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ITI Ltd., Mankapur Unit Gonda (U.P.) - 271308
(From: - 16.06.2008 to 14.07.2008)
Under the able guidance of:Mr. S.S Bisht Manager (HREDC) ITI Ltd., Mankapur
Submitted by:Saurabh Chatterjee Electrical and Electronics Engineering B.Tech, 2nd Year United College of Engineering and Research, Naini, Allahabad VSTR No.-439
This is to certify that Mr. Saurabh Chatterjee, a student of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, pursuing B.Tech at United College of Engineering and Research, has successfully completed his summer training at ITI Ltd. Mankapur, Gonda during the period of 16-06-2008 to 14-072008. It’s further certified that during the summer training period the candidate attended the lectures and plant visits regularly and punctually.
S.S Bisht Manager (HREDC) ITI Ltd., Mankapur Gonda (U.P.)
This project is an outcome of efforts of many apart the faculty. So, it becomes important that their support be acknowledged here. This training wouldn’t have been successful without their supportive efforts. First of all I would like to present my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Mr. S.S Bisht, Manager (HREDC) to allow me undertake the industrial training at ITI Ltd., Mankapur, one of the largest public sector undertakings in the field of Electronics industries in India. He played an important role in preparing me for the industrial culture and making me aware of actual working conditions in the organization. I would like to devote my special thanks to Mr. KULDEEP SHARMA for teaching GSM and Dr. B.P. Giri for SIX SIGMA in a very easy and interesting manner. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude towards all the faculty members of HRED centre ITI Ltd., Mankapur and all the employees of ITI Ltd. Mankapur, who devoted their valuable time to render me information about the complexities of industries and technical know-how. The factory has a beautiful and well organized work environment which made a great pleasure and an easy task to learn and understand the principles and theories.
Saurabh Chatterjee B.Tech, EN (2nd Year) UCER, Naini
Acknowledgement Preface Overview of ITI Ltd., Mankapur Lectures: → → → → → →
ISO Standards Six Sigma Global System for Mobile(GSM) Base Transciever System(BTS) Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP) Networking
Plant Visit: →
→ → → →
Circuit Division PCB Plant Hybrid Plant Component Division Switching Exchange Plant(SEA) Quality Control Quality Assurance
Overview of ITI Ltd.
I.T.I. Ltd. was the first public sector undertaking of the free INDIA. It was established in year 1948. The first manufacturing unit was established at the Bangalore complex in Karnataka under the name of Indian Telephone Industry Limited (I.T.I.). As time progressed the full name of I.T.I. become a misnomer as the industry began to manufacture several other electronic hardware than those required in the field of telephony. Now this public sector enterprise is only known as ITI Ltd. The different units of ITI Ltd. Are situated at:-
Bangalore (Karnataka):- Major products are “ESSCON PROJECT” for Defence purpose, MSC Products, CDMA (Handsets). Palghat:- Major products are Scratching cards, GSM, MSE. Naini (Allahabad, U.P.):Transmission equipment (ADSL). Major product is Latest
Raibareily (U.P.):- Major products are BTS and Power plant. Mankapur (U.P.):- Major products are GSM, BTS, C-Dot and Landline communication. Srinagar (J&K):- Presently shut down.
Overview of ITI Ltd. Mankapur Unit
The ITI Ltd. Mankapur was established in the year 1982.The construction work started on 31st May 1983 and by April 1985 the production has also started. The first complete electronic exchange was provided to INDIA by ITI Ltd. Mankapur Unit and hence Mankapur was given the unique distinction of “Digital City of INDIA” at that time. The land area covered by I.T.I. Ltd. is 352 acres. The factory covered area is 77,500 m2, while the air- conditioned space within the factory is 44,300 m2. The township under ITI Ltd. Mankapur consist of 3,000 residences, three Intermediate schools, two cultural clubs, and one recreation centre (Auditorium), post-office, banks, shopping complex, and state of the art sports facilities .
The mission of the Industry is to be the leader in the domestic market and be an important player in the global market for voice data and Image communication by providing total solutions to customers. To build core competencies to enter in new business areas.
Main divisions of ITI Ltd. Mankapur are: 1.
Components Division:Here different circuit components are manufactured or stored if purchased from other sources.
Circuit Division:- Here circuits are developed on the base material. It consists of Printed Circuit Board Plant (PCB) & Hybrid Circuits Plant (Hybrid).
SEA (Switching Exchange Assembly) Plant:- Here different circuit components are assembled on the PCB. It also includes the SMD(Surface Mounting Devices) Line which is used to manufacture new technology boards using the SMT(Surface Mounting Technology). Central Services Division:- It controls the AC facilities, water supply, electricity supplies etc. used in the factory and colony.
Policy Of Diversification:- Under this policy ITI also produces non telecom products like NCM (note counting machine), FNDM (Fake Note Detection Machine, Inverters etc.
Main products of ITI Ltd. Mankapur are:-
E10B Exchanges:- Electronic Digital (10-digit) basic exchange which works at a temperature of 18-22° C. CSN-MA Exchange:- Numeric Satellite control media analog exchange which works at a temperature of 18-22° C. CSN-MM Exchange:- Multimedia exchange to meet the demand of Internet and ISDN facilities.
C-DOT Exchange:Control department of Telematics exchange was designed by Mr. Shyam Petroda of Gujarat (The scientific advisor in the ministry of Mrs. Indira Gandhi) to suit the Indian climatic conditions. The exchange works satisfactorily up to 35°C. GSM:- Global System for Mobile communication. BTS:Base transceivers station, manufactured in ITI Ltd. Mankapur. is now
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society.
ISO 9000 ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. Some of the requirements in ISO 9001 (which is one of the standards in the ISO 9000 family) include -A set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business
monitoring processes to ensure they are effective. - Keeping adequate records. -Checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action where necessary. - Regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness. -Facilitating continual improvement
Discover ISO (ISO's name) Because "International Organization for Standardization" would have different acronyms in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in French for Organisation Internationale de normalisation, its founders decided to give it also a short, allpurpose name. They chose "ISO", derived from the Greek isos, meaning "equal". Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization's name is always ISO.
How ISO decides to develop a standard ISO launches the development of new standards in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for a standard to one of ISO's national members. The latter then proposes the new work item to the relevant ISO technical committee developing standards in that area. New work items may also be proposed by organizations in liaison (see below) with such committees. When work items do not relate to existing committees, proposals may also be made by ISO members to set up new technical committees to cover new fields of activity.
To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive the majority support of the participating members of the ISO technical committee which, amongst other criteria, verifies the "global relevance" of the proposed item – this means that it indeed responds to an international need and will eventually be suitable for implementation on as broad a basis as possible worldwide.
Overview of standards and certification Why standards & certification Academic degrees are recognized because they come from a recognized institution that is usually accredited .They attest that the individual holding a diploma has knowledge of the subject matter. They don’t necessarily speak to competency of third party assessment. Certificates- Certificates are the smallest building block. A certificate of accomplishment means that one has successfully completed a specific course or program. A certificate may be awarded based on seat time (the person sat through so many hours of training) or assessment. Certification- ISO does not itself certify organizations. Many countries have formed accreditation bodies to authorize certification bodies, which audit organizations applying for ISO 9001 compliance certification. Although commonly referred to as ISO 9000:2000 certifications, the actual standard to which an organization's quality management can be certified is ISO 9001:2000. Both the accreditation bodies and the certification bodies charge fees for their services. The various accreditation bodies have mutual agreements with each other to ensure that certificates issued by one of the Accredited Certification Bodies (CB) are accepted world-wide. The applying organization is assessed based on an extensive sample of its sites, functions, products, services and processes;
a list of problems ("action requests" or "non-compliances") is made known to the management. If there are no major problems on this list, the certification body will issue an ISO 9001 certificate for each geographical site it has visited, once it receives a satisfactory improvement plan from the management showing how any problems will be resolved. An ISO certificate is not a once-and-for-all award, but must be renewed at regular intervals recommended by the certification body, usually around three years. In contrast to the Capability Maturity Model there are no grades of competence within ISO 9001. What “International Standardization” means? When the large majority of products or services in a particular business or industry sector conform to international standards, a state of industry-wide standardization can be said to exist. This is achieved through consensus agreement between national delegations representing all the economic stakeholders concerned –suppliers, users, government regulators and other interest groups, such as consumers. They agree on specifications and criteria to be applied consistently in the classification of materials, in the manufactures and supply of products, in testing and analysis, in terminology and in the provision of services. In this way International standards provide a reference framework, or a common technological language, between suppliers and their customers-which facilitates trade and the transfer of technology.
What is accreditation? In simple terms, accreditation is like certification of the certification body. `Accreditation’ should not be used as an interchangeable alternative for certification or registration. BIS Quality Management Systems Certification activity has been
accredited by Raad voor Accreditatie (RvA) of Netherlands, to carry out IS/ISO 9001:2000 certification in 23 business sectors.
What is quality? Quality is an “Ability of a set of inherent characteristics of a product, system, or process to fulfill requirements of customers and other interested parties.”
A Quality Management System (QMS)-
is a System to
establish a quality policy and quality objectives and to direct and control the organization to achieve those objectives Quality Assurance-is a part of Quality Management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled.
What if standards do not exist? If there were no standards, we would soon notice. Standards make an enormous contribution to most aspects of our livesalthough very often, that contribution is invisible. It is when there is an absence of standards that there importance is brought home. For examples, as purchasers or users of products, we soon notice when they turn out to be of poor quality, do not fit, are incompatible with equipment us already have, are unreliable or dangerous. When product meets our expectation, we tend to take this for granted. We are usually unaware of the role played by standards in raising levels of quality, safety reliability, efficiency and interchange ability as well as in providing such benefits at an economical cost.
ISO Standards Compendium
ISO 9000- Quality Management ISO 9000:2000- Quality Management Systems-Fundamentals and vocabulary ISO 9001:2000- Quality Management Systems-Requirements ISO 9004:2000- Quality Management Systems-Guidelines and performance improvements ISO 10006:2003- Quality Management- Guidelines for quality management in Projects ISO 10007:2003- Quality Management Systems-Guidelines for configuration management ISO 10012:2003- Measurement management systemRequirements for measurement process And measuring equipment. ISO/TR 10013:2001- Guidelines for quality management System documentation ISO/TR 10014:1998- Guidelines for managing the economics of quality ISO 10015:1999- Quality Management- Guidelines for training ISO/TR 10017:2003- Guidelines on statistical techniques for ISO 9001:2000 ISO/TR 19011:2002Guidelines for environmental management system auditing. quality and/or
What is ISO 14000?
I.S.O. 14000 provides an internationally recognized set of standards for incorporating environmental management into every aspect of a company’s business. ISO 14001:1996-Environmental Specification with guidance for use Management SystemSystem-
ISO 14001-2004-Environmental Management Requirements with guidance for use
ISO 14004:2004-Environmental Management SystemGeneral guidelines on principles, system and support techniques ISO 14015:2001-Environmental Management –Environmental assessment of sites and organization (EASO) ISO 14031:1999-Environmental Management –Environmental performance evaluation-guidelines ISO/TR 14032:1999-Environmental Management-Examples of environmental performance evaluation (EPE) ISO 14040:1997-Environmental Management –Life Cycle assessment-principles and framework ISO 14041:1998-Environmental Management - Life Cycle assessment-Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis ISO 14042:2000-Environmental Managementassessment-Life cycle impact assessment ISO 14043:2000-Environmental Managementassessment-Life cycle interpretation Life Life Cycle Cycle
Advantages: It is widely acknowledged that proper quality management improves business, often having a positive effect on investment, market share, sales growth, sales margins, competitive advantage, and avoidance of litigation. The
quality principles in ISO 9000:2000 are also sound, according to Wade, and Barnes,  who says "ISO 9000 guidelines provide a comprehensive model for quality management systems that can make any company competitive." Barnes also cites a survey by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance which indicated that ISO 9000 increased net profit, and another by Deloitte-Touche which reported that the costs of registration were recovered in three years. According to the Providence Business News , implementing ISO often gives the following advantages: A) Create a more efficient, effective operation B) Increase customer satisfaction and retention C) Reduce audits D) Enhance marketing E) Improve employee motivation, awareness, and morale F) Promote international trade G) Increases profit I) Reduce waste and increases productivity
The concept of SIX SIGMA was put forward by “MICKEL HARRY” who was an engineer with Motorola in 1985. He introduced six sigma to his company which was facing the downfall and after following six sigma principles, the company got the regular boost in their bottom line.
According to John Maxwell, “Leadership determines the direction of company, organization determines the potential of company, and personnel determine the success of the company”.
SIX SIGMA can be more precisely defined as“A methodology to manage process variations that causes defects, defined as unacceptable deviation from the mean or target; and to systematically work towards managing variation to eliminate those defects”.
It can also be termed as measure of quality that strives for near perfection. It is disciplined data driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects in any process from
manufacturing to transactional, transactional to product and from product to service. Starting with manufacturing, today SIX SIGMA is used across a wide range of industries like banking, telecommunication, insurance, marketing, construction, healthcare and software.
IMPLANTATION METHODOLOGIES Six Sigma has two key methodologies:(1) (2)
DMAIC (Define Measure Analysis Improve Control)
It is used to improve an existing business process.
Basic methodology consists of the following five phases:
DEFINE- Formally define the process improvement goals that are consistent with customer demands and enterprise strategy. MEASURE-To define baseline measurements on current process for future comparison, map and measure process in question and collect required process data.
ANALYZE- To verify relationship and causality of factors. What is the relationship? Are there other factors that have not been considered?
IMROVE- Optimize the process based upon the analysis using techniques like design of Experiments. CONTOL- Setup pilot runs to establish process capability, transition to production and thereafter continuously measure the process and institute control mechanisms to ensure that variances are corrected before they result in defects.
DMADV (Define Measure Analysis Design Verify)
It is used to create new product designs or process designs in such a way that it results in a more predictable, mature and defect free performance.
Basic methodology consists of the following five phases:
DEFINE- Formally define the goals of the design activity that are consistent with customer demands and enterprise strategy. MEASURE- Identify CTQs, product capabilities, production process capability, risk assessment, etc. ANALYZE- Develop and design alternatives, create highlevel design and evaluate design capability to select the best design. DESIGN- Develop detail designs, optimize design, and plan for design verification. This phase may require simulations.
VERIFY- Design, setup pilot runs, implement production process and handover to process owners.
FEATURES OF SIX SIGMA: It can measure how good our product, services & processes really are. It helps in establishing a gauge pace in race for total customer satisfaction. It describes quantitatively how a process is performing. By SIX–SIGMA, a process must not produce 3.4 defects per million opportunities. It can measure any defect which helps in eliminating them. It denotes statistically how a given process deviates from perfection. It helps an organization in increased market share, customer satisfaction, cost reduction and dramatic boost to bottom line.
SIX SIGMA PHILOSOPHY Customer needs products/services on time, with zero defects, at lower cost. So improvement means we must be able to predict & prevent, not detect & react. By combining the mean & standard deviation, the sigma of a process can be calculated. Thus sigma of a process tells us how capable it is. Once basic competencies & deficiencies are known, corrective actions can be taken. Corrective action leads to reduction of defects, cycle time & cost. The reduction of defect cycle time & cost leads to improved customer satisfaction. As satisfaction improve, likelihood of doing better business increases. As business increases we grow & prosper.
COMPARISION OF VARIOUS VALUED SIGMAS
SIGMA 1.0 1.11 1.90 2.0 2.9 3.0 3.9 4.0 4.9 5.0 5.81 5.92 6
PPM 690000 650000 344000 308537 80800 66800 8190 6210 330 233 8 5 3.4
YIELD 30.90% 35.0% 65.6% 69.2% 91.92% 93.31% 99.18% 99.38% 99.967% 99.977% 99.9992% 99.9995% 99.9997%
Below Four Sigma loss is around (10-15)% and it is useless to do a process below Four Sigma.
COMPARISION BETWEEN SIX SIGMA AND CLASSICAL ISSUE Management Manufacturing Tolerance Problem CLASSICAL Cost & time Trial & error Worst case Fixing SIX SIGMA Quality & time Robust design Root sum of samples Preventing
Problem solving Analysis Focus Behaviour Reasoning Outlook Aim Organization Training Chain Of Command People(employee) Control Improvement
Expert based Experience Product Reactive Experience based Short term Company Authority Luxury Hierarchy Cost Centralized Automation
System based Data Process Proactive Statistically based Long term Customer Learning Necessity Empowered teams Asset Localized Optimization
G.S.M. is the short form for Global Services for Mobile communication. Analog cellular system is known as 1st generation digital system. Digital system are second generation system. The digital transmission over air interface has a number of advantages over analog transmission. Some of them are:● Better speech quality. ● Speech privacy and security (improve through encryption) ● High spectral efficiency (traffic density per MHZ bandwidth due to excessive frequency reuse).
● Better Hopping)
● Data service and ISDN capability. ● Effective use of battery power by RF power control. G.S.M was though first developed in Europe but is now used everywhere in the world.
Some Version of G.S.M:GSM 900 (STANDARD):- This is a standard for digital voice transmission in the 900MHZ band. This is so-called primary band includes two Sub – band of 25MHZ. GSM 1800:- Because of growing no. of subscriber a further set of frequency 75MHZ in the 1800 band were allocated for digital mobile services in Europe. This was three times the bandwidth allocated for G.S.M.-900. G.S.M.-900 components can be used in G.S.M.-1800. Only the mobile station & the radio base transceiver station, themselves need a different specification.
COMPARISON BETWEEN GSM 900 AND GSM 1800 GSM 900 UPLINK BAND DOWNLINK BAND CHANNEL SPACING TOTAL # CHANNELS DUPLEX SPACING 890-915 MHz 935-960 MHz 200 KHz 124 45 MHz GSM 1800 1710-1785 MHz 1805-1880 MHz 200 KHz 374 95 MHz
Limitation of Fixed Line Telephone: No mobility Delay in new connection Prone to failure No security Very less Value Added Services
To overcome these difficulties worldwide communication organization has establish committee to study about wireless telephony. Those groups of members were named as CEPT (Conference of European Post & Telegraph).
PSTN: PSTN Call Setup
EVOLUTION OF G.S.M. STANDARDS:-
●1980’s:- During this period, Advance Mobile phone services (AMPS) was there in America. ●EARLY 1980’s:- European nations were developing cellular solutions but no common standard was available. ●1982:- CEPT (Conference of European Posts and Telegraph) formed a study group called the Group for Special Mobile (G.S.M.) To honour the group the technology is named as GSM. OBJECTIVES OF GSM:● Good speech quality ● Low terminal and service cost ● Support for international roaming ● Ability to support handheld terminals ● Support for range of new services and facilities ● Spectral Efficiency ● ISDN compatibility 1989:- GSM responsibility was transferred to ETSI (European Telecom Standards Institute). 1990:- Phase-1 of G.S.M. specification was published during this period. MID-1991:- Commercial services were started and the GSM facility was launched in four countries:i. France ii. Italy iii. U.K. iv.Germany 1997:- Commercial Services became available in 110 Countries
SERVICES PROVIDED BY G.S.M:Tele-Service: - Telephony. Data Service: - Circuit Switched Data up to 9600 bps (9.6kbps). - G3 Facsimile-Of third generation. - S.M.S. Supplementary Services:–
– – – –
Call forwarding, when subscriber is unavailable. Call barring for outgoing or incoming calls. Call identification. Call waiting. Multiparty Conversion.
RANGE OF ONE CHANNEL:Let’s take the case of G.S.M. Band frequency. 890 to 915 MHZ - Uplink Frequency 935 to 960 MHZ Downlink Frequency
Each Uplink band & Download band is of 25 MHZ duration. Now 25 MHZ is divided in 125 Parts. Each part is called Channels. 1 Channel=1 ARFCN=25 MHZ 125=200KHZ So, 1Channel=200 KHZ. Hence each channel becomes 200 KHZ .Each person is allocated for 1 Channel. Hence in one band of frequency 125 Persons can talk at a time.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access):-
After FDMA it was later found that division of frequency itself was not sufficient to meet the capacity of requirement. So frequency channels are again divided into time domain called time slots. This means that multiple users will use the same channel frequency but not at the same instance. Each user will be given a time slot of fixed time period. Hence more users can use the same channel of FDMA by time division multiplexing. This method of increasing the capacity is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
How & How much Introducing TDMA:-
After FDMA each channel is of 200 KHZ. Now, 200 KHZ is again divided into same slots. 125 Channels=125*8=1000 time slots. But out of 125,124 channels are used for speech transmission. One channel in each frame is left for providing gap to next frame. This one channel is used as a guard to avoid overlapping between two frames. Hence from 125 channels including TDMA no. of time slots used for traffic=124*8=992. Hence 992 persons can talk from one frame. In this way it increases the capacity of traffic.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access):-
This is used in WLL where as in G.S.M. FDMA and TDMA both are used at a time. In this method complete frequency band is divided in 64 codeschannels. Each code channel can be used by different users. The entire user will communicate at the same time and transmit & receive related to its code. A spread spectrum technology is used in which the radio signals associated with a call is spread across a single board frequency spectrum(1.25 MHZ).The CDMA frequency access method allow the services provider to reuse the same frequency in adjacent cells. This is because a code is assigned to each frequency in the spectrum to decipher the signal, therefore signals in the same frequency but with different code appear as noise to the other end. Reuse of same frequency allows CDMA to have more capacity compared to TDMA & FDMA.CDMA system has the ability to communicate with more than one cell at a time during call. This is known as hand off &provides uninterrupted call while mobile station moves between cells. GSM:- In G.S.M. System, TDMA in a combination with FDMA is used. The usage of each radio channel is portioned into multiple (8) time slots and each user is assigned a specific frequency/time slot combination.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM:SIMPLEX: - The direction of transmission is in one direction only, meaning that user terminal is either transmission or receiver . For example Pager ,radio, T.V.services etc. HALF-DUPLEX: - If the direction of transmission is alternate in both direction.
Let’s take two station A&B ,when A behaves like transmission then B behaves like receiver & vice-versa. For example –Walky Talky. DUPLEX:- If direction of transmission is simultaneous in both direction ,but the station will behave like transmitter and receiver at a time. E.g. –Cordless telephone, Mobile, microwave radio etc. In case of simplex or half duplex method, same frequency is used for both the station, whereas in duplex system of communication separate frequency is used for both stations.
MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES:- In cellular cordless terminology the three main types of multiple access techniques used to divide the radio frequency spectrum of the cell site radios and mobile stations are:FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access):Channelization: - To increase capacity of traffic, the time slots are divided into sub parts. These divisions are called channels. There are three channelization methods which are used in this FDMA, TDMA and CDMA. During FDMA, frequency division multiplexing is used. Each part of frequency is channels. Each call is carried on a separate frequency channels. Each channel is called ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel No.) For analog system FDMA in combination with FDD is used. The spectrum is divided into no. of channels and then Freq. Modulation (FM) is used for speech channels and Freq. Shift Keying (FSK) is used for signalling channels.
Subscriber Y Subscriber X
INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR COMMUNICATION:In a wireless communication to access the subscriber two R.F. channels are needed per active cell. But in a city if there is large no. of subscriber it needs large no. of channels to accommodate them. But there is limitation of availability of spectrum. To overcome this limitation total area of city will be divided into zones, called CELLS. Each CELL has base station Transceivers (BTS). The location of site will be on following factor:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Coverage of prime locations. Cost factor. Availability of power, security and open space. Nearby installation of other B.T.S. Terrain condition.
CELL STRUCTURE:- Each cell is hexagonal in shape. Each cell may be of different shape and size. In highly dense area, the size of cell will be small and in lesser dense area cell size will be larger. Size of cell on highways and on main roads, cell size is optimized to cover larger length along the road. This can be made possible by using highly directive antenna.
GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS
HLR VLR AUC EIR SMSSC BC VMSC
M S BT S BC F ST F
GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS:- The meanings of various components of G.S.M. as used in public land Mobile Network (PLMN) are:MS - Mobile Station BSS - Base Station Subsystem NSS - Network Station Subsystem B.T.S. - Base Transceivers Station
B.S.C. - Base Station Controller B.C. Billing Centre
M.S.C.-Mobile Switching Centre H.L.R. - Home Location Register V.L.R. - Visiting Location Register A.U.C. - Authentication Centre EIR- Equipment Identity Register OMC- Operation and Maintenance Centre SMSC- Short Message Service Centre VMSC- Voice Mail Services Centre STF- Speech Transcoder Frame
THE LINK:- Between mobile station & B.T.S is an air link. Between B.T.S. and BCF an Abis link is present whereas, the STF is connected to MSC by an ‘A’ link. Mobile Station (MS):- The Mobile Station(MS) represent the terminal equipment as use by subscriber supported by G.S.M. wireless system . It consists of two parts:● SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) ● Mobile Equipment Functions of MS: Radio Transmission Termination. Radio Channel Management Speech Encoding / Decoding. Radio Link Error Protection. Flow Control of Data.
Mobility Management and Rate adaptation Of User Data to Radio link. Performance Measurement of Radio Link
BSS:- The B.T.S., BCF and STF together from the BSS via Air link connection is mode between the BSS & the mobile station. B.T.S.:- The BTS by means of an antenna receives the signals as sent by the Mobile station. Several types of an antenna configuration are there depending on need. In the BTS an MRIF (Mini Rack Interface) is present. The MRIF then passes on the signal to the BCF through Abis link .In an Abis link speech and signal travel at a rate of 16Kbps. ● BTS has a set of transceivers to communicate with mobile in its area. ● One BTS cover one or more than one Cell. ● Capacity of Cell depends upon the no. of transceivers in a cell. ● BTS is connected to BSC through Abis link of 2Mbps. ● BTS transmits and receives voice at 13Kbps on Um i.e. Air interface. ● BTS commands Mobile set to set Transmission Power, Timing advance and Handover BCF:- The BCF takes part in signalling part of data. It has two types of services COWS & CEWS are meant for common channel signaling to other parts like STF etc. CEWS do signalling related to the BCF. The signals coming at 16Kbps where speech is not touched in the BCF. STF:- The BCF is then connected to the STF by an M link. In this, signal travel at a rate of 64Kbps. This receives speech at 16Kbps & signals at 64 Kbps. It takes care of the speech part. It
contains certain STU cards which connected to the MSC by A link. MSC:- MSC means Mobile Switching Centre. It provides switching of Cell like PSTN exchange and is the heart of GSM network. Switching means connecting, maintaining & release of mobile to mobile, mobile to PSTN &PSTN to mobile Cells. It has data base of all subscribers and stored in HLR, VLR etc. Database includes identity of subscriber MSC is weighted by no. of subscribers. For example, MSC of 1 lakh subscriber means that MSC can provide connection to 1 lakh and beyond which it need another MSC. The MSC perform the switching function for all mobile station located in its geography area covered by its BSS. Function of MSC is:● Call handling that copy with mobile nature of subscriber ● Management of required logical radio link channel during calls ● Management of MSC-BSS signalling protocol ● Handling location Register, ensures inter working between mobile, mobile- station & VLR ● Control of inter BSS and inter MSC handovers ● Standard functions of local exchanges ● Exchange of signalling information with other systems ● Acts as gateway to interrogate HLR AUC:● Contain subscriber authentication data called subscriber keys. ● Generates security related parameter needed to authorize services.
● Generates unique data pattern called chipper key to encrypt user data and speech. HLR:● MSC store all the data base of subscriber in HLR. ● MSC communicates with HLR to get database of subscriber on call. ● Contains administrative information of each subscriber registered in the corresponding GSM network. ● Location of the mobile is typically in the form of the signaling address of the VLR associated with the MS. ● Important data fields are:* MSISDN * Present VLR * IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) VLR:- Contains temporary database of subscriber. Temporary database means mobile status (like ON/OFF), Location of mobile, that is in which cell is the mobile so that incoming call can be directed to that cell. Again in Roaming case i.e. if any subscriber is coming from some other MSC area, then it is known to as visitor for that MSC. When that visitor subscriber switches on its mobile then first make request for call, then MSC confirms to HLR & HLR confirms it from original HLR and stores the database to visitor VLR. EIR:- It is accessed during the equipment validation procedure when a mobile station access. It contains identity of mobile station equipment called IMEI.
The three lists corresponding to the status of the equipment are:● White list (valid) ● Grey list (suspected) ● Black list (banned) OTHER ELEMENTS:● BC:- To collect billing data for Public land Mobile Network (PLMN). ● SC:- To provide special service to mobile subscriber in the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN).
● Normal Burst - Carry Data ● F Burst -Used in FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel) ● S Burst
- Used in SCH (Synchronization Channel) ●Access Burst - Used in RACH (Random Access Channel) ●Dummy Burst
TRAFFIC CHANNEL:● TCH / F:- Traffic Channel Full Rate. - @13 Kbps ● TCH / H - Traffic Channel Half Rate. - @6.5 Kbps ● EFR - Enhanced Full Rate. - @13 Kbps
BROADCAST CHANNEL DOWNLINK:-
● BCCH -Broadcast Control Channel. -Broadcasting Network / cell specific information.
● FCCH -Frequency Correction Control Channel. -Used by the mobiles for frequency correction.
● SCH -Synchronization Channel. -Synchronization of mobiles (TDMA, FN & BSIC).
● CBCH -Cell Broadcast Control Channel.
COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL:-
● DOWNLINK - PCH * Paging Channel. * For Alerting Channel.
-AGCH *Access Grant Channel. * For Granting Access to M ● UPLINK -RACH * Random Access Channel. * Mobiles seeking attention of the BTS.
DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL:● Slow -SACCH * Slow Associated Control Channel (Duplex). * Transmission of Signalling Data(Radio link supervision, Measurement, Transmit Power Control, Timing Advance). ● Fast -SDCCH * Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (Duplex). * Signaling Channel used for service request. -FACCH * Fast Associated Control Channel. * Stealing Flag & Preparation. * Used during cell setup, Handover.
RADIO LINK ASPECTS:-
● ITU Allocation for GSM 900 -Band 890-915 MHZ for Uplink (MS to BSS). -Band 935-960 MHZ for Downlink (BSS to MS). ● To maximize the capacity utilization. -Access technique is FDMA /TDMA/FDD. ● 25MHZ bandwidth is divided into:-124 Carriers (ARFCN). -Spaced 200 KHZ apart. * TDMA superimposed on carrier frequency. * Each Base Station is assigned multiple frequencies.
● OBJECTIVE:- Multiple-Path fading is dependent on carrier frequency. Changing the carrier frequency slowly helps alleviate the problem. Co-Channel interference is in effect randomized.
● REALIZATION:- The ARFCN for the channel is change in each successive frame, based on HOPPING Sequence. The HOPPING Sequence changes for each TDMA Frame.
SPEEC H CODIN G
CHANN EL CODIN G
MODU LATIO N
SPEECH DECODI NG
CHANN EL DE -CODIN G
DEINTERL EAVIN G
DEMODU LATIO N
BTS (Base Transceiver System)
BTS (Base Transceiver Station):- BTS is the main part of the mobile communication.bts consists of mainly three cards. Whole system of BTS consists: 1. Fan unit (It have 9 fans) 2. Racks 3. FACB (Fan control Board) BTS can be classified as: A) According to power supply 1. DC power supply BTS-
2. AC power supply BTSB) According to sites it is of two type 1. INDOOR BTS 2. OUTDOOR BTS OUTDOOR BTS MB02
The modular allows -
A9100’s has design which following configurations: Configuration, Configuration and Architecture.
Omni Sectorized Multi Band
BTS consists of mainly these cards:1. SUMA (Station unit module advance) 2. TEPA (Transmitter Equipment Power amplifier) 3. TERPA (Transceiver Equipment Power Amplifier ) 4. TREPS (Transceiver Equipment Power supply ) 5. RT (Transceivers) 6. ANC (Antenna Network Chamber)
TREPA, TREPS & TEPA are the types of RT card. One BTS rack has three sectors named: ALFA, BETA and GAMA sectors. One sector can contain one ANC card and maximum four RT cards. In one BTS 12RTcards are connected. RT cards are connected to the ANC cards and ANC connected to BSC and then MSC.
XIBM-EXTERNAL ALARM INPUT MULTISTANADARD MSCA-MULTISTANDARD CONNECTION AREA TRX- TRANSEIVER EQUIPMENT ANC- ANTENNA NETWORK CHAMBER SUMA-STATION UNIT MDULE ADVANCE TEPA-TRANSMITTER EQUIPMENT POWER AMPLIFIER TREDA-TRANSMITTER EQUIPMENT DIGITAL/ANALOG TREA-TRANSEIVER EQUIPMENT AMPLIFIER CONNECTION AREA-XIBM+MSCA+48V I/P & 6MCV ONE TRE =1 TEPA+1 TREDA +1 TREA
SUMA CARDS (BRAIN OF THE BTS)
FUNCTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Digital transmission Timing and clock generation Management of internal digital interface Operation and maintenance function Remote inventory Control DC-DC converter & check in of battery
BTS tester checks these function. Functional components are power QUICC (Quad Integrated Communication Controller), this processor (like MPC860) SD RAM, FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), PLL, USB & PLD. SUMA CARDs are tested in two ways: 1. Calibration Test 2. ABIS Test SMALL BOARDED TESTER:- It tests the FAN unit board
ANC Function- (This Card is not Manufactured Here) The ANCON is responsible for maintaining the operations of the ANC. Its principles are:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Setting the LNA Game for the assigned for TREA receiver LNA Alarm Supervision Measuring Alarm VSWR Selection of Antenna Sector Reporting VSWR Alarm RF cabling status Detection Remote Power ON/OFF via the BCB Interface Status Display via front panel LED’S RI via the BCB Interface
Future Proof BTS. - GPRS Ready
- EDGE Ready by “Add TRE” operation - UMTS Ready- The MBI5 and MBO2 outdoor cabinet allow mixed configurations GSM + UMTS.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
ERP system are software package soothing several module, such as human resources, sales, finance and production, marketing, advertising etc. providing cross organization integration of data through embedded business processes. These software packages can be customized to accommodate the specific need of an organization. It takes care of all activities in organization, including planning, manufacturing, sales and marketing and many more. ERP could gain much attention in a very short span of time &many software applications sprang up to business managers to implement ERP. Typically, an ERP, the expansive set of activities supported by multi module application software helps the business man manage important part of his business.
Evolution of ERP
• • • • • •
1950s – Inventory control module. 1960s – material requirement planning (MRP1) 1970s - manufacturing resource planning (MRP2) 1990s - enterprise resource planning (ERP) 1994- Supply chain management Later - customer relation management (CRM)
ERP solves various problems faced in conventional methods with the help of following techniques• • • • • •
• • • •
Management information system (MIS) Integrated information system (IIS) Executive information system (EIS) Artificial intelligence (AI) Corporate information system (CIS) Knowledge management (KM) Enterprise wide system (EWS) Business intelligence system (BIS) Material resource planning (MRP) Manufacturing resource planning (MRP2) Money resource planning (MRP3)
FEATURES OF ERP • ERP performs core business behavior& increases customer services & there by augmenting the corporate image. • ERP fills the sequence break across the organization. • ERP provide for compressive integration of system not only transversely. • ERP is a single elucidation for better project management.
• ERP not only addresses the current requirement of the company but also provide the opportunity of persistently improving &cleansing business processes. • ERP provides business intelligence tool like decision support system (DSS), executive information system (EIS), reporting, data mining &early warning system (ROBOT) for enabling people to make better decision & accordingly improve their business processes. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
SCM can be defined as the process of planning, implementing and controlling & efficient & cost effective flow of raw materials, in process inventory, finished good & related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements. The 5 basic components of SCM are as follows –
• • • • •
Plan Source Make Deliver Return
SUPPLY CHAIN LOOP The supply chain models for a particular manufacturing enterprise reflect the company’s product & industry & its position within the supply chain. Supply chain models range from simple to complex.
The simple manufacturing enterprise buys item from external supplier& internally produces items for direct sale & shipment to customers. The ERP sys must handle buy & make items at a single site operations. SUPPLIERS MANUFACTURER Available ERPs In The World • • • • • • • • BAAN. J. D. Edward. SAP. Ramco QaD Oracle People soft BOI CUSTOMERS
BaaN • Founded by Jan Baan in 1978 in the Netherlands. • BaaN manufacturing control sys (BMCS) was the 1st package developed by BaaN for MRP1, CRP& MRP2. • The company BaaN has become one of the world’s biggest software group &expects to remain on a fast track for the foreseeable future. • BaaN solutions are used to achieve streamline the planning process by integrating diverse information, insuring smooth planning. With the help of BaaN we get better decision support.
SAP is the world’s leading providers of collaboration ebusiness solutions. SAP ranks the world ‘s 3rd independent software provider
• It has been in the business of e-business for 35 years. Founded in 1972 by 5 former IBM engineers. • Through this people in business around the globe are improving relationships with the customer& partners, streamlining operations& achieving significant efficiencies through there supply chain. • Unique core processes like from aerospace to utilities, are supported effectively by SAP’s 23 industries solution. • Visibility through the business processes. • Workflow management and event triggered processes. • Empowered users. • Informed management decisions. WHY ITI HAS GONE FOR BaaN:
BaaN • Very strong for discrete manufacturing industries. • Long relationship with CMC for hardware maintenance. • License fee is comparatively cheap.
SAP • Very strong for process industries &finance company. • CMC was implementation partner of SAP. • License key is comparatively large.
• CIRCUIT DIVISION ✔ PCB PLANT ✔ HYBRID PLANT ✔ • COMPONENT DIVISION • SEA PLANT • QUALITY CONTROL • QUALITY ASSURANCE
FLOWCHART FOR PREPRATION OF PCB
BASE MATERIAL CUTTING DRILLING ELECTROLESS PLATING PUMICING LAMINATION EXPOSURE DEVELOPMENT ELECTROPLATING STRIPPING ETCHING Sn - Pb STRIPPING (SOLDER STRIPPING) PISM (PHOTO IMAGE SOLDER MASK) HAL (HOT AIR LEVELLING) SCREEN MASKING/PRINTING ROUTING TESTING
BASE MATERIALS:- PCB unit is meant for producing printed circuit boards of various dimensions. The most common dimension of which PCBs are generally made of: • • • • • 240×400 280×400 300×400 300×500 300×600 Sq. Sq. Sq. Sq. Sq. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm.
The raw material used for the manufacturing of the PCB is “COPPER CLAD EPOXY LAMINATE”. The dimensions are: • 920×1220 Sq. mm. • 1220×1220 Sq. mm. Their thickness generally comes in the multiple of 0.8mm.Copper clad of the thickness 17.5 or 35.0 or 70 microns is laminated on the both sides of the glass epoxy.
CUTTING:- It is carried out by saw cutting machine. Cutting is done by two types of blades. One is used for cutting copper clad glass epoxy. This blade has diamond in its circumference shape, which serves as the cutting edge & the blade is circular in shape. Other blade used is for the entry sheet & the back up sheet. The blade used for this purpose is carbide blade.
BAKING:- After cutting the base material to required sizes, in order to make the surface coating of Cu even, to remove the volatile impurities, vapours & moistures & moreover to make the sheet plane, the raw sheet of glass epoxy with Cu clad
laminate is baked in oven at 3 different temperatures depending upon thickness of raw material. The process requirement time and temperatures are given below:
Type of Process Curing of PCB base material Straightening of wrapped material Straightening of wrapped circuit
Temperature 140 140 140
Cycle Time 12 hr. 12 hr. 12 hr.
For the purpose of straightening of warped material load is also used along with temperature application. The heating is done in oven named as “Kerry Oven”.
DRILLING: After baking, the next step is drilling. The stacks of 3 raw material sheets are made along with entry sheet & back up sheet. The stack is centered & pinned here. The lot of three stacks is thus held together by pinning. Pinning & stacking is done by a manual machine. The cards (raw material) from this goes to the drilling section. In the drilling section, drilling on the boards are done in which further SMD (Surface Mounting Device) is used for insertion of components. There are two machines being used for drilling purpose. One machine requires program to be located by magnetic tape on paper tape. Another drilling machine has computer control & is called CNC. This is a fully automated machine controlled by software as per
the requirement of circuit to be designed. This task is performed by method department of PCB section. Maximum 15 boards can be drilled simultaneously. We can use any number of spindles as per our requirement. The computer is there to initialize the process. There are various sizes of drill bits in CNC itself. The operating temperature of machine is 200C to 250C. DEBURRING: After drilling holes, burrs left over the sheet & on the edges are removed by deburring. Deburrring removes unwanted materials & makes holes perfect. Also, the board surface gets smoothened.
ELECTROLESS PLATING: It is purely a chemical process which is done to make the epoxy area between the two Cu clad plates conducting. A 2 micron Cu layer is formed over the holes as a result of electroless plating. In this process, the surface of Cu also gets evened. This is also called alkaline plating & is done with the help of chemicals. As no electrode is used for plating purpose, so called as “electroless plating”.
PUMICING: Gem stones are crushed to powdered form which is dissolved in a container & sprayed over the Cu sheet to make it little rough for better lamination & for removing any hand marks, grease or dust which may have accumulated during the process.
LAMINATION: The polymer film to be laminated is first mounted onto a roller and after the blank board is inserted from below, the film gets
laminated on to the blank Cu sheet. The polymer film used is a special kind of consisting of 3 layers. The lowest one is called myler. One of the sheets inside has glue attached to it, which holds the film to the Cu sheet. Lamination machine is used for the purpose. Steps involved in lamination: • Clear rollers with isopropyl alcohol. • Load dry films on rollers. • Switch on the machine. Set temperature, air pressure & speed parameters as per the required specifications. • Feed the card from input end. • Cut the dry film from leading edge at exit end. • Check the deposited dry film. It should be smooth & free from wrinkles & folds. • Place the laminated board in stainless steel boards.
EXPOSURE: The sheet prepared so far is now placed under circuit layer (Diazo; Photo Tool) & UV rays are passed through it. The part through which the UV rays pass becomes hard & the rest remains soft (tracks).
DEVELOPMENT: In this process, the unexposed sensitive photo resist is removed & so we finally get the tracks printed on the Cu sheet. In this process, the sheet is passed through 1% Na2CO3 solution which removes the soft, unpolymerized layer. Then inspection is carried out under 10× magnifying glass.
After development, card is fed to electroplating apparatus. SnPb plating is done on the Cu plate. Here current is passed on the plate, so is called as electroplating. The thickness of Sn-Pb to be applied is 12.5 micron. On open tracks, Cu plating of about 25 micron is done. Current is passed through a mixture of Sn-fluberate, Pb-fluberate and fluberic acid. DYNATRON F is the machine used for electroplating. In PTH (Plated Through Holes) lane, deposition of Cu is done inside the hole to establish the continuity between two surfaces. Electroplating involves following processes: • • • • Cleaning chemical. Acid cleaning. Cleaning through water. Electro etch cleaning.
STRIPPING: In this process, the electroplated sheet is passed through the solution of NaOH which removes the hard layer or the polymerized layer.
ETCHING: After stripping the polymerized layer, the Cu becomes visible. This Cu layer is then removed by etching. Etching is done using Ammonical Cu solution.
SOLDER STRIPPING: In this process, solder Sn-Pb layer is stripped off leaving circuit pattern that is, Cu over epoxy layer. HNO3 is used for this purpose.
PISM (Photo Image Solder Masking): In this process, ink is put over the developed board like dying. Board is inserted from bottom & ink is poured from top & with the help of leveler, it is leveled properly. Then it is cured at a temperature of 800C for 30 minutes to make ink adhere properly to the board. After curing, a photo tool is placed over the sheet & UV Rays are passed through it. The points where holes are to be formed remains soft as light can’t pass through it. After exposure, passing through Na2CO3 solution due to which we get an impression of the holes on the board. Then, again it is baked at temperature 1200C for 4 hrs.
HAL (Hot Air Levelling): The board or the sheet till now produced consists of complete ink & copper are to be soldered which is done using a solder. Therefore a layer of solder is developed over these holes by dipping the PCB in a bath of molten solder.
SRCEEN MASKING/PRINTING: A polyester cloth of size 100×100 sq. cm is used. The ink is coated on this screen to be called as skin mesh. Then screen printing is done by special type of chemical fersol-29. The screen developing & cleaning is done using water, which is made to fall on the screen to remove excess ink.
ROUTING: Here, unwanted portion of the plate is removed & only desired circuit is left behind.
This is done to detect any anomaly. Error detected is shown by printer & it can be rectified if within limits, otherwise discarded. Visual inspection is done to check any discrepancy crack or any connection fault. Bare board testing (BBT) is done for very sophisticated result. QUALITY CONTROL: In the end, quality inspection of the PCB plate is done. Plate is visually inspected to meet the desired specifications like conduction area must be totally covered by solder resist, overlapping of solder resist must be admissible, solder must pass adhesive test etc.
LAYOUT OF COMPONENT DIVISION
1011718 2 11516 57 13 4 6 1 8 3 11 12 9 14
KEYS: GATES CANTEEN OFFICES NCM & RELAY CM OFFICE(P.I.) MANUFACTURING OF NCM PARTS OFFICES STORE C&T
SHOE RACK TOILET & WATER U.P.S. SYSTEM TOOL ROOM PAINTING PLATTING WELDING PUNCHING MACHINES DIFFERENT TYPES OF PUNCHING MACHINES
Component division is concerned with the mechanical work being carried out in the industry. Here many piece parts and shelves are made for exchange. The work assign to this division is t manufacture and assemble different components that are utilized in production of exchange.
ANUFACTURING UNIT:This section includes: • • • • Moulding Punching CNC Metal part
MOULDING: In this shop various components of plastics are manufactured that are used in manufacturing of racks of exchanges. Component of NCM, antennal clamps and other miscellaneous components are also made. Components used in NCM are cam, damper cover, damper unit, gears, and several other big parts that are not manufactured here. Other important parts are charger case and carbon rings etc. for relay unit socket, pilling support and other insulating parts are manufactured. For this purpose a machine called AIMM (Automatic Injection Moulding
Machine) is used. The moulding has three main parts: • Injection unit • Mould unit • Control unit PUNCHING: In punching shop, conductors are made. Raw materials are copper, bronze, brass, stainless steel etc. There are several steps to manufacture a product. these are as follows: • Planning and control department decides the total quantity of products and fixes quality at which it should be manufactured. • After this we decide that which raw material would be used and then choose an appropriate tool for a particular product. • Then appropriate machine is selected. • After manufacturing the product it is sent to quality control for quality check. Some machines used for punching: • High speed automatic punching • Sawing machine • Buffering machine
In this shop punching and bending of heavy components is done by CNC punching and CNC bending machine.
CNC PUNCHING MACHINE: This machine equipped with 45 different types of punching tools. A program is fed to the control panes of machine used to monitor punching machine. FEATURES:
Capacity - 30 tones Table travel - 1270 mm (Y-axis) on change Carriage travel - 1830 mm(X-axis) adjusted X2 Stroke/min - 350 Maximum rate - 200 Maximum sheet size - 1270 × 3660 Relative humidity - 75%
CNC BENDING MACHINE: This machine is used for bending the surfaces. It works on the principle of hieratic pressure i.e. pressure applied by machine is due to the pressure of oil in tank. The dimension angle of bending is feed through the control panel. This machine can bend a no of surfaces at different angles in a single cycle using different tool machine. FEATURES:
Capacity - 400 tones Table length - 4000mm Ramp travel - 300 mm Max sheet thickness - 10 mm operating temperature - 00C to 350C Relative humidity - 75 ASSEMBLY UNIT:In this section following type of components are assembled: • • • • Connector Assembly Coil Winding and Transformer MDF (Main Distributed Frame) Relay Assembly
CONNECTOR ASSEMBLY: Here 40 types of connectors are manufactured handing different sizes, dimensions, number of pins etc. Assembly of connector requires • Plastic raw material(insulator)
• Metallic piece(conductive) Plastic raw material is manufactured in moulding shop and metallic pieces are manufactured in punching shop. Different type of tools and machine used in this shop are: • • • • Hand press tool Combination separation tool Assembly machine Locking machine
COIL AND TRANSFORMER ASSEMBLY: In this shop coil and different type of transformer used in exchange are manufactured. Different types of transformer prepared here are: • • • • • Tube transformer Pulse transformer Power transformer Converter transformer Switching transformer
Various machines are used in this shop are: • • • • • Coil and winding machine Auto shop machine Pneumatic assembly machine Tape ringing machine Automatic marking machine
After assembly the transformer is subjected to testing in order to avoid any discrepancy. The following parameters on which a transformer is tested are: • • • • • Number of turns Resistance Inductance Transformer ratio Insulation strength
• Dielectric test • Thermal test • Short circuit in winding Following types of testing machines are used:
RLC TESTER: This tester is used to obtain the resistive, inductive and impedance value of transformer. MDF TESTER: It is used to measure the number of turns in a transformer.
Switching transformer Power transformer Chokes/toroids
Polarization making (optional)
Frazer winding (optional)
Offer to QC
Offer to QC
Offer to QC
MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME (MDF): Telephone subscribers are connected to MDF at exchange through IPM for their telephone services IPM is used for protection of line and exchange from high voltage. Machines involved in this process are: • Marking machine • Ultrasonic welding machine RELAY ASSEMBLY: Relay is used in exchange for switching application. E10B exchange required 19 types of relays but in this plant only two types of relays are made there are: • 2 BM (Break make) • BM (Break make) 500KL exchange required about one million of these relays.2 BM is used for battery reversal purpose of home metering where as 4BM is used as subscriber card (XEJ16, XEJS) for two main functions: • For sending ringing current to subscriber. • For connection test circuit from line side or equipment side.
4 BM used two sets of spring set assembly while 2 BM used single set of spring set assembly besides that they have different number of turns in the coil.
OPERATION OF RELAY: Relay works on the principle of magnetic effect of current. It works on 12V DC voltage. When 12V DC voltage is applied to the relay via coil terminals a magnetic effect is produced in core which resulting in attraction of armature to word the care. This attraction is mechanically transmitter to have contacts changing over from break set to make slot of spring sets. CHARACTERISTIC OF RELAYS RATED SUPPLY 4 BM 12V 2 BM 12V
NOTE COUNTING MACHINE (NCM): NCM (Note Counting Machine) is used for note counting. It has many function of note counting. It works on 230V AC supply. It works on suction bare. It has some important parts:
SPINDLE MOTOR: Rotates spindle unit. It has speed 1450 rpm power rating 20W and current 0.5A. HOPPER MOTOR: Moves the hopper. It has gears. It has
speed of 1450 rpm but gears convert it into 56 to 60 rpm. Its power rating is 20W and current 0.5A.
SPINDLE ASSEMBLY: Spindle is a moving part of NCM. It has five fingers which suck the note with the help of vacuum. VACUUM PUMP MOTOR: It has two parts. One part sucks the air and the other part blows the air on the spindle finger. Its speed 2850 rpm power rating 0.25 HP and current 1.8A. TRANSFORMER: It takes 230V AC and given 9V and 22V AC output. DAMPER UNIT: Its main work is to move the hopper plate smoothly. POWER SUPPLY: It takes supply from transformer 9V and 22V AC from transformer and gives 5V and 24V DC to mother board. MOTHER BOARD: It has some IC relays connectors LEDs. It has 5V DC supply for display unit keyboard IC, switches, and relays. It has 24 V supply for batch solenoid and stamp solenoid and 230V supply for spindle hopper and vacuum pump motor. FILTER: It has three air filter and an EMI filter paper filter (transparent) for suction. Oil filter for diaphragm assembly.EMI filter is an electronic device which protects from the disturbance in 230V AC supply. DIAPHRAGM ASSEMBLY: It works on suction system. It has a diaphragm and sensor which moves up and down. Sensor senses the counting and displays it with the help of mother board.
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