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PUSHOVER ANALYSIS User’s Guide

**midas Gen Ver.7.4.1
**

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Contents

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E h Enhancements t in i P Pushover h A Analysis l i Pushover Global Control Pushover Load Cases Define Pushover Hinge Properties Assign Pushover Hinge Properties Pushover Hinge Properties Table Pushover Analysis Result Important Notice to Existing Users

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Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS #1

NONLINEAR ELEMENT 0-4

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Moment-Rotation (M-θ) type hinge can be used in Load control pushover analysis. (Beam, Wall Element) : Eurocode8:2004, FEMA, Bilinear Tri Bilinear, Tri-linear linear type Out-of-plane nonlinearity for wall elements of the plate type is reflected. Distributed hinge is added. (Moment-curvature relation）: Plasticity of the entire element considered. Enter integration points (1~20). (* Only plasticity at both ends was considered for the present Multi-linear type element.) Defining g hinge g properties p p for nonlinear g general link completely p y revised. Moment-Rotation (M-θ) type hinge and Moment-Curvature (M-φ) type hinge can be used in combination.

**PUSHOVER HINGE PROPERTIES
**

Eurocode8: 2004 hinge properties is newly added. added Masonry material type is newly added. It is applicable only for beam element. PMM TYPE （Change in axial forces considered) – RC Tri-linear : Crack surface（1st yield surface） can be defined. - Steel Tri-linear : 1st, 2nd y yield surface can be separately p y defined. - Maximum yield moment about ±My, ± Mz can be individually defined. Skeleton curve considering slip is newly added for truss element and general link. The user can directly define the initial stiffness of nonlinear hinges. The user can directly define yield deformations.

0-8 0-9

~ 0-10

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User defined Increment-control function Auto-terminating condition is added.490 [se c] 43.570 [sec] 46.0-2 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS ANALYSIS #2 NONLINEAR ANALYSIS Addition of Load Incremental Method .Auto-stepping control: The first step is loaded up to 90% of the elastic limit of the structure.Auto Analysis Speed 0-11 Analysis speed is improved by adopting INCORE Solver. {(n + 1) − i} / ∑ i . Analysis time is reduced to 40－50％ compared to the old version.780 [sec] 20.1 / old version 47.80 [%] 4 . .70 [%] 43.7. analysis will be terminated.4. wall (12) Nonlinear hinges are assigned to all the elements. . i =1 n −1 .Equal step (1/nstep): Equally divided steps. Incremental method: Displacement Control (50 steps) Skyline S olver MultiFrontal S olver old version Ver.7.1 Ver. Further steps are automatically divided into the ratio of 3 Improvement on load control method: 100% of applied load is accurately reflected in analysis.790 [sec] 20.4.Current Stiffness Ratio: If the analysis results do not converge. [Comparing analysis time] Number of Nodes： 135 Number of elements：beam (234). . Auto-terminating terminating condition by story drift ratio is added (Displacement Control).

etc. Hinge status. displacement graph by steps. etc. Initial load Default value of stiffness reduction ratio (bi-linear/tri-linear hinge curve) Nonlinear Analysis Option (Maximum Iteration. Plastic deformation. Assign hinge properties by Drag & Drop PUSHOVER HINGE PROPERTIES TABLE 5 Check hinge properties using Pushover Hinge Properties table Post-processing Pushover graph Target displacement as per EN 1998-1:2004.) Hinge properties about y-axis and z-axis are separately defined. Show yield strength in real value as well as the ratio of the yield surface. 6 5 . Force-Deformation graph.0-3 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement : PRE & POST Pre-processing p g PUSHOVER GLOBAL CONTROL : Total control of pushover analysis is available with one dialog. Convergence Criteria) Scale Factor for Ultimate Rotation and Secondary Seismic Elements as per Eurocode8-3 1 PUSHOVER HINGE PROPERTIES 3 Addition of Eurocode8:2004 pushover hinge properties. Pushover Hinge result table Safety verification. Masonry material type Define hinge properties by elements (six components can be defined in a single dialog.

analysis (Eurocode8:2004. Bilinear and Trilinear is available for the Moment MomentRotational angle interaction element 6 .0-4 Gen V741 Pushover E Enhancement :ANALYSIS Moment-Rotation (M-θ) type hinge can be used in Load control pushover analysis. Bilinear type and Trilinear type) Both Load-control and Displacement-control increment method are available regardless g of the element type. FEMA.

For wall elements of the Membrane Type. only inin plane nonlinearity can be reflected. Nonlinearity can be defined for 6 components. y 7 .0-5 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS Out-of-plane Out of plane nonlinearity for wall elements of the Plate Type is reflected. Nonlinearity can be defined for in-plane component p only.

Enter integration point 8 . Select Moment-Curvature(Distributed) applicable for beam elements (Not applicable for wall elements) Enter integration points (1~20) . (Moment-curvature relation）: Plasticity of the entire element considered.0-6 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS Distributed hinge is added.

9 . Note that general link hinge properties assigned in the old version are not automatically converted in V741. Defining hinge properties for nonlinear general link completely revised. Old version i Nonlinear general link was defined in the inelastic hinge properties dialog.0-7 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS G V741(NEW) Gen Nonlinear general link is defined in the PUSHOVER hinge properties dialog.

Pier type / Spandrel type applicable for beam element type. Select Moment – Rotation (M-θ). 10 .0-8 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS added Masonry material type is added. added Eurocode8 :2004 type is added. Wall and Truss type. Applicable for Beam/Column.

Maximum yield moment about ± My.0-9 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS PMM TYPE（Change in axial force considered）：RC Tri-linear type RC Tri-linear : Crack surface （1st yield surface) can be defined. 11 . ± Mz can be individually defined.

PMM TYPE（Change in axial forces considered)：Steel Trilinear type 12 .0-10 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS Steel Tri-linear : 1st and 2nd yield surfaces can be separately defined.

1 / old version 43. Analysis speed ANALYSIS MODEL Pushover curve in the old version Pushover curve in V741 [C [Comparing i analysis l i ti time] ] Number of Nodes： 135 Number of elements：beam （234）.570 [sec] 46.790 [sec] 20. Incremental method: Displacement Control (50 steps) old version Skyline Solver Mult-Frontal Solver 47.0-11 Gen V741 Pushover Enhancement :ANALYSIS Analysis speed is improved by adopting INCORE Solver.4.4. wall （12） Nonlinear hinges are assigned to all the elements. Analysis time is reduced to 40－50％ compared to the old version.1 20.80 [%] 13 .70 [%] 43.7.7.490 [sec] Ver.780 [sec] Ver.

Mz. etc. Assign hinge properties to elements Assign Hinge Properties Perform Pushover Analysis Yield strength is automatically calculated for each element. Fy Fz. auto-termination condition. stiffness reduction ratio. etc.0-12 Gen V741 Pushover analysis flow chart Pushover Analysis y Procedure Define Initial load. Mz): yield strength. incremental method (load control/ displacement control). Pushover Global Control Define incremental step. load pattern. My. P-M interaction. Define whether to consider initial load and P-Delta effect Incremental Control Function ： set a user-defined incremental function (for Load Control) Pushover Load cases Define Pushover Hinge Properties Specify element type and material type Hinge properties by force components (Fx. skeleton curve type. etc. Pushover analysis results: Pushover curve. Pushover Results Various pushover graphs Various pushover hinge result tables 14 . Hinge Status Results. convergence criteria. etc.

Convergence criteria. －When auto-calculation is selected. . P h Pushover L d cases : Enter Load E t l load d cases and d analysis l i conditions diti f for pushover h analysis. Yield deformation. Hinge g location. Initial Stiffness etc. －Nonlinear element type. (Yield strength. the corresponding yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code. Reference location for distributed hinges －Pushover Global Control can be defined in a single dialog. yp . Skeleton curve type. Define Pushover Hinge Properties（TYPE) : Define the plastic hinge data to be used in Pushover analysis. . Analysis stopping condition etc. Hinge g properties etc. p . yp . P h I tF ti E t th t control t lf ti t l t i C t l Pushover Increment Functions : Enter the i increment function to apply to th the St Stepping Control Option PUSHOVER HINGE PROPERTIES TABLE Pushover Hinge Ｔable : Check the hinge property type assigned to the elements Pushover Hinge Properties Table : Check the hinge properties assigned to the elements. Pushover hinge g components.0-13 Gen V741 New context menu PUSHOVER ANALYSIS / PUSHOVER HINGE PROPERTIES Pushover Global Control : Enter the necessary analysis conditions to be applied to Pushover analysis. l i －Increment steps. －Initial load. Stiffness reduction ratio.) Perform Pushover Analysis PUSHOVER RESULT 15 . Increment Method (Load control / Displacement control). Assign Pushover Hinge Properties : Assign the hinge properties to the elements.

Gen V741(NEW) #1 : Initial Load #2 : Convergence Criteria Initial Load #4 : Stiffness reduction ratio new Define default value of stiffness reduction ratio. Increment Step was not able to define by load cases. center) for calculating yield strength of beam element Specify scale factors for ultimate rotation and identify secondary seismic elements. #3 Auto-Calculation new Specify the reference location (i-end. 16 .1-1 Pushover global control #1 Integrated menu for the user’s convenience Old version Pushover analysis control * In the old version. jend.

Control Convergence Criteria Specify the maximum number of sub-iterations and a tolerance limit for convergence criterion. When P-M interaction is considered. 17 .1-2 Pushover global control #2 Define Initial Load In order to assign the initial load. j-end. It is applied to all the pushover load cases. ‘Use Initial Load’ option needs to be checked on in the Pushover Load Case dialog. center) for calculating yield strength of beam element Specify scale factors for ultimate rotation and identify secondary seismic elements. Default value of Stiffness Reduction Ratio Define the default stiffness reduction ratio of the skeleton curve curve. Data for Auto-Calculation of Capacity Specify the reference location (i-end. the user needs to apply the initial load.

and minimum 20 steps are recommended. Displacement control Define Pushover load case 18 . The incremental steps must be entered as a positive integer value (nstep≥1). When P M interaction is considered. P-Delta Analysis Select Incremental method Load control. (Default = 20) Initial Load Check on to assign the load defined prior to Pushover a nalysis as the initial load for Pushover analysis.2-1 Pushover load cases （common） Enter Increment Step Enter number of steps to reach the estimated collapse load or the prescribed displacement. the user needs to P-M apply the initial load.

parameters The first step is loaded up to 90% of the elastic limit of the structure. the analysis is terminated 19 . i =1 n −1 Equal Step The applied load (Qud) is equally divided by the number of nstep. the analysis is terminated.2-2 Pushover load cases（load control） INCREMENT CONTROL Auto-Stepping Control The applied load (Qud) is divided by the automatically calculated load parameters. Incremental Control Function The applied load (Qud) is divided by the user-defined function. AUTO STOPPING CONDITION Current Stiffness Ratio : If the Current Stiffness Ratio (Cs) is entered and the ratio of the stiffness at the current an incremental step to the initial stiffness reaches the specified value. If the Limit Inter-Story Deformation Angle is entered and the maximum Inter-Story Deformation Angle reaches the specified value. Further steps are automatically divided by the ratio of {(n + 1) − i} / ∑ i .

100% of applied load was not accurately reflected. Gen V741(NEW) STEP 2 ~ STEP n : 100% of applied load is accurately reflected in analysis.01 0.03 0. 20 . Load 4 5 ２ Estimated Collapse Load Qud*X Elastic limit Ultimate Load by analysis (Collapse Load) Qu Forc ce Incremental load by equal step 3 2 1 STEP : 90％ of the elastic limit 1 １ Displacement 0 0 0.04 0.2-3 Pushover load cases : Load control #1 Improvement in Auto-Stepping Control Old Version Exact load of entered data was not clear.05 Displ.02 0.

F:0.2-3 Pushover load cases : Load control #2 Improvement of auto stepping control Old Version Gen V741(NEW) 1STEP : 90% of the elastic limit * Elastic Limit: The load when initial yield occurs 100% of applied load was not reflected even though pushover analysis was completed. 21 .0 S.7 : 70％ of applied load was reflected. S F:１. S.F: 0 : 100% of applied load is reflected.

1st step: λ1 Last step Incremental load at the last step Pn = λn × P . P : total load 2nd step ~ (the last step-1) step 1) Load parameter at the current step ( i ) λi = λi −1 + Where. λ1 : load parameter at the 1st step st P 1 : Incremental load at the 1 step Ex.2-3 Pushover load cases : Load control #3 Auto stepping control 1ST step 1) Estimate the elastic limit load by applying the lateral load defined by the user. 2) 90% of elastic limit is defined as the load parameter of the 3) Define the incremental load at the 1st step. λi Pi P : load parameter at the current step : Incremental Load at the current step : Total lateral load 22 .0 P 1 = λ1 × P Where. λn = 1. Here. ) − i} {(n + 1) × ∑i i =1 n −1 (1 − λ1 ) λi : load parameter at the current step λi −1 : load parameter at the preceding step n i λ1 : the number of total steps : current step : load parameter at the 1st step 2) Incremental load at the current step Pi = λi × P Where. elastic Limit means the estimated 1st yielding force.

2-3 Pushover load cases : Load control #4 Gen V741(NEW) Equal Step is newly added. 1step ： 90% of the elastic limit step 2 ~ final step ： Auto-stepping 23 . Auto-Stepping Control Equal-step increment (1/n step) The applied load (Qud) is equally divided by the number of nstep.

or applied the Increment Control Function is as the table below.2-4 Incremental control function #1 Enter the E h i increment control lf function i to apply l to the h S Stepping i Control Option in the Pushover Load Cases. below Incremental Control Function 24 . For example. if the user enters the Increment Control Function as below and Increment Step (nstep) is specified as 10.

25 . pushover curve will be produced identical to the pattern of Load-Displacement curve.2-4 Incremental control function #2 Procedure for Pushover Increment Function ① Generate the Increment Control Function. ② Define the generated function in the Pushover Load Case dialog. ③ After performing analysis. ④ Check text file which contains analysis results of the load parameter and Increment Function.

**2-5 Auto stopping control #1
**

Current Stiffness Ratio Gen V741(NEW)

Current Stiffness Ratio

Elastic(Linear) ( ) ： Cs = 1.0 Stable range ： 0.0 ＜ Cs ＜ 1.0 Unstable range ： Cs＜0.0

CS

CS

Analysis A l i is i terminated i d if the maximum number of increments is reached, or negative values are encountered in the stiffness matrix.

0.0 < Cs ≤ 1.0

CS

The user can obtain the solution.

Analysis is automatically terminated when Cs reaches the specified value.

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**2-5 Auto stopping control #2
**

Current Stiffness Ratio

Analysis Model In case of displacement control

： The user can obtain the solution.

**In case of load control
**

：The user cannot obtain the solution since stiffness is 0.

変位増分

**Gen V741(NEW)
**

Analysis is automatically terminated when hen c current rrent stiffness ratio reaches 0 0.

1 Column Stiffness reduction ratio：0.0 (Perfect Plasticity)

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**2-6 Pushover load cases : Displacement control
**

Displacement control option

Global

- Specify the target displacement with respect to the node where the maximum translational displacement occurs.

Master Node

- Specify the master node, translational direction and maximum displacement.

**Auto-stopping condition
**

If the Limit Inter-Story Deformation Angle is entered and the maximum Inter-Story Deformation Angle reaches the specified value, the analysis is terminated. new

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B: Element type ( B: Beam.3-0 Define pushover hinge properties 1 Define Pushover Hinge g Properties p Define the plastic hinge data to be used in Pushover analysis. The hinge properties which are not assigned to the elements are displayed in blue. 2 Assign g Pushover Hinge g Properties p Assign the hinge properties in Define Hinge Properties to all the elements. T: Truss. it is displayed in Black. new hinge properties are automatically generated. When the user modifies the assigned hinge data. When the hinge properties are assigned to the elements. W: Wall. 29 . SPR: GL GL-LINK LINK ) 3: Element number Beam : Defined hinge name The assigned hinge data can be modified and updated data are automatically applied to all the assigned element.

I-end & J-end 2) M-Φ Distributed type beam elements: Number of integral points 3) Truss.3-1 Define pushover hinge properties “M-θ” and “M-Φ” type hinge properties (Eurocode 8: 2004. FEMA. Masonry.Plate: Both in-plane and out-of-plane plasticity are considered 2 3 5 6 Reflection of coupled axial force-biaxial m oment behavior .M-Φ distributed type (beam elements in dynamic nonlinear analysis) . & Tri-linear type) Old Version Gen V741(NEW) 1 2 3 Element type Material type Load-deformation relationship of the flexural member . FEMA.Yield strain Multi-linear type and FEMA type can not be simultaneously used.Membrane: Only in-plane plasticity is considered . General link：Center -Skeleton Curve: Eurocode8:2004.Hinge Location 1) M-θ/M-Φ lumped type beam or wall elements: Center. stiffness reduction ratio .Initial stiffness . Bilinear. 30 .Yield strength.M-θ type . Bilinear & Tri-linear type 5 6 7 7 Relevant hinge properties .M-Φ lumped type (existing Multi-linear type) 4 1 4 Type of wall element .Component: the degree of freedom to be assigned to the plastic hinge type .

Strain (Relative Displ. Fz (Shear) Mx (Torsion) My.Strain Initial stiffness EA Location of hinge Integration point When Element Type is General Link Component Fx (Axial) Fy. Distributed) Component p Fx (Axial) Fy. J-end When Definition is Moment-Curvature (M-φ Lumped. 3EI/L. J-end I-end. Fy Fz (Shear) Mx (Torsion) My.Strain Shear force.Shear strain Torsional moment . Fz (Shear) Mx (Torsion) ( ) My.) Shear force.) Shear forceforce Strain (Relative Displ.Rotation Flexural moment .Shear strain Torsional moment .Curvature Initial stiffness EA GAs GJ EI Location of hinge g Integration point Integration point Integration point Integration point When Element Type is Truss (Fx component): Component Fx (Axial) Definition of hinge properties Axial force .3-2 Define pushover hinge properties When Definition is Moment-Rotation (M-θ) : Component Fx (Axial) Fy. Fz (Flexure) Definition of hinge g properties p p Axial force .Rotation Flexural moment . 2EI/L Location of hinge Middle Middle I-end. Fz (Flexure) Definition of hinge properties Axial force .) Displ ) Torsional moment .Rotation Initial stiffness User-defined (EA/L) User-defined User defined (GAs/L) User-defined (GJ/L) User-defined (EI/L) Location of hinge Middle Middle Middle Middle 31 .Curvature Flexural moment .Rotation Initial stiffness EA/L GAs/L GJ/L 6EI/L.Strain (Relative Displ. Fz (Flexure) Definition of hinge properties Axial force .

D/Dy) Yield strength Yield strain Class of cross section Compliance Criteria Initial stiffness 7 10 5 6 7 8 9 10 32 .3-3 Define pushover hinge properties: Eurocode8:2004 #1new 1 3 4 5 8 2 1 2 3 4 Input method of yield strength Rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end (symmetric/Asymmetric) When ‘Asymmetric’ is selected. 9 6 Hinge properties in the positive and negative g directions ( (Symmetric y or Asymmetric) Define primary curve (M/My.

* Following definitions are required for Auto-Calculation. 1 2 4 2 Value Type of I-End & J-End Symmetric : Select if rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end are symmetrical. 4 Type Symmetric : Select if the hinge properties are symmetric in the positive and negative directions. Asymmetric : Select if rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end are asymmetrical.3-4 Define pushover hinge properties: Eurocode8:2004 #2 1 Input yield strength p method of y g Auto-Calculation ： The corresponding yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code. Material and section properties defined from the standards 3. Rebar data for RC members User Input ： All the input data are user-defined parameters. Asymmetric : Select if the hinge properties are asymmetric in the positive and negative directions. 1. * The asymmetrical yield strengths between I-end and J-end are automatically reflected when input method is set to Auto-Calculation. 33 . * Value Type of I-End & J-End option is activated when User Input option is selected. Design Code 2.

Shear strength. The coordinate system follows the Element local Coordinate System.c) Where. VRd.0 αcc =1.2a) and (6.2b) Therefore. VRd. Therefore strength VRd is FY = max (VRd. As2= area of compression steel M’=K’bd2fck fsc=700(xu-d2)/xu ≤ fyd d2=effective depth to compression steel xu=(δ-0.s .0 34 .C Rd C is given by: Eurocode2:2004.9) Shear Hinge Shear strength of concrete.3-5 Define pushover hinge properties: Eurocode8:2004 #3 6-1 Yield strength g The values are automatically calculated using the section information if Input Method is set to Auto-Calculation. Equation(6.S is the smaller value of: 6 Eurocode2:2004.0 fcd=αcc fck/γC γC=1. VRd.4)d fyd=design yield strength of reinforcement Flexural Hinge Shear strength of reinforcement. Or the user may enter the values of Yield Moment manually if Input Method is set to User-Input. Equation(6. RC structures t t M={As2*fsc*(d-d2)}+M’ Where.8) and (6. αcw=1.

3-6 Define pushover hinge properties: Eurocode8:2004 #4 6-2 Yield strength g Steel structures Flexural Hinge Shear Hinge Eurocode3:2005.13) Eurocode3:2005. calculated yield strength and yield strain can be checked in the detail report. equation (6. Equation (6.18) After assigning hinge properties to the element. 6 35 .

L: Length of a member. Or the user may enter the values of Yield Rotation manually.3.1) DY Flexural Hinge DU Eurocode8-3:2004. My: Yield moment. I: moment of inertia Flexural Hinge 36 . The coordinate system follows the Element local Coordinate System. Annex A.10b) Steel structures θy= MyL/6EI DY Where. Equation(A.1) 7 Eurocode8-3:2004. E: Elasticity of Modulus.3-7 Define pushover hinge properties: Eurocode8:2004 #5 7 Yield rotation Auto-Calculation The values are automatically calculated using the section information if this option is checked off. Equation(A. RC structures (Eurocode8-3:2004.

Elastic Stiffness： Elastic stiffness is used for the initial stiffness. the modified value will be applied as the initial stiffness. A Any safety f t factors including partial factors are not reflected in the calculation of strength and deformation. and the Yield Strength and Yield Rotation are automatically t ti ll calculated l l t db based d on Eurocode E d 8 part t1&3 3. 37 . In order for the program to automatically determine the class of cross section for the pushover analysis. initial stiffness of moment hinge is taken equal to the Yield Strength divided by Yield Rotation. The values outlined in Eurocode 8-3 are used as the basic values. select ‘Auto’. Plastic Rotation Capacity p y 8 9 Compliance Criteria Enter the target performance indices for the structure in terms of deformation.3-8 Define pushover hinge properties: Eurocode8:2004 #6 8 Class of cross section Rotation capacity at the end of steel beams or columns depends on the class of cross section. Only positive values are entered if symmetrical. For the automatic classification Steel Code Checking should be performed first. 2EI/L: It is activated when Definition is defined as Moment Rotation (M-θ). y 9 10 Define the initial stiffness 10 By default. User: The initial stiffness that has been automatically calculated is displayed here. 6EI/L. If the value is modified. 3EI/L.

Yield Yield strength deformation 7 6 4 5 6 7 38 . D/Dy) Yield strength Yield strain Initial stiffness Calculated resistance can be checked in Design > Pushover Analysis > Pushover Hinge Result Table > Beam Summary table.3-9 Define pushover hinge properties: Masonry #1 2 1 Spandrel type 3 4 new yp Pier type 5 1 2 3 Masonry Properties Input method of yield strength Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or Asymmetric) A ti ) Define primary curve (M/My.

Spandrel type Pier type Building Type: Flexural capacity and shear resistance of masonry pier depends on the type of building as shown in the table below.3-10 Define pushover hinge properties: Masonry #2 1 Masonry y properties p p In the structural model. which directly affects the resistance of the wall pier. If the structural model takes into account the coupling beams. Spandrel type Pier type Element Local axis of masonry wall pier In-plane horizontal direction and transverse direction of the wall pier should coincide with the local z-axis and local y-axis of the element. Also. This assumption implies that they should regularly bonded to the adjoining walls and connected both to the floor tie beam and to the lintel below. masonry spandrels may be taken into account as coupling beams between two wall elements. 39 . a frame analysis may be used for the determination of the action effects on the vertical and horizontal structural elements. respectively as shown in the figure below. the program calculates hinge properties (My component) on the assumption above.

5 Where. VR = D ' ⋅ t ⋅ t0 . 6 Yield strength & Yield strain Pier type Axial resistance Compression. N R = 0 Where. Height Wh i h of f the h masonry spandrel d l h: H t : Width of the masonry spandrel Shear resistance: NR = 0 VR = h ⋅ t ⋅ f vk 0 Flexural resistance MR = Where.3-11 Define pushover hinge properties: Masonry #3 5.0) N : Axial force Flexural resistance MR = H : In-plane vertical dimension of the wall pier (height) σ = N (D ⋅ t) 5 N ⋅D⎛ σ ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ 2 ⎝ k ⋅ fm ⎠ 6 Spandrel type Axial resistance: Compression. N R = f hd ⋅ h ⋅ t.5) = 1.0 ( H / D < 1. Existing Building.0 ≤ H / D < 1. Tension. Hp ⋅h ⎛ Hp ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ 2 ⎝ 0.5 ≤ H / D) = H / D (1. VR = D ⋅ t ⋅ t0 1+ β 1. D : In-plane horizontal dimension of the wall pier (depth) t : Out-of-plane horizontal dimension of the wall pier (thickness) Shear resistance 1. H p is taken as the minimum value between 0.5 (1. Tension.4 f hd ⋅ h ⋅ t and user-defined value.85 ⋅ f hd ⋅ h ⋅ t ⎠ 40 . N R = f m ⋅ D ⋅ t .5 ⋅ t0 σ New Building. D : Depth of the compressed area of the masonry pier ' β = 1. Where.

D/Dy) Yield strength Yield strain Acceptance Criteria Initial stiffness 2 8 6 9 5 6 7 8 9 7 41 . Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or Asymmetric) Define primary curve (M/My.3-12 Define pushover hinge properties: FEMA Old version i G V741(NEW) Gen 1 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 Input method of yield strength Rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end (symmetric/Asymmetric) When ‘Asymmetric’ is selected.

3-13 Define pushover hinge properties: multilinear#1 Multi-linear Type of M-θ element RC Tri-linear : Define 2nd slope by αy Old version Gen V741(NEW) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 Input method of yield strength Input type of Skeleton Curve Rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end (symmetric/Asymmetric) Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or Asymmetric) Yield strength Stiffness reduction ratio Initial stiffness Initial gap in tension and compression 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 42 .

43 . Mx & My & Mz : yield rotation angle) 3 Value Type of I-End & J-End Select if rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end are asymmetrical I End & J-End J End option is activated when the hinge type is * Value Type of I-End defined as Moment-Rotation (M-Θ) or Moment-Curvature (M-φ Lumped) and User Input option is selected. * Following definitions are required for Auto-Calculation. Strength – Yield Deformation ： Define the Skeleton Curve using the yield strength and the yield deformation defined by the user. Design Code 2. Rebar data for RC members User Input ： All the input data are user-defined parameters. ＊ Strength .3-14 Define pushover hinge properties: multilinear#2 1 Enter y yield strength g Auto-Calculation ： The corresponding yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code. 1. 1 2 3 2 Define Skeleton Curve Strength .Yield Deformation option is activated when the Input Method is set to User Input.Stiffness Reduction ： Define the Skeleton Curve using the yield strength and the stiffness reduction ratio. Material and section properties defined from the standards 3. ＊ Yield Deformation is changed depending on the component. (Fx : yield deformation. Fy & Fz : yield strain.

3-15 Define pushover hinge properties: multilinear#3 4 In case of Asymmetric between I-end and J-end y Enter nonlinear properties when asymmetric is selected for ‘Value Type of IEnd & J-End’ in M-θ interaction element 6 Enter yield strength Auto-Calculation ：The values are automatically calculated using the section information if Input Method is set to Auto-Calculation. （P1＜=P2） .P2 ： 2nd yield strength Yield strength of bilinear (auto-calculation) RC /SRC (Encased) P1 （Ultimate，Ｍu) STEEL/ SRC(Filled) （Ultimate，Ｍu) 6 4 Yield strength of Tri-linear (auto-calculation) RC /SRC (Encased) P1 P2 (Crack，Ｍc) （Ultimate，Ｍu) STEEL/ SRC(Filled) （Yield，Ｍy) （Ultimate，Ｍu) 44 . Design Code 2.P1 ： 1st yield strength . Material and section properties defined from the standards 3. Rebar data for RC members User Input ： All the input data are user-defined parameters. * Following g definitions are required q for Auto-Calculation. 1.

＊When coupled axial force-biaxial moment behavior is not considered.043 + 1. User ： Defined by the user Elastic Stiffness ： Elastic stiffness is used for the initial stiffness.3-16 Define pushover hinge properties: multilinear#4 7 Stiffness reduction ratio Stiffness reduction ratio ： Define the slope after yielding α1 ： Stiffness reduction ratio after 1st yielding (α1≤1. User Defined Use ay by AIJ Code : Use αy calculated as per AIJ code α y = ⎜ 0. 2EI/L ： It is activated when Definition is defined as Moment .0) Use Value of Global Control Data ： Stiffness reduction ratio defined in Pushover Global Control dialog is used.Rotation (M-θ). M-θ element and AIJ Code is selected. αy is calculated based on the moment-rotation relationship for a member’s section． ＊The user can define the shear span to depth ratio for αy.) 7 8 8 Define the initial stiffness 6EI/L.33η0 ⎟⎜ ⎟ D ⎠⎝ D ⎠ 2 ＊Define when RC Tri-linear. 45 . (Default is “Auto”. 3EI/L.64npt + 0. αy is calculated based on the axial force in the initial load.0) α2 ： Stiffness reduction ratio after 2nd yielding (α2≤α1≤1.043 ⎛ ⎝ a ⎞⎛ d ⎞ + 0. ＊ When coupled axial force-biaxial moment behavior is considered.

3 In order to change the stiffness reduction factor after assigning g g hinge g p properties p to the elements. the default values will be considered. the user needs to change the default value in Pushover Global Control dialog. in the Directional Properties of Pushover Hinge dialog. 46 . . 2 If “Use Value of Global Control Data” option is selected. 4 Corrected stiffness reduction factor ( 3 ) is automatically updated in the Directional Properties of Pushover Hinge dialog.3-17 Pushover Global Control : Stiffness Reduction Factor 1 Define the default stiffness reduction factor of the skeleton curve.

Yield surface: Yield surface about strong and weak axes can be checked by table or graph. . l t . yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code.P-M-M P M M in i status t t d deformation f ti i is applicable li bl only l f for beam b and d wall ll elements. Yield Surface Properties Input method (Auto-calculated / User-defined) Primary curve 2 1 3 4 2 3 4 5 6 Define the yield strength ： For auto-calculation. l t d the th yield i ld strength t th is i updated d t d for f each step considering coupled axial force and biaxial moment behavior. When P-M-M in status deformation option ti is i selected.3-18 Input method of PMM type 1 By selecting P-M-M in status deformation option.For Wall element of Membrane Type. 47 . Skeleton Curve . 7 5 6 7 In case of P-M-M in status deformation. y yield strength g is automatically calculated using the section information even though ‘User Defined’ option is checked on. only My component is applicable. coupled axial force-biaxial moment behavior can be reflected.Specified skeleton curve in ‘My’ component must be identical to that in p ‘Mz’ component.

3-19 Define yield surface #1 Old version Crack surface of RC Type (1st yielding surface) was not able to be defined.max Yield surface about strong and weak axes 48 . Gen V741(NEW) MY.

In case ‘Asymmetric’ is selected in Value Type of I-end & J-end Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or Asymmetric) Yield strength about y-axis and z-axis PM interaction curve Yield surface about strong and weak axes • Tension (-). Compression (+) • Crack surface is defined by PC0. etc for the rotation about y y-axis and z-axis.3-20 Define yield surface #2 Define RC yield surface 1 2 3 4 1 Input method of yield strength Rebar arrangement g between i-end and j j-end ( symmetric/Asymmetric) Hinge properties in Y-axis and Z-axis (symmetric/Asymmetric) Define the skeleton curve and initial stiffness. MU0 (Ultimate axial force without axial force) Yield surface can be checked by graph. MC0 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 8 11 6 7 8 9 9 10 12 10 11 12 Show Value : Click to display the applied forces and moments in analysis. 49 .

directly 1 MY. 50 . Compression（＋） Since membrane type of wall does not have out-of-plane stiffness.max : Maximum ultimate moment 2 2 Define the yield surface Yield/Ultimate Surface : Tension(－). FEMA & Bilinear 1 Define the yield strength Define Yield/Ultimate surface Pmax(c) : Yield axial force in compression MY0 : Ultimate moment without axial force → the user cannot enter MY0 directly.3-21 Define yield surface #3 : RC Eurocode8. moment about only Y-axis is defined.

moment about only Y-axis is d defined.3-22 Define yield surface #4 : RC Tri-linear 1 Define the yield strength 1st Yield (Crack) strength PC0(t) : Yield axial force in tension MC0 – Crack moment without axial force 2nd Yield (Ultimate) strength Pmax(c) – Yield axial force in compression MY0 – Ultimate moment without axial force (The user cannot enter MY0 directly. 2nd yield (Ultimate) surface Tension(-).max – Maximum ultimate moment 1 2 2 Define the yield surface 1st Yield (Crack) surface The program automatically compute the crack surface using PC0(t) and MC0. Compression (+) * Since membrane type of wall does not have out-of-plane stiffness. iff b l Y i i fi d 51 .) MY.

FEMA.3-23 Define yield surface #6 : Steel Eurocode8. Bilinear 1 Define the yield strength 2nd Yield (Ultimate) strength Pmax(c) – Yield axial force in compression MY y. z. max – Maximum ultimate moment 1 2 Define the yield surface 1st and 2nd yield (Ultimate) surface Tension(-). Compression (+) 2 52 .

3-23 Define yield surface #5 : Steel Tri-linear 1 Define the yield strength 1st Yield (Crack) strength PC(t) : Yield axial force in tension MC y. z – Maximum crack moment 2nd Yield (Ultimate) strength Pmax(c) – Yield axial force in compression MY y. z. max – Maximum ultimate moment 1 2 2 Define the yield surface 1st and 2nd yield (Ultimate) surface Tension(-). Compression (+) 53 .

5 Nonlinear hinges assigned to the elements are generated in the Work Tree. t 4 2 Select the elements to which hinge properties are assigned. 3 Select the ‘Assign Pushover Hinge Properties’ menu.4-1 Assign pushover hinge properties #1 Assigned the hinge properties in Assign Pushover Hinge Properties menu 1 Define Pushover Hinge Properties The hinge properties which is not assigned to elements is displayed in blue. 54 . b tt → Assigned A ig d hinge hi g symbols b l are di displayed l di in contours. Select the hinge type to assign to the selected elements and then click OK button.

match. 2 3 Select the elements to which hinge g properties p p are assigned. 55 . Select a desire hinge property in the work tree and drag & drop in the model view.44 2 Assign pushover hinge properties #2 Assign the hinge properties to the corresponding element by Drag & Drop of a mouse 1 Define Pushover Hinge Properties The hinge properties which is not assigned to elements is displayed in blue. Note If the specified hinge data and the selected elements do not match the hinge properties are not assigned. g . 4 Pushover hinge symbols are displayed to the assigned elements. Nonlinear hinges assigned to the elements are generated in the Work Tree. assigned General link type hinge properties cannot be assigned by Drag & Drop of a mouse.

4-3 Assign pushover hinge properties #3 Changes in ‘Display’ option regarding Pushover Analysis： “Misc” “Design” Old version Gen V741(NEW) 56 .

Right-Click g and select Pushover Hinge g Properties p Table… Show Hinges on Selected Elements Display the Pushover Hinge Properties Table for the selected elements only.5-1 Pushover hinge properties table #1 Nonlinear hinge properties table Display the assigned hinge properties per component in the table . From the Main Menu. Design > Pushover Analysis > Select the t e Pushover us ove Hinge ge Properties ope t es Table able From the Tree Menu. Show All Hinges Display the Pushover Hinge Properties Table for all the elements to which hinge properties are assigned. 57 . Select the Assign Pushover Hinge Properties. Display method of assigned element is changed.

components 58 . number • Pushover Hinge properties dialog can be opened by clicking the components. The color of the table Marked in blue Marked in green Marked in gray ： Values which cannot be changed. • Pushover Hinge properties dialog can be opened by double-clicking double clicking the element number.5-2 Pushover hinge properties table #2 Pushover hinge properties table All the assigned hinge properties are displayed in the table. ： Values which can be changed. Hinge properties cannot be deleted in the table. ： Values which is not used.

2 2 59 .5-3 Change the assigned hinge properties #1 Change the hinge properties by defined hinge properties type (Recommend) Assigned hinge properties to the numerous elements can be modified at once. All the assigned hinge properties are automatically updated according to the modified hinge properties. 1 1 Modify hinge properties in the Define Pushover Hinge Properties dialog.

Change the properties and click ‘OK’ button. Name of assigned hinge properties is updated. Select ‘Properties’ to open the Pushover Hing e Properties dialog. New hinge properties is automatically generat ed.5-4 Change the assigned hinge properties #2 Change hinge properties by assigned members After assigning hinge properties. hinge properties by members can be changed. 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Right-click on the assigned hinge properties to be revised. 4 5 6 60 . Click ‘Enable to Modify’ option.

5 61 . message is displayed. 2 5 3 1 2 4 3 4 Right-click on the assigned hinge properties to be revised.5-5 Change the assigned hinge properties #3 Change hinge properties using Pushover hinge properties Table 1. New hinge property is generated and the assig ned hinge name is updated. If the values are updated p in the table. Modify the values in the table. Click ‘Pushover Hinge Properties Table’. .

Truss. Wall and General Link .Initial I iti l Stiffness Stiff * For PMM type. Strain. Force.Incremental nodal displacement .6-1 Pushover analysis result Old version Gen V741(New) Plot graphs for pushover analysis results . Deformation.Member forces. Status of yielding) resulting from the Pushover analysis in Contours. Yield strength and Yield strain . Ductility. Check the hinge status (Ductility. 62 .Pushover hinge results for the load increment Check the pushover analysis results in a spreadsheet format table. . yield moment for each step due to P-M interaction can be checked in the table.Force versus Deformation for Beam.

63 . Produce text files for pushover analysis results.6-2 Pushover analysis result– Pushover Analysis Result Result of Pushover Analysis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Check Reactions. Plot graphs for pushover analysis results related to the story data. Force. Deformations. Force Status of yielding) in Contours. Capacity curve and capacity spectrum of a structure Plot graphs for pushover analysis results. Check the hinge status (Ductility. (Ductility Deformation Deformation. Check the pushover analysis results in a spread sheet format table. Forces and Stresses for each Pushover Step.

6-3 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #1 Display the hinge formation result for each step Display the load parameter used in pushover analysis. 64 .

6-4 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #2 Pushover Hinge Status Ductility Factor (D/D1) : Ratio of the displacement to the 1st yielding displacement at the corresponding step 65 .

6-5 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #3 Pushover Hinge Status Result Ductility Factor (D/D2) : Ratio of the displacement to the 2nd yielding displacement at the corresponding step 66 .

6-6 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #4 Pushover Hinge Status Result Total deformation 67 .

**6-7 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #5
**

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Plastic Deformation: Plastic deformation (total deformation – yielding deformation)

68

**6-8 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #6
**

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Force

69

**6-9 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #7
**

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Status of Yielding: Hinge status for Bilinear/Trilinear type hinge.

70

6-10 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #8 Pushover Hinge Status Result Status of Yielding (FEMA) 71 .

6-11 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Status Result #9 Pushover Hinge Status Result Status of Yielding (Eurocode8) 72 .

6-12 Pushover analysis result – Pushover Curve #1 Display the capacity curve of a structure 73 .

5. 74 . EN 1998-1:2004. Target displacement of the Limit State of Damage Limitation (DL) is taken equal to that of SD divided by 2.6-13 Pushover analysis result – Pushover Curve #2 Target Displacement (Eurocode8: 2004) The target displacement of a structure is determined through the transformation to an equivalent single degree of freedom system. Only applicable to Masonry material models. which is obtained from the above. Demand Roof displacement corresponding to the target displacement for the seismic action is considered. The target displacement. Only applicable to Masonry material models. Capacity Gl b l capacity i f the h masonry structure in i terms of f roof f Global of displacement (Master node). refer to ANNEX B DETERMINATION OF THE TARGET DISPLACEMENT FOR NONLINEAR STATIC (PUSHOVER) ANALYSIS. Step The nearest increment step to the target displacement Remark Assessment of the result in terms of the global response for the masonry structure. For the detailed formula. above corresponds to the seismic demand of the Limit State of Significant Damage (SD).5. Target displacement of the Limit State of Near Collapse (NC) is taken equal to that of SD multiplied by 1.

Limit State of SD: The assessment is OK if the g global capacity p y of the Limit State of SD is greater than the target displacement of the Limit State of SD and q* is less than 3.6-14 Pushover analysis result – Pushover Curve #3 Global assessment (Masonry pushover) Capacity Global capacity of the masonry structure in terms of roof displacement (Master node). F*y: The yield force of the idealized system M*:The mass of an equivalent SODF system Limit State of DL: The assessment is OK if the global capacity of the Limit State of DL is greater than the target displacement of the Limit State of DL (i.5. Wh Where. q* is the ratio between the acceleration in the structure with unlimited elastic behavior Se(T*) and in the structure with limited strength F*y / M*. Remark Assessment of the result in terms of the global response for the masonry structure. Se(T*): represents t the th elastic l ti acceleration l ti response spectrum t at t the th period T* of the idealized equivalent SDOF system. 75 . q* = Se(T*)M*/F*y. Only applicable to Masonry material models. l Global capacity of the Limit State of Damage Limitation (DL) is taken as the minimum value between a) displacement corresponding to the maximum base shear in the pushover curve and b) displacement corresponding to the story drift of 3/1000. due to progressive damage and failure of f lateral l l resisting i i elements.= (i e = Target Displacement of the Limit State of SD divided by 2. Global capacity of the Limit State of Significant Damage (SD) is taken equal to the roof displacement at which total lateral resistance (base shear) has dropped below 80% of the peak resistance of the structure.e. Only applicable to Masonry material models.

6-15 Pushover analysis result – Pushover Graph Pushover Graph Draw graph of analysis results for specific node or element for specific interest 2 6 3 5 1 7 8 4 76 .

6-16 Pushover analysis result– Pushover Story Graph #1 Pushover Story Graph Draw Story y Shear Graph p for Selected Story 77 .

6-17 Pushover analysis result– Pushover Story Graph #2 Pushover Story Graph Draw Member Shear Graph p for Selected Element 78 .

6-18 Pushover analysis result– Pushover Story Graph #3 Pushover Story Graph Draw Story Shear/Drift/Drift Ratio Graph for Selected Pushover Steps 79 .

6-19 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #1 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show Story Hinge Status for Selected Load Case and Selected Pushover Step Show Number of Hinge Status according to FEMA or Multi-Linear Type Definition 80 .

63 yields at 18th Pushover Step in Dx DOF 81 .6-20 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #2 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show Yield Step of Element for Selected Load Case and Selected DOF Ex) Beam Element No.

6-21 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #3 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show analysis summary of beam element for selected load case Ex) Hinge status of beam element at 30th pushover step in Dx DOF 82 .

6-22 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #4 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show member force for selected load case and selected DOF Ex) Member force of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF 83 .

6-22 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #5 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show total deformation of member for selected load case and selected DOF Ex) Total deformation of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF 84 .

6-23 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #6 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show plastic deformation of member for selected load case and selected DOF Ex) Plastic deformation of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF 85 .

6-24 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #7 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show ductility factor (D/D1) of member for selected load case and selected DOF D/D1 = Total Deformation / 1st Yield Deformation Ex) Ductility factor (D/D1) of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF 86 .

6-25 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #8 Pushover Hinge Result Table Show ductility factor (D/D2) of member for selected load case and selected DOF D/D2 = Total Deformation / 2nd Yield Deformation Ex) Ductility factor (D/D2) of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF 87 .

Ductile member: safety verification in terms of member deformations (chord rotations) with appropriate material partial factors and confidence factor applied on member deformation capacities. .Brittle member: safety verification is checked in terms of member forces (shear forces) with appropriate material partial factors and confidence factor applied on member force capacities. 88 .6-26 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #9-1 Pushover Hinge Result Table Check safety verification results for the no-collapse requirement (ultimate limit state) t t ) under d the th seismic i i design d i situation it ti .

For brittle members. mean values of properties divided by CF and by partial factor. Annex A. 89 . mean values of properties divided by CF are used.3.6-27 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #9-2 Capacity for assessment in the Safety Verification Table (1) Reinforced Concrete Structures (Beam & Column) (Eurocode8-3:2004.1) *For ductile elements.

2) • For ductile elements.5. L: Length of a member. I: moment of inertia 90 .6-28 Pushover analysis result– Hinge Table #9-3 Capacity for assessment in the Safety Verification Table (2) Steel Structures (Beam & Column) (Eurocode8-3:2004. mean values of properties divided by CF are used. E: Elasticity of Modulus. Annex B. mean values of properties divided by CF and by partial factor. * θy= MyL/6EI Where. My: Yield moment. For brittle members.

6-29 Pushover analysis result– Pushover Text #1 Pushover Text Text output: Displacements p p 91 .

truss or wall elements 92 . p .6-30 pushover analysis result– Pushover text #2 Pushover Text Text output: member forces / stresses of beam.

6-31 Pushover analysis result– Pushover Text #3 Pushover Text Text output: Deformation and Forces of general link p g 93 .

6-32 Pushover analysis result : Reactions Gen V741 (New) Reactions Search Reaction Forces/Moments Reaction Forces/Moments Search Reaction Forces/Moment Reaction Force/Moments 94 .

6-33 Pushover analysis result : Deformations Gen V741 (New) Search Displacement Deformations Search Displacement Deformed Shape Displacement Contour 95 .

6-34 Pushover analysis result : Deformations Gen V741 (New) Deformed Shape Deformations Search Displacement Deformed Shape Displacement Contour 96 .

6-35 Pushover analysis result : Deformations Gen V741 (New) Displacement Contour Deformations Search Displacement Deformed Shape Displacement Contour 97 .

6-36 Pushover analysis result : Forces Gen V741 (New) Beam Forces/Moments Forces Truss Forces Beam Forces/Moments g Beam Diagrams Wall Forces/Moments Wall Diagrams Plate Forces/Moments Plate Cutting Line Diagram M b Diagrams Member Di 98 .

6-37 Pushover analysis result : Forces Gen V741 (New) Beam Diagrams Forces Truss Forces Beam Forces/Moments g Beam Diagrams Wall Forces/Moments Wall Diagrams Plate Forces/Moments Plate Cutting Line Diagram M b Diagrams Member Di 99 .

6-38 Pushover analysis result : Stresses Gen V741 (New) Beam Stresses Stresses Truss Stresses Beam Stresses g Beam Stresses Diagram Plane Stress/Plate Stresses Plane Strain/Stresses Axisymmetric Stresses Solid Stresses 100 .

6-39 Pushover analysis result : Stresses Gen V741 (New) Beam Stresses Diagram Stresses Truss Stresses Beam Stresses g Beam Stresses Diagram Plane Stress/Plate Stresses Plane Strain/Stresses Axisymmetric Stresses Solid Stresses 101 .

dialog Initial Load → Moved to the Pushover Global Control dialog.7-1 Important Notice to Existing Users #1 Data conversion – Analysis Control Data Th model d l fil t d in i the th old ld version i can b di i and d are automatically t ti ll converted t di t th t format. f t The files created be opened in th the new version into the new i input Old Version Gen V741(NEW) Convergence Criteria → Moved to the Pushover Global Control dialog. 102 .

(Number of Increment Steps can be set by load cases separately.7-2 Important Notice to Existing Users #2 Data conversion – Pushover Load Cases Old Version Gen V741(NEW) Number of Incremental Steps → Moved to the Pushover Load Case dialog. 103 .) Auto-stepping Control → Control method is totally revised.

* 36 hinge properties have been assigned. However in the new version. properties. when the user opens a model file created in the old version. For example. version only one hinge property defining the axial and flexural properties is needed. 104 . they are defined by elements.7-3 Important Notice to Existing Users #3 Data conversion – Hinge Properties Assignment Old Version Define hinge properties by components 1 Hinge properties by component * 3 components of hinge properties have been defined. Refer to Assign Hinge Properties to learn how to assign hinge properties in the new version. This is not the general way to define hinge properties in the new version. the converted file size of the model may become larger than that of the old version. in order to assign axial and flexural hinge properties to one element in the old version. 1 1 2 2 Nonlinear hinge properties were defined by force components in the old version. 2 Hinge properties by component are assigned to the elements. So. 2 Hinge properties by element are assigned to the elements. however in the new version. the component hinge properties will be individually assigned to the corresponding elements (one component hinge property per element). * 9 hinge properties have been assigned. needed In the new version. Gen V741(NEW) Define hinge properties by elements 1 Hinge properties by element * 9 hinge properties have been defined. the user defined two different hinge properties However. but it is intended to avoid errors in converting files.

7-4 Important Notice to Existing Users #4 Data conversion –Hinge Properties Type Old Version Gen V741(NEW) Old Version: Multi-linear → New Version: Moment-Curvature (Lumped) Old Version: FEMA → New Version: Moment-Rotation 105 .

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