SENIOR ORACLE DBA INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

Question 1. Explain the i!!e"en#e $et%een a hot $a#&up an a #ol $a#&up an the $ene!its asso#iate %ith ea#h. Ans%e"' A hot backup is basically taking a backup of the database while it is still up and running and it must be in archive log mode. A cold backup is taking a backup of the database while it is shut down and does not require being in archive log mode. The benefit of taking a hot backup is that the database is still available for use while the backup is occurring and you can recover the database to any point in time. The benefit of taking a cold backup is that it is typically easier to administer the backup and recovery process. In addition, since you are taking cold backups the database does not require being in archive log mode and thus there will be a slight performance gain as the database is not cutting archive logs to disk. Question (. )ou ha*e +ust ha to "esto"e !"o, $a#&up an o not ha*e an- #ont"ol !iles. .o% %oul -ou /o a$out $"in/in/ up this ata$ase0 Ans%e"' I would create a text based backup control file, stipulating where on disk all the data files where and then issue the recover command with the using backup control file clause. Question 1. .o% o -ou s%it#h !"o, an init.o"a !ile to a sp!ile0 Ans%e"' Issue the create spfile from pfile command. Question 2. Explain the i!!e"en#e $et%een a ata $lo#&3 an extent an a se/,ent. Ans%e"' A data block is the smallest unit of logical storage for a database object. As objects grow they take chunks of additional storage that are composed of contiguous data blocks. These groupings of contiguous data blocks are called extents. All the extents that an object takes when grouped together are considered the segment of the database object. Question 4. 5i*e t%o exa,ples o! ho% -ou ,i/ht ete",ine the st"u#tu"e o! the ta$le DE6T. Ans%e"' se the describe command or use the dbms!metadata.get!ddl package. Question 7. Whe"e %oul -ou loo& !o" e""o"s !"o, the ata$ase en/ine0 Ans%e"' In the alert log.

Question 8. Co,pa"e an #ont"ast TRUNCATE an DELETE !o" a ta$le. Ans%e"' "oth the truncate and delete command have the desired outcome of getting rid of all the rows in a table. The difference between the two is that the truncate command is a ##$ operation and just moves the high water mark and produces a now rollback. The delete command, on the other hand, is a #%$ operation, which will produce a rollback and thus take longer to complete. Question 9. 5i*e the "easonin/ $ehin usin/ an in ex. Ans%e"' &aster access to data blocks in a table. Question :. 5i*e the t%o t-pes o! ta$les in*ol*e in p"o u#in/ a sta" s#he,a an the t-pe o! ata the- hol . Ans%e"' &act tables and dimension tables. A fact table contains measurements while dimension tables will contain data that will help describe the fact tables. Question 1;. What t-pe o! in ex shoul -ou use on a !a#t ta$le0 Ans%e"' A "itmap index. Question 11. 5i*e t%o exa,ples o! "e!e"ential inte/"it- #onst"aints. Ans%e"' A primary key and a foreign key. Question 1(. A ta$le is #lassi!ie as a pa"ent ta$le an -ou %ant to "op an "e<#"eate it. .o% %oul -ou o this %ithout a!!e#tin/ the #hil "en ta$les0 Ans%e"' #isable the foreign key constraint to the parent, drop the table, re'create the table, and enable the foreign key constraint. Question 11. Explain the i!!e"en#e $et%een ARC.IVELO5 ,o e an NOARC.IVELO5 ,o e an the $ene!its an isa *anta/es to ea#h. Ans%e"' A()*I+,$-. mode is a mode that you can put the database in for creating a backup of all transactions that have occurred in the database so that you can recover to any point in time. /-A()*I+,$-. mode is basically the absence of A()*I+,$-. mode and has the disadvantage of not being able to recover to any point in time. /-A()*I+,$-. mode does have the advantage of not having to write transactions to an archive log and thus increases the performance of the database slightly. Question 12. What #o,,an %oul -ou use to #"eate a $a#&up #ont"ol !ile0 Ans%e"' A$T,( #ATA"A0, "A)1 2 )-/T(-$&I$, T- T(A),

Question 14. 5i*e the sta/es o! instan#e sta"tup to a usa$le state %he"e no",al use"s ,a- a##ess it. Ans%e"' 0TA(T 2 /-%- /T ' Instance startup A$T,( #ATA"A0, %- /T ' The database is mounted A$T,( #ATA"A0, -2,/ ' The database is opened Question 17. What #olu,n i!!e"entiates the V= *ie%s to the 5V= *ie%s an ho%0 Ans%e"' The I/0T!I# column which indicates the instance in a (A) environment the information came from. Question 18. .o% %oul -ou /o a$out /ene"atin/ an E>6LAIN plan0 Ans%e"' )reate a plan table with utlxplan.sql. se the explain plan set statement!id 3 4tst54 into plan!table for a 06$ statement $ook at the explain plan with utlxplp.sql or utlxpls.sql Question 19. .o% %oul -ou /o a$out in#"easin/ the $u!!e" #a#he hit "atio0 Ans%e"' se the buffer cache advisory over a given workload and then query the v7db!cache!advice table. If a change was necessary then I would use the alter system set db!cache!si8e command. Question 1:. Explain an ORA<;1444 Ans%e"' 9ou get this error when you get a snapshot too old within rollback. It can usually be solved by increasing the undo retention or increasing the si8e of rollbacks. 9ou should also look at the logic involved in the application getting the error message. Question (;. Explain the i!!e"en#e $et%een =ORACLE?.O@E an =ORACLE?BASE. Ans%e"' -(A)$,!"A0, is the root directory for oracle. -(A)$,!*-%, located beneath -(A)$,!"A0, is where the oracle products reside. Question (1. .o% %oul -ou ete",ine the ti,e Aone un e" %hi#h a ata$ase %as ope"atin/0 Ans%e"' select #"TI%,:-/, from dual; Question ((. Explain the use o! settin/ 5LOBAL?NA@ES eBual to TRUE. Ans%e"' 0etting 5LOBAL?NA@ES dictates how you might connect to a database. This variable is either T( , or &A$0, and if it is set to T( , it enforces database links to have the same name as the remote database to which they are linking.

Question (1. What #o,,an %oul -ou use to en#"-pt a 6LCSQL appli#ation0 Ans%e"' <(A2 Question (2. Explain the i!!e"en#e $et%een a DUNCTION3 6ROCEDURE an 6ACEA5E. Ans%e"' A function and procedure are the same in that they are intended to be a collection of 2$=06$ code that carries a single task. <hile a procedure does not have to return any values to the calling application, a function will return a single value. A package on the other hand is a collection of functions and procedures that are grouped together based on their commonality to a business function or application. Question (4. Explain the use o! ta$le !un#tions. Ans%e"' Table functions are designed to return a set of rows through 2$=06$ logic but are intended to be used as a normal table or view in a 06$ statement. They are also used to pipeline information in an ,T$ process. Question (7. Na,e th"ee a *iso"- statisti#s -ou #an #olle#t. Ans%e"' "uffer )ache Advice, 0egment $evel 0tatistics, > Timed 0tatistics Question (8. Whe"e in the O"a#le i"e#to"- t"ee st"u#tu"e a"e au it t"a#es pla#e 0 Ans%e"' In unix 7-(A)$,!*-%,=rdbms=audit, in <indows the event viewer Question (9. Explain ,ate"ialiAe *ie%s an ho% the- a"e use . Ans%e"' %ateriali8ed views are objects that are reduced sets of information that have been summari8ed, grouped, or aggregated from base tables. They are typically used in data warehouse or decision support systems. Question (:. When a use" p"o#ess !ails3 %hat $a#&/"oun p"o#ess #leans up a!te" it0 Ans%e"' 2%-/ Question 1;. What $a#&/"oun p"o#ess "e!"eshes ,ate"ialiAe *ie%s0 Ans%e"' The ?ob 6ueue 2rocesses. Question 11. .o% %oul -ou ete",ine %hat sessions a"e #onne#te an %hat "esou"#es thea"e %aitin/ !o"0 Ans%e"'

se of +70,00I-/ and +70,00I-/!<AIT Question Question 1(. Des#"i$e %hat "e o lo/s a"e. Ans%e"' (edo logs are logical and physical structures that are designed to hold all the changes made to a database and are intended to aid in the recovery of a database. Question 11. .o% %oul -ou !o"#e a lo/ s%it#h0 Ans%e"' A$T,( 090T,% 0<IT)* $-.&I$,; Question 12. 5i*e t%o ,etho s -ou #oul use to ete",ine %hat DDL #han/es ha*e $een ,a e. Ans%e"' 9ou could use $ogminer or 0treams Question 14. What oes #oales#in/ a ta$lespa#e o0 Ans%e"' )oalescing is only valid for dictionary'managed tablespaces and de'fragments space by combining neighboring free extents into large single extents. Question 17. What is the i!!e"en#e $et%een a TE@6ORAR) ta$lespa#e an a 6ER@ANENT ta$lespa#e0 Ans%e"' A temporary tablespace is used for temporary objects such as sort structures while permanent tablespaces are used to store those objects meant to be used as the true objects of the database. Question 18. Na,e a ta$lespa#e auto,ati#all- #"eate %hen -ou #"eate a ata$ase. Ans%e"' The 090T,% tablespace. Question 19. When #"eatin/ a use"3 %hat pe",issions ,ust -ou /"ant to allo% the, to #onne#t to the ata$ase0 Ans%e"' .rant the )-//,)T to the user. Question 1:. .o% o -ou a a ata !ile to a ta$lespa#e0 Ans%e"' A$T,( TA"$,02A), @tablespace!nameA A## #ATA&I$, @datafile!nameA 0I:, @si8eA Question 2;. .o% o -ou "esiAe a ata !ile0 Ans%e"'

A$T,( #ATA"A0, #ATA&I$, @datafile!nameA (,0I:, @new!si8eA; Question 21. What *ie% %oul -ou use to loo& at the siAe o! a ata !ile0 Ans%e"' #"A!#ATA!&I$,0 Question 2(. What *ie% %oul -ou use to ete",ine !"ee spa#e in a ta$lespa#e0 Ans%e"' #"A!&(,,!02A), Question 21. .o% %oul -ou ete",ine %ho has a e a "o% to a ta$le0 Ans%e"' Turn on fine grain auditing for the table. Question 22. .o% #an -ou "e$uil an in ex0 Ans%e"' A$T,( I/#,B @index!nameA (," I$# -/$I/,; Question 24. Explain 6a"titionin/ an $ene!its o! usin/ 6a"tionin/. Ans%e"' 2artitioning is a method of taking large tables and indexes and splitting them into smaller, more manageable pieces. Question 27. )ou ha*e +ust #o,pile a 6LCSQL pa#&a/e $ut /ot e""o"s3 ho% %oul -ou *ie% the e""o"s0 Ans%e"' 0*-< ,((-(0 Question 28. .o% #an -ou /athe" statisti#s on a ta$le0 Ans%e"' The A/A$9:, command or #"%0!0TAT package. Question 29. .o% #an -ou ena$le a t"a#e !o" a session0 Ans%e"' se the #"%0!0,00I-/.0,T!06$!T(A), or se A$T,( 0,00I-/ 0,T 06$!T(A), 3 T( ,; Question 2:. What is the i!!e"en#e $et%een the SQLFLoa e" an I@6ORT utilities0 Ans%e"' These two -racle utilities are used for loading data into the database. The difference is that the import utility relies on the data being produced by another -racle utility ,B2-(T while the 06$C$oader utility

allows data to be loaded that has been produced by other utilities from different data sources just so long as it conforms to A0)II formatted or delimited files. Question 4;. Na,e t%o !iles use !o" net%o"& #onne#tion to a ata$ase. Ans%e"' T/0/A%,0.-(A and 06$/,T.-(A Question 41. Explain i!!e"en#e $et%een O"a#le Data$ase an Instan#e Ans%e"' -racle database consist of followingD #atafiles, )ontrol &iles, (edo $og &iles -racle instance consist of followingD 0.A and -racle processes E#"<(, $.<(, 0%-/, 2%-/, A()*, )12T, etc.F Question 4(. What is @utatin/ Ta$le e""o"0 Ans%e"' %utating table error happens when you try to modify the same row you are using it. se temp table to avoid this error. Question 41. What is #o""elate su$<Bue"-0 Ans%e"' )orrelated sub'query is a sub'query, which has reference to the main query Question 42. Whi#h one o! the $elo% #han/e %ill e#"ease 6A5IN5CSWA66IN5 Ans%e"' 5. I/)(,A0, 0-(T!A(,A!(,TAI/,#!0I:, (. DECREASE S.ARED?6OOL?SIGE H#o""e#t ans%e"I G. #,)(,A0, -2,/!) (0-(0 parameters H. I/)(,A0, #"!)A)*,!0I:, Question 44. Explain steps in*ol*e in @i/"ation !"o, O"a#le :.;.1 to :.(.;.7 Ans%e"' 5. 0hutdown I.J.5 database K. Apply software patch to new=old -(A)$,!*-%, G. )hange -(A)$,!*-%, to point to new I.K.J.L binaries H. 0TA(T 2 %I.(AT, M. N-(A)$,!*-%,=rdbms=admin=catpatch.sql L. N-(A)$,!*-%,=rdbms=admin=utlrp.sql O. )hange init.ora parameter )-%2ATI"$, 3 I.K.J.L P. 0hutdown and startup normal Question 47. Can -ou #"eate ata$ase un e" an- Unix use"i $esi es o"a#le0 Ans%e"' 9es. 9ou can create database user other then oracle as long as that user is part of #"A group in unix

Question 48. Lo#all- @ana/e TE@6 Ta$lespa#e is 1;;J DULL an the"e is no spa#e a*aila$le to a ata!ile to in#"ease TE@6 ta$lespa#e. What #an -ou o that ,i/ht !"ee up TE@6 spa#e0 Ans%e"' 9ou can try one of the following to free up T,%2 space 5. Issue A$TT,( TA"$,02A), 2)TI/)(,A0, 5 followed by A$TT,( TA"$,02A), 2)TI/)(,A0, J command; K. )lose some of the idle sessions connected to the database Question 49. List !i*e ,ost i,po"tant !eatu"es o! O"a#le :i Ans%e"' 5. A T-%ATI) /#- %A/A.,%,/# K. A T-%ATI), 2.A %,%-(9 %A/A.,%,/T G. % $TI'TA"$, I/0,(T statements H. ,BT,(/A$ TA"$,0 M. #9/A%I) %,%-(9 %A/A.,%,/T Question 4:. Na,e !i*e top :I init.o"a pa"a,ete"s a!!e#tin/ pe"!o",an#e Ans%e"' 5. ) (0-(!0*A(I/. K. #"!)A)*,!0I:, G. 2.A!A..(,.AT,!TA(.,T H. <-(1A(,A!0I:,!2-$I)9 M. #"!5L1!)A)*,!0I:,, #"!P1!)A)*,!0I:,, #"!K1!)A)*,!0I:, Question 7;. .o% o -ou "e#o*e" ata$ase %hen -ou lost all o! -ou" #ont"ol !iles0 Ans%e"' In case of loss of loss of all control files, you can still recover database as long as you have all archivelog files. 9ou can issue following command to recover the database. (,)-+,( #ATA"A0, 0I/. "A)1 2 )-/T(-$&I$,0 /TI$ )A/),$; Apply all archivelog files A$T,( #ATA"A0, -2,/ (,0,T$-.0; 0* T#-</ I%%,#IAT,; "ackup database E)-$#F 0TA(T 2; Question 71. What is ,ain pu"pose o! C.ECE6OINT0 Ans%e"' A )heckpoint is a database event, which synchroni8es the data blocks in memory with the datafiles on disk. A checkpoint has two purposesD 5. to establish data consistency K. ,nable faster database recovery. Question 7(. )ou /ot a #all !"o, Appli#ation tea, sa-in/ Appli#ation is "unnin/ *e"- SLOW. Whe"e o -ou sta"t loo&in/ !i"st0 Ans%e"' "elow are some of very important you should gather to identify the root cause of slowness in application=database. (un a T-2 command in unix to see )2 usage Eidentify )2 killer processesF

(un +%0TAT, 0A(, and 2(0TAT command to get more information on )2 and memory usage and possible blocking (un 0TAT02A)1 report to identifyD a. T-2 M <AIT ,+,/T0 b. (,0- (), intensive 06$ statements 0ee if 0TATI0TI)0 on affected tables needs to be re'generated I& poorly written statements are culprit, run a ,B2$AI/ 2$A/ on these statements and see whether new index or use of *I/T brings the cost of 06$ down. Question 71. .o% to SWITC. !"o, 6RI@AR) to 6.)SICAL STANDB) in :i Ans%e"' 2erform below on 2rimary #"D 5. A$T,( #ATA"A0, )-%%IT T- 0<IT)*-+,( T- 2*90I)A$ 0TA/#"9 <IT* 0,00I-/ 0* T#-</; K. 0* T#-</ I%%,#IAT,; G. 0TA(T 2 /-%- /T; H. A$T,( #ATA"A0, %- /T 0TA/#"9 #ATA"A0,; M. (,)-+,( %A/A.,# 0TA/#"9 #ATA"A0, #I)-//,)T &(-% 0,00I-/; L. A$T,( 090,% 0,T $-.!A()*I+,!#,0T!K!0TAT 03 #,&,( 0)-2,302&I$,; 2erform below on 0TA/#"9 #"D O. A$T,( #ATA"A0, )-%%IT T- 0<IT)*-+,( T- 2(I%A(9; P. 0* T#-</ I%%,#IAT,; I. 0TA(T 2; 5J. A$T,( 090,% 0,T $-.!A()*I+,!#,0T!K!0TAT 03 ,/A"$, 0)-2,302&I$,; At this time 0tandby becomes 2rimary and 2rimary becomes new 0tandby. Question 72. .o% to ACTIVATE 6.)SICAL STANDB) ata$ase in :i Ans%e"' 2erform below on 2rimary #" if available to transfer all pending archive logs to standbyD 5. A$T,( 090T,% 0<IT)* $-.&I$,; K. A$T,( 090T,% 0<IT)* $-.&I$,; 2erform below on 0TA/#"9 #"D 5. A$T,( #ATA"A0, A)TI+AT, 0TA/#"9 #ATA"A0,; K. 0* T#-</ I%%,#IAT,; G. 0TA(T 2 H. Add T,%2 file if needed. At this time 0tandby database becomes 2(I%A(9 database and relationship between 2rimary and 0tandby has been lost by activating standby database. Question 74. Explain i!!e"ent p"ote#tion ,o e in DATA5URD Ans%e"' %ABI% % 2(-T,)TI-/ %ABI% % A+AI$I"I$IT9 %ABI% % 2,(&-(%A/), Question 77. What is CASCADIN5 STANDB) ata$ase0 Ans%e"'

A )A0)A#I/. 0TA/#"9 is a standby database that receives its (,#- information from another 0TA/#"9 database Enot from 2rimary databaseF. Question 78. What a"e so,e o! the $a ta$les -ou Bue"- to !in out a$out UNDO se/,ents0 Ans%e"' 9ou would queryD #"A! /#-!0,.0 +7 /#-0TAT Question 79. What oes Blo#& @e ia Re#o*e"- HB@RI o0 Ans%e"' "%( is responsible for restore and recover of specified "$-)1 Question 7:. What is the i!!e"en#e $et%een Dine 5"aine Au it HD5AI an Dine 5"aine A##ess Cont"ol HD5ACI0 Ans%e"' &.A tracks when sensitive rows have been accesses, where &.A) prevents access to sensitive rows Question 8;. Whi#h -na,i# pe"!o",an#e *ie% DBA #an Bue"- to see %ho elete ata !"o, a pa"ti#ula" ta$le so,eti,e $a#&0 Ans%e"' +7$-.%/(!)-/T,/T0 Question 81. What o -ou use DB@S?REDEDINITION pa#&a/e !o"0 Ans%e"' #"%0!(,#,&I/ITI-/ package is used to perform an -/$I/, (," I$# of a table Question 8(. .o% o -ou a se#on o" su$seBuent BLOCE SIGE to an existin/ ata$ase0 Ans%e"'

(e')reate the )-/T(-$&I$, to specify the new "$-)1 0I:, for specific data files -r Take the database -&&$I/,, and the bring back online with a new "$-)1 0I:, specification Question 81. What a"e ne% R@AN !eatu"es in :i0 Ans%e"' It allows you to set retention period of backups It enables you to store the )*A//,$ attributes so you do not have to specify in each "A)1 2 or (,0T-(, command Question 823 Explain i!!e"ent 6ARTITIONIN5 options a*aila$le in :i Ans%e"' Ran/e 6a"titionin/ sed when there are logical ranges of data. 2ossible usageD dates, part numbers, and serial numbers.

.ash 6a"titionin/ sed to spread data evenly over partitions. 2ossible usageD data has no logical groupings. List 6a"titionin/ sed to list together unrelated data into partitions. 2ossible usageD a number of states list partitioned into a region. Co,posite Ran/e<.ash 2artitioning sed to range partition first, then spreads data into hash partitions. 2ossible usageD range partition by date of birth then hash partition by name; store the results into the hash partitions. Co,posite Ran/e<List 2artitioning sed to range partition first, then spreads data into list partitions. 2ossible usageD range partition by date of birth then list partition by state, then store the results into the list partitions. Question 84. .o% to #on*e"t a Sin/le Instan#e :i ata$ase to a Real Appli#ation Cluste"s :i HRACI ata$ase %ithout usin/ expo"tCi,po"t tools. Ans%e"' 5. %ake a full database backup before you change anything K. )opy the existing 7-(A)$,!*-%,=dbs=init@0I#5A.ora to 7-(A)$,!*-%,=dbs=init@db!nameA.ora. Add the following parameters to 7-(A)$,!*-%,=dbs=init@db!nameA.oraD a. C.cluster!database 3 T( , b. C.cluster!database!instances 3 K c. C.undo!management3A T- EAdd if you don4t have it F d. @0I#5A.undo!tablespace3undotbs Eundo tablespace which already existsF e. @0I#5A.instance!name3(A)5 f. @0I#5A.instance!number35 g. @0I#5A.thread35 h. @0I#5A.local!listener3$I0T,/,(!(A)5 G. -pen your database and run 7-(A)$,!*-%,=rdbms=admin=catclust.sql to create cluster database specific views within the existing instance H. (ecreate control file if you defined maxinstances to be 5 when you created the single instance database M. Add instance specific parameters in the init@db!nameA.ora for the second instance on the second node and set appropriate values for it a. @0I#KA.instance!name3(A)K b. @0I#KA.instance!number3K c. @0I#KA.local!listener3$I0T,/,(!(A)K d. @0I#KA.thread3K e. @0I#KA.undo!tablespace3 /#-T"0K f. @0I#KA.cluster!database 3 T( , g. @0I#KA.cluster!database!instances 3 K L. &rom the first instance, mount the database and run the following command alter database add logfile thread K group G E4=dev=(A)=redoK!J5!5JJ.dbf4F si8e 5JJ%, group H E4=dev=(A)=redoK!JK!5JJ.dbf4F si8e 5JJ%; alter database enable public thread K; O. )reate a second ndo Tablespace from the existing instance P. 0et -(A)$,!0I# and -(A)$,!*-%, environment variables on the second node and 0TA(T second instance. Question 87. Explain RAC an a *anta/es o! usin/ RAC Ans%e"' In (eal Application )lusters environments, all nodes concurrently execute transactions against the same database. (eal Application )lusters coordinates each node4s access to the shared data to provide consistency and integrity. Advantages of (A)D

Improved throughput 0calability over single instance systems Improved response time *igh availability Transparency Question 88. Explain Ro% Lo#&in/ an @ulti<*e"sion Rea Consisten#- in RAC Ans%e"' -racle4s row locking feature allows multiple transactions from separate nodes to lock and update different rows of the same data block. This is done without any of the transactions waiting for the others to commit. If a row has been modified but not yet committed, then the original row values are available to all instances for read access. This is called multi'version read consistency. Question 89. What is an Exte"nal ta$le int"o u#e in :i0 Ans%e"' -racleIi introduces external tables, which provide a mechanism to view data stored in external sources as if it were a table in the database. This ability to read external data provides a more straightforward method of loading and transforming data from external sources. Administrators no longer need to reserve space inside the database for staging tables or write external programs to transform the data outside of the database environment. "y making it no longer necessary to stage data in the -racle database, -racleIi4s external tables have essentially streamlined the ,T$ function by merging the transformation and loading processes. Question 8:. What is S6DILE0 Ans%e"' The 02&I$, Eserver parameter fileF is -racle4s new method of maintaining database parameters. The old method of editing a text based parameter file EI/IT.-(AF has given way to the new method of maintaining persistent parameters. "y this -racle means that you can change a system parameter and have its value be maintained across shutdown and startup. This is a great savings from the past where you had to issue the A$T,( 090T,% command and then remember to edit the I/IT.-(A parameter file. *ere is how to create 02&I$,D 06$A )(,AT, 02&I$, Q34spfile!name4R &(-% 2&I$, Q34pfile!name4R; 06$A )(,AT, 2&I$, Q34pfile!name4R &(-% 02&I$, Q34spfile!name4R; 06$A create spfile from pfile; sageD 5. 06$A A$T,( 090T,% 0,T #"!)A)*,!0I:,35JJJ% 0)-2,302&I$,; Question 9;. .o% o -ou $a#&up an "esto"e usin/ T"anspo"ta$le Ta$lespa#es Ans%e"' 5. K. G. H. M. L. O. (un #"%0!TT0 against the tablespace to see if tablespace is self contained or not. %ake tablespace (ead -nly. ,xport %etadata E,B2 T(A/02-(T!TA"$,02A),039 TA"$,02A),3ts5F )opy data file to target host )opy export dump to target Import the %etadata EI%2 T(A/02-(T!TA"$,02A),039 #ATA&I$,0 Efile5,fileKF F "ring Tablespace -/$I/, and enable 0- (), tablespace to (,A# <(IT, Question 91. Explain i!!e"ent t-pe o! Data$ase Dailu"es Ans%e"'

0tatement failure failed 06$ is automatically rolled back and an error is returned to user. ser 2rocess failure abnormal disconnect 2%-/ detects and rolls back and releases locks. ser ,rror Edrop table, dataF #"A is required to recover data Eimport or incomplete recoveryF %edia &ailure $oss or corruption of files #"A needs to apply appropriate recovery. Instance &ailure Abnormal shutdown Instance simply needs restarted, 0%-/ auto recovers byD (olling forward changes in the redo log not recorded in the data files before -pen of database. (ollbacks can occur after the database is open, when block data is requested. Question 9(. What oes RESETLO5S option o0 Ans%e"' 5. )reates a new incarnation of the database, putting a new 0)/ in all data file headers. K. (eset $og 0equence number to 5 G. (eformats -/$I/, (,#- $-.&I$,0 if they exists Question 91. Na,e 4 s-ste, *ie%s that #an $e use to "et"ie*e in!o",ation a$out $a#&up an "e#o*e"Ans%e"' 5. K. G. H. M. +7"A)1 2 +7#ATA&I$,!*,A#,( +7(,)-+,(!&I$, +7(,)-+,(9!$-. +7(,)-+,(9!0TAT 0 Question 92. What is the Bui#&est %a- to #lone a ata$ase /i*e -ou" $a#&up is one *ia R@AN0 Ans%e"' sing (%A/ command # 2$I)AT, #ATA"A0, Question 94. What is the use o! the RESU@ABLE pa"a,ete" in E>6ORT0 Ans%e"' The (,0 %A"$, parameter allows the export to 5. 0uspend if a space allocation issue occurs K. <ait until the space allocation issue is solved G. Then resume and therefore not to abort, provided a timeout is set appropriately. Question 97. Na,e init.o"a pa"a,ete"s nee to set !o" A *an#e Repli#ation Ans%e"' 5. K. G. H. M. L. #I0T(I" T,#!T(A/0A)TI-/0 .$-"A$!/A%,0 ?-"!6 , ,!2(-),00,0 -2,/!$I/10 2A(A$$,$!%AB!0,(+,(0 2A(A$$,$!%I/!0,(+,(0

Question 98. Na,e 4 init.o"a pa"a,ete"s that nee s to set in 6"i,a"- ata$ase !o" Data5ua" #on!i/u"ation Ans%e"' 5. K. G. H. M. L. $-.!A()*I+,!#,0T!K $-.!A()*I+,!#,0T!K!0TAT, &A$!)$I,/T &A$!0,(+,( 0TA/#"9!A()*I+,!#,0T 0TA/#"9!&I$,!%A/A.,%,/T Question 99. What is the use o! DORCE LO55IN5 option0 Ans%e"' "y setting &-(), $-..I/. to T( ,, all transactions will generate (,#-. This is used for #ata .uard, so no data will be missed Ei.e. transactions that were run with /-$-..I/. optionF in 0tandby database. Question 9:. HOn UNI>I When shoul ,o"e than one DB %"ite" p"o#ess $e use 0 .o% ,anshoul $e use 0 Ans%e"' If the /IB system being used is capable of asynchronous I- then only one is required, if the system is not capable of asynchronous I- then up to twice the number of disks used by -racle number of #" writers should be specified by use of the db!writers initiali8ation parameter. Question :;. I! -ou ha*e an exa,ple ta$le3 %hat is the $est %a- to /et siAin/ ata !o" the p"o u#tion ta$le i,ple,entation0 Ans%e"' The best way is to analy8e the table and then use the data provided in the #"A!TA"$,0 view to get the average row length and other pertinent data for the calculation. The quick and dirty way is to look at the number of blocks the table is actually using and ratio the number of rows in the table to its number of blocks against the number of expected rows. Question :1. What spe#ial O"a#le !eatu"e allo%s -ou to spe#i!- ho% the #ost $ase s-ste, t"eats a SQL state,ent0 Ans%e"' The )-0T based system allows the use of *ints to control the optimi8er path selection. If they can give some example hints such as &I(0T (-<0, A$$ (-<0, 0I/. I/#,B, 0TA(, even better. Question :(. )ou %ant to ete",ine the lo#ation o! i enti#al "o%s in a ta$le $e!o"e atte,ptin/ to pla#e a uniBue in ex on the ta$le3 ho% #an this $e one0 Ans%e"' select rowid from emp e where e.rowid A Eselect minEx.rowidF from emp x where x.emp!no 3 e.emp!noF; Question :1. )ou a"e +oinin/ a lo#al an a "e,ote ta$le3 the net%o"& ,ana/e" #o,plains a$out the t"a!!i# in*ol*e 3 ho% #an -ou "e u#e the net%o"& t"a!!i#0

Ans%e"' 2ush the processing of the remote data to the remote instance by using a view to pre'select the information for the join. This will result in only the data required for the join being sent across. Question :2. .o% o -ou p"e*ent output !"o, #o,in/ to the s#"een0 Ans%e"' The 0,T option T,(%- T controls output to the screen. 0etting T,(%- T -&& turns off screen output. This option can be shortened to T,(%. Question :4. )ou see ,ultiple !"a/,ents in the S)STE@ ta$lespa#e3 %hat shoul -ou #he#& !i"st0 Ans%e"' ,nsure that users donSTt have the 090T,% tablespace as their T,%2-(A(9 or #,&A $T tablespace assignment by checking the #"A! 0,(0 view. Question :7. What a"e so,e in i#ations that -ou nee to in#"ease the S.ARED?6OOL?SIGE pa"a,ete"0 Ans%e"' 2oor data dictionary or library cache hit ratios, getting error -(A'JHJG5. Another indication is steadily decreasing performance with all other tuning parameters the same. Question :8. When shoul -ou in#"ease #op- lat#hes0 What pa"a,ete"s #ont"ol #op- lat#hes0 Ans%e"' <hen you get excessive contention for the copy latches as shown by the SUredo copy latch hit ratio. 9ou can increase copy latches via the initiali8ation parameter $-.!0I% $TA/,- 0!)-2I,0 to twice the number of )2 s on your system. Question :9. Des#"i$e hit "atio as it pe"tains to the ata$ase $u!!e"s. What is the i!!e"en#e $et%een instantaneous an #u,ulati*e hit "atio an %hi#h shoul $e use !o" tunin/0 Ans%e"' The hit ratio is a measure of how many times the database was able to read a value from the buffers verses how many times it had to re'read a data value from the disks. A value greater than PJ'IJV is good, less could indicate problems. If you simply take the ratio of existing parameters this will be a cumulative value since the database started. If you do a comparison between pairs of readings based on some arbitrary time span, this is the instantaneous ratio for that time span. .enerally speaking an instantaneous reading gives more valuable data since it will tell you what your instance is doing for the time it was generated over. Question ::. What #an #ause a hi/h *alue !o" "e#u"si*e #alls0 .o% #an this $e !ixe 0 Ans%e"' A high value for recursive calls is cause by improper cursor usage, excessive dynamic space management actions, and or excessive statement re'parses. 9ou need to determine the cause and correct it "y either re'linking applications to hold cursors, use proper space management techniques Eproper storage and si8ingF or ensure repeat queries are placed in packages for proper reuse. Question 1;;. )ou loo& at the $a?"oll$a#&?se/s *ie% an see that the"e is a la"/e nu,$e" o! sh"in&s an the- a"e o! "elati*el- s,all siAe3 is this a p"o$le,0 .o% #an it $e !ixe i! it is a p"o$le,0

Ans%e"' A large number of small shrinks indicates a need to increase the si8e of the rollback segment extents. Ideally you should have no shrinks or a small number of large shrinks. To fix this just increase the si8e of the extents and adjust optimal accordingly. Question 1;1. )ou loo& at the $a?"oll$a#&?se/s *ie% an see that -ou ha*e a la"/e nu,$e" o! %"aps is this a p"o$le,0 Ans%e"' A large number of wraps indicates that your extent si8e for your rollback segments are probably too small. Increase the si8e of your extents to reduce the number of wraps. 9ou can look at the average transaction si8e in the same view to get the information on transaction si8e. Question 1;(. .o% ,an- "e o lo/s shoul -ou ha*e an ho% shoul the- $e #on!i/u"e !o" ,axi,u, "e#o*e"a$ilit-0 Ans%e"' 9ou should have at least three groups of two redo logs with the two logs each on a separate disk spindle Emirrored by -racleF. The redo logs should not be on raw devices on /IB if it can be avoided. Question 1;1. I! the ata$ase #annot $e $oun#e 3 ho% %oul -ou &ill a use"0 Ans%e"' se commandD A$T,( 090T,% 1I$$ 0,00I-/ 0I#,0,(IA$W ; Question 1;2' What is the !"eBuen#- o! lo/ Up ate ..0 Ans%e"' -n commit or -n checkpoint or (edolog buffer is 5=Grd full Question 1;4' .o% o -ou "ena,e a ata$ase0 Ans%e"' 9ou can change #atabase name by following below procedureD 5. Alter #atabase backup control file to trace; K. Above step will create a text control file in user!dump!dest directory. G. )hange name of the #atabase in above file and in init.ora file. H. 0TA(T 2 /-%- /T M. (un the script that was modified in step G L. A$T,( #ATA"A0, -2,/ (,0,T$-.0; Question 1;7' Is it possi$le to #on!i/u"e p"i,a"- se"*e" an stan $- se"*e" on i!!e"ent OS0 Ans%e"' Answer for this questions is /-. 0tandby database must be on same version of database and same version of -perating system.

Question 1;8' What oes ata$ase o u"in/ ,ountin/ p"o#ess0 Ans%e"' while mounting the database oracle reads the data from controlfile which is used for verifying physical database files during sanity check. "ackground processes are started before mounting the database only. Question 1;9' What is a ea lo#& an Explain Ans%e"' A deadlock is a condition where two or more users are waiting for data locked by each other. -racle automatically detects a deadlock and resolves them by rolling back one of the statements involved in the deadlock, thus releasing one set of data locked by that statement. 0tatement rolled back is usually the one which detects the deadlock. #eadlocks are mostly caused by explicit locking because oracle does not do lock escalation and does not use read locks. %ulti'table deadlocks can be avoided by locking the tables in same order in all the applications, thus precluding a deadlock. Question 1;:' What a"e the options a*aila$le to "e!"esh snapshots0 Ans%e"' )-%2$,T, ' Tables are completely regenerated using the snapshots query and the master tables every time the snapshot referenced. &A0T ' If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can be used to send the changes to the snapshot tables. &-(), ' #efault value. If possible it performs a &A0T refresh; otherwise it will perform a complete refresh. Question 11;' What is snapshot lo/0 Ans%e"' It is a table that maintains a record of modifications to the master table in a snapshot. It is stored in the same database as master table and is only available for simple snapshots. It should be created before creating snapshots. Question 111' What is T%o<6hase Co,,it0 Ans%e"' Two'phase commit is mechanism that guarantees a distributed transaction either commits on all involved nodes or rolls back on all involved nodes to maintain data consistency across the global distributed database. It has two phase, a 2repare 2hase and a )ommit 2hase. Question 11(' Des#"i$e t%o phases o! T%o<phase #o,,it0 Ans%e"' 2repare phase ' The global coordinator Einitiating nodeF ask a participants to prepare Eto promise to commit or rollback the transaction, even if there is a failureF )ommit ' 2hase ' If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared, the coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction, if all participants cannot prepare, the coordinator asks all nodes to roll back the transaction. Question 111' What a"e the !a#to"s #ausin/ the "epa"sin/ o! SQL state,ents in S5A Ans%e"'

There are main two causes for reparsingD 5. The objects which the query is referencing has been modified K. The parsed version of sql text has been aged out of the library cache. Question 112' .o% to i,ple,ent the ,ultiple #ont"ol !iles !o" an existin/ ata$ase Ans%e"' 5. ,dit init.ora file, set control!files parameter with multiple location K. shutdown immediate G. copy control file to multiple locations > confirm from init.ora contol!files parameter H. start the database. M. run this query for changes confirmation ' select name from v7controlfile; Question 114' What is ,ean $- 6"o/"a, 5lo$al A"ea H65AI Ans%e"' 2.A ' 2rogram .lobal Area or the 2rocess .lobal Area is a memory region that contains data and control information for a single server process or a single background process. The 2.A is allocated when a process is created and de'allocated when the process is terminated. 2.A is an area that is used by only one process. Question 117' What is ,eant $- "e#u"si*e hints0 Ans%e"' /umber of times processes repeatedly query the dictionary table is called recursive hints. It is due to the data dictionary cache is too small. "y increasing the 0*A(,#!2--$!0I:, parameter we can optimi8e the si8e of #ata #ictionary )ache. Question 118' Is it possi$le to use "a% e*i#es as ata !iles an %hat is the a *anta/es o*e" !iles-ste, !iles 0 Ans%e"' 9es. The advantages over file system filesD I=- will be improved because -racle will bypass the -0. #isk )orruption will be very less. Question 119' What a"e isa *anta/es o! ha*in/ "a% e*i#es0 Ans%e"' <e have to depend on export=import utility for backup=recovery The tar command cannot be used for physical file backup, instead we have to use dd command which is less flexible and has limited recoveries. Question 11:. What a"e the s-ste, "esou"#es that #an $e #ont"olle $- p"o!ile0 Ans%e"' 5. /umber of concurrent sessions by user K. )2 processing time G. Amount of $ogical I=H. Amount of Idle time

Question 1(;. Explain i!!e"ent le*el o! Au itin/ Ans%e"' 0tatement Auditing 2rivilege Auditing -bject Auditing Question 1(1. Explain the i!!e"en#e $et%een =ORACLE?.O@E an =ORACLE?BASE. Ans%e"' -(A)$,!"A0, is the root directory for oracle. -(A)$,!*-%, located beneath -(A)$,!"A0, is where the oracle products reside. Question 1((. Na,e th"ee a *iso"- statisti#s -ou #an #olle#t. Ans%e"' #atabase )ache Advisory 0hared 2ool Advisory 2.A Advisory Question 1(1. When a use" p"o#ess !ails3 %hat $a#&/"oun p"o#ess #leans up a!te" it0 Ans%e"' 2%-/ Question 1(2. .o% %oul -ou !o"#e a lo/ s%it#h0 Ans%e"' A$T,( 090T,% 0<IT)* $-.&I$,; Question 1(4. When #"eatin/ a use"3 %hat pe",issions ,ust -ou /"ant to allo% the, to #onne#t to the ata$ase0 Ans%e"' )(,AT, 0,00I-/ Question 1(7. What *ie% %oul -ou use to ete",ine !"ee spa#e in a ta$lespa#e0 Ans%e"' #"A!&(,,!02A), Question 1(8. .o% %oul -ou ete",ine %ho has a e a "o% to a ta$le0 Ans%e"' If database auditing is turned -/, query 090.A #7 table Question 1(9. )ou ha*e +ust #o,pile a 6LCSQL pa#&a/e $ut /ot e""o"s3 ho% %oul -ou *ie% the e""o"s0 Ans%e"' 0*-< ,((-(0

Question 1(:. .o% #an -ou ena$le a t"a#e !o" a session0 Ans%e"' A$T,( 0,00I-/ 0,T T(A)I/. -/ Question 11;. A DBA ha to "e,o*e so,e A"#hi*elo/s to !"ee up spa#e in !iles-ste,. /ow when the (%A/ job starts to backup Archivelogs, it complains about missing Archivelogs that were deleted by #"A. To resolve the issue and continue backing up remainder of Archivelogs, which (%A/ command can be used so it won4t complain about missing Archivelogs. Ans%e"' )rosscheck command Question 111. Whi#h R@AN #o,,an is use to #"eate an exa#t "epli#a o! a ata$ase in ne% host0 Ans%e"' # 2$I)AT, #ATA"A0, Question 11(. .o% o -ou install STATS6ACE0 Ans%e"' "y running 7-(A)$,!*-%,=rdbms=admin=spcreate.sql script Question 111. 6"o#ess -ou !ollo% to sta"t loo&in/ into 6e"!o",an#e issue at ata$ase le*el EIf the application is running very slow, at what points do you need to go about the database in order to improve the performanceXF Ans%e"' (un a T-2 command in nix to see )2 usage Eidentify )2 killer processesF (un +%0TAT, 0A(, and 2(0TAT command to get more information on )2 and memory usage and possible blocking (un 0TAT02A)1 report to identifyD 5. T-2 M <AIT ,+,/T0 K. (,0- (), intensive 06$ statements 0ee if 0TATI0TI)0 on affected tables needs to be re'generated I& poorly written statements are culprit, run a ,B2$AI/ 2$A/ on these statements and see whether new index or use of *I/T brings the cost of 06$ down. Question 112. Whi#h is ,ost i,po"tant *= *ie% to see pe"!o",an#e "elate in!o",ation0 Ans%e"' +7<AIT0TAT Question 114. Explain $elo% %ait e*ents in STATS6ACE "epo"t #" 0)ATT,(,# (,A#, #" 0,6 ,/TIA$ (,A$, ,/6 , , Ans%e"' #" 0)ATT,(,# (,A# #" 0,6 ,/TIA$ (,A$ ,/6 , , ' & $$ TA"$, 0)A/ ' I' $-)1I/.

Question 114. List !i*e ,ost i,po"tant pa"a,ete" in :i a!!e#tin/ pe"!o",an#e Ans%e"' ) (0-(!0*A(I/. #"!)A)*,!0I:, 2.A!A..(,.AT,!TA(.,T #"!5L1!)A)*,!0I:,, #"!P1!)A)*,!0I:,, #"!K1!)A)*,!0I:, Question 117. What is 65A?A55RE5ATE?TAR5ET0 Ans%e"' This parameter controls the maximum amount of memory 2.A which can be used by the queries when <-(1A(,A!0I:,!2-$I)9 is set to Auto. The value you can be set in "ytes, kilobytes E1F, megabytes E%F or gigabytes E.F. The default value is J This parameter also has an effect on the execution plans of the cost based optimi8er. The optimi8er uses the value of the parameter 2.A!A..(,.AT,!TA(.,T to derive an estimate for the minimum and maximum amount of memory which should be available at run'time for each sort, hash'join and bitmap operator in the query. "ased on this minimum and maximum value, the optimi8er selects the best plan. Question 118. .o% o -ou anal-Ae ta$le pa"tition usin/ O"a#le p"o*i e pa#&a/e0 Ans%e"' #"%0!0TAT0..AT*,(!TA"$,!0TAT0 with .(A/ $A(IT9 3A 42A(TITI-/4 -2TI-/ Question 119. )ou see a %ait on L@S p"o#ess in statspa#&3 %hat oes that ,ean0 Ans%e"' A. <ait is due to #ata .uard "roker. Question 11:. Na,e th"ee a *iso"- statisti#s -ou #an #olle#t. Ans%e"' 0*A(,#!2--$!A#+I), 2.A!TA(.,T!A#+I), #"!)A)*,!A#+I), Question 12;. Explain p"o#e u"e to Chan/e C.ARACTERSET o! a ata$ase. Ans%e"' )an4t change )*A(A)T,(0,T of a database, you will need to re'create the database with appropriate )*A(A)T,(0,T. Question 121. I! -ou ha a ta$lespa#e3 TEST?TABLES6ACE3 %hi#h #onsists o! th"ee !iles' T,0TJ5.dbf, T,0TJK.dbf, and T,0TJG.dbf, and someone accidentally used the nix command YrmY to delete the file T,0TJK.dbf, what else would you need in order to recover all the data that was present in T,0T!TA"$,02A), at the time that T,0TJK.dbf was deletedX Ans%e"' All Archivelogs

Question 12(. .o% o -ou put ata$ase is ARC.IVELO5 ,o e3 explain p"o#e u"e Ans%e"' 5. %odify init.ora parameter 0TA(T!A()*I+,3T( , K. 06$A 0* T#-</ I%%,#IAT,; G. 0TA(T 2 %- /T; H. A$T,( #ATA+A0, A()*I+,$-.; M. A$T,( #ATA"A0, -2,/; Question 121. .o% o -ou #"eate 6ASSWORD DILE0 Ans%e"' using orapwd utility Question 122. .o% #an -ou tell i! an in ex on pa"ti#ula" ta$le is USED o" NOT USED in :i0 Ans%e"' "y turning %-/IT-(I/. -/ that index and querying into I/#,B! 0A., table Question 124. .o% o -ou s%it#h !"o, an init.o"a !ile to a sp!ile0 Ans%e"' 06$A )(,AT, 02&I$, &(-% 2&I$,; Question 127. Explain DORCE LO55IN5 !eatu"e in :i. Ans%e"' "y setting &-(), $-..I/. to T( ,, all transactions will generate (,#-. This is used for #ata .uard, so no data will be missed Ei.e. transactions that were run with /-$-..I/. optionF in 0tandby database Question 128. Explain the use o! settin/ 5LOBAL?NA@ES eBual to TRUE. Ans%e"' 0etting .$-"A$!/A%,0 dictates how you might connect to a database. This variable is either T( , or &A$0, and if it is set to T( , it enforces database links to have the same name as the remote database to which they are linking. Question 129. .o% o -ou set up :i Data 5ua" 0 Ans%e"' Take a full hot backup of 2rimary database )reate standby control file Transfer full backup, init.ora, standby control file to standby node. %odify init.ora file on standby node. (estore database (ecover 0tandby database EAlternatively, (%A/ command DU6LICATE DATABASE DOR STANDB) DO RECOVER) can be also usedF 0etup &A$!)$I,/T and &A$!0,(+,( parameters on both sides 2ut 0tandby database in %anaged (ecover mode

Question 12:. .o% o -ou #"eate 6h-si#al Stan $- ata$ase0 Ans%e"' Take a full hot backup of 2rimary database )reate standby control file Transfer full backup, init.ora, standby control file to standby node. %odify init.ora file on standby node. (estore database (ecover 0tandby database EAlternatively, (%A/ command DU6LICATE DATABASE DOR STANDB) DO RECOVER) can be also usedF 0etup &A$!)$I,/T and &A$!0,(+,( parameters on both sides 2ut 0tandby database in %anaged (ecover mode Question 14;. Explain LO5?ARC.IVE?DEST?( pa"a,ete" an Data/ua" "elate pa"a,ete"s. Ans%e"' log!archive!dest!K340,(+I),3-(A)$,!0I#!0T"9 optional lgwr async3KJHPJ noaffirm reopen35M max!failure35J net!timeout3GJ delay3J4 Question 141. Explain Data$ase SWITC. OVER 6ROCEDURE Ans%e"' -n 2rimaryD alter database commit to switchover to physical standby with session shutdown; shutdown; startup nomount; alter database mount standby database; recover managed standby database disconnect from session; -n 0tandbyD alter database commit to switchover to primary; shutdown; startup; Question 14(. Exaplain .o% to A#ti*ate STANDB) Data$ase Ans%e"' A$T,( #ATA"A0, (,)-+,( %A/A.,# 0TA/#"9 #ATA"A0, )A/),$; A$T,( #ATA"A0, A)TI+AT, 0TA/#"9 #ATA"A0,; 0* T#-</ I%%,#IAT,; 0TA(T 2; Question 141. What o -ou &no% a$out VCS0 Ans%e"' +)0 stands for +eritas )luster 0oftware. +)0 is used as a *igh Availability solution in case of host failure. There will be typically two nodes in a cluster and database will be running on one node. Incase of host failure, +)0 will failover database Eservice groupF to second node. Question 142. What a"e t-pi#al "esou"#es in VCS se"*i#e /"oup0

Ans%e"' In typical +)0 configuration, there are three main resources required for -racle database failover. 5. -racle #atabase K. $istener G. &ilesystems Question 144. Whi#h !ile #ontains VCS se"*i#e /"oup an "esou"#e in!o",ation0 Ans%e"' %ain.cf Question 147. What ata$ase "elate in!o",ation %e nee to set in VCS0 Ans%e"' -(A)$,!0I# $I0T,/,( name $I0T,/,( password Eif usedF -racle filesystems that will be failed over $ocation to init.ora=spfile if not available at default location Question 148. What is VCS in< epth ,onito"in/0 Ans%e"' In +)0 in'depth monitoring, a database user E+)0%-/F will be created which will login to database at certain interval Ei.e. every M minuteF to see if database connectivity is -1. &or some reason, if this user can t login +)0 will fail over the database to second node. Question 149. In ACTIVE VCS en*i"on,ent3 -ou nee to "e#-#le the ata$ase $ut oesnKt %ant ata$ase to !ailo*e" to othe" no e. <hat you must do before shutting down the database, so it doesn t failover to other nodeX Ans%e"' 9ou need to &(,,:, the service group. Alternatively, you can make -racle resource /-/')(ITI)A$ Enot recommendedF Question 14:. What i! -ou a##i entall- shut o%n the LISTENER in VCS en*i"on,ent0 Ans%e"' If $istener (esource is marked )(ITI)A$, and (estart Attempt is set to J, then 0ervice .roup will failover to second node. It is recommended for $istener resource to set (,0TA(T ATT,%2T0 value to G. Question 17;. Explain Auto,ati# Se/,ent Spa#e @ana/e,ent Ans%e"' Automatic 0egment 0pace %anagement features was introduced in Ii which simplifies management of free space usage within object for below parameterD &(,,$I0T &(,,$I0T .(- 20 2)T 0,#

Question 171. .o% o -ou REBUILD in ex online an Co,pute Statisti#s at the sa,e ti,e0 Ans%e"' A$T,( I/#,B I/#,B!/A%, REBUILD )-%2 T, 0TATI0TI)0 ONLINEL Question 17(. Explain Bit,ap Moin In exes Ans%e"' "itmap ?oin Indexes pre'stores results of a join and can avoid an expensive join operation at runtime. Question 17(. Whi#h pa"a,ete"s #an $e ,o i!ie -na,i#all- as pa"t o! :i D-na,i# @e,o"@ana/e,ent !eatu"e0 Ans%e"' "elow parameters can be modified dynamically as part of Ii #ynamic %emory %anagement feature #"!)A)*,!0I:, 0*A(,#!2--$!0I:, $A(.,!2--$!0I:, ?A+A!2--$!0I:, Question 171. What a itional statisti#s a"e /athe"e $- DB@S?STATS that %e"e not a*aila$le in ea"lie" *e"sion o" $- usin/ ANAL)E #o,,an 0 Ans%e"' In Ii #"%0!0TAT0 package now collects below statistics as wellD )2 sage 0ystem I=Question 171. Explain Di!!e"ent *alues suppo"te $- CURSOR?S.ARIN5 pa"a,ete" an its explanation Ans%e"' "elow values are supported by ) (0-(!0*A(I/. init.ora parameterD &-(), ' $iterals will be replaced by system generated bind variables where possible 0I%I$A( ' -racle determines which literals are YsafeY for substitution with bind variables. This will result in some 06$ not being shared in an attempt to provide a more efficient execution plan. ,BA)T ' -nly allows statements with identical text to share the same cursor Question 171. Na,e th"ee *e"- i,po"tant .it Ratios in ata$ase Ans%e"' "uffer )ache *it (atio #ata #ictionary *it (atio $ibrary )ache *it (atio E se +70900TATF E se +7(-<)A)*,F E se +7$I"(A(9)A)*,, +70.A0TATF Question 172. Na,e Di!!e"ent Lat#hes in ata$ase an D-na,i# 6e"!o",an#e Vie%s to /et ,o"e in!o",ation a$out Lat#hes

Ans%e"' #atabase $atchesD (edo Allocation $atch (edo )opy $atch (ow )ache $atch se +7$AT)*, +7$AT)**-$#,(, +7$AT)*/A%, to get more information about the latches Question 174. In %hi#h s#ena"ios -ou nee to set La"/e 6ool0 Ans%e"' 9ou need to set $arge 2ool if you are using belowD %T0 E%ultithreaded 0erverF (%A/ backups Question 177. Explain Tunin/ 6"o#ess that in*ol*es Appli#ation3 Data$ase3 OS3 Net%o"& Ans%e"' In such a scenario, tuning should perform in following orderD 5. "usiness (ules K. #ata #esign G. Application #esign H. $ogical 0tructure of the #atabase M. #atabase -perations L. Access 2ath O. %emory Allocation P. I=- and 2hysical 0tructure of the #atabase I. (esource Allocation 5J. -0 Question 178. Explain Di!!e"ent Tunin/ A"eas in Data$ase Ans%e"' &ollowing areas within database can be tunedD %emory ' I=- ' )2 0pace %anagement (edo > )heckpoint (ollback ' 0hared 2ool, "uffer )ache, (edo "uffer, 0ort Area 0i8e, 2.A, $arge 2ool %ultiple #atabase <riter 2rocesses, #istributing I=-, (AI# ,xtent Allocation, -racle "lock ,fficiency (edo log file configuration, checkpoints (etention, number of (ollback 0egments, -ptimal Question 179. .o% o -ou setup Au itin/ in Data$ase0 Ans%e"' If audit packages are not installed, run 7-(A)$,!*-%,=rdbms=admin=cataudit.sql script %odify initiali8ation parameter A #IT!T(AI$3#" and setup A #IT!# %2!#,0T 0elect what type of operations needs to be audited +iew Audit results from 090.A #7 table Question 17:. Can -ou Au it S-ste, Ope"ations0 I! )es3 ho%0 Ans%e"' 090 connections can be audited by setting init.ora parameter A #IT!090!-2,(ATI-/03T( ,

Question 18;. .o% #an -ou setup En#"-ption in Data$ase0 Ans%e"' #ata within #atabase can be encrypted and decrypted using packageD #"%0!-"& 0)ATI-/!T--$1IT Question 181. Na,e !i*e pa"a,ete"s #an $e use !o" 6ass%o" @ana/e,ent0 Ans%e"' &ollowing parameters can be used to manage user passwordD 5. K. G. H. M. &AI$,#!$-.I/!ATT,%2T0 2A00<-(#!.(A),!TI%, 2A00<-(#!$I&,!TI%, 2A00<-(#!(, 0,!%AB 2A00<-(#!(, 0,!TI%, Question 18(' What is i!!e"en#e $et%een Lo/i#al Stan $- Data$ase an 6h-si#al Stan $ata$ase0 Ans%e"' The primary functional difference between logical and physical standby database setups is that logical standby permits you to add additional objects Etables, indexes, etcF to the database, while physical standby is always an exact structural duplicate of the master database. The downside, though, is that logical standby is based on newer technologies Elogical standby is new in -racle I.KF and tends to be generally regarded as more temperamental than physical standby.

Te#hni#al N UNI>

,very #"A should know something about the operating system that the database will be running on. The questions here are related to /IB but you should equally be able to answer questions related to common <indows environments. Question 1. .o% o -ou list the !iles in an UNI> i"e#to"- %hile also sho%in/ hi en !iles0 Ans%e"' ls 'ltra Question (. .o% o -ou exe#ute a UNI> #o,,an in the $a#&/"oun 0 Ans%e"' se the Y>Y at the end of command Question 1. What UNI> #o,,an %ill #ont"ol the e!ault !ile pe",issions %hen !iles a"e #"eate 0 Ans%e"' mask Question 2. Explain the "ea 3 %"ite3 an exe#ute pe",issions on a UNI> i"e#to"-. Ans%e"' (ead allows you to see and list the directory contents. <rite allows you to create, edit and delete files and subdirectories in the directory. ,xecute gives you the previous read=write permissions plus allows you to change into the directory and execute programs or shells from the directory. Question 4. The i!!e"en#e $et%een a so!t lin& an a ha" lin&0 Ans%e"' A symbolic EsoftF linked file and the targeted file can be located on the same or different file system while for a hard link they must be located on the same file system. Question 7. 5i*e the #o,,an to ispla- spa#e usa/e on the UNI> !ile s-ste,. Ans%e"' df 'lk Question 8. Explain iostat3 *,stat an netstat. Ans%e"' Iostat reports on terminal, disk and tape I=- activity. V,stat reports on virtual memory statistics for processes, disk, tape and )2 activity. Netstat reports on the contents of network data structures. Question 9. .o% %oul -ou #han/e all o##u""en#es o! a *alue usin/ VI0 Ans%e"' seDVs=@oldA=@newA=g

Question :. 5i*e t%o UNI> &e"nel pa"a,ete"s that e!!e#t an O"a#le install Ans%e"' 0*%%AB > 0*%%/I Question 1;. B"ie!l-3 ho% o -ou install O"a#le so!t%a"e on UNI>. Ans%e"' "asically, set up disks, kernel parameters, create oracle user and dba group, and run runinstaller. Question 11. .o% o -ou #"eate a e#ision t"ee in a shell s#"ipt0 Ans%e"' #epending on shell, usually a case'esac or an if'endif or fi structure Question 1(. What is a pipe an /i*e an exa,ple0 Ans%e"' A pipe is two or more commands separated by pipe char 4Z4. That tells the shell to arrange for the output of the preceding command to be passed as input to the following command. ,xample D ls 'l Z pr The output for a command ls is the standard input of pr. <hen a sequence of commands are combined using pipe, then it is called pipeline. Question 11. What is the i!!e"en#e $et%een O an OO "e i"e#tion ope"ato"s0 Ans%e"' A is the output redirection operator when used it overwrites while AA operator appends into the file. Question 12. What is the i!!e"en#e $et%een p"o#ess an th"ea . Ans%e"' )reation of new process requires new resources and Address space whereas the thread can be created in the same address space of the process which not only saves space and resources but are also easy to create and delete, and many threads can exists in a process. Question 14. What is the i!!e"en#e $et%een a shell *a"ia$le that is expo"te an the one that is not expo"te 0 Ans%e"' export $A/.3) will make the variable $A/. the global variable, put it into the global environment. all other processes can use it. $A/.3) will change the value only in the current script. Question 17. .o% %ill -ou list onl- the e,pt- lines in a !ile Husin/ /"epI Ans%e"' grep Y[7Y filename.txt

Question 18. What is Se,apho"e0 Ans%e"' A data object that represents the right to use a limited resource, used for synchroni8ation and communication between asynchronous processes. Question 19. .o% o -ou exe#ute a UNI> #o,,an in the $a#&/"oun 0 Ans%e"' 9ou can use > at the end of command or use nohup command Question 1:. .o% o -ou #he#& a#ti*e sha"e ,e,o"- se/,ents0 Ans%e"' ipcs 'a Question (;. .o% o -ou #he#& 6a/in/CS%appin/ in Unix0 Ans%e"' 9ou can check 2aging=0wapping using below commands vmstat s prstat s swap l sar p Question (1. .o% o -ou #he#& nu,$e" o! C6U installe on Unix se"*e"0 Ans%e"' psrinfot v Question ((. .o% o -ou #he#& 6a/in/CS%appin/ in Unix0 Ans%e"' +mstat s 2rstat s 0wap l 0ar p

6RACTICAL ORACLE DBA QUESTIONS' A #"A interview can be difficult both for the interviewer and the candidate. The role involves technical skills, process skills, and personal communications skills. Although those three skill sets are all critical, most Y#"A interview questionsY articles in the past have focused only on the questions you can use to judge a person s technical qualifications. In this article, you will see questions an interviewer can pose to the #"A candidate to judge the other attributes of the job. In addition, this article includes a set of questions #"As should ask at some point during their interviews. If the interviewer stops and asks Y#o you have any questions for meXY don t sit there quietly. The emphasis of the #"A questions provided in this article is the organi8ation s process focus and its technical career path for #"As. All of the questions provided here are intended as starting points; based on the answers to the questions, you should ask follow'ups to understand how the answer will affect your day'to'day activities and your long'term prospects. -f course, if you ask a question to the interviewer, you should be prepared to answer the same question concerning your present work environment. Questions to as& the inte"*ie%e"' 6"o#ess #ont"ol issues' <hat processes do you follow while implementing changes in productionX "eside the #"As and system administrators, who has access to the Y-racleY operating system accountX *ow often is the oracle operating system account password changedX Are the #"As co'located with the teams they supportX *ow is capacity planning performedX Is there adequate capacity already in place to support the expected growth over the next yearX &uture opportunities=organi8ation issuesD Is there a formal job definition for the #"A roleX Is there a defined technical career pathX *ow is IT aligned with the business areasX *ow many employees report to more than one managerX *ow do you determine if a #"A has been successfulX *ow are the application #"As and production control #"As organi8edX Questions that %ill $e as&e to -ou W"itin/ s&ills' 2lease bring along a copy of the last status report you ve submitted, as well as any articles. If you haven t brought one along, please mail me one after the interview. 6e"se*e"an#e in te#hni#al expe"tise' <hat errors did you hit during your most recent database recoveryX <hat was the most difficult technical obstacle you encountered during your last projectX 6e"se*e"an#e in "elationships' <hat negative Ygroup relationshipY issues exist in your current working environmentX *ow are you addressing themX <hat is your most difficult set of users, and how do you manage that relationshipX <hat do you want to learn in the next 5K monthsX <hat communications method do you usually use when dealing with usersX )an you provide examplesX <hat communications method is most effective when customers need your helpX Te#hni#al Expe"ien#e' E se hypothetical questions rather than straight technical questionsF <hat database and overall architecture would you suggest for testing new middleware without impacting productionX *ow do you assess my database s healthX *ow would you approach a performance problem with a three'tier applicationX *ow do you test your backup=recovery proceduresX *ow would you support the upgrade process for multiple applications, with different application rollout cycles, in the same instanceX

These are samples; use a question from each category to guide a discussion of the way the communications skills, process knowledge, and technical aspects of the job are interrelated in the role. If the interviewer and the candidate can agree on what a successful #"A looks like in the environment, there is a strong foundation for a future working relationship.

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