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PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

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PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric




PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric


Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers or from molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn In comparatively simple terms, a non-woven may be described as a fabric having textile-like properties, which is prepared by banding fibers together, rather than by the traditional method of spinning into yarns, followed by weaving. Non-woven fabrics find their applications as carpets, blankets, upholstery, floor coverings, wall-coverings, automotive carpets, etc. Nonwoven fabrics are engineered fabrics that may be a limited life, single-use fabric or a very durable fabric. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, filtering, bacterial barrier and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs, while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings. In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties, and are used alone or as components of apparel, home furnishings, health care, engineering, industrial and consumer goods. The fibers principally used are polyester, nylon and viscose with occasionally, small amounts of acrylic. These fibers are blended in varying amounts, depending on the type of interfacing being made. Techniques by which fabrics are made directly from the fibers, by passing both spinning and weaving, have been utilized for centuries in the production of felt and bark cloth. With the development of man-made fibers, and, in particular, the synthesis of thermoplastic fibers, technologies have evolved that have made possible the large scale production of non-woven fabrics marketed extensively for both durable and disposable items, non-woven fiber webs range from throw away diapers to blankets, from industrial filters to tea-bag covers.


PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric


With the progress of the non-woven industry, there is increase in numbers of products made from such fabrics. At the present time, major marketing areas for non-woven include durables such as interfacings, interlinings, carpet backings, furniture and bedding, automotive and furniture padding, indoor outdoor carpet, blankets, and the construction industry. There are plenty of reasons to making use of, because it is water absorbents, strong, adaptive, spongy, washable, and even flame retardant nonwovens. The PP nonwovens are extremely hardwearing and qualified to hold up in hard circumstances. These types are even found in different purposes of hygienic, pharmaceutical, fabrics, laminates, shipping et cetera. Majority of nonwovens are of thermoplastic polymers are PP nonwovens. These are additionally put to use in parcel and transportation. The injection molding technique is applied to give a much needed design to this textile. With the enhancing tendencies within this field the areas of usages are numerous. These ideas replenished a lot of plastic items seen in clinics. They are vibrant to make floor coverings and mats to use in home. There are lots of applications we use these nonwovens. Those are easily obtainable in more affordable rates in the market. The usage of PP nonwovens and the Spunbond Nonwovens helps make familiar use items affordable, durable and convenient. These are the fabrics manufactured from the fibers, but as you see the fabrication approach makes the big difference. The utilization of PP nonwovens is widely within general main purpose products we daily use as if purses and handbags, carry bags et cetera. The classic plastic-type bags stretch then break. The paper bags tear if excess weight. The handbags manufactured from PP nonwovens are fantastic alternative of them all these kinds of problems. Hand bags are lightweight and water resistant. One can quite easily possess anything that is printed on all these kind of bags. The luminosity and print level of quality gets rich look on all of these handbags. The shopping centers replaced their bags made out of nonwoven fabric which brings in good image on their trademark. They are becoming more flexible to print high quality brand spanking graphics on these handbags.


PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

TEST METHOD OF SPUN BONDED FABRICS Spunbonded fabrics are characterized by standardized test procedures originally developed for textile fabrics and paper products. The Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry (INDA) has published a list of test procedures that are routinely used in determining specific physical characteristics of spun-bonded and other nonwoven fabrics. Analogous test methods are published in Europe by EDANA, the European Association of Nonwoven Fabrics. INDA and EDANA are working together to develop and publish harmonized international test procedures. Many tests are established for the evaluation of non-strength related properties such as washability, stiffness, and softness. Great strides have been made in the test methodology used to evaluate the hand of materials for textile applications such as clothing. A methodology and equipment, permit- ting quantitative evaluation of fabric hand, have been developed.


PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric



Uses for spunbonded fabrics have traditionally been segmented into durable and disposable categories. In the early 1970s, consumption of spunbondeds was pre- dominantly for durable uses such as carpet backing, furniture, bedding, and geotextiles. By 1980, however, disposable applications accounted for an increasingly large percentage due to the acceptance of lightweight (eg, 17 g/m2) spunbonded polypropylene fabrics as a coverstock for diapers and incontinence devices. In the 1990s, the use of new diaper and training pants designs have increased the demand for lightweight fabrics far beyond earlier predictions. Both the durable and disposable markets for spunbondeds have experienced dramatic growth ($6%/year). Disposable applications utilize the vast majority of the yardage produced although only $50% on a tonnage basis (56). Significant areas of durable growth have been in the building and construction industries where spunbondeds are used in geotextiles, roofing membranes and House wrap. Growth has also been achieved in primary carpet backing in automotive carpets and carpet tiles, where moldability and high dimensional stability, respectively, were achieved through the use of polyester spunbonds. With the possible exception of House wrap, however, there have been virtually no new markets established as a result of the special characteristics of spunbonded fabrics. Growth has come about in an evolutionary fashion where spunbonded fabrics were substituted for woven fabrics, other nonwoven fabrics (including knits), paper or film in previously existing applications, or where the cost property relationship has permitted an extension of an existing application, such as the redesign of diapers. The principal contributions that spunbondeds have made in these markets generally have been attractive economics, or improved processibility and performance in the final product. This combination has greatly accelerated the use of the products within an application and consequently contributed to the growth of specific markets. General market opportunities for nonwovens have been reviewed.


PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

Of the four basic polymer types available in spunbonded form, i.e., polypropylene, polyethylene, polyester, and nylon, both polyester and nylon are more costly polymer forms than either of the olefins. It is possible for this cost advantage to be offset by other factors, such as production of the fabric in lighter unit weight, but in general olefin-based products have an economic advantage for an equivalent weight fabric. In addition, the lower density of olefin polymers provides a greater yield of more fibers per unit area that provides better cover and performance. In some applications, however, this advantage is moot if the olefin- based product cannot perform properly. An example of this is in roofing membranes where a key requirement is dimensional stability to hot bitumen at temperatures approaching 2008C, which is above the melting point of both polypropylene and polyethylene but well within the performance limits of polyester. To a great extent this one property, i.e., higher temperature resistance, largely differentiates the opportunities for polyester spunbondeds versus olefin counterparts. Although polyester fibers exhibit higher modulus and more flexible dyeing, these properties seem to be of little advantage in the markets for spun- bonded fabrics.


PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric


Disposable diapers Sanitary napkins & tampons Sterile wraps, caps, gowns, masks and draping used in medical field Household and personal wipes Laundry aids (fabric dryer-sheets) Apparel interlining Carpeting and upholstery fabrics, padding and backing Wall coverings Agricultural coverings and seed strips Automotive headliners and upholstery Filters Envelopes Tags Labels Insulation House wraps Roofing products Civil engineering fabrics/geotextiles



PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric


Further however, major uses for bonded fabrics are disposable diapers, dishcloths, vacuum-cleaner bags, interlinings, filter cloths, cheese bandages, etc. In the clothing trade the big use of bonded fabrics is as interlinings. In the shoe trade, too bonded fabrics have made progress as linings and insoles. Bonded fabrics are light in weight and cut edges will not fray, they do not need to be hemmed. Their porosity to air is considered hygienic and has led to one special use for burn dressings, bonded fabric is coated with a very thin film of aluminum to prevent the fibers swelling when wet and backed with wadding to absorb the liquid that always oozes from burns, the aluminized fabric is applied directly for the wound which it protects and allows the liquid to pass through the wadding; the result is that the dressings can be changed painlessly because they do not stitch. Filtration is a good use and a major one for bonded fabrics, this present a large number of fine fibers to the passage of the liquid, not a small number of relatively much coarser yarns; bonded fabrics are used to strain the tea from the tea leaves in the cup-of-tea slot machines that are becoming popular. Some of the laminated bonded fabrics can be pulled apart very easily, i.e. peeled off layer by layer. A needle punching device, which takes some of the fibers through from one side of the fabric to another, helps to avoid this defect and is sometimes used, most bonded fabrics that are made still lash pretty poor, occasionally they are given a lace-like appearance by piercing the web with jets of water before bonding.


PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

B.I.S. SPECIFICATION As such, no B.I.S specification is available on the product.

Headquarters: Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi-110 002 Tel: 323 01 31, 323 33 75, 323 94 02 Telegrams:Manaksanstha (Cmmon to all offices) Regional Offices: Central: Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg New Delhi-110 002 Eastern: 1/14 C.I.T. Scheme VII M, V.I.P. Road, Kankurgachi, Kolkata-700 054 Northern: SCO 335-336, Sector 34-A, Chandigarh-160 022 Southern: C.I.T. Campus, IV Cross Road, Chennai-600 113 Western : Manakalaya, E9 MIDC, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai-400 093 Telephone 23237617, 23233841

337 84 99, 337 85 61 337 86 26, 337 91 20 60 38 43, 60 20 25 235 02 16 23504 42 235 15 19,235 23 15 832 92 95, 832 78 58 832 78 91, 832 78 92

NOTE :- The use of the ISI Certification Mark is governed by the provisions of the Indian Standards Institution (Certification Marks) Act and the Rules and Regulations made there under. The ISI Mark on products covered by an Indian Standard conveys the assurance that they have been produced to comply with the requirements of that standard under a well-defined system of inspection, testing and quality control which is devised and supervised by ISI and operated by the producer. ISI marked products are also continuously checked by ISI for conformity to that standard as a further safeguard. Details of conditions under which a license for the use of the ISI Certification Mark may be granted to manufacturers or processors, may be obtained from the Indian Standards Institution.

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PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

MARKET SURVEY During the past decade, significant changes have occurred in the worldwide nonwoven market. The predominant regions of the world for the nonwoven production have been restructured. The Asia-Pacific region, including China, shows a potential growth in nonwoven production while the United States and Western Europe continue to develop production technology. The global production of nonwovens reached 4.4 million tons, which is equivalent to $15.9 billion (U.S. dollar). During 2004, 64% of nonwoven materials were produced in North America, Western Europe and Japan. A decade earlier, these regions accounted for slightly higher than 70% of worldwide nonwoven output. The impact on the nonwovens industry is obvious as raw material prices escalate. Major nonwoven producers have faced the challenge, with increasing pressure, to sustain profit margins although raw material prices are not stable. This price volatility continued to impact financial performance of nonwoven companies in 2005. Nevertheless, global nonwoven production is forecast to rise to 6.3 million tons by 2009, or an increase of two million tons from 2004 production levels. In 2011 Asian nonwoven fabric production increased by 7.4% -- and China accounted for the largest share. The most important category of nonwoven fabric was that of spunbonded and melt blown nonwovens. Looking ahead, nonwoven fabric production in Asia is set to continue growing at a healthy pace in the coming years. As per the current policy made by the Indian Government to ban the polythene carry bags, the demand of the non woven made bags are increased tremendously. As the prime raw materials are Non woven fabrics for the bag makers. The personal hygiene market -which includes adult incontinence products, hygiene products, and infant diapers and training pants-will continue to account for the single largest share of nonwovens demand in 2012. These and other trends are presented in World Nonwovens, a new study from The Fredonia Group, Inc, a Cleveland based industry research firm. Market gains in developing parts of Asia/Pacific, Eastern Europe, Africa/Mideast and Latin America will outpace demand in the US, Western Europe and Japan, Product sales in developing areas will be fueled by above average economic growth, ongoing industrialization efforts and rising living standards. China alone will account for 38% of all additional demand through 2012 and will surpass the US to become the targets nonwoven fabric market in the world. Advances are also expected to be healthy in lower-volume markets such as India, Turkey, Russia and Brazil. Sales of roll goods in developed parts of the world will

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expand as well. Nonwovens demand will be stimulated by improved economic climates and higher per capita income, resulting in increased manufacturing output and consumer spending, which will boost product sales through 2012. Indian consumption of nonwovens in 2007 was around US$ 214 million (47,000 tons) as compared to the world-wide consumption of around US$ 19 billion. It is estimated that the consumption will increase at a CAGR of approximately 13% to US$ 390 million. Till 2007 spunmelt and airlaid fabric accounted for major share in Indian non-woven industry. Due the rise in spunbond and meltbond, domestic manufacturing facility, after 2010, pp spunbond fabric has become new market leader. Airlaid products are generally less expensive than competitive materials, and suppliers will benefit from increased use in absorbent food pads, adult incontinence products, filters, hospital bed pads, napkins and tablecloths, sanitary pads and wipes. But the higher capital investment has been a major roadblock in the development of this particular industry. In India, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal are the three major state accounts for nearly 80% to 85% of pp spunbond production. With the change in duty benefits in Himachal Pradesh, most of the production capacity has been shifted to Gujarat by the end of 2011. Today, Gujarat alone account for nearly 75% of production capacity of Indian pp spunbond fabric. The main reason for this build up in capacity is due to 6% Interest subsidy provided by state government under the name of Credit linked Interest Subsidy in Technical Textiles Scheme to Technical textile industry. Within Gujarat, Rajkot and Surat are the two major district, where this capacity buildup has taken place. Till 2009 there were only 2 units in Rajkot and 1 unit in Surat city, but in between 2010 to 2012, 18 new units only in Rajkot district and 14 in Surat district has been established. Thus the gap between demand and supply has been significantly reduced. Market Share of Nonwoven Technologies In the Indian market, needlepunch has the maximum share followed by spunbond technology due to the high demand for nonwovens in automobile, hygiene and geotextile sectors. However spunlace technology has the highest growth rate for future with a CAGR of 27%. Organized Retail is expected to grow at 50% for the next five years, which will be a big boost for products like wipes that make up for more than 60% of spunlace consumption in the world. Indian Healthcare Industry is growing at 15%. Privatization and increasing medical tourism has resulted in growing demand of

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disposable nonwoven products like gowns, caps, masks etc. Spunlace based products provide high barrier against harmful microbes as well as provide comfortable wear.

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PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

PRESENT MANUFACTURERS OF NON WOVEN FABRIC Some of the manufacturers of Non Woven Fabric in India are: Surya TextTech Plot 707, Industrial Area, Phase - I Chandigarh - 160002 UT Ph: +91 172 5073813, 2654531 Mobile: +91 92167 02205, +91 92161 44577, +91 98120 21535 Email: KT Exports (I) Pvt. Ltd. Contact Person : Mr. Nimesh Address : 148, Vyas Bhuvan, Hind Colony Road 6,, Dadar (E) Mumbai - 400 014, Maharashtra (India) Phone No : +(91)-(22)-24185107/24104500 Fax : +(91)-(22)-24160462/24105400 Mobile : +(91)-9820322055/9820322055 E-mail :, Parishudh Fibres Mr. Rajeev Solanki E1 - 365, RIICO Industrial Area Sitapura, Jaipur - 302022 Phone : +91-141-3294862/2771171 Fax : +91-141-2770284 Email Address : Alternate Email ID : Mobile : +91-9829057574,9314517645 Web Site : M/s Shri Ram Filaments Contact Person: Mr. Raman Aggarwal & Gaurav Aggarwal Address : Plot No. 65-66, Sector= 21, Industrial Area. Bhiwani Haryana: 127021 Phone : +91-93156-07101 Email Address : Web Site : ADITYA NONWOVENS PVT LTD 6/7, MAHAL INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, UNIT NO. 19, 1ST FLOOR, MAHAKALI CAVES ROAD, ANDHERI (EAST), MUMBAI-400093, MAHARASHTRA Phone: 912228325849/28260578/26870256 Email:

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PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

MR. MANOJ KUMAR GANGWAR BHASKAR INTERNATIONAL 502-A, JAINA TOWER-II, DISTT. CENTER, JANAKPURI, NEW DELHI-110058 Phone: 911141579016/65671666/25618297 Email: Kalson Fabric Pvt. Ltd. Address: Plot No. G- 1115, Road No. G, Kishan Gate, Lodhika GIDC, Metoda, Rajkot - 360021, Gujarat, India Phone: +(91)-(2827)-287987 Rahil Air bubbles Private Limited, Address: Survay No. 34, Plot No. 2- B, N. H. 8- B, Shapar, Rajkot - 360 002, Gujarat, India Preferred Number: 08447551140 Enox Non Woven Private Limited Address: Plot No. G-2106, Metoda Gidc, Ta- Lodhika, District Rajkot, Rajkot - 360 021, Gujarat, India Sugam Polytech Pvt. Ltd. Address: Plot No.106, G. I. D. C. Industrial Area, Bamanbore, Old NH-8B, Tal-Chotila, District Surendranagar, Rajkot - 363520, Gujarat, India Phone: +(91)-(2751)-240365 Oscar Polymers Address: Shardanagar, Plot No. 6/2, Street No. 2, Behind Masoom School, University Road, Rajkot - 360005, Gujarat, India Oracle World Wide Address: No. 303, Veer Bhavan, Ghiya Sheri, Mahidharpura, Surat - 395003, Gujarat, India Phone: +(91)-(261)-6539691 Preferred Number: 08373904602 RCM Techno Textile Private Limited Address: 11/6, Hojiwala Industrial Estate , Palsana Highway Sachin,, Surat - 395 003, Gujarat, India Phone: +(91)-(261)-2899260

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PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric


A non-woven fabric is composed of two parts, the web of fibers and the bond. Preparation of the web requires great care; bonding is relatively easy. One pound (weight) of fibers will make perhaps five or six yards of an average dress fabric, and it contains about a hundred million fibers. The problem in making bonded fabric is first to separate or open these fibers and then to lay them flat and (sometimes) in random direction. Two kinds of web, ie flat arrangement of fibers are used, a) b) Oriented Random.

Oriented Webs (Parallel laid) These are produced by conventional textile methods, opening, picking and carding. Opening consists of the mechanical release of the fibers if baled, as are most natural fibers and most staple rayon the opened fibers may occupy fifteen times the volume that they did in the ball. The hicker completes the opening or separation of the fibers, and arranges the fibers in lap form in which they can conveniently be fed to the carding medimic. The card separates the fibers that are still in bundles or tufts down to individuals, and converts the fairly heavy lap into a lighter web; it is the virtue of the card from the standpoint of the cotton and worsted spinner that it arranges all the fibers parallel or orients them. The fundamental defect of oriented webs is that they are weak across the width, the fibers all running parallel with the length of the web are easily pulled apart sideways. Sometimes, oriented webs are used in that condition as they will satisfactorily fulfill certain requirements, after times they are cross-laid. Cross-laid Webs (Random) One web is laid on another, ideally at right angles, giving if this process is continued for a few layers a laminated structure which after having been bonded has equal strength transversely and length ways. In practice the alternate layers are not laid quite at right angles although they are angled. One of the basic advantages of bonded fiber fabrics is that they can be made at high speeds, at yards per minute, at speeds associated with paper-making rather

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than with weaving or knitting. With the parallel-laid oriented webs, high speeds present no difficulty, but it has been impossible to devise a continuous process in which one web can laid at right angles or another. A compromise is made, and lap of parallel -laid fibers is covered continuously with another in S form, then another parallel-laid web is applied, then another in S form and so on. In this way, the continuous character of the process is retained. Endeavor is made to spread out the double thickness areas event in successive layers, so that the final fabric is uniform is thickness. Transverse strength is much better than in a parallel-laid bonded fabric, but not so good as in one made from a random web.

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RAW MATERIALS Man-made fibers completely dominate nonwovens production, accounting for over 90% of total output. Man-made fibers fall into three classes, those made from natural polymers, those made from synthetic polymers and those made from inorganic materials. According to a study by Tecnon Ltd, the world usage of fibers in nonwovens production is: Polypropylene 63% Polyester 23% Viscose rayon 8% Acrylic 2% Polyamide 1.5% Other fibers 3%

Over the years, the share of viscose rayon has increased due to its increased importance in the spunlace wipes market. However, recently, due to tremendous increase in price of viscose of fiber and its inability to be easily spun-laid or thermally bonded, there is a decrease in the consumption of viscose fibers. The solvent spun cellulosic fiber, Lyocell is becoming increasingly important in the nonwovens industry partly as a result of its absorbency and high wet strength. Polypropylene fibers are predominant in the nonwovens industry. Some of the reasons for this include: Low density and specific gravity enabling lightweight fabrics to be produced. Low glass transition and melting temperature, which is attractive for thermal bonding. Inherent hydrophobicity that can be modified using fiber finishes and other treatments. Provides fabrics with good bulk and cover. Chemical stability. Biological degradation resistance (mildew, perspiration). Stain and soil release. Good mechanical strength and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene is available in a variety of grades and its surface chemistry, absorbency, mechanical properties, degradation, softness, flame retardancy and colouration are modified by auxiliary chemicals and other treatments by the fiber suppliers. Fibers having different cross-sectional configurations are also available, which affect the physical properties of resulting fabrics. The unique combination of properties offers the manufacturers of nonwovens a valuable high-performance nonwoven fiber for a competitive price. The main raw materials required for the manufacture of nonwoven fabrics is Polypropylene Chips (melt index: 20-40g/10 min 166oC ash content: < 0.15 - 0.25 %>. Along with PP, Calcium carbonate, recycled Polypropylene and some additives also added

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in the process. The formulation of fabric is trade secret of each manufacturer.

Figure 1 : Polypropylene Highlights from 01-15, Jan 2013 The price of Polypropylene does not fluctuate as much as PVC and other plastic polymers. The main reason behind such somewhat stable price is no additional duty on import of PP and more than one manufacturer of PP chips in India, like Relience, IOCL, IPCL, etc. It is also expected to stay stable or even decrease in future once the new plant of ONGC start at Dahej, Gujarat also, Relience is constantly increasing its production capacity. The current capacity of Relience alone is 44MMT per annum. Indian PP manufacturing capacity, is growing at a rate of 3.1% per annum and the world at 7.5%, which also the reason behind such price trend. The availability of recycled PP is in abundant and there price mainly depend on the trend of virgin PP Chips. Also, the effect of recycled PP price does not make much difference as its used in very limited quantity. The excess use of such recycled material can reduce the quality of PP nonwoven fabric.

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PROPERTIES & CHARACTERISTICS OF NON WOVEN FABRIC Following are just a few of the properties that can be attained using nonwoven fabrics: Absorbency Bacterial barrier Cushioning Filtering Flame retardancy Liquid repellency Resilience Softness Sterility Strength Stretch Washability Some of the property that are considered most important by endusers are: Strength: Strength of Non-woven is closely related to its formulation. i.e. additives and percentage of Calcium carbonate. Adhesion to Fiber: Even though the mechanism of adhesion is not completely understood. The adhesion strength of fiber to fiber bond has to be considered. Flexibility: Flexibility of PP nonwoven is desired and that what separate it from other plastic sheet and products. Elastic Recovery: To avoid the permanent deformation of fabric, good elastic recovery is required under strength. Colour and Colour retention: Diverse range colour is required. Thus colorfastness and yellowness problem should be avoided. Though, all above desirable properties of PP Nonwoven fabric is easily achievable. Some special characteristics is only achieved by the use of special binding agents or additives

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PP Spunbond Non-woven Fabric

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF SPUN BONDED NON WOVEN FABRIC The basic raw material for Spun Bonded Non Woven Fabric is Polypropylene chips and take the principle of spinning man made fibers during polymer filature, continuous filament is extended into fiber net which is finished by mechanical hot pressing. All Non Woven are principally produced in three stages. Web formation, bonding and finishing treatment, Non Woven manufacturing starts by the arrangement of fibers in a sheet or web. The fiber can be staple fiber or filaments extruded from molten polymer granules. Four basic methods are used to form a web and non wovens are usually referred to by one of these methods drylaid, spunlaid Wetlaid and other technique. Spunbonding is a continuous process producing a finished fabric from polymer. A polymer, or several polymers, such as polyester, polyamide, polypropylene polyethylene or others, is fell into an extruder. As it flows from the extruder it is forced through a spinneret, a device with tiny holes, like a shower nozzle. After cooling the resulting continuous filaments are then laid down on a moving conveyor belt to form a continuous web. In the lay-down process, the desired orientation of the fiber is achieved by various means, such as rotation of the spinneret, electrical charges, introduction of controlled air streams or varying the speed of the conveyor belt. The fabric is then bonded by thermol or chemical treatment before being wound up into finished roll form. After cooling, the material can be wound before testing shipment. and

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There are number of technology to manufacturer Nonwoven Fabrics. Some of the most commonly used technology have been explained here. Melt-blown Technology Melt-blowing is a process in which, usually, a thermoplastic fiber forming polymer is extruded through a linear die containing several hundred small orifices. Convergent streams of hot air (exiting from the top and bottom sides of the die nosepiece) rapidly attenuate the extruded polymer streams to form extremely fine diameter fibers (1 - 5 mm). The attenuated fibers are subsequently blown by high-velocity air onto a collector conveyor, thus forming a fine fibred self-bonded nonwoven melt-blown web. The fibers in the melt-blown web are held together by a combination of entanglement and cohesive sticking. Because the fibers are drawn to their final diameters while still in the semimolten state, there is no downstream method of drawing the fibers before they are deposited onto the collector, and hence the webs exhibit low to moderate strength. Examples of melt-blown products are oil spill sorbents, wipes, surgical gowns, surgical face masks, liquid and air filtration fabrics, lithium battery separators, clothing insulation, and feminine hygiene products. Some of the main characteristics and properties of melt-blown webs are: Random fiber orientation. Low to moderate web strength. Generally, the web is highly opaque (high cover factor). Melt-blown webs derive their strength from mechanical entanglement and frictional forces. Most melt-blown webs are layered or shingled structure, the number of layers increases with increasing basis weight. Microfibres provide high surface areas for good insulator and filter characteristics. The fibers have a smooth surface texture and appear to be circular in cross-section. The fibers vary in diameter along a single fiber. Spunbond-Meltblown-Spunbond (SMS) Technology Spunbond and meltblown webs are often combined at the production stage to achieve a variety of composite structures for protective applications particularly in the hygiene and medical sectors. The benefits of combining spunbond and meltblown webs are: Barrier to liquid permeation especially of bodily fluids in medical gowns. Increase in the cover of the base spunbond web. Barrier to penetration of particulate matter in filter applications.

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In the SMS composite structure, the spunbond fabric provides the strength and the abrasion resistance and the meltblown component provides the liquid and particulates barrier. The spunbondmeltblown-spunbond (SMS) concept was first introduced and patented by the Kimberly-Clark Corporation. Combining these two media has become a common practice in spunbond manufacturing and is finding rapid acceptance and integration in a variety of products. Carded Technology Parallel-laid webs in which the fibers are preferentially orientated in the machine direction are produced directly from carding and related processes. Normally, one or two webs (depending on machine design) are produced by the card and transported to the next process in line. This may be a bonding process in the case of 'straight-through' systems or a lapping process (eg, crosslapping), which produces cross-laid webs. Alternatively, multiple webs from more than one card arranged in sequence may be continuously deposited onto a common conveyor to produce a multilayer, parallel-laid web ready for the next process. Wet-laid Technology Wet-laid nonwovens are nonwovens made by a modified papermaking process. That is, the fibers to be used are suspended in water. A major objective of wet-laid nonwoven manufacturing is to produce structures with textile-fabric characteristics, primarily flexibility and strength, at speeds approaching those associate with papermaking. Specialised paper machines are used to separate the water from the fibers to form a uniform sheet of material, which is then bonded and dried. In the roll good industry 5-10% of nonwovens are made by using the wet-laid technology. Compared to the dry web-making processes (carding, aerodynamic and spun web methods) the distinctive features of the wet method are its high productivity and wide range of application. It is used for special papers, conventional wet-laid fabrics and wet-laid made from inorganic fibers. The advantages of wet-laid technology that make products like teabag papers, bed linen, surgical clothing, table linen, glass fiber roofing substrate, glass fiber mat for flooring, wall coverings etc, possible include: The capability to process fibers that are too brittle for textile-based web forming processes. Isotropic fiber arrangement in the web. Chemical binders can be selected to suit end use. Particulate components may be included in the web. Small quantities of fiber may be processed into a web. Air-laid Technology Air-laying (aerodynamic or air-laid web formation) refers to a family of dry-laid web formation processes used in the manufacture of disposable, single use products containing short, pulp fibers (including wipes, absorbent layers for incontinence

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products and food packaging pads) and durable products (including high-loft waddings, filtration media, interlinings, automotive components and mattress fillings) produced from longer fibers. Airlaying involves uniformly dispersing individualised fibers in an airstream and leading this air-fiber mixture towards a permeable screen or conveyor where the air is separated and the fibers are randomly deposited in the form of a web. Air-laying, like other technologies, has certain benefits and limitations. Among the benefits are: Isotropic web properties. Three-dimensional structure if the basis weight is above about 50 g/m2 producing voluminous, high-loft structures with a very low density. Compatibility with a wide variety of generic fiber types including natural and synthetic polymer fibers, ceramics, metals including steel, carbon, melamine, aramids and other high-performance fibers. The main limitations are: Fabric uniformity is highly dependent on fiber opening and individualisation prior to web forming. Air flow irregularity adjacent to the walls of the conduit leads to variability across the web structure. Fiber entanglement in the airstream can lead to web faults. Depending on fiber type and fineness, airlaying is claimed to be more efficient than carding in the production of webs greater than 150 - 200 g/m2, where production rates of 250 kg/h/m can be achieved. Spunlace Technology Hydro-entangling, spunlacing, hydraulic entanglement and water jet needling are synonymous terms describing the process of bonding fibers (or filaments) in a web by means of high-velocity water jets. The interaction of the energised water with fibers in the web and the support surface increases the fiber-entanglement and induces displacement and rearrangement of fiber segments in the web. In addition to mechanical bonding, structural patterns, apertures and complex three-dimensional effects are produced if required by the selection of appropriate support surfaces. Hydroentanglement also provides a convenient method of mechanically combining two or more webs to produce multilayer fabrics. While hydro-entangled fabrics have become heavily associated with wipes due to the growth and diversification of this sector, their use spans a much greater variety of applications, both in single-use and durable articles. Diverse products include protective clothing particularly medical gowns as well as hightemperature protective clothing, washable domestic fabrics, synthetic leather, filtration media, automotive, wound dressings, composites and garment linings. Needlepunch Technology

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The process of needlepunching, also known as needle felting was originally developed to produce mechanically bonded nonwoven fabrics from fibers that could not be felted like wool. The fibers are mechanically entangled to produce a fabric by reciprocating barbed needles (felting needles) through a moving batt of fibers in a needleloom. Typical applications for this type of technology are geo synthetics, filtration media, synthetic leather, webbings and paddings, floor coverings, automotive fabrics, insulation fabrics, blankets, wipes, roofing etc. The applications of needlepunched fabrics are extensive and extend into many niche product areas including, for example, medical wound dressings composite breather felts, capillary matting for horticulture, fire barriers and ballistic-impact-resistant fabrics.

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FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR NON-WOVENS With the new technology development the affordability and quality of the product is definitely going to increase. Although, the spunbond pp fabric has definite advantage over conventional fabric manufacturing technology and over plastic film manufacturing, there are some products where use of such nonwoven fabric as replacement is not possible. Thus there always be the market of other products. With the rise in manufacturing capacity the usage of nonwoven fabric will definitely increase. As seen in the past, the fabric is being used in many unexpected places like garment covers, shoe covers, etc. Some of the growth drivers for the nonwovens industry are listed below: Growing middle class population; Changing lifestyles; Rise in income levels; Growing infrastructure; Various incentives by Government of India; Centers of excellence set up by Government of India; Increased awareness about use of nonwovens. In past, there are were many government incentives both from center and state, some of them have been discontinued or have been modified. Following is the list of such incentives. Textile Industry - Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) The benefits under the scheme include: 5% interest reimbursement of the normal interest charged by the lending agency on RTL, or 5% exchange fluctuation (interest & repayment) from the base rate on FCL, or 15% credit linked capital subsidy for SSI sector, or 20% credit linked capital subsidy for powerloom sector (An option for front ended subsidy provided w.e.f. 1st October, 2005), or 5% interest reimbursement plus 10% capital subsidy for specified processing machinery. However, this scheme ended on 31-3-2012. However the modified TUFS has be implemented by government of India. Scheme for Growth and Development of Technical Textiles (SGDTT) i.e. modified TUFS. From :2010-11 to 2014-15 10% capital subsidy. new

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Kerala Government: ENTREPRENEUR SUPPORT SCHEME (ESS) Eligibility for applicants All Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises engaged in manufacturing activities and setup in the State, which had filed Entrepreneurs Memorandum Part 1/II with the respective General Manager, District Industries Centre shall be eligible for this assistance. The applicant as to Apply in the prescribed Performa, Provide necessary documentation and accounts and Execute an agreement with the notified authority to avail the assistance.

For the purpose of this scheme an industrial unit eligible for the Entrepreneur Support Assistance shall be an independent legal entity. Entitlement in the scheme shall be limited to an amount of Rs. 30.00 (Thirty) lakhs per applicant unit to be availed only once. The upper limit of Rs. 30.00 (Thirty) lakhs shall be enhanced by 5% per annum during the period of operation of the scheme to address the escalation of costs. Subject to this maximum limit the assistance shall be limited to the fixed percentage of the composite investment upon (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (e) (f) land, land development costs, building and improvement charges on existing building, essential office infrastructure, fixed cost of plant and machinery, electrification, generators and associated equipment e.g. invertors

All testing and pollution control equipments shall also be eligible for computing the composite investment cost. Working capital and recurring costs shall not be eligible. An assistance of 15% limited to Rs. 20.00 (Twenty) lakhs will be payable on the fixed capital investment of all micro, small and medium enterprises set up in the State. Also, some of the states in India prohibiting the use of plastic bags, have also supported the growth of this industry. Based on all the incentive the completion in the PP nonwoven fabric manufacturing will increase along with its demand.

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PLANT LAYOUT Following is the general plant layout (not to scale) for the production capacity of 3.2mts single beam fabric. They size is based on general industrial practice.






Total Land Area Reqd = 4000 Sq.Mtrs Raw Material Storage = 200 Sq. Mtrs Production Area = 1500 sq Mtrs Finish Goods Storage = 200 Sq. Mtrs Admin Building = 100 Sq. Mtrs

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PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT Some of the guiding principles for detailed plant will be discussed for the benefit of those making decisions for the first time. layout layout

Storage Layout: Storage facilities for raw materials and intermediate and finished products may be located in isolated areas or in adjoining areas. Hazardous materials become a decided menace to life and property when stored in large quantities and should consequently be isolated. Storage in adjoining areas to reduce materials handling may introduce an obstacle toward future expansion of the plant. Arranging storage of materials so as to facilitate or simplify handling is also a point to be considered to design. Where it is possible to pump a single material to an elevation so that subsequent handling can be accomplished by gravity into intermediate reaction and storage units, costs may be reduced. Liquids can be stored in small containers, barrels, horizontal or vertical tanks and vats, either indoors or out of doors. Equipment Layout: In making a layout, ample space should assigned to each piece of equipment; accessibility is important factor for maintenance. be an

It is extremely poor economy to fit the equipment layout too closely into a building. A slightly larger building appears necessary will cost little more than one that is / that crowded. The extra cost will indeed be small in comparison with the penalties that will be extracted if, in order to iron out the kines, the building must be expanded. The operations that constitute a process are essentially a series of unit operations that may be carried on simultaneously. These include filtration, evaporation, crystallization, separation, and drying. Since these operations are repeated several times in the flow of materials, it should be possible to arrange the necessary equipment into groups of the same kinds. This sort of layout will make possible a division of operation labor so that one or two operators can be detailed to tend all equipment of a like nature. The relative levels of the several pieces of equipment and their accessories determine their placement. Although gravity flow is usually preferable, it is not altogether necessary because liquids can be transported by blowing or by pumping, and solids can be moved by mechanical means. Gravity flow may be said to cost nothing to operate, whereas the various mechanical means of transportation involve the first cost of the necessary equipment and the cost of operation and maintenance. But material must be elevated to a level where gravity flow must

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start. However, gravity flow usually means a multistory layout, whereas the factors favoring a single-story plant may largely, if not entirely, compensate for the cost of mechanical transportation.

Access for initial construction and maintenance is a necessary part of planning. For example, overhead equipment must have space for lowering into place, and heat-exchange equipment should be located near access areas where trucks or hoist can be placed for pulling and replacing tube bundles. Thus, space should be provided for repair and replacement equipment, such as cranes and forked trucks, as well as access way around doors and underground hatches. Safety: A great deal of planning is governed by local and national safety and fire code requirements. Fire protection consisting of reservoirs, mains, hydrant, hose houses, fire pumps, reservoirs, sprinklers in building, explosion barriers and directional routing of explosion forces to clear areas, and dikes for combustible-product storage tanks must be incorporated to protect costly plant investment and reduce insurance rates.

Plant Expansion: Expansion must always be kept in mind. The question of multiplying the number of units or increasing the size of the prevailing unit merits must be studied. Suffice it to say that one must exercise engineering judgment; that as a penalty for bad judgment, scrapping of present serviceable equipment constitutes but one phase, for shutdown due to remodeling may involve a greater loss of money than that due to rejected equipment. Nevertheless, the cost of change must sometimes be borne, for the economies of larger units may, in the end, make replacement imperative. Floor Space: Floor space may or may not be a major factor in the design of a particular plant. The value of land may be a considerable item. The engineers however, follow the rule of practicing economy of floor space, consistent with good housekeeping in the plant land with proper consideration given to line flow of materials, access to equipment, space to permit working on parts of equipment that need frequent servicing, and safety and comfort of the operators.

Utilities Servicing: The distribution of gas, air, water, steam, power, and electricity is not always a major item, in as much as the flexibility of distribution of these services permits designing to meet almost any condition. But a little regard for the proper placement of each of these services, practicing good design, aids in of operation, orderliness, and reduction in costs of maintenance. No pipes should be laid on the floor or between the floor and the 7-ft. level, where the

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operator must pass or work. Chaotic arrangement of piping invites chaotic operation of the plant. The flexibility of standard pipe fittings and power-transmission mechanisms renders this problem one of minor difficulty. Building: After a complete study of quantitative factors, the selection of the building or buildings must be considered. Standard factory buildings are to be desired, but, if none can be found satisfactory to handle the space and process requirements of the chemical engineer, then a competent architect should be consulted to design a building around the process - not a beautiful structure into which a process must fit. It is fundamental in chemical engineering industries that the buildings should be built around the process, instead of the process being made to fit building of conventional design. In many cases only the control area requires housing, with the process equipment erected outdoors. This is known as outdoor construction and such layouts should be considered for many types of plants. What consideration must be given to buildings depends upon conditions. If the designer must adapt his design to fit an old building or building space already erected, his problem is cut out for him and he has limiting conditions. However, the selection of the design of a new building to meet the requirements of the process is more scientific. In this case, one finds before him practically all types of standard building, built in units, interlocking or otherwise, ready for shipment and erection. Throughout chemical industry, much thought must be given to the disposal of waste liquors, fumes, dusts, and gases. Ventilation, fume elimination, and drainage may require the installation of extra equipment. This may involve the design of the individual pieces of operating equipment, or it may require the installation of isolated equipment. If the latter be the case, the location of such equipment where it will not interfere with the flow of materials in process should be practiced. The selection of the proper piece of equipment for doing this service is also an important point; the less attention the ventilating, fume, or waste-elimination systems require, the better service they may render. Sometimes air conditioning of the plant is called for and may require an elaborate setup. But the installation of such equipment, when needed, pays in better service from operators, less discomfort, greater production, and a better morale than when such conditions are left to nature. It must be recognized that there is not only one solution to the problem of layout of the equipment. There are many rational designs. Which plant to adopt must be decided upon after exercise of engineering judgment and after striking a balance between the advantages and disadvantages of each possible choice.

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Material-handling Equipment: Consideration of equipment for materials handling is only a minor factor in most cases of arrangement, because of the multiplicity of available materialshandling devices. But where this operation is paramount in a process, serious thought must be given to it. Again it should be said that engineering judgment must be exercised. Whenever possible, one should take advantage of the topography of the site location, and the process involved. Railroads and Roads: Existing or possible future railroads and highways adjacent to the plant must be known in order to plan rail siding and access roads within the plant. Railroad spurs and roadways of the correct capacity and at the right location should be provided for in a traffic study and over-all master track and road plan of the plant area. Some of the factors in rail-track planning are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Existing and future off-site main rail facilities Permissible radius of curvature for spurs - consult local rail authorities. Provision for traffic handling - arrangement of spurs and ladder track and switching. Adequate spur facilities a. Loading and unloading facilities for initial construction and subsequent operations. b. Rack stations for liquid handling c. Storage space for full and empty cars d. Space for cleaning and car repairs. Major are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. provisions in road planning for multipurpose for road plant

service both

A means of interplant movement pedestrian and vehicular


Heavier and wider roads for large-scale traffic Routing of heavy traffic outside the operational areas Roadways for access to initial construction, maintenance, and repair points Roadways to isolated points, storage tanks, and safety equipment, such as fire hydrants.

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PLANT LOCATION FACTORS Factors which generally apply to the economic and operability aspect of plant site location are classified into two major groups. The primary factors listed apply to choice of a region, whereas the specific factors looked at in choosing an exact site location within the region. All factors are important in making a site location selection. Primary Factors 1. Raw-material supply: a. b. c. 2. Availability from existing or future suppliers Use of substitute materials Distance

Markets: a. b. c. d. Demand versus distance Growth or decline Inventory storage requirements Competition - present and future.


Power and fuel supply: a. b. c. Availability of electricity and various type of fuel Future reserves Costs


Water supply: a. b. c. d. Quality - temperature, mineral content, bacteriological content Quantity Dependability - may involve reservoir construction Costs



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a. b. c. Investment required for construction Humidity and temperature conditions Hurricane tornado, and earthquake history

Specific Factors 6. Transportation: a. Availability of various services and projected rates 1. Rail - dependable for over all distances 2. Highways - regularly used for short distance generally small quantities 3. 4. Water - cheaper, but may be slow and irregular Pipeline - for gases and liquids, particularly for petroleum products 5. Air - for business transportation of personnel and light and heavy shipping


Waste disposal: a. b. c. Regulations laws Stream carry-off possibilities Air-pollution possibilities


Labor: 1. 2. 3. Availability of skills Labor relations - history and stability in area Stability of labor rates


Regulatory laws: a. b. Building codes Zoning ordinances

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c. d. 10. Highway restrictions Waste-disposal codes

Taxes: a. State and local taxes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b. Income Unemployment insurance Franchise Use Property to attract

Low assessment or limited term exemptions industry


Site characteristics: a. b. c. d. e. f. Contour of site Soil structure Access to rail, highway, and water Room for expansion Cost of site Site and facilities available for expansion on company-owned property present


Community factors: a. b. C. d. e. f. Rural or Urban Housing costs Cultural aspects - churches, libraries, theatres School system Recreation facilities Medical facilities - hospitals, doctors


Vulnerability to wartime attack:

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a. b. 14.

Distance important facilities General industry concentration

Flood and fire control: a. b. Fire hazards in surrounding area Floor history and control

Based on all the above criteria, the most ideal and suitable location is Silvasa, the reason behind selecting this location is following: Its located in Gujarat, thus can have the benefits of interest incentives offered by Government of Gujarat. There are various tax benefits offered by state government to develop the region. Its right on the border of Maharashtra thus easy to tap the Maharashtra market and other state of South India. Considering Surat to be center of fabric industry in India, Silvasa is located near to Surat, thus can have benefit of such strategic location. Maharashtra government is also planning to build a new textile park at Ichalkaranji off Kolhapur in the states western region. This can also be the next suitable location.

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This represents reduction in the utility and value of a capital asset because of wear and tear, lapse of time, obsolescence etc. The use of an asset helps in the generation of revenue for the business. A part of the cost of the asset, estimated to be equal to the reduction in the utility and economic life of the asset, because of its use, is charged off by way of depreciation charge against such revenue to arrive at the true profits.



Represent those assets which remain permanently (till their useful lives) with the business and are not meant for resale. These assets are acquired for use in the operation of business and help in the generation of revenue for the business. These include land and building, plant and machinery etc.



This represents the total expenses on Raw materials, utilities & overheads, and salaries & wages, for a specified period of time.

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This represents the level of output and sales at which the firm is able to recover all its expenses-both fixed and variable. In other words it indicates the level of output and sales at which the firm is neither making profit nor incurring any loss. Level of output more than the Break-Even Level generates profit for the firm.



These represent expenses which remain fixed irrespective of changes in level of output. In other words these are the expenses which the firm has to incur whether there is production or not. These include expenses such as preliminary and Preoperative expenses, Insurance and Freight, Technical Know-how and Consultancy, Erection & Commissioning etc. building, insurance, etc.



This represents that part of the cost of project which the promoter has to meet from his own resources. This is the contribution which the promoter must make to the equity of the project for becoming eligible for assistance from financial institutions/Banks.

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Represent Loans which are repayable over a long period time. These loans are meant for meeting capital expenditure the project. 8. TOTAL LOAD:

of of

It is the ratio of the maximum power consumed in KWH in a particular period of time to the number of operating hours of the unit in that particular period.

Power Consumed in KWH Total Load = (--------------------------) in a particular No. of operating hours of period of time the unit


LAND AREA/MAN POWER RATIO: It is the ratio of manpower utilized per unit area of land

required for operating the unit. + | Land Area/Man Power Ratio = | | | + + Land Area | ---------------| No. of persons | Working on the unit| +

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POLYPROPYLENE CHIPS Most of the PP chips are only manufactured by big companies. Some of such manufacturers are: Relience IPCL ONGC (plant under construction) Haldia IOCL

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ADDRESSES OF PLANT & MACHINERY SUPPLIERS INTERNATIONAL Jigcheng India 12, school Lane New Delhi-110001 Ph: 011-23317217, 23317064 Shoou Shyng Machinerty Co., Ltd 556-1, Chung Cheng Rd., Hsnchuang, Taipei Tel: 886-2-29012245 Fax: 886-2-29041366 URL: E-mail: C L Enterprise. ADDRESS: No.10 FENGNAN ROAD, OUHAI ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONE, WENZHOU, 325014, CHINA TEL: 86-577-86763780 86-577-86088788 FAX: 86-577-86764899 POSTCODE:325014 E-MAIL: CL@CLNONWOVEN.COM WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.CLNONWOVEN.COM DOMESTIC Rajoo Engineers Limited Survey No. 210, Plot No.1, Rajoo Avenue, Industrial Area, Veraval (Shapar), Rajkot - 360 024 Gujarat India Phone : +91-9712962704 +91-9712952701 +91-9712932706

Preferred and most trusted Supplier with better product quality and machinery are: C L Enterprise (International) Rajoo Engineers Limited (Domestic)

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CONCLUSION Till 2010, with the growing economy, wide range of applications, lack of competition and growing consumer and industrial demands nonwoven comes out as a big opportunity area and an attractive option to invest in. But the scenario changes after 2010. The completion increased, as the demand and supply become almost same. However, the use of PP spunbond nonwoven fabric will definitely increase as new application and new market comes into existence. But the product hasnt been that lucrative. With the increase in competition the profit margin is decreasing. Also, the purchase of raw material will be in Credit (advance payment) and with the high completion the sales is in Debit ( almost a month, depends on client relationship) also the wide range of colour and GSM, manufacturer require a huge working capital and inventory to maintain. Thus making it difficult for new comers, as the payback period of the industry has increased from 2 years back in 2010 to 7 years in 2013 (in reality, not based on numbers) However there are still chances of growth for a new industry, as the awareness among the people regarding nonwoven products is increasing, various aids from central and state government and as government is prohibiting use of other plastic bags in some state. There are also many state like those of East where nonwoven fabric product are not being used as much as in developed states. With intense marketing and working capital at the same time maintaining the product quality standards the payback period of 2-3 years is achievable.

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PLANT ECONOMICS Assumptions: 3.2 Meters Single Beam Machinery has been considered because the return on investment in such machinery is the highest. 1.6mts machinerys ROI is much less while 3.2 mts double beam in not advisable as it require high capital investment compare to single beam. All the calculation does not take into account the real market competition. i.e. whatever is manufactured is being sold. The sale price of finish goods is an average of different colour and GSM fabric The Raw material price is based on current average market price. No. of Working Days = 25 days / month = 300 days/ annum No. of Shifts = 2 per days ( 12 hrs Shift) Currency = INR Government Incentives and Benefits are not considered during calculation. IT JUST FOR YOUR REFERENC (CAN BE DIFFERENT FROM REAL/PRACTICAL SCINARIO)


= 3.2 Meters Single Beam = 800Kg / hours EFFICIENCY = 80% USD = 55 INR

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Land & Building Land (4000 Sq. Mts) @ INR 3000 per Sq. Mts Production Shed (1500 Sq. Mts) @ INR 1500 per Sq. Mts Raw Material Store (200 Sq. Mts) @ INR 1500 per Sq. Mts Finish Goods Store (200 Sq. Mts) @ INR 1500 per Sq. Mts Admin Building (100 Sq. Mts) @ INR 2000 per Sq. Mts Misc. Boundry Wall, Leveling, etc Total

12,000,000 2,250,000 300,000 300,000 200,000 2,000,000 17,050,000

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Machineries Rate 3.2 mts single beam Import Duties Domestic Machinery (Transformers, Compressors, etc) Sea Fright 3 containers Local Transportation Total USD 560,000 30% 168,000 6,000 INR 30,800,000 9,240,000 2,000,000 330,000 120,000 42,490,000

1500 30,000

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Other Expenses Office Equipements and Furnitures Pre-operative & preliminary expenses Consultancy, Architectures, Contracters etc Erection, Installation and Electrification Computers, Laptops, etc Total 500,000 200,000 300,000 2,500,000 100,000 3,600,000

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Fix Capital Land and Building Machinery Other Expenses Total 17,050,000 42,490,000 3,600,000 63,140,000

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PP CaCO3 Recycled Total

Per Day (Kg) 13440 1920 3840 19200

Raw Material Price/ Kg 95 30 55

Cost/day 1,276,800 57,600 211,200 1,545,600

Cost/Month 31,920,000 1,440,000 5,280,000 38,640,000

General Formulation PP CaCO3 Recycled 70% 10% 20%

Production Capacity Prod. Cap/Hr (KG) Prod. Cap/Month (KG) Prod. Cap/Year (KG) Working Hr/Day 800 480000 6000000 24

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Labor Un-Skilled Skilled Operator Accountant Clerk and other office Staff Marketing and Admin Staff Total

Salary & Wages Wage/D Wage/M Total 14 200 5,000 70,000 2 250 6,250 12,500 2 300 15,000 30,000 1 400 10,000 10,000 2 300 7,500 15,000 2 600 15,000 30,000 58,750 167,500

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Utility and Overheads Electricity (290 KW hrs) @ INR 7 per KW hrs Repair and Maintanance Admin. Expenses Vehicals and Tranportation Marketing Expenses Total

1,218,000 25,000 20,000 25,000 100,000 1,388,000

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Working Capital Raw Material Salary and Wages Utility and Overheads Total 38,640,000 167,500 1,388,000 40,195,500


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Project Cost Fix Capital Working Capital Margin Money Total 63,140,000 10,048,875 73,188,875

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Total Capital Investment Fix Capital Working Capital (1 Month) Total 63,140,000 40,195,500 103,335,500

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Cost of Production (Annual) Working Capital Interest on Total Capital Investment (@13%) Depreciation @ 10.00% on buildings Depreciation @ 20.00% on Plant and Machinery Depreciation @ 20.00% on office equipment & furniture Total 120,586,500 9,514,554 505,000 6,560,000 100,000 137,266,054

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Sale Price Basic Gross Sales Price VAT Sales price w/o VAT Excise Sales price w/o VAT & Exc 5% 10.30% Per Kg 127.3965 6.0665 121.33 11.33 110

Annual Turnover @ INR 120/Kg (80% operation capacity)

PROFIT = = = Sales - COST OF PRODUCTION 528,000,000- 137,266,054 25,055,385.00



Profit / Sales


25,055,385.00 ------------------------------ X 100 528,000,000.00 4.74 %


= =

Operating profit / T.C.I


25,055,385.00 ------------------------------ X 100 103,335,500.00 24.24 %

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Fix Cost of Plant Interest Depreciation 40% of Salary 40% of Overhead Total 13,433,615 7,165,000 804,000 6,662,400 28,065,015


FIXED COSTS ------------------------------ X 100 FIXED COSTS + PROFIT 28,065,015.00 ------------------------------ X 100 28,065,015.00 + 25,055,385.00

52.83 %

LAND MAN RATIO = Total land / Manpower 4000 : 23 :: 182 : 1

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1. Term loans from Financial institutions ( 65.00 % of fixed capital ) at @13.50% p.a rate of interest 2. Bank loans for 3 months ( 65.00 % of working capital ) at @ 13.50% p.a rate of interest 3. Self raised capital from even funds & loans from close ones to meet the margin money needs at a @ 13.50% p.a rate of interest








-------------------------Rs. 103,335,500.00 --------------------------

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