtue. which have no name. So Sylla chose the name of Felix. when there be not stonds nor restiveness in a man's nature. they will throw in. Certainly the great multiplication of virtues upon human nature. and it be but for her daughters. and the like. have made suspicious and cunning propositions of banks. such as a man would little think. in sudore vultus tui comedes panem tuum. favor. But the misery is. For when a man placeth his thoughts without himself. that he had versatile ingenium. An hasty fortune maketh an enterpriser and remover (the French hath it better. Felicity breedeth. use to ascribe them to Providence and Fortune. yet she is not invisible. but there be secret and hidden virtues. in sudore vultus alieni. is like the Milken Way in the sky. When they speak of one that cannot do amiss. Overt and apparent virtues. because they do judaize. the first within a man's self. and not too much of the honest. or rather faculties and customs. desemboltura. And the most frequent of external causes is. entreprenant. Fortune had no part. fortunam sibi facturus videretur) falleth upon that. end infortunate. For so Livy (after he had described Cato Major in these words. For commonwealths. were never fortunate. for so they may the better assume them: and. death of others. as Plutarch saith of Timoleon's fortune. In illo viro tantum robur corporis et animi fuit. that usury is a concessum propter duritiem cordis. So Caesar said to the pilot in the tempest. as by others' errors. Faber quisque fortunae suae. Therefore if a man look sharply and attentively. for since there must be borrowing and lending. bring forth praise. neither can they be. because his plough goeth every Sunday. For no man prospers so suddenly. discovery of men's estates. he goeth not his own way. in respect of that of Agesilaus or Epaminondas. and not of Magnus. that he hath Poco di matto. and scarce discerned virtues. that was made for mankind after the fall. Fortune is to be honored and respected. into his other conditions. resteth upon societies well ordained and disciplined. the latter in others towards him. certain deliveries of a man's self. than to have a little of the fool. and in this. Confidence and Reputation. But chiefly. as they will not lend freely. usury must be permitted. opportunity. Caesarem portas. often interlaced this speech. but outward accidents conduce much to fortune. That the usurer is the drone. That usurers should have orange-tawny bonnets. saith the poet. the mould of a man's fortune is in his own hands. least to be desired. Certainly there be. do nourish virtue grown but do not much mend the deeds. that the folly of one man.The Essays of Francis Bacon quickeneth. The way of fortune. Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent. to be the care of the higher powers. which is the tithe. Of Fortune 46 IT CANNOT be denied. he shall see Fortune: for though she be blind. that the most effectual means. And it hath been noted. he undertook afterwards. and good governments. The Italians note some of them. after he had. It is written that Timotheus the Athenian. not seen asunder. For those two. it is greatness in a man. that bring forth fortune. in a man's self. that make men fortunate. glory raiseth: so as in such places the force of custom is in his exaltation. or remuant). keep way with the wheels of his fortune. And certainly there be not two more fortunate properties. So are there a number of little. never prospered in anything. that have a slide and easiness more than the verses of other poets. is the fortune of another. The Spanish name. the devil should have God's part. All wise men. Therefore extreme lovers of their country or masters. Serpens nisi serpentem comederit non fit draco. but the exercised fortune maketh the able man. That it is against nature for money to beget money. to decline the envy of their own virtues. and other inventions. that Virgil speaketh of. that those who ascribe openly too much to their own wisdom and policy. ut quocunque loco natus esset. partly expresseth them. and men are so hard of heart. but that the wheels of his mind. But few have spoken of usury . et fortunam ejus. That the usurer is the greatest Sabbath-breaker. They say that it is a pity. in the account he gave to the state of his government. not. Of Usury MANY have made witty invectives against usury. which is a meeting or knot of a number of small stars.
The one. and new inventions. That there be two rates of usury: the one free. and it is impossible to conceive. and general for all.The Essays of Francis Bacon 47 usefully. all borrowers. therefore. because land purchased at sixteen years' purchase will yield six in the hundred. that there would be ordinary borrowing without profit. To serve both intentions. as a farmer cannot husband his ground so well. and others at uncertainties. by the balance of commodities and discommodities of usury. so as if the usurer either call in. breeds a public poverty. The fourth. and somewhat more. and warily to provide. improvements. that the tooth of usury be grinded. And it is to be noted. for the continuing and quickening of trade. Therefore to speak of the abolishing of usury is idle. All states have ever had it. Let the rate be. may be either weighed out or culled out. into a few hands. if borrowing be cramped. and reiglement. For the usurer being at certainties. at the end of the game. The second. of mortgages and bonds. The third and last is. that it makes fewer merchants. men's necessities would draw upon them a most sudden undoing. for it is certain that the greatest part of trade is driven by young merchants. his money. in one kind or rate. to invite moneyed men to lend to the merchants. presently. be he merchant. to be free and current. the commodities of usury are. that the good. I remember a cruel moneyed man in the country. with merchandizing. for by that means. being the most lucrative. wherein money would be stirring. shall have some ease by this reformation. than take five in the hundred. if he sit at great usury. industrious and profitable improvements. and let that rate be proclaimed. or state. the other. that it beats down the price of land. whereas usury doth but gnaw upon them. somewhat more easy than that he used formerly to pay. and ever a state flourisheth. or other. Secondly. which ebb or flow. or if they do. to certain persons. in process of time. for the employment of money. first. two things are to be reconciled. from any general stop or dryness. that the trade of merchandize. it will ease the common borrower. First. The third is incident to the other two. how the discommodities of it may be best avoided. be reduced to five in the hundred. the incommodities and commodities of usury. . to take any penalty for the same. that while we make forth to that which is better. other contracts not so. and in certain places of merchandizing. it will little mend the matter: for either men will not take pawns without use. and let the state shut itself out. but the merchant will be to seek for money. that it is a vanity to conceive. and usury waylays both. yields but five. the number of inconveniences that will ensue. This will ease infinite borrowers in the country. it keeps us from forfeitures. The discommodities of usury are. of usury. so the merchant cannot drive his trade so well. especially having been used to greater profit. The fifth. This will preserve borrowing. which. and the commodities retained. It appears. or keep back. that were it not for this easy borrowing upon interest. that would say. that there be left open a means. Let it be no bank or common stock. they will look precisely for the forfeiture. but would in great part be employed upon merchandizing. that howsoever usury in some respect hindereth merchandizing. most of the money will be in the box. because many will rather venture in that kind. For if you reduce usury to one low rate. whereas this rate of interest. raise the price of land. bad markets would swallow them quite up. For were it not for this lazy trade of usury. is chiefly either merchandizing or purchasing. the other under license only. if it were not for this slug. and let it be with the cautions following. that it is the canker and ruin of many men's estates. the way would be briefly thus. a great stand of trade. or whosoever. For. This by like reason will encourage. and so. that it bringeth the treasure of a realm. let there be certain persons licensed. a less and a greater. except you introduce two several sorts of usury. that it doth dull and damp all industries. may bear usury at a good rate. we meet not with that which is worse. if he sit at a great rent. So as that opinion must be sent to Utopia. even with the merchant himself. to lend to known merchants. The sixth. This cannot be done. money would not he still. To speak now of the reformation. and edge. On the other side. upon usury at a higher rate. yet in some other it advanceth it. that it makes poor merchants. It is good to set before us. First. there will ensue. in good part. upon borrowing at interest. and that is the decay of customs of kings or states. which is the vena porta of wealth in a state. The last. in that they would be forced to sell their means (be it lands or goods) far under foot. when wealth is more equally spread. let usury in general. As for mortgaging or pawning. The second is. that it bite not too much. The devil take this usury. This will.
that will neither stop nor turn. because vision. pursue some few principles. while men in age are actors. who afterwards waxed stupid. more divinely. and.The Essays of Francis Bacon 48 but every man be master of his own money. Of the latter. such as is a fluent and luxuriant speech. but they will hardly be brooked. but restrained to certain principal cities and towns of merchandizing. embrace more than they can hold. in the conduct and manage of actions. without consideration of the means and degrees. and your old men shall dream dreams. by connivance. and favor and popularity. and great and violent desires and perturbations. If it be objected that this doth in a sort authorize usury. plenam. will not acknowledge or retract them. and others. is a clearer revelation. than a dream. to gains of hazard. of all the list. than to judge. neque idem decebat. have an over-early ripeness in their years. it will no whit discourage the lender. in regard of certain suspicions. which they have chanced upon absurdly. The third is of such. upon the text. For there is a youth in thoughts. that more might have been done. may correct the defects of both. A certain rabbin. imo furoribus. nor put them into unknown hands. Idem manebat. of whom Livy saith in effect. than in age. Let these licensed lenders be in number indefinite. and. may be old in hours. or sooner. which fadeth betimes. and fitter for new projects. On the other side. Young men. lastly. than in the virtues of the will and affections. And yet the invention of young men. for then they will be hardly able to color other men's moneys in the country: so as the license of nine will not suck away the current rate of five. for example. abuseth them. because the virtues of either age. almost. heat and vivacity in age. is of those that have some natural dispositions which have better grace in youth. Men of age object too much. Ultima primis cedebant. and age doth profit rather in the powers of understanding. because authority followeth old men. like an unready horse. for if the abatement be but small. and. Juventutem egit erroribus. perhaps youth will have the pre-eminence. Young men are fitter to invent. but content themselves with a mediocrity of success. And yet he was the ablest emperor. was in some places but permissive. but not age: so Tully saith of Hortensius. which becomes youth well. the edge whereof is soon turned. and go from certain gains. but in new things. and good for succession. Gaston de Foix. the answer is. care not to innovate. Generally. The errors of young men. than for counsel. use extreme remedies at first. Let the state be answered some small matter for the license. till they have passed the meridian of their years. is an excellent composition for business. As was Scipio Africanus. as it were. fly to the end. and imaginations stream into their minds better. of whom it is said. is more lively than that of old. inferreth that young men. if he have lost no time. But that happeneth rarely. are the ruin of business. whose books are exceeding subtle. as well as in ages. but the errors of aged men. not so wise as the second. in things that fall within the compass of it. which draws unknown inconveniences. Of Youth AND AGE A MAN that is young in years. These are. Your young men shall see visions. that it is better to mitigate usury. that took before ten or nine in the hundred. Natures that have much heat. for no man will send his moneys far off. For the experience of age. as take too high a strain at the first. A second sort. than for settled business. as age hath for the politic. But for the moral part. first. amount but to this. by declaration. such as was Hermogenes the rhetorician. and the rest left to the lender. consult too long. For he. and seldom drive business home to the full period. and are magnanimous. the more it intoxicateth. But reposed natures may do well in youth. such as have brittle wits. for that will be good for the present. . As it is seen in Augustus Caesar. fitter for execution. adventure too little. good for extern accidents. repent too soon. stir more than they can quiet. There be some. are not ripe for action. more than tract of years can uphold. directeth them. that which doubleth all errors. that young men may be learners. will sooner descend to eight in the hundred than give over his trade of usury. And certainly. Certainly it is good to compound employments of both. youth is like the first cogitations. which before. as it was with Julius Caesar and Septimius Severus. than to suffer it to rage. Not that I altogether mislike banks. are admitted nearer to God than old. the more a man drinketh of the world. youth. Cosmus Duke of Florence.
Leave the goodly fabrics of houses.The Essays of Francis Bacon Of Beauty 49 VIRTUE is like a rich stone. were all high and great spirits. for as nature hath done ill by them. There is no excellent beauty. A man shall see faces. whereof the one. I think. Kings in ancient times (and at this present in some countries) were wont to put great trust in eunuchs. best plain set. That is the best part of beauty. Therefore it is good to consider of deformity. But yet their trust towards them. Not but I think a painter may make a better face than ever was. than good magistrates and officers. because they that are envious towards all are more obnoxious and officious. Philip le Belle of France. that if you examine them part by part. Of Building HOUSES are built to live in. it maketh virtue shine. but yet certainly again. . as persons that they think they may. as in their own defence. Edward the Fourth of England. by a general habit. and considering the youth. till they see them in possession. Therefore all deformed persons. the other. and where nature erreth in the one. and an age a little out of countenance. So that upon the matter. pulchrorum autumnus pulcher. Ubi peccat in uno. and for the most part it makes a dissolute youth. Still the ground is. or Albert Durer. to watch and observe the weakness of others. but the painter that made them. so do they by nature. with others. And therefore they prove accomplished. in a body that is comely. but as a cause. by the sun of discipline and virtue. and not by rule. and so they have their revenge of nature. in man. nor the first sight of the life. except where both may be had. and yet the most beautiful men of their times. and therefore let it not be marvelled. if sometimes they prove excellent persons. to rescue and deliver himself from scorn. who build them with small cost. than virtue. that very beautiful persons are otherwise of great virtue. Zanger the son of Solyman.) which are easy to corrupt. and good wbisperers. though persons in years seem many times more amiable. A man cannot tell whether Apelles. Such personages. Of Deformity DEFORMED persons are commonly even with nature. Certainly there is a consent. and a necessity in the frame of his body. is more than that of color. committeth himself to prison. than in labor to produce excellency. the stars of natural inclination are sometimes obscured. an election touching the frame of his mind. not as a sign. AEsop. and Socrates may go likewise amongst them. Beauty is as summer fruits. as never believing they should be in possibility of advancement. seek to free themselves from scorn. and yet altogether do well. that doth induce contempt. He that builds a fair house. she ventureth in the other. though not of delicate features. if they be of spirit. which seldom faileth of the effect. you shall find never a good. and especially of this kind. upon an ill seat. certainly it is no marvel. Gasca. therefore let use be preferred before uniformity. at pleasure. In beauty. despise: and it layeth their competitors and emulators asleep. but not of great spirit. than beauty of aspect. and study rather behavior. for beauty only. and cannot last. being for the most part (as the Scripture saith) void of natural affection. would please nobody. for no youth can be comely but by pardon. but in process of time. hath rather been as to good spials. no. deformity is an advantage to rising. which a picture cannot express. and vices blush. hath also a perpetual spur in himself. which is more deceivable. as if nature were rather busy. are extreme bold. And much like is the reason of deformed persons. in their superiors. not to err. they will. But because there is. Titus Vespasianus. and that of decent and gracious motion. that they may have somewhat to repay. but he must do it by a kind of felicity (as a musician that maketh an excellent air in music). Neither is it almost seen. in a great wit. Ismael the Sophy of Persia. as to make up the comeliness. periclitatur in altero. and not to look on. as being exposed to scorn. which must be either by virtue or malice. more than that of favor. towards one. and surely virtue is best. it quencheth jealousy towards them. to the enchanted palaces of the poets. if it light well. Also it stirreth in them industry. between the body and the mind. would make a personage by geometrical proportions. But this holds not always: for Augustus Caesar. Whosoever hath anything fixed in his person. that of favor. President of Peru. as was Agesilaus. were the more trifler. First. that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. Again. and that hath rather dignity of presence. If it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion. by taking the best parts out of divers faces. to make one excellent. Alcibiades of Athens.
said. but three sides of it. with a cross. We will therefore describe a princely palace. a side for the banquet. cast into turrets. that ever change their abode towards the winter? To pass from the seat. and shelter. into a hall and a chapel (with a partition between). want of level grounds. and. but parts of the front. I would have on the side of the banquet. that you may have rooms. with butteries and pantries. as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap of ground. want of prospect. ill markets. For it is strange to see. and the same tower to be divided into rooms. that one cannot tell . The row of return on the banquet side. with images of wood. let it be all stately galleries: in which galleries let there be three. now in Europe. if you will consult with Momus. I speak not of many more. shade. in the midst of the front. I understand both these sides to be not only returns. and finely railed in. and the wind gathereth as in troughs. where a man hath a great living laid together. I say you cannot have a perfect palace except you have two several sides. But only some side alleys. which is the height of the lower room. and a side for the household. having the commodity of navigable rivers. of eighteen foot high apiece. placed at equal distance. and to be uniform without. at times of triumphs. but rather proportionable to the lower building. want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting. too remote. fair staircases. sunk under ground. and much cold in winter. but likewise where the air is unequal. environed with higher hills round about it. Lucullus answered Pompey well. joineth them together on either hand. But this to be.railed with statuas interposed. and races. but to have at the further end. which lurcheth all provisions. Let the court not be paved.The Essays of Francis Bacon 50 Neither do I reckon it an ill seat. Beyond this front. and rooms so large and lightsome. and those not to go all the length. both fair. or too near them. the perfection. too near the sea. as it is spoken of in the book of Hester. but how do you in winter? Lucullus answered. and a book he entitles Orator. And so much for the front. First. and the other for dwelling. and yet scarce a very fair room in them. therefore. chambers of presence and ordinary entertainments. and likewise some privy kitchens. and fine colored windows of several works. being kept shorn. On the household side. and the latter. and the like. with some bed-chambers. in one of his houses. both of good state and bigness. so it is good to know them. for that striketh up a great heat in summer. as shall be thought fit. though severally partitioned within. a fair and large cellar. and if he have several dwellings. that he sort them so that what he wanteth in the one. making a brief model thereof. if you do not point any of the lower rooms. I wish it divided at the first. and warm for winter. Cast it also. he may find in the other. or preparing place. or five. the one for feasts and triumphs. but ill ways. too far off from great cities. without thorough lights on the sides. For otherwise. and under it a room for a dressing. On the other side. which is the household side. but not too near shorn. The stairs likewise to the upper rooms. that. want of water. do you not think me as wise as some fowl are. to the house itself. and think of them. Why. and that suddenly. delivers the precepts of the art. a winter and a summer parlor. hawking. such huge buildings as the Vatican and Escurial and some others be. and let all three sides be a double house. so as you shall have. Surely an excellent place for summer. and maketh everything dear. and a very fair landing-place at the top. And under these rooms. and to be on both sides of a great and stately tower. both for forenoon and afternoon. or the discommodity of their overflowing. who writes books De Oratore. But those towers. you shall have the servants' dinner after your own: for the steam of it. ill neighbors. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass. want of fruitfulness. that a man may take as many as he can. one only goodly room above stairs. in front. cast into a brass color. whereof the former. both for summer and winter. that you may have rooms from the sun. is there to be a fair court. for a dining place of servants. Neither is it ill air only that maketh an ill seat. as it is impossible perhaps to find together. and where he is scanted: all which. As for the tower. when he saw his stately galleries. are not to be of the height of the front. as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. I would have it two stories. and mixture of grounds of several natures. Only I understand the height of the first stairs to be sixteen foot. want of wood. of some forty foot high. and the quarters to graze. on the outside. of a far lower building than the front. And in all the four corners of that court. which may hinder business. fine cupolas in the length of it. shady for summer. only where the air is unwholesome. above the two wings. and not within the row of buildings themselves. we will do as Cicero doth in the orator's art. as it were. and a goodly leads upon the top. whereby the heat of the sun is pent in. will come up as in a tunnel. who. let them be upon a fair open newel.
the French marigold. periwinkle. rosemary. I do hold it. and fairly garnished. the wallflower. four in the court. wardens. doth scarce pass the window. or estivation. but enclosed with terraces. the pale daffodil. to be out of the sun or cold. and not with arches below. as high as the first story. melocotones. before you come to the front. for that which would strike almost through the room. And only have opening and windows towards the garden. that when ages grow to civility and elegancy. and a man shall ever see. the lime-tree in blossom. A green court plain. the white. the white thorn in leaf. to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. antecamera. Upon the ground story. with some low galleries. except the musk. there come violets. which then blossoms. which is to be environed with the garden on all sides. pine-apple-trees. let it be turned to a grotto. flowerdelices. fir-trees. with chambers. and besides. lavender. warm set. And let there be a fountain. save that you must have. in the royal ordering of gardens. upon pillars. in respect of the uniformity towards the street). the daisy. on the three sides. herba muscaria. the damson and plum-trees in blossom. and cloistered on the inside. yew. I hold them of good use (in cities. on the sides only. germander. the peach-tree in blossom. Of Gardens G0D Almighty first planted a garden. let there be an inward court. men come to build stately sooner than to garden finely. Beyond this court. pears. vineflowers. In September come grapes. This upon the second story. codlins. richly hanged. At both corners of the further side. lilium convallium. the cherry-tree in blossom. some fountains running in divers places from the wall. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides. apples. but more garnished. but not to be built. ivy. if they be stoved. bullaces. honeysuckles. and be level upon the floor. and recamera joining to it. the purple. and upon the third story likewise. they keep both the wind and sun off. upon the wall. and the blue. no whit sunken under ground. and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. the cowslip. lemon-trees. the cornelian-tree in blossom. specially the blushpink. crocus vernus. the yellow daffodil. and the latter part of November. flags. and to be paved as the other court was. there ought to be gardens. And thus much for the model of the palace. columbine. in the midst of this court. flos Africanus. the early tulippa. medlars. and a rich cupola in the midst. rasps. roses cut or removed to come late. early pears and plums in fruit. with pillars. three courts. In July come gilliflowers of all varieties. as if gardening were the greater perfection. As for offices. chamairis. to avoid all dampishness. both the yellow and the grey. lavender in flowers. cloistered on all sides. leaded aloft. roses of all kinds. nor yet enclosed with a naked wall. let there be two delicate or rich cabinets. and myrtles. if the prince or any special person should be sick. cherry-tree in fruit. bugloss. glazed with crystalline glass. open. strawberries. upright do better. And indeed it is the purest of human pleasures. for all the months in the year. to make a square with the front. I wish that there may be. For inbowed windows. and sweet marjoram. upon decent and beautiful arches. indeed. by way of return. daintily paved. poppies of all colors. the mezereon-tree. you must take such things as are green all winter: holly. musk-roses. cypress-trees. For December. with a wall about it.The Essays of Francis Bacon 51 where to become. the French honeysuckle. the stock-gilliflower. the tulippa. Whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary. cornelians. or a place of shade. of all colors. apricocks. On the under story. But let them be but few. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit. which are the earliest. hollyhocks. In April follow the double white violet. with the white flower. towards the garden. and a third court. musk-melons. and January. a second court of the same. ribes. without which. bed-chamber. hyacinthus orientalis. the lilac-tree. orangetrees. For March. monks-hoods. and lilies of all natures. of the same square and height. anemones. the apple-tree in blossom. to pass from them to the palace itself. and in the inside. for they be pretty retiring places for conference. and the end for privy galleries. buildings and palaces are but gross handiworks. nectarines. berberries. sweet-briar. for the latter part of January and February. with some fine avoidances. juniper. in which severally things of beauty may be then in season. filberds. a fair gallery. quinces. the almond-tree in blossom. which comes later. an open gallery. There followeth. specially the single blue. with little turrets. In May and June come pinks of all sorts. bays. if the place will yield it. fritellaria. It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man. or some fair work of statuas. figs in fruit. the sweet satyrian. In the upper gallery too. jennetings. In October and the beginning of November come services. primroses. upon pillars. or rather embellishments. rosemary-flowers. let them stand at distance. and . peaches. the double peony.
which yield a most excellent cordial smell. And I like well that four acres of ground be assigned to the green. for my part. especially the matted pink and clove gilliflower. You may have closer alleys. may deliver you. round. wildthyme. six to the heath. a green in the entrance. ground enough for diversity of side alleys. not passed by as the rest. upon the side grounds. and find nothing of their sweetness. and the main garden in the midst. which is to enclose the garden. encompassed on all the four sides with a stately arched hedge. and twelve to the main garden. and in some places. about the middle of April. in tarts. which I would have to be perfect circles. but none in the main garden. not at the hither end. a little turret. enough to receive a cage of birds: and over every space between the arches some other little figure. of either side the green. Roses. I leave it to variety of device. because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn. or full of work. which comes twice a year. That which above all others yields the sweetest smell in the air is the violet. because it will give you a fair alley in the midst. for letting your prospect upon this fair hedge from the green. Wherein I. But this hedge I intend to be raised upon a bank. and alleys. Of beanflowers I speak not. the contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground. so that you may walk by a whole row of them. Therefore you are to set whole alleys of them. it be not too busy. because they are field flowers. in great heat of the year or day. but my meaning is perceived. As for the making of knots or figures. I like well. burnet. with three ascents. with some chimneys neatly cast. not steep. therefore you are. therefore nothing is more fit for that delight. besides alleys on both sides. The garden is best to be square. without any bulwarks or embossments. and to be divided into three parts. 52 And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air (where it comes and goes like the warbling of music) than in the hand. like the dust of a bent. to have the pleasure when you walk or tread. and six foot broad. a heath or desert in the going forth. with broad plates of round colored glass gilt. yea though it be in a morning's dew. over every arch. with a belly. Then wall-flowers. that this square of the garden. Then the strawberry-leaves dying. but to leave on either side. as we have done of buildings). you may see as good sights. by which you may go in front upon a stately hedge. by going in the sun through the green. Over the arches let there be an entire hedge of some four foot high. and about Bartholomew-tide. you ought not to buy the shade in the garden. about twelve foot in height. but being trodden upon and crushed. and the whole mount to be thirty foot high. . But there must be no alleys with hedges. and the spaces between of the same dimension with the breadth of the arch. in the very middle. for the sun to play upon. advising nevertheless. the other. and upon the upper hedge. within the great hedge. with divers colored earths. so they be somewhat afar off. are fast flowers of their smells. it is a little dust. they be for children. The arches to be upon pillars of carpenter's work. of some ten foot high. that they may lie under the windows of the house on that side which the garden stands. four and four to either side. and watermints. Bays likewise yield no smell as they grow. framed also upon carpenter's work. nor sweet marjoram. But those which perfume the air most delightfully. Rosemary little. at either end of this great enclosure. Then the flowers of the lime-tree. spacious and fair. But because the alley will be long. and without too much glass. enough for four to walk abreast. specially the white double violet. Then sweet-briar. which are very delightful to be set under a parlor or lower chamber window. and. For the ordering of the ground. are three. Also I understand. many times. should not be the whole breadth of the ground. unto which the two covert alleys of the green. These particulars are for the climate of London. by which you may go in shade into the garden. Then the flower of vines. Then pinks and gilliflowers. as the place affords. that you may have ver perpetuum.The Essays of Francis Bacon such like. for letting your prospect from the hedge. nor at the further end. with some pretty pyramids. that whatsoever form you cast it into. damask and red. to plant a covert alley upon carpenter's work. and some fine banqueting-house. they be but toys. Little low hedges. first. than to know what be the flowers and plants that do best perfume the air. The green hath two pleasures: the one. do not like images cut out in juniper or other garden stuff. set all with flowers. a fair mount. I would also have the alleys. which grows upon the cluster in the first coming forth. of some six foot. fair columns upon frames of carpenter's work. but gently slope. Next to that is the musk-rose. For gardens (speaking of those which are indeed princelike. like welts. Then the honeysuckles. through the arches upon the heath. that is. I wish also.
So I have made a platform of a princely garden. berberries (but here and there. it is to be cleansed every day by the hand. some with red roses. some with germander. and arbors with seats. for shelter. as it never stay. For the first. some with bear's-foot: and the like low flowers. For as for shade. and withal embellished with colored glass. I do not deny. that gives a good flower to the eye. For these are sweet. and low. And this would be generally observed. leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high. gooseberries. and the ground set with violets. likewise. Part of which heaps. and no grass. and prosper in the shade. some with periwinkle. fed by a water higher than the pool. and the like). but nothing to health and sweetness. that they grow not out of course. and some wild vine amongst. but thin and sparingly. and set with fine flowers. are to be with standards of little bushes pricked upon their top. to keep out the wind. some with cowslips. doth well. but the air open and free. and making it rise in several forms (of feathers. because of going wet. or of marble. if you be disposed. there to walk. likewise. except they be of that largeness as they may be turfed. with fruit-trees. they be pretty things to look on. that the borders wherein you plant your fruit-trees. and part without. and not steep. in the heat of the year or day. lest they deceive the trees. . which was the third part of our plot. At the end of both the side grounds. but without fish. for the morning and the evening. not in any order. And for fine devices. by some equality of bores. and full of flies and frogs. As for the other kind of fountain. For the heath. or overcast days. of some thirty or forty foot square. as in ranges. partly by precept. and primroses. green or red or the like. I like them not. Besides that. juniper. canopies. as well upon the walls. that for the most part taking advice with workmen. some of them. I wish it to be framed. which is. some with sweet-williams red. holly. Also some steps up to it. or mud. and that no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary. In many of these alleys. and make the garden unwholesome. here and there. some with wild thyme. But the main point is the same which we mentioned in the former kind of fountain. sweetbriar. And these to be in the heath. that the main garden is for the more temperate parts of the year. being withal sweet and sightly. some with lilium convallium. private. but to leave the main garden so as it be not close. they are a great beauty and refreshment. either in the bowls or in the cistern. but some thickets made only of sweet-briar and honeysuckle. which we may call a bathing pool. But it is nothing for great princes. but these to be by no means set too thick. and in the heat of summer. Trees I would have none in it. that when the wind blows sharp you may walk as in a gallery. I like also little heaps. and delivered into it by fair spouts. and some pretty tufts of fruittrees. with no less cost set their things together. of arching water without spilling. and natural nesting. do well: but the main matter is so to convey the water. you are to fill them with variety of alleys. But these standards to be kept with cutting. and such like. I would have a mount of some pretty height. I would have you rest upon the alleys of the side grounds. and with images. And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both ends. and in this I have spared for no cost. the ornaments of images gilt. The standards to be roses. that the water be in perpetual motion. but nothing to the true pleasure of a garden. and some fine pavement about it. strawberries. wheresoever the sun be. because of the smell of their blossoms). encompassed also with fine rails of low statuas. bays.The Essays of Francis Bacon 53 For fountains. some with pinks. some with strawberries. but pools mar all. but to make account. and sometimes add statuas and such things for state and magnificence. red currants. that the water be never by rest discolored. the other a fair receipt of water. that the birds may have more scope. that it stay little. some with daisies. set in some decent order. drinking glasses. For aviaries. and these closer alleys must be ever finely gravelled. as much as may be. the sides likewise. it may admit much curiosity and beauty. and such things of lustre. or gather any mossiness or putrefaction. rosemary. and have living plants and bushes set in them. wherewith we will not trouble ourselves: as. you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts. You are to frame some of them. partly by drawing. in the nature of mole-hills (such as are in wild heaths). but some general lines of it. to give a full shade. that the bottom be finely paved. For the side grounds. to look abroad into the fields. but there should be some fair alleys ranged on both sides. to be set. which are in use. For the main garden. or slime. some with violets. to a natural wildness. be fair and large. not a model. and then discharged away under ground. Fountains I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water.
the start or first performance is all. except either the nature of the thing be such. To deal in person is good. and it is good to say little to them. In all negotiations of difficulty. and commonly exchange tales. and prevailed before. Factious followers are worse to be liked. or those that have interest in him. and the rest discontent. and so awe him. for they are officious. is to make them insolent. in things wherein you have employed them. it is better to choose men of a plainer sort. and bear tales of them. or in tender cases. you must either know his nature and fashions. for business that doth not well bear out itself. where there is no eminent odds in sufficiency. than those that are cunning. Men discover themselves in trust. many times. But the most honorable kind of following. which inquire the secrets of the house. with whom one deals afar off. with whom they range themselves. a man may not look to sow and reap at once. There is a kind of followers likewise. or his weakness and disadvantages. than to fall upon the point at first. is to be followed as one. or his ends. Ordinary followers ought to challenge no higher conditions. which must go before. when they would have somewhat done. and protection from wrongs. 0f Followers AND FRIENDS COSTLY followers are not to be liked. or else a man can persuade the other party. but which are wearisome. in base times. to contrive. Use also such persons as affect the business. recommendation. In choice of instruments. than countenance. and make him a return in envy. that we many times see between great personages. for that breeds confidence. where a man will reserve to himself liberty. lest while a man maketh his train longer. And yet. than with those that are where they would be. as commonly with inferiors. and they export honor from a man. out of other men's business. are in great favor. which a great person himself professeth (as of soldiers. Likewise glorious followers. And besides. at unawares. to interpret their speeches. or where it may be danger to be interrupted. as are fit for the matter. If you would work any man. which follow not upon affection to him. or else that he be counted the honester man. and desert. Use also such as have been lucky. and to report back again faithfully the success. may give him a direction how far to go. froward. It is true that in government. and such. not them alone which charge the purse. If a man deal with another upon conditions. are full of inconvenience. which are dangerous. Yet such men. and will help the matter in report for satisfaction's sake. and they will strive to maintain their prescription. Letters are good. hath ever been a thing civil. All practice is to discover. or heard by pieces. and well taken. for that quickeneth much. wherein they are employed. and so persuade him. active men are of more use than virtuous. The following by certain estates of men. where a man's eye. that apprehendeth to advance virtue. but must prepare business. it is better to take with the more passable. and so govern him. that are like to do that. and the like). who make themselves as trumpets of the commendation of those they follow. when a man's face breedeth regard. and absurd men. to him that hath been employed in the wars. and of necessity. upon the countenance of him with whom he speaketh. somewhat to grace themselves. he make his wings shorter. to speak truth. it is good to use men of one rank equally: for to countenance some extraordinarily. whereupon commonly ensueth that ill intelligence. or when it may serve for a man's justification afterwards to produce his own letter. either to disavow or to expound. In dealing with cunning persons. and by the mediation of a third than by a man's self. and cannot find an apt pretext. It is better dealing with men in appetite. and generally. except you mean to surprise him by some short question. being indeed espials. as bold men for expostulation. in passion. or to work. in all sorts of persons. for they taint business through want of secrecy. crafty men for inquiry and observation. which a man cannot reasonably demand. to others. when a man would draw an answer by letter back again. and importune in suits. but upon discontentment conceived against some other. fair-spoken men for persuasion. and that which they least look for. and so lead him. It is better to sound a person. that is committed to them. answerable to that. so it be without too much pomp or popularity. and so ripen it by degrees. even in monarchies. than with the more able. I reckon to be costly. . that he shall still need him in some other thing.we must ever consider their ends.The Essays of Francis Bacon Of Negotiating 54 IT IS generally better to deal by speech than by letter.
when that turn is served. is sometimes equal to the first grant. Of Studies STUDIES serve for delight. in favor. it is so much out of his reputation. and his own former favor. or take a second reward. and least of all between equals. will talk more boldly of those that are so great with them. or a right of desert. If affection lead a man to favor the less worthy in desert. and in some sort recompensed. and thereby wound their honor. for they are but a kind of poison. Secrecy in suits. consideration may be had of his trust. to use men with much difference and election is good. In suits of favor. in the meantime. as his letter. and private suits do putrefy the public good. is grown not only honorable. But timing of the suit is the principal. To take advice of some few friends. without care what become of the suit. To be governed (as we call it) by one is not safe. and perhaps judge of particulars. that intend not performance. is between superior and inferior. For expert men can execute. and full of change. for it makes men to be of the last impression. it is good to refer them to some friend of trust and judgment. Nay. To be ignorant of the value of a suit. is in discourse. To spend too much time in studies is sloth. for those. whether he may deal in them with honor: but let him choose well his referendaries. by some other mean. is in the judgment. Yet to be distracted with many is worse. but also gracious. for ornament. for it shows softness. or competitor. than these general contrivers of suits. not only in respect of the person that should grant it. for voicing them to be in forwardness. without depraving or disabling the better deserver. I say.The Essays of Francis Bacon 55 because they may claim a due. rather choose the fittest mean. is a great mean of obtaining. is simplicity. and for ability. not to make too much of any man at the first. may discourage some kind of suitors. but the general counsels. But contrariwise. Many good matters. There are no worse instruments. than the greatest mean. they will be content to win a thank. of the suitor's hopes. that if intelligence of the matter could not otherwise have been had. to the end to gratify the adverse party. with a full purpose to let them fall. If affection lead a man to favor the wrong side in justice. Nothing is thought so easy a request to a great person. is ever honorable. and reporting the success barely. but the party left to his other means. for it maketh the persons preferred more thankful. are undertaken with bad minds. and disposition of business. but in respect of those. for else he may be led by the nose. that would not censure or speak ill of a man immediately. for he. to make other men's business a kind of entertainment. and the plots and marshalling of affairs. to scandal and disreputation. let him do it. come best. because one cannot hold out that proportion. or at least to make use. from those that are learned. and the vale best discovereth the hill. Of Suitors MANY ill matters and projects are undertaken. whereof they could not otherwise have apt pretext. and rather them that deal in certain things. Iniquum petas ut aequum feras is a good rule. for his discovery. Suitors are so distasted with delays and abuses. which are like to cross it. but crafty minds. Some take hold of suits. a man were better rise in his suit. some undertake suits. In suits which a man doth not well understand. let him rather use his countenance to compound the matter. if it be a suit of petition. advantage be not taken of the note. and gives a freedom. or. the first coming ought to take little place: so far forth. and in challenging no more thanks than one hath deserved. that plain dealing. if a man show himself neither dejected nor discontented. and yet. Surely there is in some sort a right in every suit. as well as to be ignorant of the right thereof. which never mean to deal effectually in them. . one by one. or to make an information. that may report. that would have ventured at first to have lost the suitor. and for ability. is in privateness and retiring. Let a man. will not in the conclusion lose both the suitor. which was wont to be magnified. but by him. The reparation of a denial. in the choice of his mean. whose fortunes may comprehend the one the other. in denying to deal in suits at first. either a right of equity. where a man hath strength of favor: but otherwise. to bring in their own. Some embrace suits. than to carry it. for lookers-on many times see more than gamesters. That that is. I mean not only corrupt minds. It is good discretion. only for an occasion to cross some other. for ornament. than those that are general. is want of conscience. Timing. and the rest more officious: because all is of favor. generally. There is little friendship in the world. and infection. to public proceedings. if it be not in a good cause. but if they see there may be life in the matter. Their chief use for delight. if it be a suit of controversy. but doth quicken and awake others.
according to the respect of factions. Yet even in beginners. and extracts made of them by others. there is no stond or impediment in the wit. which is most passable with the other. commonly giveth best way. Nay. is a principal part of policy. riding for the head. to make judgment wholly by their rules. It is commonly seen. whereas contrariwise. he had need have a great memory. So every defect of the mind. and studies themselves. These examples are of wars. won by observation. that they have the first sure. that are more moderate. they prove ciphers and cashiered. Antonius and Octavianus brake and subdivided. if his wit be called away never so little. for many a man's strength is in opposition. that is. for they are cymini sectores. those that are seconds in factions. and neutral. and wise men use them. and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another. and he getteth all the thanks. let him study the mathematics. that men. that for a prince to govern his estate. then soon after. but when the senate's authority was pulled down. let him study the Schoolmen. and the meaner sort of books. and when that faileth. The lower and weaker faction. that meaneth to refer all to the greatness of his own house. They perfect nature. were better to maintain themselves indifferent. And therefore. conference a ready man. poets witty. the remaining subdivideth. but great men. others to be read. he had need have a present wit: and if he read little. are ever pernicious to monarchies: for they raise an obligation. for leagues within the state. and some few to be read wholly. to seem to know. but the same holdeth in private factions. like as diseases of the body. for when matters have stuck long in balancing. the winning of some one man casteth them. to adhere so moderately. and with diligence and attention. they hold it a little suspect in popes. to that by which they enter: thinking belike. if a man write little. Reading maketh a full man. or in dealing with correspondence to particular persons. Certainly in Italy. Mean men. lightly goeth away with it. with end to make use of both. Of Faction MANY have an opinion not wise. The faction or party of Antonius and Octavianus Caesar. and some few to be chewed and digested. except they be bounded in by experience. do give forth directions too much at large. do tire out a greater number. and make the king tanquam unus ex nobis. moral grave. When factions are carried too high and too violently. is the firmer in conjunction. in their rising. and above them. and the rest of the nobles of the senate (which they called Optimates) held out awhile. but to weigh and consider. how they side themselves. once placed. must adhere. Some books are to be tasted. but that is a wisdom without them. but may be wrought out by fit studies. may have a special receipt. if he confer little. Crafty men contemn studies. But I say not that the considerations of factions. it is a sign of weakness in princes. is to be neglected. that he doth not. as the faction between Lucullus. may have appropriate exercises. when they have often in their mouth Padre commune: and take it to be a sign of one. when the faction subdivideth. and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants. proceedeth not always of moderation. flashy things. Read not to contradict and confute. and now are ready for a new purchase. the mathematics subtile. shooting for the lungs and breast. nor to find talk and discourse. as he be a man of the one faction. is affectation. but not curiously. Histories make men wise. that have strength in themselves. and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering. prove principals. gentle walking for the stomach. simple men admire them. against Brutus and Cassius. one by one. he groweth out of use. some books are to be read only in parts. and . but many times also. is the humor of a scholar. by study. and wherein men of several factions do nevertheless agree. Some books also may be read by deputy. that a few that are stiff. he must begin again. The traitor in faction. held out likewise for a time. for in demonstrations. else distilled books are like common distilled waters. and it is often seen. but when Brutus and Cassius were overthrown. Caesar and Pompey soon after brake. the chiefest wisdom. If he be not apt to beat over matters. Bowling is good for the stone and reins. And therefore. for they teach not their own use. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences. but of a trueness to a man's self. Abeunt studia in mores. others to be swallowed. Kings had need beware. do many times. is either in ordering those things which are general. or for a great person to govern his proceedings. take in with the contrary faction. against the faction of Pompey and Caesar. paramount to obligation of sovereignty. that need proyning. nor to believe and take for granted.The Essays of Francis Bacon 56 to use them too much for ornament. but that would be only in the less important arguments. let him study 197 the lawyers' cases. as was to be seen in the League of France. logic and rhetoric able to contend. and make themselves as of a faction or party. When one of the factions is extinguished. and writing an exact man. The even carriage between two factions. he had need have much cunning. natural philosophy deep.
which may serve every man. He that considereth the wind. they have no sense of perceiving at all. Of Ceremonies. serve best with them. spreta conscientia. in praise and commendation of men. A wise man will make more opportunities. which is to be natural and unaffected. cometh but on festivals. and not upon facility. is to teach others not to use them again. and wherein a man thinketh best of himself. and if he be an ordinary flatterer. to strangers and formal natures. so it be with demonstration. whereas great. he shall lose their grace. if you allow his counsel. Men's behavior should be. a little to be familiar. He that is too much in anything. but of the highest virtues. for so shall a man observe them in others. if he be a cunning flatterer. AND RESPECTS HE THAT is only real. shall not reap. and is most out of countenance in himself. For the common people understand not many excellent virtues. which is a man's self. To attain them. how they be too perfect in compliments. it is commonly false and naught. it almost sufficeth not to despise them. he will have certain common attributes. if a man can hit upon it. the middle virtues work in them astonishment or admiration. Amongst a man's peers. wherein every syllable is measured. The motions of factions under kings ought to be. And certainly. Some praises proceed merely of flattery. Of Praise PRAISE is the reflection of virtue. that will the flatterer entitle him to perforce.The Essays of Francis Bacon 57 much to the prejudice. come but now and then. a little to keep state. or to be curious. which may have their proper motions. than he finds. and therefore it is good. how can a man comprehend great matters. For the odors of ointments are more durable. but doth diminish the faith and credit of him that speaks. but it is as the glass or body. If it be from the common people. that a man doth it upon regard. like the motions (as the astronomers speak) of the inferior orbs. let it be with condition. and he that looketh to the clouds. that is set without foil. shall not sow. let it be with alleging further reason. and species virtutibus similes. Men had need beware. and drowns things weighty and solid. But shows. therein the flatterer will uphold him most: but if he be an impudent flatterer. to the disadvantage of their greater virtues. and let him trust himself with the rest. but free for exercise or motion. in seconding another. if you will follow his motion. and exalting them above the moon. But if a man mark it well. by the higher motion of primum mobile. for be they never so sufficient otherwise. their enviers will be sure to give them that attribute. It is a good precept generally. But if persons of quality and judgment concur. that beareth up things light and swoln. both of their authority and business. Amongst a man's inferiors one shall be sure of reverence. to be too full of respects. yet to add somewhat of one's own: as if you will grant his opinion. of effectual and imprinting passages amongst compliments. is good. Certainly fame is like a river. than those of flowers. because they are continually in use and in note: whereas the occasion of any great virtue. That light gains make heavy purses. that a man may justly hold it a suspect. The lowest virtues draw praise from them. and will not easily away. a man shall be sure of familiarity. So it is true. he will follow the archflatterer. not too strait or point device. than virtuous. To apply one's self to others. is not only tedious. There be so many false points of praise. Some praises come of good wishes and . Therefore it doth much add to a man's reputation. maketh himself cheap. let it be with some distinction. and therefore it is good. for light gains come thick. but the dwelling upon them. but yet still are quietly carried. and so diminisheth respect to himself. it is. like their apparel. to small observations? Not to use ceremonies at all. so that he giveth another occasion of satiety. For if he labor too much to express them. in observing times and opportunities. that small matters win great commendation. to have good forms. there is a kind of conveying. had need have exceeding great parts of virtue. Solomon saith. look wherein a man is conscious to himself. It is loss also in business. that breaketh his mind too much. especially they be not to be omitted. and rather followeth vain persons. as the stone had need to be rich. and is (as Queen Isabella said) like perpetual letters commendatory. then it is (as the Scripture saith) nomen bonum instar unguenti fragrantis. as it is in gettings and gains: for the proverb is true. Some men's behavior is like a verse. that he is most defective. It fireth all round about. which is of singular use. which giveth the reflection.
or moveth upon greater means. but gracious. the idols of parasites. Of Vain-glory IT WAS prettily devised of AEsop. is that which doth the good. if it had not been joined with some vanity in themselves. And in these and the like kinds. In cases of great enterprise upon charge and adventure. in civility. and with a kind of magnanimity. above measure. the flight will be slow without some feathers of ostentation. and the slaves of their own vaunts. Plinius Secundus.The Essays of Francis Bacon 58 respects. they represent to them. in the case of Antiochus and the AEtolians. except it be in rare cases. raiseth his own credit with both. when I speak of vain-glory. Solomon saith. is either superior to you in that you commend. very wittily. as if a man. and Schoolmen. for he that you commend. a composition of glorious natures. but speaking of his calling. If he be inferior. In fame of learning. and procure envy and scorn. to kings and great persons. that somewhat is produced of nothing. the one to the other: and sometimes he that deals between man and man. which is a form due. should have a push rise upon his nose. borne her age so well. And amongst those arts. were men full of ostentation. insomuch as it was a proverb. than of the sail. than their high speculations. Neither can they be secret. to draw them to join in a war against the third. The fly sat upon the axle-tree of the chariot wheel. Beaucoup de bruit. that he that was praised to his hurt. he saith. what they should be. or inferior. In militar commanders and soldiers. have a phrase of notable contempt and scorn towards civil business: for they call all temporal business of wars. is not only comely. when by telling men what they are. if they have never so little hand in it. Glorious men are the scorn of wise men. the admiration of fools. if he be not to be commended. used with opportunity. in that. that tells a lie. Where there is an opinion and fame to be created. as Titus Livius noteth. must needs be factious. nomen. sbirrerie. Again. that makes ceilings not only shine but last. and other employments. these men are good trumpeters. but of natural magnanimity and discretion. vain-glory is an essential point. you much less. he doth oft interlace. St. modesty itself well governed. and opinion brings on substance. Too much magnifying of man or matter. it often falls out. cannot be decent. which are theologues. They that are glorious. judicature. and not vulgar. if he be to be commended. The cardinals of Rome. Omnium quae dixerat feceratque arte quadam ostentator: for that proceeds not of vanity. Aristotle. Some men are praised maliciously. doth irritate contradiction. but to praise a man's office or profession. have more of the ballast. He that praiseth his friend aloud. and those that are of solid and sober natures. rising early. if he be superior. To praise a man's self. which is under-sheriffries. Paul. There are sometimes great effects. wherein a man's self hath any perfection. and therefore not effectual. For saith Pliny. They must needs be violent. for under-sheriffs and catchpoles: though many times those under-sheriffries do more good. that whatsoever goeth alone. In commending another. and in some persons. for lies are sufficient to breed opinion. Yet certainly. Qui de contemnenda gloria libros scribunt. laudando praecipere. so by glory. that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus. there is none better than that which Plinius Secundus speaketh of. Certainly moderate praise. thereby to stir envy and jealousy towards them: pessimum genus inimicorum laudantium. peu de fruit. he may do it with good grace. Much bruit little fruit. that a blister will rise upon one's tongue. I mean not of that property. to their hurt. for all bravery stands upon comparisons. when he boasts of himself. Neither had the fame of Cicero. either of virtue or greatness. and friars. you much more. for as iron sharpens iron. doth put life into business. What a dust do I raise! So are there some vain persons. Galen. are but arts of ostentation. and said. and virtue was never so beholding to human nature. they think it is they that carry it. it shall be to him no better than a curse. as we say. amongst the Grecians. doth extol the forces of either of them. Of Honor AND REPUTATION . by pretending greater interest than he hath in either. suum inscribunt. Seneca. to make good their own vaunts. embassages. But all this while. there is use of this quality in civil affairs. I speak like a fool. which is to be liberal of praise and commendation to others. as if they were but matters. magnificabo apostolatum meum. one courage sharpeneth another. but according to the French proverb. of cross lies. cessions. For excusations. Certainly vain-glory helpeth to perpetuate a man's memory. as it received his due at the second hand. like unto varnish. you do yourself right. Socrates. that negotiates between two princes.
and by show of antiquity. great leaders in war. that entereth into any action. The third are gratiosi. founders of states and commonwealths. which under pretext of exposition of Scripture. doth not stick to add and alter. as the . For these do but corrupt the stream. favorites. Degrees of honor. which hath not been attempted before. If a man so temper his actions. King Henry the Seventh of England. and harmless to the people. or salvatores. And therefore. than confident. is best extinguished by declaring a man's self in his ends. And some. with sufficiency. Both which last kinds need no examples. lawgivers. and not to make law. the Wise. which is the canker of honor. et vena corrupta. such were Lycurgus. Cyrus. which happeneth rarely. If a man perform that. Vespasianus. Caesar. and not jus dare. that is the capital remover of landmarks. or attempted and given over. And in the last place are patres patriae. for the causes or parties that sue. he shall purchase more honor. The true marshalling of the degrees of sovereign honor. There is an honor. are commonly much talked of. and execute their places. Aurelianus. In the third place are liberatores. and to the sovereign or state above them. than to his own virtue or policy. their right hands. Regulus. But it is the unjust judge. when it is open. are. such as compound the long miseries of civil wars. but not with so good circumstance. claimed by the Church of Rome. but inwardly little admired. if he can. princes do discharge the greatest weight of their affairs. do woo and effect honor and reputation. is but the revealing of a man. and delays make it sour. and by attributing a man's successes. There be (saith the Scripture) that turn judgment. hath the quickest reflection. est justus cadens in causa sua coram adversario. The office of judges may have reference unto the parties that use. Envy. to be solace to the sovereign. can honor him. the music will be the fuller. like diamonds cut with facets.s virtue and worth. which are also called second founders. of lands and property. that their office is jus dicere. when he defineth amiss. Judges ought to be more learned. and do them notable services in the wars. in subjects. darken their virtue in the show of it. unto the advocates that plead. The principal duty of a judge. such as in honorable wars enlarge their territories. so as they be undervalued in opinion. than many foul examples. when it is close and disguised. contrariwise. Solon. in their own bow. Justinian. Discreet followers and servants. rather to seek merit than fame. that is. as was M. than witty. without disadvantage. Ottoman. And the fourth. than plausible. as we call them. such as exceed not this scantling. wherein he is but a follower. unto the clerks and ministers of justice underneath them.and more advised. which ought to be spewed out. that made the Siete Partidas. A man is an ill husband of bis honor. Fons turbatus. First. the failing wherein may disgrace him. are these: In the first place are conditores imperiorum. first participes curarum. For some in their actions. for injustice maketh it bitter. Theodoricus. Ismael. the other corrupteth the fountain. Add thereto contentious suits. into wormwood. such as are princes' lieutenants. Omnis fama a domesticis emanat. and fraud. and surely there be also. more reverend. those upon whom. and to pronounce that which they do not find. which may be ranked amongst the greatest. which sort of men.The Essays of Francis Bacon 59 THE winning of honor. or hath been achieved. in outshooting them. than by effecting a matter of greater difficulty or virtue. as in some one of them he doth content every faction. they are in such number. or perpetui principes. let a man contend to excel any competitors of his in honor. help much to reputation. rather to divine Providence and felicity. as Augustus Caesar. Else will it be like the authority. such as have great places under princes. The next are duces belli. Alphonsus of Castile. more than the carrying of it through. and the two Decii. Of Judicature JUDGES ought to remember. and make the times good wherein they live. In the second place are legislatores. or combination of people. The mislayer of a mere-stone is to blame. because they govern by their ordinances after they are gone. likewise. One foul sentence doth more hurt. such as were Romulus. negotiis pares. Above all things. to interpret law. to introduce novelty. King Henry the Fourth of France. or give law. of such as sacrifice themselves to death or danger for the good of their country. or make noble defence against invaders. Honor that is gained and broken upon another. So with Solomon. or deliver their countries from servitude of strangers or tyrants. Eadgar. is to suppress force and fraud. which reign justly. In the fourth place are propagatores or propugnatores imperii. Cursed (saith the law) is he that removeth the landmark. integrity is their portion and proper virtue. whereof force is the more pernicious. that turn it into vinegar.
that engage courts in quarrels of jurisdiction. for the advocates and counsel that plead. ut res. first to find that. great counsel. that the boldness of advocates should prevail with judges. for that upholds in the client. It is a strange thing to see. it yields a harsh wine. elicit sanguinem. Judges ought above all to remember the conclusion of the Roman Twelve Tables. and an overspeaking judge is no well-tuned cymbal. chop with the judge. And the fourth. is of those that may be accounted the left hands of courts. and proceedeth either of glory. indiscreet pressing. ita tempora rerum. let not the judge meet the cause half way. where there appeareth cunning counsel. to recapitulate. skilful in precedents. and to know that laws. in puffing a court up beyond her bounds. or of impatience to hear. cunning advantages taken. either can justice yield her fruit with sweetness. a civil reprehension of advocates. and suspicion of by-ways. which cannot but cause multiplication of fees. Specially in case of laws penal. whereby they pervert the plain and direct courses of courts. and beats down in him the conceit of his cause. combination. certain persons that are sowers of suits. that tastes of the grape-stone. and willingness to speak. and collate the material points. repetition. who represseth the presumptuous. Whatsoever is above these is too much. and the country pine. for there is no worse torture. or to prevent information by questions. gross neglect. are but things captious. to the bush whereunto. Salus populi suprema lex. while the sheep flies for defence in weather. be by wise judges confined in the execution: Judicis officium est. And let not the counsel at the bar. in whose seat they sit. that he may plant his judgment as upon an even ground. It is no grace to a judge. whereas they should imitate God. which he might have heard in due time from the bar. First. and that they bring not upon the people. and doth many times point the way to the judge himself. judges ought (as far as the law permitteth) in justice to remember mercy. or to show quickness of conceit. he is sure to lose part of his fleece. that judges should have noted favorites. There is likewise due to the public. as God useth to prepare his way. except they be in order to that end. and precincts and purprise thereof. On the other side. Therefore it is an happy thing in a . Fourthly. ought to be preserved without scandal and corruption. Patience and gravity of hearing. by raising valleys and taking down hills: so when there appeareth on either side an high hand. slight information. A judge ought to prepare his way to a just sentence.The Essays of Francis Bacon 60 surfeit of courts. select. Judges must beware of hard constructions. for their own scraps and advantage. or of want of a staid and equal attention. to make inequality equal. etc. In causes of life and death. For certainly grapes (as the Scripture saith) will not be gathered of thorns or thistles. Secondly. and oracles not well inspired. but parasiti curiae. nor give occasion to the party. or if they be grown unfit for the present time. but a merciful eye upon the person. if they have been sleepers of long. But it is more strange. that that which was meant for terror. for that which may concern the sovereign and estate. is subject to four bad instruments. of that which hath been said. that shower whereof the Scripture speaketh. an ancient clerk. Qui fortiter emungit. The parts of a judge in hearing. and ministers. and understanding in the business of the court. are a shower of snares upon the people. and where the wine-press is hard wrought. to moderate length. especially towards the side which obtaineth not. where causes are well handled and fair pleaded. but. Pluet super eos laqueos. are four: to direct the evidence. they ought to have care. Therefore let penal laws. violent prosecution. The place of justice is an hallowed place. but the foot-place. and giveth grace to the modest. than the torture of laws. or of shortness of memory. is an excellent finger of a court. power. for that that concerns clerks and ministers. after the judge hath declared his sentence. or an overbold defence. is an essential part of justice. some commendation and gracing. and to cast a severe eye upon the example. The second sort is of those. is the poller and exacter of fees. Thirdly. which justifies the common resemblance of the courts of justice. though pertinent. and to give the rule or sentence. be not turned into rigor. in cutting off evidence or counsel too short. and bring justice into oblique lines and labyrinths. nor wind himself into the handling of the cause anew. to say his counsel or proofs were not heard. There is due from the judge to the advocate. which make the court swell. The third sort. or impertinency of speech. and strained inferences. for penal laws pressed. on the other side. and are not truly amici curiae. and therefore not only the bench. wary in proceeding. then is the virtue of a judge seen. amongst the briars and brambles of catching and polling clerks. the reputation of his counsel. The attendance of courts. persons that are full of nimble and sinister tricks and shifts.
to be too sensible of hurt. as to think there is not left to them. and reserve it.The Essays of Francis Bacon 61 state. but sin not. opinion of the touch of a man's reputation. is to look back upon anger. when judges do often consult with the king and state: the one. The other. . may be attempted and calmed. as Consalvo was wont to say. Secondly. We have better oracles: Be angry. We will first speak how the natural inclination and habit to be angry. Lastly. Let not the sun go down upon your anger. For they may remember. the causes and motives of anger. But in all refrainings of anger. which is a thing easily done. For many times the things deduced to judgment may be meum and tuum. Only men must beware. or concerneth manifestly any great portion of people. is but a bravery of the Stoics.. when the fit is thoroughly over. that a man should have. full of contempt: for contempt is that. The next is. that one moves with the other. for they are like the spirits and sinews. that they carry their anger rather with scorn. so that they may seem rather to be above the injury. makes him not fit for society. what the apostle saith of a greater law than theirs. Men must not turn bees. and to make a man's self believe. which putteth an edge upon anger. but yet lions under the throne. as much or more than the hurt itself. for that. And the best time to do this. or dangerous precedent. Nos scimus quia lex bona est. they do kindle their anger much. but that he foresees a time for it. Let judges also remember. and again. Whosoever is out of patience. not only the parts of sovereignty. Anger is certainly a kind of baseness. whereof you must have special caution. For the second point. To contain anger from mischief. that the opportunity of his revenge is not yet come. are chiefly three. both in race and in time. the other. Of Anger TO SEEK to extinguish anger utterly. Let not judges also be ignorant of their own right. and therefore tender and delicate persons must needs be oft angry. that Solomon's throne was supported by lions on both sides: let them be lions. as it appears well in the weakness of those subjects in whom it reigns.. which breaks itself upon that it falls. for no man is angry. than with fear. it is the best remedy to win time. intervenient in business of state. but howsoever you show bitterness. being circumspect that they do not check or oppose any points of sovereignty. For the first. for cummunia maledicta are nothing so much. That anger is like ruin. First. especially if they be aculeate and proper. And let no man weakly conceive. as a principal part of their office. the apprehension and construction of the injury offered. when there is some consideration of state. that is not revocable. which more robust natures have little sense of. and so to still himself in the meantime. how it troubles man's life. children. And therefore. telam honoris crassiorem. there is no other way but to meditate. a wise use and application of laws. and ruminate well upon the effects of anger. that feels not himself hurt. when the reason and consequence thereof may trench to point of estate: I call matter of estate. that you do not peremptorily break off. sick folks. but whatsoever introduceth any great alteration. when kings and states do often consult with judges. when there is matter of law. or at least refrained from doing mischief. they have so many things to trouble them. in the circumstances thereof. there be two things. do not act anything. . Anger must be limited and confined. modo quis ea utatur legitime. that in anger a man reveal no secrets. how to raise anger. Seneca saith well. if a man will give law to himself in it. The Scripture exhorteth us to possess our souls in patience. and again. is out of possession of his soul. of extreme bitterness of words. to be. than below it. doth multiply and sharpen anger. how the particular motions of anger may be repressed. The one. in any business. though it take hold of a man. Wherein the remedy is. that just laws and true policy have any antipathy. old folks. or appease anger in another. Thirdly. intervenient in matter of law. animasque in vulnere ponunt. when men are ingenious in picking out circumstances of contempt. in a fit of anger. women.
the same kind and suit of years and weathers come about again. great droughts. So that as Plato had an imagination. summers with little heat. therefore. As for conflagrations and great droughts. that conceive the celestial bodies have more accurate influences upon these things below. And the three years' drought in the time of Elias. that the river of Lethe runneth as well above ground as below. but in gross. If it were not for two things that are constant (the one is. warm winters. because. That all knowledge was but remembrance. that can give no account of the time past. Certain it is. of the causes of new sects. when first to relate to a man an angry business. Comets. They say it is observed in the Low Countries (I know not in what part) that every five and thirty years. that it was swallowed by an earthquake). are commonly ignorant and mountainous people. than wisely observed in their effects. produceth what kind of effects.The Essays of Francis Bacon 62 For raising and appeasing anger in another. version of the beams. and never at a stay. And the two remedies are by the contraries. than indeed they have). are but brooks to them. that the remnants of generation of men. and to give some counsel concerning them. and left people alive. To speak. as much as may be. The greatest vicissitude of things amongst men. As for the great burnings by lightnings. was not by earthquakes (as the Egyptian priest told Solon concerning the island of Atlantis. great wet. they have such pouring rivers. The great winding-sheets. There is an abstruse astrologer that saith. if the world should last so long. But in the other two destructions. The true religion is built upon the rock. or lasting. but waited upon a little. whereby it seems. That all novelty is but oblivion. upon the waves of time. imputing it to misunderstanding. than the people of the Old World. and I would not have it given over. deluges and earthquakes. as far as the weakness of human judgment can give stay. the rest are tossed. or mountains. traducing Gregory the Great. to incense them. Again. fear. There is a toy which I have heard. was but particular. The former to take good times. over the gross and mass of things. color. to sever. for the first impression is much. And it is much more likely. which are often in the West Indies. It is a thing I do the rather mention. that the jealousy of sects. not in renewing the state of like individuals (for that is the fume of those. would have some effect. have likewise power and effect. are far higher than those with us. their respective effects. that the diurnal motion perpetually keepeth time). There is no new thing upon the earth. are two. Of Vicissitude OF THINGS SOLOMON saith. no individual would last one moment. that the matter is in a perpetual flux. they do not merely dispeople and destroy. The vicissitude of mutations in the superior globe. is the vicissitude of sects and religions. it is done chiefly by choosing of times. and to come to men. as it appeared in the succession of Sabinian. It may be. that the fixed stars ever stand a like distance one from another. and the like. likewise. by deluge and earthquake. out of question. it is very probable that they are a newer or a younger people. Phaeton's car went but a day. that he did what in him lay. specially in. so that the oblivion is all one. and the other is. placing in the reign of heaven. when men are frowardest and worst disposed. were in such a particular deluge saved. who did revive the former antiquities. but rather that it was desolated by a particular deluge. Their Andes. But on the other side. what kind of comet. by gathering (as was touched before) all that you can find out. For those orbs rule in men's minds most. to aggravate the contempt. that is. as the rivers of Asia and Africk and Europe. Plato's great year. it is further to be noted. as great frosts. But to leave these points of nature. doth much extinguish the memory of things. Whereby you may see. nor go further asunder. As for the observation that Machiavel hath. For earthquakes are seldom in those parts. I have found some concurrence. to extinguish all heathen antiquities. and never come nearer together. I do not find that those zeals do any great effects. passion. nor last long. that the remnant of people which hap to be reserved. to so great . the other. that bury all things in oblivion. and they call it the Prime. but they are rather gazed upon. for magnitude. so Solomon giveth his sentence. or what you will. they are but narrow. the construction of the injury from the point of contempt. as if none had been left. If you consider well of the people of the West Indies. and waited upon in their journey. are no fit matter for this present argument. computing backwards. that the destruction that hath heretofore been there.
in the seats or stages of the war. wherein likewise ordnance do exceed all arietations and ancient inventions. in the weapons. if then also. and what should seek their fortunes. which go on to populate. The third is. . as it is seen in ordnance and muskets. Secondly. Whereby it is manifest that the northern tract of the world. By the power of signs and miracles. though they work mightily upon men's wits. or of the great continents that are upon the north. First. do likewise stir up wars. any certainty of observation. For as for speculative heresies (such as were in ancient times the Arians. and not with sanguinary persecutions. of speech and persuasion. and now the Armenians). of superlative and admirable holiness of life. that will be sure to overflow. for that outruns the danger. either from the east or west. and were not unlike to befall to Spain. but when there be great shoals of people. But east and west have no certain points of heaven. The other is the giving license to pleasures. and the courages warmest. and withal the times be stupid. to stop the rising of new sects and schisms. But north and south are fixed. you may doubt the springing up of a new sect. there should arise any extravagant and strange spirit. and when the holiness of the professors of religion. the strength of the percussion. When a warlike state grows soft and effeminate. casting lots what part should stay at home. and the like. For great empires. fear it not. every bird taking a feather. to proceed mildly. resting upon their own protecting forces. than to enrage them by violence and bitterness. which the ancient northern people were wont to do by lot. except they know means to live (as it is almost everywhere at this day. and wisdom. if it should break. without foreseeing means of life and sustentation. For martyrdoms. except it be by the help of civil occasions. The conditions of weapons. is decayed and full of scandal. and in the manner of the conduct. Spain. and their decay in valor. it hardly falleth under rule and observation: yet we see even they. As it hath been seen in the states of Rome. because they seem to exceed the strength of human nature: and I may do the like. and then when they fail also. and others. but we read but of two incursions of theirs: the one to Gallo-Grecia. Tartars (which were the invaders) were all eastern people. Assyrians. they discharge a portion of their people upon other nations. whereas the south part. and it hath seldom or never been seen that the far southern people have invaded the northern. have returns and vicissitudes. Upon the breaking and shivering of a great state and empire. in ancient time. So was it in the decay of the Roman empire. and likewise in the empire of Almaigne. All which points held. Wars. except Tartary). of authority established. for it will not spread. is almost all sea. It is true. or the opposing. as that they may serve in all weathers. Look when the world hath fewest barbarous peoples. and was that. Arabians. is rent by discords. and so the prey inviteth. hath been in China above two thousand years. to compound the smaller differences. do enervate and destroy the forces of the natives which they have subdued. but such as commonly will not marry or generate. and no more have the wars. you may be sure to have wars. The one is the supplanting. For certain it is.The Essays of Francis Bacon 63 revolutions. Surely there is no better way. encourageth a war. and barbarous. to make himself author thereof. that ordnance was known in the city of the Oxidrakes in India. is in nature the more martial region: be it in respect of the stars of that hemisphere. doth make the bodies hardest. the other to Rome. they may be sure of a war. which is that which. but contrariwise. while they stand. by the eloquence. but chiefly in three things. after Charles the Great. The great accessions and unions of kingdoms. the fetching afar off. which the Macedonians called thunder and lightning. or (which is most apparent) of the cold of the northern parts. and rather to take off the principal authors by winning and advancing them. when Mahomet published his law. all goes to ruin. the commodious use of them. For commonly such states are grownm rich in the time of their degenerating. and a voluptuous life. and magic. When the religion formerly received. it is like a great flood. for nothing is more popular than that. and they become a prey. If a new sect have not two properties. are. Turkey. for when a state grows to an over-power. The changes and vicissitude in wars are many. there is no danger of inundations of people. the Gauls were western. and by the sword. And it is well known that the use of ordnance. that the carriage may be light and manageable. I reckon them amongst miracles. and their improvement. for the Persians. There be three manner of plantations of new sects. without aid of discipline. it is of necessity that once in an age or two. yet they do not produce any great alterations in states. As for the weapons. than to reform abuses. ignorant. seemed more to move from east to west. for aught that is known.
Themistocles made Xerxes. We will therefore speak of these points: What are false fames. than vast. how they may be spread. and govern her. and raised. and flieth most by night. that the Grecians had a purpose to break his bridge of ships. would forsake him. mother of the giants that made war against Jupiter. There follow excellent parables. they grew to rest upon number rather competent. learning. as that. especially in the war. lest we become giddy. it is somewhat worth. figured by the giants. cunning diversions. and laden with the spoils of Gaul. a place less handled and more worthy to be handled. and the like: and they grew more skilful in the ordering of their battles. arms do flourish. and the more they are. But now. and bring her to feed at the hand. and that she is a terror to great cities. mechanical arts and merchandize. and yet hideth her head in the clouds. and being wearied with the wars. Julius Caesar took Pompey unprovided. his old age. in the declining age of a state. [This essay was not finished] A Glossary OF ARCHAIC WORDS AND PHRASES Abridgment: miniature Absurd: stupid. masculine and feminine. and so trying it out upon an even match and they were more ignorant in ranging and arraying their battles. and what are true fames. and with her fly other ravening fowl and kill them. when it waxeth dry and exhaust. than this of fame. how fames may be sown. then his strength of years. and how they may be best discerned. if a man can tame this monster. as their manner is. are but brothers and sisters. and therefore not fit for this writing. and seditious fames and libels. They describe her in part finely and elegantly. post apace out of Grecia. she gathereth strength in going. Learning hath his infancy. and were by him destroyed. with things not done. and the legions of Germany into Syria. that is but a circle of tales. And other things concerning the nature of fame. that she mingleth things done. which he had made athwart Hellespont. by a fame that he cunningly gave out: Caesar's own soldiers loved him not. wherein it hath not a great part. when it is but beginning and almost childish. In the youth of a state. and multiplied. unpolished . After. so many eyes she hath underneath. and it is an usual thing with the pashas. men rested extremely upon number: they did put the wars likewise upon main force and valor. she pricks up so many ears. There be a thousand such like examples. in the middle age of a state. king of Persia. Of Fame THE poets make Fame a monster. look how many feathers she hath. Therefore let all wise governors have as great a watch and care over fames. pointing days for pitched fields. by a fame that he scattered. so many tongues. and lastly. Mucianus undid Vitellius. To speak now in a sad and serious manner: There is not. that Vitellius had in purpose to remove the legions of Syria into Germany. and then both of them together for a time. by continual giving out. as soon as he came into Italy. the less they need to be repeated. they grew to advantages of place. Livia settled all things for the succession of her son Tiberius.The Essays of Francis Bacon 64 For the conduct of the war: at the first. that she goeth upon the ground. that her husband Augustus was upon recovery and amendment. that in the daytime she sitteth in a watch tower. that rebels. and laid dead. then his youth. They say. when it is solid and reduced. and laid asleep his industry and preparations. But it is not good to look too long upon these turning wheels of vicissitude. to save the sacking of Constantinople and other towns. in all the politics. Fame is of that force. and how they may be checked. But that which passeth all the rest is: They do recount that the Earth. to conceal the death of the Great Turk from the janizaries and men of war. As for the philology of them. so many voices. whereupon the legions of Syria were infinitely inflamed. For certain it is. But we are infected with the style of the poets. This is a flourish. by giving out. and in part gravely and sententiously. thereupon in an anger brought forth Fame. as there is scarcely any great action. as they have of the actions and designs themselves. because a man meeteth with them everywhere. when it is luxuriant and juvenile.
cake Charge and adventure: cost and 65 . deceive Aculeate: stinging Adamant: loadstone Adust: scorched Advoutress: adulteress Affect: like.The Essays of Francis Bacon Abuse: cheat. ostentation Broke: deal in brokerage Broken: shine by comparison Broken music: part music Cabinet: secret Calendar: weather forecast Card: chart. desire Antic: clown Appose: question Arietation: battering-ram Audit: revenue Avoidance: secret outlet Battle: battalion Bestow: settle in life Blanch: flatter. evade Brave: boastful Bravery: boast. map Care not to: are reckless Cast: plan Cat: cate.
The Essays of Francis Bacon risk Check with: interfere Chop: bandy words Civil: peaceful Close: secret. secretive Collect: infer Compound: compromise Consent: agreement Curious: elaborate Custom: import duties Deceive: rob Derive: divert Difficileness: moroseness Discover: reveal Donative: money gift Doubt: fear Equipollent: equally powerful Espial: spy Estate: state Facility: of easy persuasion Fair: rather Fame: rumor Favor: feature Flashy: insipid Foot-pace: lobby Foreseen: guarded against 66 .
liable 67 .The Essays of Francis Bacon Froward: stubborn Futile: babbling Globe: complete body Glorious: showy. boastful Humorous: capricious Hundred poll: hundredth head Impertinent: irrelevant Implicit: entangled In a mean: in moderation In smother: suppressed Indifferent: impartial Intend: attend to Knap:knoll Leese: lose Let: hinder Loose: shot Lot: spell Lurch: intercept Make: profit. get Manage: train Mate: conquer Material: business-like Mere-stone: boundary stone Muniting: fortifying Nerve: sinew Obnoxious: subservient.
The Essays of Francis Bacon Oes: round spangles Pair: impair Pardon: allowance Passable: mediocre Pine-apple-tree: pine Plantation: colony Platform: plan Plausible: praiseworthy Point device: excessively precise Politic: politician Poll: extort Poser: examiner Practice: plotting Preoccupate: anticipate Prest: prepared Prick: plant Proper: personal Prospective: stereoscope Proyne: prune Purprise: enclosure Push: pimple Quarrel: pretext Quech: flinch Reason: principle Recamera: retiring-room Return: reaction 68 .
The Essays of Francis Bacon Return: wing running back Rise: dignity Round: straight Save: account for Scantling: measure Seel: blind Shrewd: mischievous Sort: associate Spial: spy Staddle: sapling Steal: do secretly Stirp: family Stond: stop. stand Stoved: hot-housed Style: title Success: outcome Sumptuary law: law against extravagance Superior globe: the heavens Temper: proportion Tendering: nursing Tract: line. labor Treaties: treatises Trench to: touch Trivial: common 69 . trait Travel: travail.
utilize A free ebook from http://manybooks.net/ 70 .The Essays of Francis Bacon Turquet: Turkish dwarf Under foot: below value Unready: untrained Usury: interest Value: certify Virtuous: able Votary: vowed Wanton: spoiled Wood: maze Work: manage.
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