UNIT 3 AUDIENCES AND INSTITUTIONS SECTION B – MEDIA OWNERSHIP

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES AND EXAM INFORMATION

Audience and Institutions – Section B- Media Ownership
THIS UNIT IS A CASE STUDY UNIT – THIS MEANS THAT THE MAIN ESSAY ANSWER WILL BE BASED ON TWO MEDIA ORGANISATIONS WHICH WE WILL STUDY IN DEPTH THE UNIT ITSELF IS SPLIT INTO TWO PARTS –SECTION A AND SECTION B WE ARE ONLY DOING SECTION B – MEDIA OWNERSHIP. YOU SHOULD TURN STRAIGHT TO SECTION B IN THE EXAM. SKIP SECTION A – NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES

• •

The exam is is one hour long and will be completed after the Media Studies Textual Analysis exam. The section that you are doing is in two parts – Questions 1 and 2 are a comprehension (45 Marks). This will test your knowledge of the key concepts concerning Media Ownership that we are going to learn. Questions 3 and 4 are on your Case studies (45 Marks). You chose to answer either question 3 or 4 The focus for Questions 3 and 4 are:

• • •

1. Media Ownership Patterns and how these maximise an profit 2. The Effects of Media Ownership on Audience and audience consumption You are required to carryout and learn the case studies given. You must include detail about the case studies in your answer.

AO2 “Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of media institutions, production processes, technologies and audiences and apply this knowledge to issues concerning consumption and reception.”

• • • • •

What we are going to do is look at how Media Ownership – who owns the media - has an effect on: Production Practices Media Audiences Media Institutions Media Technologies in short - this means that we are going to look at how media ownership, and the changes to it, in relation to new technology and production affect the audience – in terms of what kind of media texts they receive and how.
Link to pg1

TASK 1 THINK OF ALL THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDIENCES YOU CAN IN RELATION TO DEMORGAPHICS – AGE, GENDER, ETHNICITY, CLASS. THINK OF CERTAIN GENRES – E.G. KID’S TV, SOAP OPERA, SITCOMS AND THE TYPE OF AUDIENCES THEY MIGHT ATTRACT.

Media Institutions can be divided into three types: 1. Commercial 2. Public Service 3. Independent Commercial institutions have to make money to survive so they cannot afford to produce texts which will attract small audiences as advertisers where a lot of their money comes from will want access to large and stable audiences. Many commercial institutions are media conglomerates – a conglomerate is a collection of companies owned by a single organisation. (News Corporation) Global commercial conglomerates are often referred to as the Major media organisations. Link to pg 2.

A Public Service Institution is a different type of organisation – a Public Service Broadcaster is required to provide a public service and not driven by commercial influences. PSB companies must provide a range of programme for different social groups including minority and niche audiences. (BBC) Independent Institutions– these are hardest to categorise but in general independents (or ‘indies’) are essentially commercial as they need to sell sufficient copies/music/programme to survive. Independents stand alone and are not owned by global commercial conglomerates.

TASK 2 MAKE A LIST OF ALL THE MEDIA INSTITUTIONS – OR COMPANIES- THAT YOU CAN THINK OF AND WRITE NEXT TO THEM WHAT THEY DO

.

KEY CONCEPT! CROSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP Although the two main media organisations originated within the broadcasting sector, they have to expand into other areas of the media to make maximum profit and to reach a wider audience. When a media organisation expands on a global level to own media in more than one or many other media sectors it is known as CROSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP.

TASK 3 • Using the media sectors given, start to investigate both conglomerates. In your booklets, write down what sectors of media they own/operate within, the company, product or evidence from this sector and who you think the main target audience is and where they are if possible.

Week2

INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA SECTORS
• BROADCASTING – TV (ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL) • FILM • MUSIC • PRINT – MAGAZINES, BOOKS • PRESS – NEWSPAPERS • INTERNET/WEB • RADIO • MERCHANDISING

OLD AND NEW MEDIA OLD MEDIA – MEDIA THAT IS STATIC – VERY OFTEN CONTENT BASED AND INTERACTION IS ONE WAY COMMUNICATION – TV PROGRAMMES, RADIO SHOWS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS – OLD MEDIA IS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS ANALOGUE – SWITCH OFF DATE 2010. NEW MEDIA – MEDIA THAT ALLOWS PROVIDES THE CONSUMER WITH A SERVICE OF SOME KIND – NEW MEDIA IS INTERACTIVE INTERACTION CAN BE BOTH ONE AND TWO WAY COMMUNICATION – DIGITAL TV, INTERNET, MOBILE PHONES. ALL NEW MEDIA IS DIGITAL – DSB, DTB.

TASK 4 In your booklets list all the media that you use on a daily basis, the services it provides you with and the technologies that you think have come together to provide you with the service.

KEY CONCEPT! CONVERGENCE
The coming together of technologies provides a wider range of media services. Changes in communication technology in the past 10 years have taken many people by surprise. 10 years ago people had a cordless phone at home and a computer at work. Nowadays mobiles are everywhere and computers and laptops are at both home and work.

Convergence means that media technologies are coming together and that smaller institutions offering new media are becoming part of the larger institutions It is the coming together of different communication devices and processes. Hardware is now multi-functional, TV is digital and interactive ( bank, shop, watch TV, send/receive emails) mobile does same.

The convergence of technology brings the opportunity for media institutions to provide consumers (audience) with a range of media services and products. In terms of Media Ownership CONVERGENCE is a key concept because the convergence of new technology and the capabilities it has to provide services is the reason that diversification of companies and changes in ownership patterns - towards full cross media ownership - will take place as the main goal of institutions is to make profit. Convergence has therefore led to changes in ownership, with conglomerate institutions realising more profit can be made by becoming involved in all aspects of bringing an allinclusive product to the consumer.

• KEY CONCEPT - DIVERSIFICATION • If old media companies in one industry or sector join /take over media companies in other sectors they will have the ability to offer their products in an interactive way, market and merchandise their products via a range of different and accessible media and reach a wider audience. • This is called DIVERSIFICATION into other industries and it is essential that we link this to the reasons why the changing ownership patterns of conglomerates find it important to become cross media institutions – more control of marketing reach = more profit.

TASK 5 • List the ways in which our two case study organisations have diversified, taking advantage of convergence, combining their old media content with new media services for the consumer.

• PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PRODUCTION PROCESS
• Primary products need to be constructed with high production values if they are to be successful. Both the BBC and News Corporation endeavour to produce strong primary products with a good cast and narrative, special effects as this ensures maximum profit from secondary distribution and secondary production. Mainstream primary products are inevitably the most successful as they have the largest target audience.

An example of a successful primary product produced by the BBC is mainstream television show Dr Who.

An example of a successful primary product produced by the BBC is mainstream film : The Simpsons Movie.

TASK 6 Make a list of 5 secondary products, including their prices, for- Dr Who & The Simpsons Movie

Week 3 We are now going to progress to looking at how and why Media Institutions diversify into other areas in order to achieve full control of the production process and why Becoming a cross-media institution is crucial to maximising profit and gaining ever increasing access and reach to global audiences.

Media institutions that dominate production and distribution to achieve control of the Production Process do so through vertical and horizontal integration.

KEY CONCEPT: VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION VERTICAL INTEGRATION means that a media institution has ownership of every stage of the production process (production + distribution + exhibition), thereby ensuring complete control of a media text. A media product can therefore be sold, publicised and marketed to an audience through many different media forms, and maximum audience reach (blanket coverage) is possible if a company has ownership of the following media as part of their vertical integration:
• • • • • • films videos/dvd soundtracks television stations radio stations, newspapers, magazines the internet

HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION means that an institution acquires competitors/ companies in the same section of the media industry – for a global conglomerate this means horizontal integration on a worldwide scale.

TASK 7 Select a film produced by Twentieth Century Fox for exhibition in the UK www.foxmovies.com Research the many different ways it is brought to the attention of an audience through the use of other media companies associated with Fox and News Corporation.

KEY CONCEPT: MEDIA SYNERGY MEDIA SYNERGY refers to when a media institution in one industry establishes a relationship with an institution in another industry for mutual benefit (profit and reach) – this may or may not be in the same organisation, with global conglomerates such as News Corporation in an advantageous position owing to the extent of their cross media ownership. Media products are released or sold in unison to make profit, such as the release of the film alongside merchandise and a CD soundtrack or internet downloads of the film trailers or music.

TASK 8 • Find a television programme on the BBC – one produced in-house or commissioned – and list the channel it is shown on first, the channels/places it is secondary distributed to and all the ways it is marketed to its target audience. • For News Corporation’s The Simpsons movie find the name of the company(s) who produces the merchandise and state whether this is an example of synergy within the cross media ownership of the inistitution or a mutually beneficial link with another media institution.

KEY CONCEPT: GLOBALISATION People from all over the world can communicate with one another simultaneously. This is part of the process of globalisation – the idea that the world has shrunk, notably as a result of new technology and the media. As technology has continued to grow in the 21st Century institutions continue to converge and we are moving towards an environment in which all our media - from television to the telephone – will be accessed by a single device, creating new forms of interaction across and among media – look at what your mobile phone can already do!

We can now watch television from many different countries, read newspapers overseas by accessing them online and we can literally view events as they happen from the other side of the world. With increased access to global media and increase demand for consumer choice, it is the largest media conglomerates that are supplying more of the content audiences consume – all commercial institutions have a profit motive for the media texts that they produce, and part of globalisation is the idea that the main media conglomerates are expanding their cross media ownership all over the world to extend their horizontal and Vertical integration in order to reach a global audience to maximise their profit.

Paddy Scannall (1995) divides the development of public service broadcasting into 3 phases: • National service – establishment of BBC in 1927 – 1954. In 1923 Sykes Committee – broadcasting ‘was of great national importance as a medium for the performance of a valuable public service and the potential of such power over public opinion ought to remain with the state’. Moved from just radio to television in 1935. BBC had monopoly over broadcasting. • Competition – began in 1954 when government passed the Television Act, introducing first commercial channel – ITV and funding came from advertising. This was regulated by ITA independent television authority. Duopoly was achieved. ITV was said to operate to lower moral standards and was regulated by ITA under PSB guidelines. • Cultural pluralism and Commercialism – from 1977 onwards broadcasting entered era of pluralism – meaning wider range of choice – Channel 4 began in 1982 to widen programming – was public sector but funded by advertising revenue. Entrance of C5. Over the last 20 years broadcasting has changed to a multi-channel environment.

Ofcom have tried to secure PSB ethos as an ‘institutional framework’ across all channels in UK. They describe the purpose of PSB: • provide programming with a wide range of subject matters • television services that meet the needs of as many different audiences as possible • balance of programming • services which maintain high standards of programme making 4 key components are – - range and balance – different genres and availability - quality – decency and challenging content - diversity – of audiences, opinions - social values – informed democracy, education.

TASK 9 2) Show how we can link the increased global cross media ownership of the BBC and its desire to become a vertically integrated company to the theory of globalization using examples of the distribution companies it owns outside the UK. 2) Show how we can link the global cross media ownership of News Corporation as a vertically integrated company to the theory of globalization using examples of the distribution companies it owns outside the US and the UK.

For high marks an expert knowledge of your Case study is required Extra knowledge is easy to find by logging on to the following sites which give you the very latest update in BBC information Main BBC site www.bbc.co.uk www.bbcshop.com Guardian/Observer sites www.guardian.co.uk www.mediaguardian.co.uk Other sites you will use for this unit www.bbcworldwide.com www.bbcamerica.com

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful