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maskless lithography
In maskless lithography, the radiation
that is used to expose a photosensitive emulsion (or photoresist) is not projected from, or transmitted through, a photomask. Instead, most commonly, the radiation is focused to a narrow beam. The beam is then used to directly write the image into the photoresist, one or more pixels at a time


Laser (Optical) Focused ion beam Electron beam

Electron beam lithography

e-beam lithography is the practice of
scanning a beam of electrons in a patterned fashion across a surface covered with a film (resist), and selectively removing either exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist ("developing").

Use of e-beam lithography

manufacturing integrated circuits and
semi conductor devices in low volumes, and creating nanotechnology artifacts.

very long time it takes to expose an entire

silicon wafer or glass substrate. A long exposure time leaves the user vulnerable to beam drift or instability which may occur during the exposure