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FullWN07Report

FullWN07Report

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Published by David Connolly
the final report for Water Newton rally 2007

This report details the methodology, ammendments to future methods, coin reports, distribution patterns and potential future work. It would not have been possible without the help of many individuals (named in the report) and also contains a reference list.
the final report for Water Newton rally 2007

This report details the methodology, ammendments to future methods, coin reports, distribution patterns and potential future work. It would not have been possible without the help of many individuals (named in the report) and also contains a reference list.

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Published by: David Connolly on Feb 14, 2008
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The Durobrivae Project

Working together

Water Newton Rally
August 2007

Heritage Consultant Traprain House Luggate Burn Whittingehame East Lothian EH41 4QA T : 01620 861643 E : info@bajr.org

Report sponsored by Multi Media Arts Ltd 4th Floor Mauldeth House Nell Lane Chorlton Manchester M21 7RL

1.0 2.0 3.0

Introduction Aims and objectives Methodology
Archiving Artefacts: Deposition and Conservation

4 5 6
7 7

4.0

Historical Background
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Introduction. Pre-Roman. Roman. Post-Roman.

9
9 9 10 12

5.0

Results
5.1

14
Fields Examined Artefacts (Figures 5 – 12) 5.2.1 Prehistoric (Figure 5) 5.2.2 Iron Age (Figure 6) 5.2.3 Roman (Figure 7) 5.2.4 Saxon (Figure 8) 5.2.5 Medieval (Figure 9) 5.2.6 Post-medieval (Figure 10) 5.2.7 Brooches and Crotal Bells (Figure 11 & 12) 14

5.2

14
16 16 16 18 18 19 20

5.3

Coins (Figures 13 – 19)
5.3.1 The Material 5.3.2. Breakdown by Reece Periods 5.3.3. Bar Charts 5.3.4 Initial Comments

29
29 29 30 32

Additional studies of Coin Assemblage
ANALYSIS THE IRON AGE COINS THE ROMAN COINS THE EARLY MEDIAEVAL COINS THE MEDIAEVAL & POST-MEDIAEVAL COINS CONCLUSION

40
41 41 41 43 43 43

6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0

General Reporting Statistics Artefact Conditions Reported issues and solutions Conclusions and suggestions for Further Work
1. Limit and dating of settlement pattern. 2. External Rural Landscape Use 3. Recovered artefact damage

44 44 45 49
49 49 50

10.0 Thanks and acknowledgements 11.0 Bibliography
11.1 11.2 Further Reading ADS and SMR Records. Coin and Artefact Lists

50 51
52 53 54

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Figure 1: Location of Survey Area and density of noted detecting
Durobrivae

1
Survey Area

2
296000 296000

camp
1 1 1 1 10074 09082 0074 0074 10074 0074 0074

3 5

4 6 10

00739 00739 00739 00739

7 8 9 11
295000

Intensive Detecting Moderate Detecting Slight Active Detecting

295000

7 = Field number

\
511000 512000 513000

12 14 13

15

1.0

Introduction
this was an outreach exercise and with live coverage on BBC One Show, this was seen as a groundbreaking exercise in cooperative work. The site itself (Figure 1) lies in land to the west of the A1 within the County of Cambridgeshire however Peterborough Council Archaeology Service have also been involved due to the proximity and historical connection with the main town site and environs. Section 7 will deal with the highlighted issues that were raised prior to, during and after the rally. In some respects this event started without understanding the issues, and in part, the involvement of CHC was to ensure that where possible, best practice in the recovery, recording and reporting of recovered artefacts and coins was of use to the wider archaeological community and the local community. It was agreed that a full report would be produced. The extensive crop marked area to the northeast of the proposed detecting area had been excluded from the detecting event on the advice of CHC, after receiving details from both Cambridgeshire and Peterborough HERs. This was in advance of the suggestions by English Heritage that the area would be scheduled immediately.

A

metal detecting event was proposed for farm land west and southwest of the Roman town of Durobrivae to take place as a weekend rally over the period 17th – 19th August 2007 with an estimated 250 detectorists attending.

Archaeological advice was sought from Connolly Heritage Consultancy (CHC) to ensure that both the information gathered was archaeologically valid and that the event was organised in such a way as to assure all interested parties that no damage will take place to known or unknown subsurface archaeological deposits. The introduction of an archaeologically valid recording exercise to run in conjunction with this event was suggested by CHC as a responsible act, given the concerns of local groups, and the rally organiser agreed to this as both a cooperative venture and to ensure that concerns were met. Drafts of suggested methodologies were created and provided over a period from April to August 2007 for peer review, suggestions and comment, changes were made where appropriate. Although no statutory requirement for monitoring from external bodies was necessary, the need for openness and transparency, as well as my duty to adhere to the Institute of Field Archaeologists’ Code of Conduct (of which I am a full Member) allowed invited access to the rally to named individuals from all concerned parties and provision for a follow-up meeting post rally to take place on the 13th November. This exercise of recording was carried out within accepted archaeological standards This was a public event and not a commercial venture for the archaeologists and volunteers involved. All archaeologists, finds liaison officers (FLO) and volunteers were present at the request of the rally organiser. It should be stressed that

Below: Metal Detectorists begin detecting in one of the fields at Chesterton.

4

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

2.0

Aims and objectives

The three main research aims are as follows: 1. Limit of Settlement pattern and 3. Recovered Artefact damage dating of expansions It is clear that many assemblages The northeast area of the proposed within the disturbed plough soil are detecting area contains extensive crop deteriorating whether through plough marks, and as such is excluded from damage or chemical corrosion, leading the detecting area however no clear to the loss of valuable data. The picture of the full extent of the extra collection of a sizable sample dataset mural settlement has been established would allow a snapshot of damage. empirically. The plotting of finds, with Given the organic status of the farmland, the potential of close dating evidence this could be re-examined in 10 years will allow the limit to be established as time to view whether artefacts are well as provide evidence for dates of deteriorating in spite of or because of occupation and may show post roman chemical fertilisers. The condition and activity. completeness of each find was recorded and can be examined in the relevant Tied with documents such as Kemp, Artefact List appendices. S.N. 1995. Peterborough South Trunk Main: Archaeology at Haddon Lodge. Objectives: Cambridgeshire County Council Archaeological Field Unit Report The objectives of (a) recording the (Unpublished) these find plots could findspot, (b) identifying, (c) dating, provide valuable data for the evolution and (d) assessing the integrity of any of, limits and post-Roman activity for finds, and (e) reporting on these will be the extra mural settlement. The results sufficient to meet the aims above. would inform English Heritage on suitable limits for future scheduling, ensuring the buffer zone includes the entire extra mural settlement. 2. External Rural Landscape Use Plotting of finds would allow patterns and dating of areas in the larger part of the detecting area where little or no evidence for subsurface archaeology is present. It is clear from surrounding areas that this would have been an area of intense activity, however due to later land use this has been obscured. Filling in a vital gap on the map, the plotting of finds would allow zones of activity to be identified, including routes and pathways, as well as identifying artefact clusters, representing dateable activity – these can be highlighted as areas of archaeological potential. 5

Aerial: View of Fields around Chesterton. Left: Roman trumpet brooch.

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

3.0

Methodology
The ethos of preservation in situ was fundamental to this project, and there was no intention to excavate, evaluate, or otherwise disturb in situ archaeological deposits. All detecting was to be carried out in disturbed ploughsoil layers. Above: Although there were a significant Pin Flags. number of known grave/coffin sites in the area the potential for further disturbances was mitigated against by the Below: presence of archaeological personnel in Ziplock bags. the fields at all times. Archaeological volunteers were used for Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) location and finds photography/recording was carried out by FLOs and local finds specialists, professional archaeologists were on site to ensure no sub-ploughsoil deposits are touched and were on hand to assist in the event of there being a major find such as a hoard, to provide full archaeological evaluation.

A

n initial setup of 1 day was required to prepare for survey, to ensure all equipment, computers and resources are in place, with the morning of the first day spent on induction, explanation of the project and the methodology to all participants. Prior to the meeting, all participants were informed that reporting would be required and finds were to be located. The rally organiser agreed to provide the numbered bags, pinflags and marker pens for all detectorists. The BBC broadcast this event as a live link television programme hosted by archaeologist and presenter Neil Oliver. This was deemed to project a balanced and even message about the responsibility placed upon those that detect, explaining the reasons behind reporting finds and an explanation on why scheduled sites are protected (something perhaps apparent to us but not to the general public). No damage to permanent pasture was to take place.

(NOTE)Pre-numbered zip lock bags and 2500 pin flags were provided by the Rally Organiser, Norman Smith

1. Prior to detecting, each individual was given 20-30 bags and 10 pin flags. 2. In the field, recovered artefacts are placed in a bag and the number written on a flag which is placed in the ground. - the detectorist can then move on. 3. Using at least 6 handheld GPS units (accuracy of +/- 3m) the location and number of each pin flag is recorded (these numbers are ‘recycled’). In the event of large scatters of ceramic material being noted these will be recorded in situ by the teams (though given the ground cover this was not expected to be high). 4. Permanently manned tables will process artefacts and coins using the record sheets (see appendix 1) and photographed on scaled graph paper. Large bags will be available for detectorists to write their name on, place their collected finds in and leave for processing to be collected later. This will remove queues and waiting times as well as ensuring staff are fully occupied throughout the day. 5. Records of participant movement on the land will be made to ensure coverage is non-biased. 6. Depending on the nature of the artefact, it can be returned to the owner, or donated to the relevant museum service. 7. Treasure finds will be dealt with as per English Treasure Trove Laws. 8. Any unexpected archaeological deposits will have immediate archaeological presence; however preservation in situ is the only option – with artefacts recovered only from the plough soil horizons. In this unlikely event the Council Archaeology Service will be informed to allow appropriate action to be taken. 9. At the end of Friday and Monday a presentation and live TV link will inform the state of play, however, filming will take place throughout the event.

6

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

A draft report was prepared within three months of the completion of fieldwork. The report contained a site narrative, illustrations and artefact summary and location, a list of photographs with accompanying CD of images, 2 copies of the report in hard copy for Cambridgeshire and Peterborough HER. A PDF of the report and database will also be included. Funding has been kindly secured from MMA television production company to ensure the report and postsurvey data analysis can be carried out – this is to cover the bare costs and expenses of volunteers only, and no commercial profit has been included. Comments on the report submited in November 2007 were encouraged by all parties, and all corrections and suggestions would be included. No such comments have been received, suggesting the draft report was acceptable.

Archiving As this is not an archaeological survey, rather archaeological advice given to members of the public to ensure adequate archaeological data is gathered there is no provision for archiving of records other than the above report and data.

Artefacts: Deposition and Conservation The finds will be fully processed on site under supervision, however further examination will take place post-event. The following publications will be made known to all participants: First Aid for Finds by D. Watkinson and V. Neal, Rescue and United Kingdom Institute for Conservation Archaeology Section, 3rd Edition 1997. Guide to Conservation for Metal Detectorists by Richard Hobbs, Celia Honeycombe & Sarah Watkins, Tempus Publishing Ltd 2002. Beginner’s Guide to Metal Detecting by Julian Evan-Hart & Dave Stuckey, Greenlight Publishing 2004. £9.95 Onsite advice will be provided for specific finds. In the unlikely event of a signidficant Treasure Trove find, this will be placed under the control of the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS). As with all artefacts aquired outwith archaeological projects the requirement for conservation and deposition lies with the finder and CHC takes no responsibility beyond the recording of details (including the finder address) of artefacts and coins. Artefacts may be offered to Peterborough Museum at the finders discretion, which has been actively encouraged.

7

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

Figure 2: 1854 OS map showing area of detecting

8

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

4.0

Historical Background

4.1

Introduction. barrow at Ford Green was excavated by Artis 1820-8 (Artis 1828: 31) and in the 1960s a Bronze Age cinerary urn was found (1966 Bulletin of the Northants Federation of Archaeological Societies 1: 5). A possible Iron Age square barrow was excavated by Artis in 1828, and was found to contain a Hallstatt brooch, fibulae and a 7th-century BC bracelet, the barrow’s precise location is unknown due to disturbance caused by the nearby railway line, it lies just under 1km ENE of Water Newton. Rivet and Smith (1979: 348) note that neither aerial photographs nor small finds indicate any significant Iron Age settlement. Similarly, they remark that there is no context for a pre-Roman bridge. The area was in the territory of the Corieltauvi (formerly referred to as the Coritani).
Type Levallois findspot Rectangular crop-mark ‘U’ ring ditch ‘U’ ring ditch LBA barrow BA urn findspot poss. IA square barrow Grid ref. TL1197 TL100957 TL121973 TL117964 TL1197 TL121976 TL11739765 ADS Record no. NMR_NATINV-364381 NMR_NATINV-364433 NMR_NATINV-364471 NMR_NATINV-364472 EHNMR-642239 NMR_NATINV-364292 NMR_NATINV-364354 Table 1. Prehistoric archaeology.

The site of the Roman town of Durobrivae is partly within the parish (Huntingdonshire DCC) and lies to the northwest of Peterborough on the river Nene. The geologist and archaeologist Edmund Tyrell Artis (1789-1847) was active in this area and accidentally discovered a Roman tessellated pavement on Earl Fitzwilliam’s estates at Castor leading him to conduct a series of excavations between 1821 and 1827 which are known to have been very methodical for the time. From 1844 until his death in 1847 Artis dug mainly on the Duke of Bedford’s Sibson lands, inspired by the finds made during the laying of the Northampton to Peterborough railway. A series of plates to illustrate his discoveries was published in 1828, The Durobrivae of Antoninus but the accompanying text never reached press due to his death, and more disappointingly his notebooks do not survive (Tomlinson 2004). 4.2 Pre-Roman.

The earliest find from the area would be the Levallois core and handaxe found at Water Newton (Roe 1968: 133; Wessex Archaeology 1996: 66). A crop-mark rectangular enclosure of unknown date is known around 0.9km S of Water Newton. Other features of uncertain date known from aerial photographs are ‘U’ ring ditches which could be prehistoric or Roman which lie 1.25km E and 1.25km SE of Water Newton. A range of prehistoric features were uncovered during the evaluation phase of Minerva Business Park A, Alwalton, a multi-period site. Later prehistoric finds are known from around Castor. The Late Bronze Age

9

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

4.3

Roman.
Type Levallois findspot Grid ref. TL1197 ADS Record no. NMR_NATINV-364381 Table2. Roman military remains. Site name (Durobrivae, Chesterton) Durobrivae 1 Kate’s Cabin 3,4 Billing Brook 2 extra-mural settlement hoard findspot geophys. Durobrivae Durobrivae Grid ref. TL1296 TL1297 TL1296 TL1197 TL1197 TL123968 TL12249705 TL1296 ADS Record no. Investigation EHNMR-642304 1820-7 EHNMR-642292 EHNMR-642288 EHNMR-642848 EHNMR-642847 1956 1957 1957 1958-60 1975 geophys. 1978 E H N M R - 1993 f.w. 1314413 Table3. Durobrivae investigations.

D

urobrivae (taken to mean ’bridge(s)-fort’ ) was a fortified Roman garrison town located at Water Newton, Cambridgeshire, where Ermine Street crossed the River Nene. It is not to be confused with the Roman town of the same name at Rochester, Kent. The settlement was first established around 43AD and is first mentioned in the late second century Antonine Itinerary. It was later replaced by Peterborough as the local urban centre (Wikipedia Foundation). A cropmark 1km E of Water Newton represents a Roman fort, probably auxiliary, which seems to have been established in 47AD and probably abandoned around 55AD.

D

urobrivae started life as a settlement serving a fort, but went on to become a regional capital of some importance, the town walls were built in the second century. The town was intensively occupied and was frequently rebuilt. Artis seemed to have located 22 buildings inside the walls but little is known of these. The industrial site at Normangate Field adjoined the town and seems to have been the centre of a major pottery industry. The Water Newton hoard is seen as an indication of the wealth of the town (Huntingdonshire DCC).

V

Excavation in 1956 uncovered the town defences and the following year at Billing Brook 2 a well, burial and oven were found. Geophysical survey at the findspot of the Water Newton hoard showed the foundations of two heavily robbed buildings, a metal detector scan found various small ferrous objects. The areas around the scheduled Roman settlement were subject to fieldwalking survey in 1993 to assess the level of plough damage, over 15,000 potsherds were recovered (Kemp 1993).

illas are known in the area. Between 1820-8 Artis excavated a villa in Sutton Field 2km S of Water Newton. In 1826-7 he excavated two villa sites, just E of Water Newton and on almost the same latitude, either side of the Great North Road. Excavation in 1956 revealed another villa not far from these, lying around 1km E of Water Newton. Excavations in 1957 at Kate’s Cabin Farm sites 3 and 4 revealed a villa and some industrial remains. The 2000 evaluation carried out at Mill Reach recorded a boundary ditch, occupation site, fence, pit and posthole, all of Roman date, within 50m of one of the villas partially excavated by Artis in the 1820s (see MacAuley 2000). Geophysical survey carried out in 1997 as part of the Peterborough to Lutton Pipeline project revealed another villa at Sibson Hollow.
Location Sutton Field Water Newton Mill Reach Water Newton Water Newton Kate’s Cabin 3,4 Sibson Hollow Grid ref. TL1096 TL11149733 TL1112297371 TL11089680 TL 116971 TL1296 TL1097

Table4. Villas.
Investigation 1820-8 1826-7 2000-eval. 1826 1956 1957 1997-geophys.

ADS Record no. EHNMR-642844 EHNMR-642845 EHNMR-1358399 EHNMR-642846 NMRMIC-19 EHNMR-642288 EHNMR-1115311

10

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

E

xcavation in 1970 2.5km E of Elton revealed stone building remains of C3-4AD on the left bank of the Billing Brook. In 1973, excavation near Kate’s Cabin beside the A1, 1.5km S of Durobrivae uncovered building remains, a cobbled area and pottery. Similarly, a watching brief in 19756 at the A605 Flyover at Alwalton noted structural remains associated with Roman pottery despite difficult conditions involving waterlogging and heavy machine damage.

A

A

E

1999; McDonald and Vaughan 1999; McDonald and Last 1999; Murray 1999; Reynolds et al 2000). Fieldwalking in 2001-2 returned a mixed, mainly ceramic, assemblage and indicated a possible (presumably Roman) industrial area near Alwalton (Hillier 2002). Surface finds made in 2002 at Alwalton suggested a kiln which was being newly disturbed by ploughing, fieldwalking by Peterborough Regional College students proved this to be the case, other sherd concentrations N of this site suggested there had been rchaeological monitoring of the further activity along nearby Ermine Peterborough South Trunk Main at Street (Middleton 2002). Haddon Lodge showed no archaeological features although a Romano-British xcavation of land to the E of Mill farmstead partially excavated by Lane, Water Newton, revealed the Fenland Archaeological Trust in Roman and Saxo-Norman features, the 1989 was disturbed by an access road main feature being a Roman quarry prior to archaeological involvement. (O’Brian 2002, 2003; Crank et al Also in 1995 geophysical survey at 2002). Chesterton Reservoir failed to show Table5. any archaeological anomalies against Other Roman remains a background of high magnetic noise. Location Grid ref. ADS Record no. Investigation A watching brief on maintenance TL12859462 extant monualong the A1 encountered a small Hill Farm ment area of the late Romano-British TL121941 1970 cemetery known to exist outside Elton 1973 the SW gate of Durobrivae. Parallel Kate’s Cabin TL13049565 ditches from early Roman agriculture A605 Flyover TL13129548 1975-6 w.b. were also found as well as headlands A1 cemetery, and ridge and furrow suggesting the Chesterton TL1220996576 EHNMR-1301435 site returned to agricultural use in NMR_NAT1998 w.b. the medieval or post-medieval (Casa INV-1301921 Hatton and Wall 1999, 2006; Wall Minerva A TL1396 EHNMR-1194585 1998). EHNMR1998 eval. 1318880 n important extant feature is the Roman barrow 380m N 1999 of Hill Farm, which is possibly a Minerva B TL1396 EHNMR-1301968 very rare Roman barrow, believed EHNMR1999 eval. to have escaped the depredations of 1323513 antiquarian digging, or possibly a 1999 signal station which may have seen Alwalton/ TL1314495534 2001/2 f.w. medieval re-use. Chesterton valuations and excavations Alwalton TL12809613 2002 f.w. at Minerva Business Park, TL1095797214 2002 Alwalton, revealed an Anglo-Saxon Mill Lane

E

cemetery and multi-period features from the prehistoric to medieval periods (Reynolds 1999; Roberts 11 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

4.4

Post-Roman. Location Haddon Lodge Chesterton Reservoir Oundle Road, Alwalton Peterborough-Lutton Wing-Peterborough St Michael’s, Chesterton Grid ref. TL1341794370 TL12759460 TL1345295848 TL1114593110 TL1053096911 TL1268395448 Investigation 1995 1995 geophys. 1996 1997 field surv. 1997 eval. 2002 eval.

n 1997, Network Archaeology undertook a programme of fieldwalking, field reconnaissance and geophysics along the line of the Peterborough to Lutton pipeline discovering three substantial and previously-unknown sites and sixteen areas of archaeological potential (unpublished report number 106). The geophysical element of this survey, carried out by Geophysical Surveys of Bradford noted (unpublished report 1997) that ridge and furrow and ferrous signals dominated the survey area. Evaluation (six sites), excavation (two of former taken to full excavation), and topographic surveying of earthworks followed the fieldsurvey, most sites seem to have been medieval in date (Taylor and Angus 1998). In the same year Cambridgeshire County Council carried out an evaluation on the route of a water main between Duddington and Chesterton, selecting nine high potential sites. No dating material or detecting finds were recovered, they are reported in Wall (1999), some were interpreted as Middle Saxon iron smelting sites.

I

A

dditional information that came to light during the event were the possible mislocation of HER site 01603

Table 5. Other investigations.

“Possible moat: subrectangular enclosure bounded by shallow ditch up to 10ft, 3ft deep - slight elevation of c 0,2m seen from adjacent field. Farmer knows of nothing of interest being ploughed up.”

In the field directly to the southeast, an area that may be worth further examination is located, covered in trees with a slight ditch surrounding a subrectangular space.

A T

No references could be found for the location of Chesterton House (Fig. 2), which seems to lie to the northeast of n evaluation carried out in 2002 at the present church. St Michael’s Church, Chesterton, showed ditches and gullies of probable A column base from a substantial medieval/post-medieval date suggesting roman building within the churchyard Below: Pillar base, with possible the landscape has changed little since at Chesterton. crossshaft socket. this period (Grant 2002). he dedication of the medieval church to St Remigius is unusual (Huntingdonshire DCC). The 18th century watermill and lockkeeper’s cottage at Water Newton are now converted into private residences (Huntingdonshire DCC). Archaeological monitoring at Oundle Road, Alwalton, in 1996, revealed no archaeology prior to 1802 when the almshouse was built, a small building a C19 well and the footings of the almshouses were discovered.

12

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

Figure 3: 1776 map of Chesterton, with drawing of Chesterton Hall in 1798 prior to its demolition in the early 1800s. The House lies to the north east of the Church. images from http://www.chesterton.moonfruit.com/

13

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

5.0
5.1

Results
Fields Examined Field Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Detecting Intensity High High Moderate High Moderate High High High Moderate Low High Moderate Low Low Low Total Area of high/ moderate detecting Area (approx) 80000 square meters 69000 square meters 42000 square meters 82000 square meters 79000 square meters 53400 square meters 56000 square meters 19000 square meters 26000 square meters 125000 square meters 67000 square meters

A

lthough their was some initial confusion as to the precise location of the rally, which will be dealt with in section 7, the location of fields examined and the density of survey is shown on Figure 1. With 7 fields being examined in detail. Examination of the first edition Ordnance Survey (OS) map of the area (c1850s) (Fig. 2) shows that for at least the past 150 years, the areas examined were agricultural field systems of post-medieval date.

698400 square meters

5.2

Artefacts (Figures 5 – 12)

A

n astonishing array and number of artefacts were recovered and reported during the event. The range was from prehistoric to present day. The entire dataset including photographs are available for further study in the attached CD-R. Finds were recorded in the field and the identification was supplied by the Portable Antiquities Scheme to whom I am very grateful.

Above: Detecting field 5.

Above: Detecting field 11

14

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

All GPS located Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

09 0 09 0 09 090 9 090 9 090 92 92 92 2

\

main areas of detecting survey

09 09 09 091 91 16 168 16 8 68 8 8

GPS located Find

0

1

2
Km

15

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

5.2.1 Prehistoric (Figure 5)

Few finds from this period were recovered, but a number of flints were reported, a fragment of Langdale Axe [3037] was of great value, given the distance from the source. A further badly damaged greenstone axehead was recovered (right). This shows there was definite Neolithic activity in this area. A fragment of a Bronze Age socketed axe [513] and a leaf-shaped arrowhead [3055] (below) show continuation of occupation.

5.2.2

Iron Age (Figure 6)

A single rimsherd of coarse pottery was the only find (excluding the first-century BC staters) that relates to Iron Age occupation is this area, and as this is a late sherd it could be early Roman. 5.2.3 Roman (Figure 7)

A large number of Roman artefacts were found, and the range is to be expected in an area that has seen occupation and expansion from 43AD to the final withdrawal in 410. Exceptional locational data points to a larger expansion in the area of the present Chesterton village in the 4th century, around what must have been a site of some wealth. The recovery of a single fragment of wall flue in field 7 points to a high status building. The same density of finds is not recorded around fields 1 and 2, which seem to have a lower density of artefacts, except for two unusual bronze bracelets [953] and [950] (right) which may point to further burials along the western road from Durobrivae. 16 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

T

here are few finds to the northeast of fields 1 and 2, with no surface pottery noted – given the slope down to the bounding river and the stony nature of the ground it is possible this may have been land that was neither occupied or cultivated in Roman times. However there is a strong possibility that Roman tombs may line this road. right is a selection of some of the personal items recovered from the site, mainly in the area of Chesterton village.

949 Oval ring seal 13x21 bezel possibly engraved with animal. 954 Roman iron finger key for box. 2165 Roman trumpet brooch. 8080 Lead ‘curse’ fish with inscription. 8105 Roman umbonate brooch.

17

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

5.2.4

Saxon (Figure 8)

T

here were relatively few Saxon period finds, and these seemed to consist of brooch fragments, probably representing chance losses of dress accessories. A single blue frit bead was also recovered [2453] (right).

5.2.5

Medieval (Figure 9)

A

relatively large concentration of medieval finds were recorded, these ranged from domestic items such as pot legs, pottery and thimbles through to personal ornaments such as brooches and pins. The personal ornaments included a pilgrim badge with heraldic shield, probably dating from the early 16th-century [8069] (right). The concentration is obviously centred on the present village.

e are fortunate to have a full range of thimble types from the medieval (below left) [2677], ) to the 17th century beehive type [8001] (below middle) and a perfect 19th century machine-made silver example [8210] (below right).

W

18

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

5.2.6

Post-medieval (Figure 10)

T

he post-medieval finds include items which show the local importance of the area, including the now infamous ‘National Treasure’ which is a 16th/17th century merchant’s spoon with seal [6035] (right).

O

ther seals include simple signets and an interesting pipe tamper ring seal with the initials ‘TB’ [6038] and what may be a tobacco plant motif;, indications that there were a number of both literate and merchant class locals. In conjunction with the lost Chesterton House, this suggests there may have been people of high status in the vicinity.

19

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

5.2.7 Brooches and Crotal Bells (Figure 11 & 12)

E

xamination of just two of the classes of artefact does show genuine locational and cluster data. Crotal bells are found exclusively on the land directly around the village, and on the steep slope in field 11 to the south of Chesterton, this may represent common grazing land.

T

he distribution of Saxon and early medieval brooches does show activity in the Chesterton area, while the Romano-British brooches seem more evenly spread. The cluster around field 7 does seem to follow the pattern of increased activity to the south of Durobrivae from the mid 3rd century, and far from the area being abandoned, there does seem to have been continuity of activity, if not full settlement. The presence of a possible high status Late Roman building would attract later settlement, given the name Chesterton (Enclosure by the Fort – using the ‘chester’ prefix, which suggests an early origin).

20

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Prehistoric Period Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

6216

3055

3037 8149 513

\

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 5
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Iron Age Period Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

641

\

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 6
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Roman Period Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

6054

950

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

6141

6317 6318 6118 6166 8150

3034 2241 8209 6051 3530 8198 977 6052

665 2719 6054 3449 2364 3487 381

2595 3505 949 8197

954

3039 1088

8070

631

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 7
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Saxon Period Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

819

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

6050

741

2453

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 8
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Medieval Period Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

500 387

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

8148

8142 2298

7777 2130 8145

2354

8002 3425 2291 6039 739 8148 8143 615 8146 432 2135 3050 8059 2711 664 6091 283 2678 2411 8060 666 260 808

666

2373 2258 619 8064 417 2374 317 618

2677 2522

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 9
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Post Medeval Period Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

6170
09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

2468 3466

8141 8144 6038 179 8144 3526 2292 980 2129 63913529 6345 2328 2586 6441 124 2127 2558

130 8001

864 8006

2544

2366 434 694 526 694 984 2533 2300 765 2256 2382 2101

6035

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 10
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007
Roman Saxon/Medieval

Brooch Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

6054

819

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

6050 619

7777 6188

6052

2291 8145

2719 6054 2364

2165 8064 619 8070

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 11
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Crotal Bell Finds

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

6391 432

2678 2366 694 434

694

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 12
1 2
Km

0

5.3

Coins (Figures 13 – 19)

The Water Newton Rally Iron Age and Roman Coins, S. Moorehead. British Museum 5.3.1 The Material 166 (incl. 3 Iron Age) 3 2 36 59 166

Allocated to Reece Period Neronian to Antonine (3-9) Trajanic to Antonine (5-9) 260-402 (13-21) 333-402 (17-21) Total

5.3.2.

Breakdown by Reece Periods Date Pre-41 41-54 54-68 69-96 96-117 117-138 138-161 161-180 180-192 193-222 222-235 235-260 260-275 275-296 296-317 317-330 330-348 348-364 364-378 378-388 388-402 Rally No. 1 Rally per Mill 24.1 Reece 44 No. 1 2 5 3 1 2 3 1 1 2 0 19 12 0 1 37 17 27 2 8 144 Reece 44 per Mill 13.89 6.94 34.72 20.83 6.94 13.89 20.83 6.94 6.94 13.89 0 131.94 83.33 0 6.94 256.94 118.06 187.5 13.89 55.56 1000

Reece Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total

1 2

6.02 12.05

1 1 21 19 5 18 46 7 36 1 4 166

6.02 6.02 126.5 114.45 30.12 108.4 277.1 24.16 216.9 6.02 24.1 1000

29

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

5.3.3. Bar Charts

Water Newton Rally coins (per mill); sample 166

Water Newton coins (Reece no. 44); sample 144

30

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

Left: Licinius Junior – 321 – 324 AD – Nummus

Below: Mark Antony Legionary Issue AR Denarius

Water Newton – Rally coins vs Reece 44 (per mill)

31

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

5.3.4

Initial Comments

a) The Reece coins have a much higher proportion of coins struck prior to c. AD 250. Indeed, the peak in Period 4 (Flavian; 69-96) shows that this site shares characteristics with urban and rural sites across Britain. This shows that Water Newton did have early foundations. b) Both Reece and the Rally have a similar surge in periods 13 and 14 (26096), typical of sites across the country. c) However, in the 4th century, the Rally coins show higher proportions in periods 15 – 17 (296-348) and in period 19 (364-78), although Reece is well ahead in 18 (348-64) and in 20-21 (388-402). However, it is likely that the Rally will move further ahead in the 4th century when the uncertain coins are considered. 59 coins might be assigned to periods in the future. d) The high Valentinianic peak is consistent with a series of sites in West Suffolk (as identified by Jude Plouviez), Norfolk (Gregory and Davies), and Lincolnshire (e.g. Sapperton and Winterton; recently on PAS at Sudbrook). The fact that these coins are found outside the centre of the site strongly suggests major activity in the later 4th century spreading out from the town, probably commensurate with increasing official activity in the region. Therefore, we can argue that Water Newton was a key centre in Valentinianic and Theodosian times (c. AD 364-390s). This is therefore a key site in the discussion of this phenomenon. Sam Moorhead (PAS) - 21st Sept 2007

Above: Coin of the “Five Good Emperors” (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius) and Commodus – AD 96 – 192 AD

32

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Iron Age Coins

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

749

673

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 13
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Roman Coin Finds 43AD - 117AD

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

974

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 14
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Roman Coin Finds 117AD - 200AD

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

6063

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

6074 6367 6444

841 341

175

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 15
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Roman Coin Finds 200AD - 330AD

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 16
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Roman Coin Finds 330AD - 402AD

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 17
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

MedievalCoin Finds 6th - 15th C

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

142

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

8143 2640 709 3060 179 8013 8185 523 3031 2163 744

6048

745

6345

3535

2369 8145

2538

2295 2233

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 18
1 2
Km

0

Durobrivae Project, Cambridgeshire 2007

Post-Med Coin Finds from 17th C

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

Dur obr ivae R oman To wn & Fo r t S A M 130

090 090 090 092 092 092 92

09 09 09 09 91 16 16 68 68 68 8 8

3464

8142

2464

main areas of detecting survey

Figure 19
1 2
Km

0

Additional studies of Coin Assemblage
By SIMON HOLMES BA (Hons) MA PIFA

D

uring the course of the Metal detecting rally at Water Newton, Cambridgeshire, a total of 348 coins were recorded. The coins were photographed and identified during the rally by the author and members of the Portable Antiquities Scheme and the information transcribed onto record sheets, each having a unique reference number. The archive was then used to by the author to create a detailed catalogue of the coin assemblage. All of the coins could be attributed to broad archaeological periods. However, there are coins within each period that were totally illegible.

Above: Roman Nummus, pierced for wearing as a pendant

The total number of coins per archaeological period are thus: Iron Age = 3, Roman = 295, early medieval = 2, medieval = 34, post-medieval = 14 Of special interest (for the rarity) are the following: Denarius of Mark Antony [2675[ Denarius of Otho [8127] Penny of Cnut? [1089] Penny of Edward the Confessor [3057] Penny of Stephen I from 1135 to 1154 (unknown mint) [2369]

Above: Penny of Stephen I

40

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

ANALYSIS

T

he coinage recovered at the rally reflects the monetary exchange mechanisms of each period in the Water Newton area. There are, however, certain coins (individual specimens or particular issue periods) that are worthy of note.

THE IRON AGE COINS

T

he Iron Age coinage, although only represented by the three specimens, reflects the usage of coinage within the pre-Roman invasion community of Water Newton. The coins from the Late Iron Age comprised of 1 silver unit of the Iceni and 2 gold staters of the Corieltauvi. They are typical of the coinage available to the Pre-Roman invasion communities of the East Midlands and East Anglia and they have been placed in Reece’s Period 1 (Reece, 1987).

Above: Gold plated Corieltauvi staters– 1st century BC

THE ROMAN COINS

T

he Roman coinage, which dominates the assemblage, is interesting due to the almost complete absence of denominations from the 1st – 3rd centuries, unusual for a community and landscape Romanised by the end of the first century. The earliest Roman coin found at the rally was a silver denarius of Marc Antony, struck c. 30 BC. Denarii struck before the Claudian invasion are well documented in Britain.

AD 98-238). Perhaps there has been a practice of hoarding within this area that has removed these issues from circulation, affecting their conventional loss.

U

For a Romano-British site of this size it is interesting that there would seem to be an absence of the prolific issues of silver denarii from the reign of Trajan through to that of Severan Dynasty (c.

nsurprisingly then the Roman contingent of the assemblage was dominated by the copper alloy coins from the issues of the fourth century, typically from the Houses of Constantine and Valentinian (Reece Periods 16 – 20). Coins from the last issue of coinage (AD 388-402) to enter Britain, that of the House of Theodosius (Reece Periods 20 and 21) are also present. Clearly the Romano-British population within the Water Newton 41 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

half of Roman Britain. The histogram shows that at certain periods there were far more coins coming into the Water Newton area and being lost than at other times. Therefore ‘breaks’ in the periodic sequence of the histogram nterestingly, there are relatively few could suggest that occupation and / or late third and fourth century copies other activities that relied on the use of within this assemblage, compared coin were not constant in this part of the to other sites with similar totals as landscape until the late Roman period. Britain relied heavily upon copies of issues from the previous issue period. Similarly, the common reverses: URBS ROMA, CONSTANTINOPOLIS and GLORIA EXERCITVS of the mid4th century though well represented do not overwhelm as on other sites. Furthermore, the coins on which a mint mark usually exists, although numerous, have been badly affected by their state of preservation therefore very few of the 4th century mints that supplied Britain could be identified. Those mints that could be identified were: London, Trier, Arles, Lyon and Aquilea.

area had a good supply of these issues suggesting that they had a healthy coin based exchange mechanism in the late 4th century, which continued into the early 5th Century.

I

T

he pattern of periodic coin loss seen in reflects a pattern established by Reece (1991) for sites within the eastern

Purple (Rally Coins) Blue (Reece Period)

42

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

THE EARLY MEDIAEVAL COINS

T

he coinage recorded from the Early Mediaeval period comprises of two specimens. They are, however very fine examples of the late AngloSaxon kings Cnut (a cut halfpenny) and Edward the Confessor (a penny). Though Anglo-Saxon coins are not as common compared to Roman coins, it is interesting that specimens from some of the more prolific earlier monarchs such as Burgred, King of Mercia, are not present. THE MEDIAEVAL & POST-MEDIAEVAL COINS

T

he coinage from the Mediaeval and Post-Mediaeval periods is (as with the majority of the Roman coinage) what is to be expected to be in circulation. The Mediaeval assemblage comprises of pennies and halfpennies of the 12th – 15th centuries, including a very fine specimen of a Penny of Stephen. The Post Mediaeval coinage is similarly represented by the ‘common’ issues: penny, sixpence and threepence of the monarchs, Elizabeth I and Charles I. Interestingly 43 % of the Post Mediaeval coinage comprises of 17th century trade tokens. CONCLUSION

T

he coinage recovered from Water Newton is therefore a standard representation of what one would expect from a site with a long history. However, as with any site one or two exceptions and interesting factors have presented themselves. ne very important point, as it encompasses all of the coinage and not just that from one particular period, is their state of preservation. The majority of coins recovered are in a very bad state. Most are corroded almost to a point to make them illegible (primarily the Roman coinage as this is predominately produced in copper alloy) thus it should be emphasised that those specimens recovered have been ‘saved’ from certain destruction as a consequence of modern farming practices and the environment. Clearly their recording has provided important information that would have been lost in less than 20 years, if current farming practices in the area continue. Effects of chemical degredation - Blue represents coins too corroded to be identified 43 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

O

6.0

General Reporting Statistics

585 recorded finds 366 with GPS location +/- 3 metres 78 location within a given field (+/- 50 metres 141 with no location
(240 flags were geolocated with no subsequent reported find – or find was discarded, either due to being a natural object, in some cases being non-reportable or other reason – see section 7)

A

number of c320 active detectorists and the number of unique names gives around 65% reporting, added to this there were further unnamed finds (based on the same ratio) and this could add a further 20% who left no contact details. It would also be reasonable (given a number of ‘complaints’ that they found nothing worth recording – from reputable and trusted individuals) to add a small percentage of 2-5% giving at least a recording rate of 87%. iven the nature of this event and the problems with communication and the potential for mistrust this can only be seen as a success. It should be noted that this was seen as an unusually high level of recording and given the methodology of data collection, the sample size is excellent.

G I

t is often best not to dwell to long on statistics, as they are too open to interpretation, all that can be said with any definite certainty is that nearly 600 artefacts and coins were recorded that would otherwise not have been. There were 9 instances of treasure finds from this site, with further treasure finds from elsewhere reported specifically at this event: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Silver penannular object, possibly Viking in date. 10 x copper alloy coins (radiates and nummi) dating to the late 3rd and 4th centuries AD. A silver Roman finger ring with possible TOT inscription Fragment of hack gold, possibly Viking in date A Roman gold wire necklace link Fragment of gold wire jewellery, possibly Roman or modern Fragment of hack silver, possibly Viking in date Incomplete 17th century silver spoon Silver heart shaped buckle, possibly medieval in date

7.0

Artefact Conditions

n general the condition of artefacts and coins seemed to be consistent with other recorded rallies (Thornborough, Panton, Wantage, Corfe etc) where a similar percentage of copper rich Roman coins were unreadable – c30-40% through chemical corrosion (the silver and gold coins did not seem to be affected). In part this may be down to the conversion to organic and/or the land use. Pottery was no larger than 50mm square and abraded, many artefacts showed plough damage. However, it would only be by matching this assemblage with a further sample some 10 years from this site and any adjacent farm that still uses chemicals that any definite conclusions could be drawn. t is clear that once within the plough soil horizon, the finds are subjected to mechanical damage, and a change in conditions. Changes in farming over only the past 50-60 years have been great, and as discussed in “Ripping Up History: Archaeology under the Plough EH 2003” the challenge is to match differing and often conflicting requirements. 44 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

I

I

8.0

Reported issues and solutions

Communication with HERs and local Groups.
t was clear that communication was a problem from the start, an issue that lies at the heart of the ensuing difficulties. It is fair to say that both rally organisers and interested archaeological bodies are equal in this criticism, with several misconceptions, assumptions and perceived antagonism springing directly from the original communication failure. However, part of the point of this project was to highlight the protocols that could be followed in the future.

I

E

arly discussion with both the County Archaeologist and HER officer, English Heritage, Natural England and the PAS would allow each a chance to comment on any potential issues that may arise, including sensitive areas, scheduling, stewardship or other environmental issues. It is clear that knowing who to talk to is often a complex matter, as in this case, where contact with Peterborough is not immediately apparent given the location of the site in Cambridgeshire. The onus should then be upon the local County Archaeologist to inform the rally organiser of other groups who may be working in the area, or projects being conducted in the area that may be either affected by the rally OR would like to be informed of results to add to their own research agendas. This becomes the first stage of a tick box approach.

a. Contact HER and Statutory Bodies (the correct address could indeed be provided by the HER, unless a direct point of contact for each body could be established.

Equipment – from flags to GPS units
s detailed in the final part of this section (Levels of Rally – which is only a suggestion based on observation) the equipment required is dependant on the type of rally undertaken. However, provision for Pinflags (available from York Survey Supplies – white flags are recommended with visibility of over a kilometre ), prenumbered finds bags, and ballpoint pens should be made, based on providing every detectorist with 5 pinflags (to be reused) 20 bags and a pen (and a number spare). One possibility which may be carried out in conjunction with the farmer are blue barrels or similar with a field number sprayed on that relates to the map. Field definitely excluded from the rally may also benefit from a barrel (or similar) with a ‘No entry’ sign. An additional item of equipment which can be supplied is the very inexpensive funnel-based tripod/diffuser, macro stabiliser . It also goes without saying that provision should be made for comfortable and suitable table and chairs for the FLOs and other recorders. A large map of the area also helps to provide a visual guide to how the rally is progressing, with different coloured dots for finds, marked roughly on the map. Enough GPS units, download cables and record sheets (White Artefact and Blue Coin sheets) b. Ensure the equipment needed matches the rally requirements.

A

Requirement for maps detailing fields (including fields excluded) Sending short description of recording methods to all participants prior to rally
It is understood that it is impossible to decide on exactly which fields will be detected until the day before, given changing conditions such as weather, ploughing, seeding and ground conditions. Therefore, it is important for all, including the participants to have a map of the entire area with numbered fields. This also ensures that a morning briefing can consist of announcing the fields (by number) that will be detected on that day/morning/afternoon. As each participant receives information (either by post or on the day) they can receive both this map and a short (A5) description of what is to be expected. c. Send copy of Map and Rally Code of Conduct. Send Details of methods and requirements to all participants

45

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

Ensuring adequate staffing with use of local archaeologists (as appropriate) and FLOs with a specified lead in time.

A

s with all projects and events, it all depends on the type of rally, the numbers of participants, the expected volume of recordable finds (an impossible figure akin to archaeological excavation, where we are asked to specify the amount of archaeology that is in a given site). However based on a rally similar to this (and confirmed by a further rally at Corfe) a suitable ratio would be (per hundred participants) one FLO with one volunteer taking digital photographs and at least one GPS unit in the field recording pinflags. Of course this has to be flexible, where for 300 detectorists the numbers could be two FLOs, two volunteers on photography, two on weight/measurement and four GPS Units in the field plus two professional archaeologists (also with GPS units) as backup and onsite advice. It is possible with enough discussion, to involve a local unit that will have used detecting volunteers on commercial projects to provide suitable field staff for the weekend as a reciprocal act. d. Decide on numbers of support staff needed and ensure they are adequate to cover all requirements..

Costs and implications of reports

A

final product is essential, to both show the validity of carrying out these large scale events in archaeological terms and to place the recovered artefacts into some context, creating the basis for further work. Based upon this event, and the methodology of report production, collation of data and the GIS element it is suggested that the report is in line with similar field-survey recording, where lists of artefacts are prepared and linked to locations, with a brief overview and discussion with suggestions for further work. A CD of images and paper copy as a thumbnailed appendix can be attached. In keeping with similar event reporting, a shp file showing the event boundary can easily be attached to the HER GIS system, showing where work has been carried out. The report can then be made available through the HER and OASIS. It was suggested that this and similar events cannot fit into research agendas, and produces data without purpose. However, it is true to say that as development control archaeology makes up some 80-90% of all archaeological interventions in the UK presently this can be said of much of the archaeology that takes place now. (We have to be mindful that commercial archaeology is based on where development or construction takes place rather than where archaeology research agendas are centred, though thankfully they can coincide by accident rather than design.) e. Allow for data input, overview and preparation of digital images, to prepare a standardised report, CD, database and GIS points and polygon file. (I am happy to prepare for discussion a template and instruction manual for all of these) This will take place after the event within a set timescale.

Inviting locals to see what is happening
One important aspect is to ensure that the people most directly affected by this event, benefit from this event. The local community, should be allowed access to view the finds, and provision made for a return visit to explain the results. I understand that this may be difficult, but if a local detecting group who has attended the event in conjunction with either a FLO or archaeologist can consider this, then it seems a logical conclusion.

Understanding of concerns.
It is impossible to please everyone all of the time, it is however possible to agree that all parties have concerns, issues and difficulties. To actively seek workable solutions does not need to mean capitulation to ideas that may be diametrically opposite to personal views. Therefore it is important for all parties to view their own behaviour and see where lessons could be learned, and actions (no matter how innocent) could be misconstrued, mistakes seen as deliberate or assumptions made without taking time to find out whether they are true are not. I am more than happy to admit to failings, but use this as a positive move forward. It is too easy to point out 46 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

specific slights or perceived transgressions, much harder, but more rewarding to highlight issues, isolate them and unravel them to a point where all parties can agree it is the most workable resolution. After the meeting in Cambridge on the 13th November 2007, it was heartening that no substantial problems were highlighted in the recording methods, or the reporting and that their was talk of movement on a Rally Code of Conduct, building on work from various bodies and strengthened by this and other cooperative events. Facts have replaced assumptions, and that is no bad result.

Suggestions for Rally Levels with associated requirements Type I rally. (PAS aware of rally and can accept finds either at rally or afterwards)
fter contacting the County Archaeologist or HER officer, it is clear that nothing is really known about the area. The rally takes place and interesting or important or recordable finds are recorded either at the Rally or afterwards… It would be good for everyone to know what was found… and what it ‘means’

A A

Type II rally (PAS aware and provision made for FLOs on site - Archaeologists invited to provide additional
help (photography and archaeological advice)) fter contacting the County Archaeologist or HER officer, it is clear that there is known archaeology however as no ‘below the ploughsoil’ detecting then further information, ploughsoil artefact rescue will be of great use, recording of interesting or important or recordable finds should take place either at the rally or afterwards. It would be good for everyone to know what was found… and what it ‘means’, especially if important new information or sites are found thanks to this. GPS location of finds should be considered, and a method of managing it in conjunction with archaeologists investigated at the earliest possible – It should be perfectly reasonable (for commercial rallies) to allow for at the least covering expenses for archaeologists as well as proving the equipment needed to carry out a basic record.

Type III rally (PAS aware and provision made for FLOs on site Archaeologists invited to provide additional help (photography and archaeological advice in the fieldand to oversee student volunteers in Geolocating finds)

A

fter contacting the County Archaeologist or HER officer, it is clear that there is known archaeology and the potential for significant archaeology - however as no ‘below the ploughsoil’ detecting then further information, ploughsoil artefact rescue will be of great use, recording of interesting or important or recordable finds should take place either at the rally or afterwards (though ideally it would take place at the rally. It would be good for everyone to know what was found… and what it ‘means’, especially if important new information or sites are found thanks to this. GPS location of finds should be considered, and a method of managing it in conjunction with archaeologists investigated at the earliest possible – It should be perfectly reasonable (for commercial rallies) to allow for at the least covering expenses for archaeologists as well as proving the equipment needed to carry out a basic record.

Type IV rally (PAS aware and provision made for a number of FLOs on site Archaeologists essential to
provide additional help (photography and archaeological advice field and use of accurate GPS equipment and to oversee student volunteers in conjunction with local groups sub metre GPS required, long term funding commitment and no loss of finds.) fter contacting the County Archaeologist or HER officer, it is clear that there is not only known archaeology and the potential for significant archaeology but it is a battle site – This is where it gets interesting… as where other site types are subsurface and the ploughsoil contains artefacts that have been pulled up from sealed contexts and features.. the battlesite starts at the top of the ploughsoil down… the entire ground surface is the site. The fragility is exceptional… a broken buckle, a line of lead shot, a button, a piece of armour or a fragment of stirrup… without exact location of each of these items, without recording of every scrap, the story 47 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

A

that could be told will be lost forever… you could change history… discovering that the lines of battle are different from previously thought… that a cavalry charge took place there, that a cannon position was here not there, and that affected its field of fire… the possibilities to change history are enormous. Think two men in a trench and the extensive use of metal detecting…!

H

ere – it could be argued that the one type of event that would not suit a battlefield would be a rally….. and if such an event took place on a known battlefield the amount of preparation would have to be done long in advance… here, the locations would have to be mapped using either diff GPS or a Total Station Theodolite, allowing sub metre accuracy, there would have to be elements of fieldwalking, a serious investigation into archaeological input and finds identification (with a need to retain most finds to analyse further.. as it would be difficult in most cases to properly identify slight features that could tell the difference between a brown bess trigger guard and a continental musket type… or what type and period the lead shot came from… whether that was a piece of iron or part of a arquebus shot.. And when people left the field it would not end there, as reports would need to be written, information collated, artefacts examined, conservation of artefacts, historical analysis, etc etc… a major commitment… So would it be worth considering?

f you had the time, the money, the commitment, and were part of a larger project that also involved the local community, then perhaps yes… properly organised, funded (you could get funding from HLF even) and with enough specialists and archaeologists to ensure that what you found was not just saved from the ground, but saved from obscurity

I

48

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

9.0

Conclusions and suggestions for Further Work

S

uccess is a relative term, based on the interpretation of the final result. It is however possible to use this term with relation to the event, based on the following criteria. A substantial amount of recorded artefacts and coins have entered the public domain for research and study, the locations of the artefacts and coins are also available, and this report, with accompanying photographs, GIS data and database has been lodged with both Cambridge and Peterborough HERs. This can only be seen as a success given that the only alternative was none of the above. The project itself was from certain angles experimental, however, a precedent was set by work in Yorkshire (http://www.iadb.co.uk/osbaldwick/osbaldframeset-1.htm ) at Osbaldwick - Archaeology and metal-detecting. A model for engaging the local communityin a greenfield development, Neil Macnab, 2005, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. It is important to recognise that the benefits from the exercise were engagement with detector users, collection of archaeological valid data and further development of future methodologies. The criticisms of the event stem from using this site as a test case, the easy rebuttal to this is that not using this site as a test case would have resulted in the potential loss of any information at all. During the extensive discussions on the project, there was very little workable alternative given. With ideas such as sub surface test pitting, complete geophysics of the area and even gridding 100 hectares into 10 metres square being either impractical and/or exorbitantly expensive. The problems and solutions have been detailed in section 8 above, and need no further discussion, other than the requirement that these solutions are implemented by all parties. Communication and openness being crucial to further working models, with Cambridgeshire County Council Archaeology Service admitting themselves that they were as much to blame for this early loss.

Detecting to must be aware that the resource they utilise for these events is not one which should be seen as inconsequential and must require consideration for the long term effects. By simple addition of an archaeological component it is possible for all participants to enjoy a family event and provide useful data for further study. This situation brings a genuine win-win solution, to what is and wall flewas a divisive issue. More cooperation from both groups will provide a sustainable and inclusive future. In terms of the stated objectives, the following results have shown that the data did bear archaeological data that could be interpreted and utilised. The results are open to other groups for study and the Portable Antiquities Scheme has already initiated a study of the coin typology and distribution.

1.

Limit and dating of settlement pattern.

The distribution of coinage, and subsequent interpretation (including a recognition of coin density at different period) has shown a significant expansion of late Roman date to the southeast of Durobrivae, with the potential of a nucleated pattern around what is now Chesterton. The collection of a fragment of wall flue and the seemingly uninterrupted continuation of artefacts and coins in the area of Chesterton would suggest that further no intrusive and detailed study of this area would be a target worth following.

2. External Rural Landscape Use
The areas of Fields 1 & 2 (see Fig. 2) had a very limited number of finds, which may suggest that rather than the expected roadside settlement pattern, it is possible the area was used for other activities, which may even be connected with burials (these features have been uncovered previously in the area) or woodland/agricultural land. had a very limited number of finds, which may suggest that rather than the expected roadside settlement pattern, it is possible the area was used for other activities, which may likely be connected with burials ( coffins have been uncovered previously) or woodland/agricultural land. 49 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

3. Recovered artefact damage
As has been previously mentioned we have another confirmation of the gradual degradation of metallic artefacts and finds. The details of condition for each recorded find are found in the database, however in brief, over a third of the roman coins were indecipherable. Artefacts were often very corroded or broken, it should be considered that at this rate of loss, recorded collection is at the very least, a requirement to prevent complete loss of the information. It would be useful to carry out further work in this area in five years to compare the amount of decay, in both the areas or organic farming and non organic chemical fertiliser use. It is hoped that the information contained within this report will be of as much use as previous field walking exercises in this area, and can spur local involvement, perhaps with support from organisations.

10.0 Thanks and acknowledgements
Special thanks Jon Welsh (historical Research and editing), Maggie Struckmeier and Corinne Mills (who also supplied all the photographs of the work in the field) for field supervision and research, data input and support, Simon Holmes for field supervision and coin research. Suzi Thomas and students (Lynda Jackson, Wendy Fail, Christine Alford, Hannah Guthrie and Emilie Sibbesson) from International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies, University of Newcastle, for invaluable help in GPS location. The amazing efforts of FLOs Steve Ashby, Ros Tyrell, and Phillipa Walton for finds identification and both Roger Bland and Sam Moorehead from the PAS, Cambridgeshire Council Archaeology Service, Sarah Poppy, Ben Robinson for SMR data and offprints of articles and research relating to Durobrivae. MMArts bear special mention including Luke, Gro, Kerry, and Mark Gorton who supported the production of this report both finicially and with all the excitement of live filming, and without which this would not have been possible. Norman and Margaret for the invitation to be on this event.. All the detectorists who took part in the spirit of cooperation. Mr and Mrs Wright of Chesterton and the Landowners, I would like to give my special thanks, and to the locals of Chesterton who showed so much interest as well as inviting me down for a talk on the results in the church. And of course Neil Oliver, a big thanks for all the support, both before, during and after!

50

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

11.0 Bibliography
Artis, E.T. (1828) The Durobrivae of Antoninus Identified and Illustrated, London: the author. Casa Hatton, R. and Wall, W. (unpublished 1999) A Late Roman cemetery beside the A1 near Durobrivae (Water Newton): Archaeological Recording, Cambridgeshire County Council Archaeological Field Unit Report 165) Casa Hatton, R. and Wall, W. (2006) ‘A late Roman cemetery at Durobrivae, Chesterton’, Proceedings of the Cambridgeshire Antiquarian Society 95: 5-24. Crank, N., Wotherspoon, M., Britchfield, D. and Grant, J. (unoublished 2002) Land East of Mill Lane, Water Newton, Cambridgeshire. An Archaeological Interim Site Narrative, Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust Report 1169. Geophysical Surveys of Bradford (1997 unpublished) Report on Geophysical Survey. Peterborough to Lutton Pipeline, Volumes 1 and 2. Report 97/24. Grant, J. (unpublished 2002) Proposed extension of burial ground, The Rose Garden, St Michael’s Church, Chesterton, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire. An archaeological evaluation, Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust Report 1098. Hillier, R. (unpublished 2002) Report of Fieldwalking, Alwalton and Chesterton 2001/2. Kemp, S. (1993) English Heritage Fieldwalking Programme, Draft Report: Durobrivae, Cambridgeshire Archaeology Reports. MacAuley, S. (2000) ‘Romano-British Settlement Remains at Mill Reach, Water Newton: an archaeological evaluation. Report no. 172,’ Cambridgeshire Archaeology Reports Cambridgeshire County Council Archaeological Field Unit. McDonald, T. and Last, J. (1999) Minerva Business Park, Alwalton, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire. Area B Interim Excavation Report, Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust Report 0599. McDonald, T. and Vaughan, T. (unpublished 1999) Archaeological excavation, Minerva Business Park, Alwalton, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire. Area A Interim Excavation Report, Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust Report 0531. Middleton, P. (unpublished 2002) Field walk report. Alwalton, Cambs. TL12809613. Murray, J. (unpublished 1999) Minerva Business Park, Alwalton, Cambridgeshire. An Archaeological Evaluation (Area B) Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust Report 0510. Network Archaeology (unpublished 1997) Peterborough to Lutton Proposed Gas Pipeline. Archaeological Fieldwalking, Field Reconnaissance and Geophysical Survey, Network Archaeology 106. O’Brian, L. (unpublished 2002) Land East of Mill Lane, Water Newton, Cambridgeshire. AN Archaeological Excavation. Archive Report, Archaeological Solutions Report 2056. O’Brian, L. (unpublished 2003) Roman and Medieval finds at Land East of Mill Lane, Water Newton, Huntingdonshire. Excavation. Report, Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust Report 1270. Reynolds, T. (1999) ‘Fieldwork in Cambridgeshire’, Proceedings of the Cambridgeshire Antiquarian Society 51 Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

87: 101-6. Reynolds, T., Parsons, J., Malim, T. and Robinson, B. (2000) ‘Fieldwork in Cambridgeshire’, Proceedings of the Cambridgeshire Antiquarian Society 89: 91-101. Rivet, A.L.F. and Smith, C. (1979) The Place-Names of Roman Britain, London: Batsford. Roberts, J. (unpublished 1999) Multi-period features on land at Minerva Business Park, Alwalton, Cambridgeshire County Council Archaeological Field Unit Report 155. Roe, D.A. (1968) A gazetteer of British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic sites, London: Council for British Archaeology. Taylor, C. and Angus, C. (unpublished 1998) Peterborough to Lutton Gas Pipeline. Archaeological Trench Evaluation, Excavation and Field Survey. Interim Statement, Network Archaeology. Tomlinson, S. (2004) ‘Artis, Edmund Tyrell (bap. 1789, d. 1847), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. (http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37128) accessed 22 Aug 2007. Wall, W. (unpublished 1998) A Roman cemetery beside the A1 trunk road near Durobrivae (Water Newton) TL12069662, Cambridgeshire County Council Archaeological Field Unit Report. Wall, W. (unpublished 1999) Middle Saxon iron smelting furnaces and other sites along the Wing to Peterborough pipeline, Cambridgeshire County Council Archaeological Field Unit Report 158. Wessex Archaeology (1996) The English Rivers Palaeolithic Project. Report no.2, 1995-1996: the Great Ouse Drainage and the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Wolds.

11.1 Further Reading
Tomlin, R.S.O. (1983) ‘Roman Leicester, a Corrigendum: For Coritani should we read Corieltauvi?’, Transactions of the Leicester Archaeological and Historical Society 48. Tomlin, R.S.O. (1983) ‘Non Coritani sed Corieltauvi’, The Antiquaries’ Journal 63. The Romans in Cambridgeshire Jane McIntosh and Gerald Wait

52

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

11.2 ADS and SMR Records.
Period unknown
NMR_NATINV-364433 NMR_NATINV-364471 Chesterton, U-ring ditch. NMR_NATINV-364472 Chesterton, Huntingdonshire, Cambs; U-ring ditches.

Palaeolithic
NMR_NATINV-364381

Bronze Age
NMR_NATINV-364292 Castor, cinerary urn.

Late Bronze Age
EHNMR-642239 Ford Green barrow, Castor, Peterborough.

Iron Age
NMR_NATINV-364354 Castor, barrow site.

Roman
EHNMR-1115311 Sibson Hollow, Ailsworth, villa. NMRMIC-19 Burial, well, villa. EHNMR-1358399 Mill Reach eval. EHNMR-1090819 Normangate Field, Ailsworth, Peterborough. EHNMR-642253 Normangate Field, Castor, Peterborough. EHNMR-642276 Normangate Field, Castor, Peterborough. EHNMR-642279 Normangate Field, Castor, Peterborough. EHNMR-642304 Durobrivae. EHNMR-642844 Sutton Field; villa. EHNMR-642845 Water Newton; villa. EHNMR-642846 Water Newton; villa. NMR_NATINV-364291 Durobrivae. EHNMR-642847 Durobrivae extra-mural settlement; occupation, industrial. EHNMR-642848 Billing Brook Site 2; well, burial and oven. NMR_NATINV-364445 NMR_NATINV-364448 NMR_NATINV-364454 NMR_NATINV-364460 The Castles, Chesterton. NMR_NATINV-364464 Chesterton, pottery site. NMR_NATINV-364468 Chesterton, Durobrivae hoard (1974). NMR_NATINV-364469 Water Newton Hoard. NMR_NATINV-364470 Chesterton, two milestones. NMR_NATINV-364488 Elton, possible building. NMR_NATINV-364496 Chesterton, stone coffin. NMR_NATINV-1164915 Ermine Street. EHNMR-1301435 A1 Roadside, Water Newton, cemetery. NMR_NATINV-1301921 Chesterton, cemetery in drainage ditch adjacent to A1. EHNMR-642288 Kate’s Cabin Farm, Chesterton. EHNMR-642292 Durobrivae Site 1. EHNMR-1314413 Durobrivae fieldwalking survey.

Early Medieval
EHNMR-642843 Enclosed settlement. NMR_NATINV-364378 Water Newton.

Medieval
EHNMR-642843 Pound. NMR_NATINV-871177 St Remigius Church. NMR_NATINV-364378 Water Newton.

Post-medieval
NMR_NATINV-364497 Water Newton House. NMR_NATINV-364498 Water Newton Lodge. NMR_NATINV-871177 St Remigius Church.

53

Water Newton Metal Detecting Rally 2007

102

mount
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-med?

to

rectangular plate with slightly convex sides, each corner slightly bent over

Coordinate TL

124

buckle
Object description

material

ae

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12326

95781

130

mount
Object description lozenge-shaped

material

cu alloy

Post-med?

to

Coordinate TL

12178

95906

152
Object description

key

material

fe

Medieval

to Post-medieval

bit, three square teeth, stem has hollow end, circular section rubbed stem, extending to hoop, broken

Coordinate TL

179
Object description

token

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

obverse: shield with beaded circle FORB? Rev: illegible

12495

95477

185

buckle
Object description central bar

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

236
Object description

ingot
semi-circular lump

material

silver

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

260

dagger chape
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

one folded sheet, perforated at wide end

12737

95201

271

openwork mount
Object description

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

uneven pattern, pale green patina

Coordinate TL

283

Unknown
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

curved D-section strip, pointed terminal, groove at attachment end

12740

95257

317

seal matrix
Object description

material

pb

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

vessica-shaped, initial cross, S'ATILA P_UIDER, chevrons on arm to look like palm tree

13032

94555

369

Unknown
Object description

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

D-section stem, curves at one end and extends to cast zoomorph, other end thins out, perforated

12782

95047

369

Unknown
Object description

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

D-section stem, curves at one end and extends to cast zoomorph, other end thins out, perforated

12684

95119

381
Object description

pin
ridged round head

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

12811

95177

387
Object description

stud

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

small stud, D-section, small attachment lug on underside

11371

96299

417

weight
Object description

material

pb

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

conical with central perforation

12920

94682

432

crotal bell
Object description

material

ae

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

squared-off suspension loop, lower half incomplete, two opposing circular holes in upper half

12367

95516

434

crotal bell
Object description plain

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12851

94955

483
Object description

sheet

material

pb

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

crushed sheet of lead, possible corner of 3D shape

13263

94730

484
Object description

nail

material

fe

Early Roman

to Post-medieval

square head, stem rectangular in section

Coordinate TL

485

Harness fitting
Object description

material

Cu Alloy

Medieval

to

small sheild shaped harness pendant, loop incomplete

Coordinate TL

487
Object description

vessel
rimsherd

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to Medieval-Post-

Coordinate TL

13046

94539

488

potsherd
Object description rimsherd, metallic

material

ceramic

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

13042

94541

493
Object description

bead

material

glass

Early Roman

to Saxon

elongate bead, blue, opaque, circular hole through axis

Coordinate TL

500

buckle plate
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

rectangular strip, two extensions bent over to accommodate frame, held by one rivet, 2 rivet holes at attachment end, domed rivet in situ, another rivet hole

11378

96467

513

socketed axehead
Object description fragment of socket and loop

material

cu alloy

Prehistoric

to

Coordinate TL

13227

94710

526

pot leg
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-med?

to

Coordinate TL

rectangular, ridge down reverse

12891

94719

565

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

dolphin brooch, semi-circular wings, vertically ribbed either side of bow, perforated lug to secure bow with prominent dorsal ridge which tapers to a rib which continues along length of bow, triangular openwork catchplate

Coordinate TL

614

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

circular, six-pointed star with curved sides in red enamel, some of which survives, rounded terminals, circular central, hemispherical catchplate, square scars mark position of pin lugs

Coordinate TL

615

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

oval buckle, central bar, not offset,

12521

95536

617

buckle
Object description slightly offset

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

12954

94711

618

mount/horse furniture?
Object description triangular plate with lug

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

12985

94525

619

brooch
Object description zoomorphic head

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12301

95902

631
Object description

vessel
rimsherd

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

13319

94154

641

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Iron Age

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

possible rim handle from large terracotta vessel, 2 ribs on exterior

12339

95738

648

hooked tag
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

openwork hooked tag, square attachment loop, foliate plate, bent tapering hook

12360

95742

664

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

offset bar, decoratively profiled egde, slight crack in loop

12166

95180

665

terminal
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

human head in high relief, flat plain reverse, twisted-rope style hairline, perforations for eyes, sculpted nose, mouth barely visible, curved line for chin, green patina with brown patches

12227

95323

666

miniature ampulla token?
Object description

material

pb alloy

Medieval?

to

Coordinate TL

openwork object, cross/orb design cast rubbed description, underside smooth and plain,

12756

95228

666

miniature ampulla token?
Object description

material

pb alloy

Medieval?

to

Coordinate TL

openwork object, cross/orb design cast rubbed description, underside smooth and plain,

12023

95187

694

crotal bell
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

plain, square loop with perforation

12787

94922

694

crotal bell
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

plain, square loop with perforation

12897

94702

726

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Saxon

to

moulded eyes, horizontal-ribbed leg, D-section catchplate

Coordinate TL

739

strap end
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

rectangular strip bent over and secured with round section, decorated with marginal groove, gilded

12263

95627

741
Object description

coil
hack silver?

material

silver

Saxon?

to

Coordinate TL

12569

95566

765

button
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12948

94724

767

crotal bell
Object description plain

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

808

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

gilded triangular plate attached, 2 rivets folded over

12806

95186

819

brooch
Object description

material

ae

Saxon

to

equal-arm, 'anstate' brooch, hinged for pin

Coordinate TL

862

Unknown
Object description section shaft divides at end

material

fe

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

horse fitting? Rectangular-section and round-section shafts separated by moulded decoration, round-

12498

95681

864

buckle
Object description offset bar

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

11961

95246

903

buckle
Object description small harness buckle,

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

915

Unknown
Object description

material

pb

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

flat, circular, D-section extension

12210

95855

949

finger ring
Object description

material

cu

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

oval 13x21 bezel possibly engraved with animal

12784

94907

950

bracelet
Object description

material

cu alloy

Late Roman

to Saxon

Coordinate TL

11313

96187

953

bracelet
Object description

material

cu alloy

Late Roman

to Saxon

Coordinate TL

11319

96186

954
Object description

key
30 wide at teeth, 25 at loop

material

cu

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

12913

94631

971

Unknown
Object description

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

fragment, possibly of brooch?

12461

95578

972

weight
Object description cylindrical, perforated

material

pb

Medieval

to Post-Medieval

Coordinate TL

977
Object description

fitting

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

12550

95586

978
Object description

fitting

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

flat plate, some gilding remains, point, perforation

Coordinate TL

980

hooked tag
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

circular plate, trapezoidal attachment loop, tapering hook, male bearded face

11987

95597

984

pot leg
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-med?

to

Coordinate TL

12908

95011

986

powder measure
Object description

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

flat base, cylindrical, small lead loop,

Coordinate TL

1020

ingot/weight
Object description rectangular

material

pb

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

12779

94978

1052

finger ring
Object description

material

base silver?

Early Roman

to Late Roman

large round bezel missing stone

Coordinate TL

1066

sword belt hanger
Object description moulded floral decoration

material

ae

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

1088

Unknown
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

mount/stirrup? Rectangular, ornately profiled top, 3 longitudinal lines on front face, reverse has straight perpendicular attachment lug,

13083

94588

2035
Object description

strip

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

2101

plaque
Object description gutter decoration

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

13072

94533

2127

net weight?
Object description

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

sphere with circular perforation

12386

95414

2129

movist
Object description

material

ae

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

floral-shaped, decorated movist, cast with loop for attachment button in centre of reverse

12273

95570

2130

casket key
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

circular, circular-section stem

12383

95763

2135
Object description

key

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

key and suspension loop, double collar, slight inward-curving projection

12513

95530

2150

crotal bell
Object description grooved underside,

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

2165

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

Coordinate TL

trumpet brooch, acanthus and disc decoration on head loop and trumpet head,incised cross hatch decoration on leg, triangular catchplate

12819

94828

2171

button
Object description

material

tin?

Post-medieval

to

Dandy button' round 25 diam. 0.5 thick, rough cu alloy loop soldered on back

Coordinate TL

2235
Object description

whorl

material

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

2241
Object description

nail

material

fe

Early Roman

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

large, trapezoidal section stem, flat square head

12166

95637

2256

hook fastener
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

hooked tag with missing hook

13035

94602

2256

hook fastener
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

hooked tag with missing hook

12908

94604

2258

belt mount
Object description

material

cu

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

scallop shell with protrusions, pin

12912

94722

2265
Object description

spout
filed,

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

12374

95635

2291

brooch
Object description hexagonal-section

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12343

95632

2292

buckle frame
Object description hexagonal with iron pin

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12530

95614

2298

harness pendant
Object description perforation at terminal

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

Fleur-de-lis body, D-section, gilded upper surface, perpendicular attachment with small circular

12238

95725

2300

button
Object description round with loop

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12994

94764

2321

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

2328

sword belt hanger
Object description 3 iron rivets

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12572

95514

2354

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

11959

95753

2356

pinhead
Object description round

material

cu alloy

Saxon

to

Coordinate TL

2364

brooch plate
Object description with rectangular catchplate

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

Coordinate TL

circular, six-pointed star with curved sides in red enamel, on blue enamel background, melted back

12141

95168

2366

crotal bell
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

plain, radial grooves, v thick, attachment loop missing

12737

95090

2370

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

6-pointed star, tunnelled brooch, no pin, 6 lugs on reverse, one perforation

Coordinate TL

2373

ampulla
Object description plain, no design

material

pb

Medieval

to Recent

Coordinate TL

12904

94821

2374

button
Object description

material

cu

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

domed button with intact loop

12909

94654

2382

hoe head
Object description

material

fe

Recent

to

Coordinate TL

angled shank, most of blade missing

13083

94605

2392
Object description

strip
sinuous strip

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

12995

94175

2411

mount
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

square mount with openwork pentefoil decoration, circular perforations at each corner, diagonally opposing perforations have square attachments and a stud. rockework decoration on upper surface

12759

95251

2453
Object description

bead

material

frit

Saxon

to

Coordinate TL

blue opaque annular glass bed

12681

95200

2468

buckle
Object description openwork frag

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

11345

96318

2522

swivel mount
Object description rectangular with small lug

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

13004

94088

2533

weight
Object description

material

pb alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

octagonal lead weight, central groove on upper suface, iron retaining loop

12906

94948

2544

bag seal
Object description

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12672

95095

2553

weight
Object description

material

pb

Unknown

to

cylindrical, iron loop in top, groove running along it

Coordinate TL

2558

buckle
Object description v thin with offset bar

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12202

95306

2586
Object description

key

material

fe

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

kidney-shaped bow, circular section stem, rectangular bit with cut-outs forming 2 teeth

12345

95478

2590
Object description

vessel
bronze rimsherd

material

ae

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

2595

pinhead
Object description

material

ae

Late Roman

to

Coordinate TL

pinhead, shaft cut off, round, domed, badly cast in two-part mould

12812

94935

2601

buckle?
Object description

material

cu

Medieval?

to

8mm diam. Swivelling loop in centre

Coordinate TL

2642

buckle
Object description

material

tin?

Unknown

to

D-shaped frame, bar fixed to back of bow, notches at ends and pin closing

Coordinate TL

2677

thimble
Object description cylindrical, topless

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

13073

94208

2678
Object description

crotal

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

vertical lines, reaching up to horizontal collar around circumference, perforation at top

12719

95242

2679

weight/spindlewhorl
Object description

material

pb

Unknown

to

s-shaped projection, probably a weight

Coordinate TL

2711
Object description

key

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

rectangular key bit with tapering stem

12073

95179

2719

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

Coordinate TL

dolphin brooch, cylindrical wings with ends pierced to hold axis bar, cut-out for pin, D-section bow tapering to foot, trapezoidal catchplate

12098

95190

3034

potsherd
Object description throughout

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

bodysherd, thrown, throwing rings on exterior, light orange-pink surface, grey fabric, voids

11936

95624

3037
Object description

lithic

material

volcanic tuff

Prehistoric

to

Coordinate TL

worked fragment possibly of Langdale polished axehead or similar, one polished face all others fractured, fine blue-grey tuff with fine porosity no large inclusions

12834

94827

3039

handle
Object description part of amphora handle

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

13064

94662

3047

steelyard weight
Object description biconical with iron core

material

pb

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

3050

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

D shaped frame and circular section bar

12461

95486

3055
Object description

lithic
flint arrowhead

material

flint

Prehistoric

to

Coordinate TL

12414

95443

3070

buckle plate and frame
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

rectangular frame with slightly convex slides, slight expansions on outer edge corners, plate is rectangular wrapped around bar

Coordinate TL

3080

musket ball
Object description

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

3081

slag/waste
Object description

material

cu

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

12786

94915

3081

slag/waste
Object description

material

cu

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

12687

94987

3108

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

Coordinate TL

12066

95024

3425

buckle plate
Object description

material

ae

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

two thin strips secured by rivets at each end, only one of the two holding loops survives

12451

95733

3438

Unknown
Object description

material

ae

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

broken-off handle or brooch end

12068

95666

3449

curse tablet?
Object description incised dots

material

pb

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

folded rectangular sheet, one side has incisions and circular perforations, other side has two rows of

11933

94939

3461
Object description

stud

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

conical stud with central perforation, concave reverse with 2 rivets

12047

95147

3466

finger ring
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

D-section with circular setting, radiating notches, marked on inside

11510

96165

3467
Object description

lithic
thumbnail scraper

material

flint

Prehistoric

to

Coordinate TL

3473

buckle frame terminal
Object description

material

cu

Late Roman

to

2 dolphins biting a sphere, incised dots for eyes, notches for teeth, vertical grooves and ribs for fins,one side continues to a curled tail extending into a circular perforated lug, underside plain

Coordinate TL

3482
Object description

stud

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

circular lug, completely perforated, foliate

Coordinate TL

3486
Object description

nail

material

fe

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

large square-headed nail with rectangular shank

12231

95189

3487

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

base of Nene Valley ware pot

12289

95136

3505

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

rimsherd, orange coarse fabric, possible Nene Valley ware,

12907

94928

3513
Object description

spoon
bowl only

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

3526

button
Object description head

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

spherical head, flat base extending to circular loop, incised sunburst with curved rays decoration on

12332

95594

3529

stopper
Object description

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

pot stopper with truncated conical knob

12437

95557

3530

potsherd
Object description red ware rimsherd

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

12511

95628

3642

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

rimsherd, coarse, wheelthrown

Coordinate TL

6035
Object description

spoon

material

silver

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

merchant's spoon, square shank with gilt seal end, merchant's initials PK? Bowl missing

13734

94681

6038

pipe tamper on finger ring
Object description initialed TB on design,

material

ae

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12666

95665

6039

seal matrix
Object description

material

ae

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

circular, dragon/griffon on reverse, raised spine with suspension loop

12548

95615

6041

weight
Object description oval with round perforation

material

pb

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

12341

65588

6050

brooch
Object description chip-carved

material

cu alloy

Saxon

to

Coordinate TL

12000

95900

6051

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

thin basesherd of fine white ware

12351

95661

6052

brooch
Object description

material

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

cylindrical head with end-plates to the wings, possible head loop as 2 nobs,end-plates perced to hold axis bar pin in place, arched bow, D-section with flat forward facing foot, small trapezoidal catchplate

12107

95579

6054

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

dolphin brooch, semi-circular wings with vertical rib decoration, worn hook, D-section bow tapering to pointed foot, small triangular catchplate,

11290

96571

6054

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

dolphin brooch, semi-circular wings with vertical rib decoration, worn hook, D-section bow tapering to pointed foot, small triangular catchplate,

11984

95113

6058

shoe pattern
Object description

material

fe

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

12738

95480

6071

brooch?
Object description with two perforations

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

rectangular plate with central perforation, gilded onion-shaped stud, extends to rectangular split plate

Coordinate TL

6091

riveted stud
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12072

95028

6105

harness pendant
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

circular, D-section, hollow incised upper surface, extending to square section with perforated terminal

Coordinate TL

6141
Object description

sherd

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

orange coarseware, possible Nene Valley

11436

96598

6166
Object description

spoon
decoration behind hook

material

ae

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

upper half or 'rat tail' spoon with typical hook where the bowl begins, bowl missing, zone of notched

12348

95815

6170

button
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

flattened sphere, signs of attchment

11461

96623

6188

brooch?
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

miscast brooch? D-section bow, mangled head

12358

95868

6216
Object description

lithic

material

flint

Prehistoric

to

Coordinate TL

broken blade, one edge retouched

12176

95749

6233

crotal bell
Object description radial design

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

6237

palm guard
Object description

material

pb

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

11992

95841

6245

crotal bell
Object description

material

ae

Medieval

to

large, squared off suspension loop,two opposing circular holes on upper half, cast floral decoration couplettes cover lower half directly underneath

Coordinate TL

6317

pot mend
Object description

material

pb

Early Roman

to Medieval

Coordinate TL

12230

95896

6318

potsherd
Object description grey ware bodysherd

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

12255

95899

6319
Object description

sherd

material

ceramic

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

grey sherd, ridged, pink fabric, shelly core

12312

95926

6345

token seal
Object description initialed R.H

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12372

95538

6391

crotal bell
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

incised WG, decorated around circumference

12316

95571

6441

hook tag
Object description

material

ae

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

scallop shell body, square lock at top, hook broken

12406

95523

6549
Object description

chape

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

claw-shaped, ribbed, round in section

Coordinate TL

7100

bracelet
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

strip, one terminal with incised grooves, other end broken, possibly recycled as ring

Coordinate TL

7777

brooch
Object description

material

cu

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

heart-shaped, some gilt, pin wrapped round frame

12345

95900

8001

thimble
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

domed thimble, incised dots on sides

11916

95515

8002

mount
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

bar mount, central round perforation

12369

95724

8006
Object description

bell
cut in half

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

11908

95221

8014

swivel mount
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

trapezoidal, small perforation

Coordinate TL

8015

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

8016
Object description

lithic

material

flint

Prehistoric

to

bladelet, prominent bulb of percussion, longitudinal flakes removed

Coordinate TL

8017
Object description

lithic

material

flint

Prehistoric

to

small thumbnail scraper, retouch and bulb of percussion

Coordinate TL

8020

buckle
Object description

material

ae

Medieval

to

single loop, D-shaped, pin missing

Coordinate TL

8021

decorative finial
Object description conical with knop on top

material

ae

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8024

belt mount
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8026

plate/pendant?
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval?

to

decorated with rough ring-and-dot pattern

Coordinate TL

8028

buckle frame
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

near-hexagonal frame, angled edged and ornate outer edge (rubbed centre, knopped outer)

Coordinate TL

8029

backing plate
Object description

material

ae

Medieval

to

wafer-thin, lozenge-shaped, perforated at one end

Coordinate TL

8030

backing plate
Object description oval, central perforation

material

ae

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8031

backing plate
Object description

material

ae

Medieval

to

rectangular, perforated in top two corners

Coordinate TL

8032

button
Object description rings of pellets

material

pb

Post-medieval

to

circular,slightly domed in section, attachment on back is missing, central raised boss surrounded by

Coordinate TL

8033

brooch
Object description

material

ae

Early Roman

to

Colchester-type, pin and string missing, two circular perforations through catchplate

Coordinate TL

8043

openwork mount
Object description n/a

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

8044

weight
Object description

material

pb

Early Roman

to Post-medieval

annular, small central perforation, rough manufacture

Coordinate TL

8046

brooch
Object description extends to length of leg

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

Hod Hill-type, head absent, vertically ribbed body, two arms, horizontally ribbed leg, catchplate

Coordinate TL

8049

button
Object description rib and scar for loop

material

pb

Medieval

to Post-medieval

circular, semi-circular in section, moulded rib decoration radiating from central knop, underside has

Coordinate TL

8050

weight
Object description

material

pb

Early Roman

to Post-medieval

spherical weight with round perforation

Coordinate TL

8051

mount
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

circular plate extending to cylindrical bar, underside has two lugs ending in rectangular end plates

Coordinate TL

8052

crotal bell
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

undecorated, square loop with collar at midpoint

Coordinate TL

8056

hairpin
Object description

material

ae

Early Roman

to Late Roman

globular head and proximal part of pin, no collar under head, not Anglo-Saxon

Coordinate TL

8059

strap end buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12392

95432

8060

potsherds
Object description

material

ceramic

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

2 sherds red pot, orange, sandy fabric

12724

95238

8061

barrel tap
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8062
Object description

vessel

material

pb

Unknown

to

rimsherd of lead urn, cut off at one end

Coordinate TL

8063

Unknown
Object description

material

cu alloy

Roman

to Unknown

possible nail cleaner or brooch fragment

Coordinate TL

8064

brooch
Object description possible annular brooch

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

12871

94683

8067

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

bow of Colchester-type brooch,

Coordinate TL

8069

document seal
Object description

material

pb

Medieval

to

A large circular lead or lead-alloy pendant of the late medieval to early post-medieval period. The front of the pendant depicts a square-topped shield bearing the royal arms of England as used between the reigns of Henry IV and Elizabeth I. Above and at each side of the shield there is a saltire, and around it, between inner and outer circles, there is a border of rosettes. The reverse is plain. The remains of a suspension loop with a front reinforcement rib survive, but the pendant is damaged and incomplete. It probably dates to the early Tudor period, a souvenir of the type sold to pilgrims prior to Henry VIII's abolition of the shrines in the late 1530s.

Coordinate TL

8070

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

Coordinate TL

fibula brooch, headstud type, gently tapering bow, semi-circular spring cover, reeded bow decoration

13704

94714

8071

buckle frame
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

D-shaped buckle frame , ornate outer edge, pin looped round bar

Coordinate TL

8073

brooch pin
Object description pin from annular brooch

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8074

masonry
Object description

material

marble

Early Roman

to Recent

flat fragment from arch, square in section

Coordinate TL

8075

fastener
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

hooked fastener, rose field with square loop

Coordinate TL

8077

perforated coin
Object description

material

Early Roman

to

dupondius or as, perforated for re-use

Coordinate TL

8078

Unknown
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

possible harness pendant or mount, gilded one side, extension with circular perforation at terminal

Coordinate TL

8080

votive miniature
Object description pisciform inscribed object

material

pb

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

8083

buckle frame
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

D-section, expansion on outer edge

Coordinate TL

8102

button
Object description

material

pb

Medieval

to Unknown

cast, seam and integral loop on underside, shows mounted knight with shield and lance advancing R in a circular field, inscription at margin illegible

Coordinate TL

8103

button
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

coiled alloy strip, decorated with central rib and knurling openwork knot, small circular wire loop

Coordinate TL

8104

pottery assemblage
Object description

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Up to 50 sherd assemblage of Roman pottery, mainly coarseware

Coordinate TL

8105

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

umbonate brooch. Hemispherical in section, four spherical knops, head loop, 2 semi-circular lugs securing pin, pin intact but corroded, sunburst pattern created with triangular cells of reb and blue enamel, circumferencial groove

Coordinate TL

8106

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

rectangular with round end and crossbar

Coordinate TL

8107

buckle
Object description oval,with process and pin

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8108

finger ring
Object description

material

silver

Early Roman

to Late Roman

bent hoop with oval inlaid bezel

Coordinate TL

8111

buckle
Object description spectacle buckle

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8117

weight
Object description

material

pb

Unknown

to

annular, 23mm diameter internal perforation

Coordinate TL

8118

strap swivel
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8120

Unknown
Object description

material

silver

Unknown

to

squashed object with scalloped edge and incised pattern round margin, possible bell

Coordinate TL

8121

votive miniature
Object description 2 ribs

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

miniature axehead, flat, incised marginal dots on one side, circular perforation separated from head by

Coordinate TL

8122

ampulla
Object description

material

pb

Medieval

to

side lugs, ribbed base, underside decorated with ribbed flower motif, Walsingham?

Coordinate TL

8128

buckle frame
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

oval frame, small central nipple on outer edge, integral forked spacer, pin wrapped between

Coordinate TL

8129

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to

folded-over head with cut-out for pin, Hod Hill-type, tapers then expands to trapezoidal bow with groove and central vertical groove, horizontal groove at foot, triangular catchplate, tinning on bow

Coordinate TL

8130

weight
Object description pierced halfway through

material

ceramic

Roman

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

8134

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Saxon

to

applied knob from brooch, hollow, hemispherical section, cast, zoomorphic with prominent snout, ribbed nostrils and eyes extending to regular strip in circular end socket, iron corrosion below

Coordinate TL

8135

crotal bell
Object description plain square loop

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8136

book clasp
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

rectangular plate with bent-over loop, splayed opposite end, stamped with concentric circles, two rivets, repair plate on underside

Coordinate TL

8138
Object description

cross

material

pb alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

square in section, bent-over loop, possible crude face

Coordinate TL

8139

finger ring
Object description octagonal/round bezel only

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

8141

musket ball
Object description

material

pb

Post-medieval

to Recent

Coordinate TL

12362

95642

8142

seal matrix
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

REDE?BP???*?I central motif- animal with star and fleur-de-lis above star and crest below, quatrefoil handle, collared below

12214

95566

8143

coin weight
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

coin type coin weight, obverse- crowned bust right I.R.M. BRITAIN reverse-illegible

12579

95795

8144

book clasp
Object description

material

cu alloy

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

rectangular plate with stamped concentric circles, one splayed terminal one square hooked terminal, leather intact, 2 fe rivets in situ

12344

95525

8145

buckle/brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

triangular-section frame, decorated with knurling, trapezoidal section central bar

12346

95528

8146

mount
Object description

material

Medieval

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

12287

95615

8147

Unknown
Object description

material

ceramic

Unknown

to

Coordinate TL

12243

95697

8148

buckle plate and frame
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to

Coordinate TL

rectangular frame and plate wrapped around, perforated

11269

96561

8149
Object description

lithic

material

flint

Prehistoric

to

Coordinate TL

blade? No clear bulb one straight worked edge

12895

94721

8150
Object description

vessel

material

pewter

Early Roman

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

pewter rim, rib below rim on outer edge

12468

95745

8197
Object description

CBM

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Post-medieval

Coordinate TL

arched tile frag, terracotta, either Roman CBM or post-med field drain

12927

94907

8198
Object description

CBM

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

Coordinate TL

box flue corner, exterior ribbed

12447

95610

8199

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Post-medieval

to

Coordinate TL

8200

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Early Roman

to Late Roman

beaded rimsherd, orange-pink

Coordinate TL

8201

potsherd
Object description

material

ceramic

Post-medieval

to

rimsherd, damaged, some brown glaze remains

Coordinate TL

8202

button
Object description

material

tin

Post-medieval

to

Dandy button' round 18 diam, 1 thick, rough tin loop soldered on back

Coordinate TL

8203

buckle
Object description

material

cu alloy

Medieval

to Post-medieval

double loop sub-rectangular buckle, linear decoration on outer border

Coordinate TL

8204

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Early Roman

to Late Roman

brooch fragment, wavy denticulate edge, pinched below

Coordinate TL

8205

brooch
Object description

material

cu alloy

Unknown

to

small frag, pinched in centre

Coordinate TL

8209

Imperial Seal Box Lid
Object description

material

pb

Roman

to

Coordinate TL

circular mid plate with classical bust(Nero?), loop missing

12334

95644

8210

Thimble
Object description

material

Silver

Post-Med

to

Silver thimble with decoratated base, including heart

Coordinate TL

8211

Dagger Chape
Object description

material

Cu Alloy

medieval

to

A sword or dagger scabbard chape dating from the late medieval to early post-medieval period. The sub-triangular chape comprises a thick cast front. The front is decorated with a scalloped edge across the top, with circular openwork holes in corresponding positions below. With globular tip.

Coordinate TL

8212

Axe head
Object description

material

greenstone

Prehistoric

to

Greenstone polished axe head, badly chipped, but still reasonably complete.

Coordinate TL

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

101 104 106 123 134 138 140 140 141 142 142 145 162 162 169 172 175 177 178 179 195 207 220 238 283 288 290 291 297 316

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Medieval Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman

330-402 335-41 260-402 260-75 260-402 321-4 364-78 364-78 260-96 1558-1603 1558-1603

Nummus Nummus Radiate Radiate Radiate Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate copy SS SS token

17-21 17 13-21 13 13-21 16 19 19 13-14 12387 95575 13064 94180 11227 96336 13014 94196 11413 96215 13046 94165 11499 96148

335-41 335-41 347-8 260-402 238-44 323-4 330-41

Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate Denarius Nummus Nummus token

17 17 17 13-21 12 16 17

11946 95642 12384 95799

11933 95677 13283 94371 12391 95335 12443 95679 12495 95477

353-8 260-96 364-78 364-78 364-78 347-8 335-41 330-41 286-93 98-117

Num copy Radiate Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Num copy Radiate Sden

18 13-14 19 19 19 17 17 17 14 5

12385 95579 13080 94417

12418 95893 12740 95257

12736 95248 11936 95626 12503 95535

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

340 341 360 375 375 384 385 385 386 392 405 455 456 458 489 512 514 514 523 532 582 616 650 655 673 693 709 730 731 732

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Iron Age Roman Medieval Roman ain Roman

323-4 41-192 364-78 335-41 335-41 260-96 260-402 260-402 260-402 260-402 260-402 364-78 364-78 330-41 330-35 330-35 364-78 364-78 1558-1603 260-96

Nummus DU/AS Nummus Nummus Nummus

16 39 19 17 17 13-14

11376 96156 12969 94780

12784 94986 12685 95058 12761 95250 12759 95251 12350 95663 12746 95280

Radiate Radiate Radiate Radiate Radiate Nummus Nummus Nummus

13-21 13-21 13-21 13-21 13-21 19 19 17 17

12327 95646 12002 95084

12745 95280 12342 95612 13232 94711 13234 94711 12711 95223 12842 95138

Nummus Nummus Nummus S3P Radiate jetton

17 19 19

13-14

12839 95132

330-402 260-402 330-41

Nummus Radiate Nummus Stater

17-21 13-21 17

13074 94443 12529 95607 12583 95502 13141 94414

260-96

Radiate copy coin weight

13-14

12822 95003 12462 95581

260-402

Radiate coin

13-21

13160 94385

260-402

Radiate

13-21

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

738 738 742 743 744 745 749 788 789 802 807 809 809 820 841 866 960 961 963 969 974 976 982 983 985 985 999 1053 1053 1074

Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Medieval Iron Age Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman

260-402 260-402 321-4 330-41

Radiate Radiate Nummus Nummus token

13-21 13-21 16 17

12854 94842 12043 95552

12208 95531 12814 94928 12205 95637 12076 95006

1558-1603

SS Stater

313 324-30 260-402 260-402 260-402 260-402 364-78 96-192 364-78 330-41 330-402 330-402 330-402 98-117 330-402 37-41 330-35 330-402 330-402 260-402 353-8 353-8 324-30

Nummus Nummus Radiate Copy Radiate Radiate Nummus DU/AS Nummus Num copy Num copy Nummus Nummus Sestersius Nummus AS Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate Num copy Num copy Nummus

15 16 13-21 13-21 13-21 13-21 19 59 19 17 17-21 17-21 17-21 5 17-21 1 17 17-21 17-21 13-21 18 18 16

12166 95180 12218 95299 12289 95136 12811 95210 12850 94768 12807 95186

12875 94840 12188 95783 12715 95258 13092 94450 12082 95134 11411 96642 12405 95524 12093 95673

11826 94983 12950 94967 12377 95846 12950 94967 12884 95017 12646 95150 13022 94575

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

1076 1084 1097 2121 2142 2163 2164 2166 2167 2170 2176 2225 2233 2246 2250 2252 2276 2293 2293 2295 2320 2350 2367 2390 2393 2394 2464 2504 2538 2574

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Post Medieval Roman Medieval Roman

260-8 307-17 260-402 330-5 330-41

Radiate Nummus Radiate Nummus Nummus jetton

13 15 13-21 17 17

12819 95201

12874 94987 12930 95005

367-78 318-20 260-96 260-96 364-78 1450-1550 1485-1509 330-35 260-402 260-96 330-402 330-5 330-5 Nummus Radiate Radiate copy Nummus VS SP Nummus Radiate Radiate Nummus Nummus Nummus jetton 260-402 321-4 270-5 260-402 330-402 330-402 Radiate Nummus Radiate Radiate Nummus Num copy token 321-4 Nummus coin weight 260-96 Radiate copy

19 16 13-14 13-14 19

11334 96253

13067 94572

12409 95887

12896 94622 17 13-21 13-14 17-21 17 17 11415 96197 12442 95782 12826 94736 13-21 16 13 13-21 17-21 17-21 12781 95213 12060 95089 13757 94667 12819 94895 13024 94130 12851 94755 16 13132 94416 12748 95193 13-14 12767 95097 11449 96579 12820 94798

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

2580 2581 2582 2583 2587 2588 2613 2637 2638 2639 2640 2670 2675 2690 2691 2692 2727 3031 3044 3048 3051 3053 3054 3056 3058 3060 3061 3071 3090 3100

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Medieval Roman Roman

330-402 330-402 293-6 330-402 330-402 260-96 321-4 260-402 347-8 364-78

Nummus Nummus Quin Nummus Nummus Radiate copy Nummus Radiate Nummus Nummus token

17-21 17-21 14 17-21 17-21 13-14 16 13-21 17 19

12008 95758

12380 95700 11438 96117 12307 95526 11256 96273

12874 94748 12276 95724 12507 95669 12386 95622

260-96 *32-1 330-402 353-8 260-96 350-3

Radiate copy Denarius Nummus Nummus Radiate Nummus SP

13-14 1 17-21 19 13-14 18

12835 94831

12848 94953 12088 95234 12247 95109 12269 95240 12782 94944

350-3 260-96 330-35 364-78 260-402 271-4 335-41

Nummus Radiate Nummus Nummus Radiate Radiate Nummus jetton/token

18 13-14 17 19 13-21 13 17

12809 94921 12286 95925 11400 96244

12285 95626

12357 95586 12425 95495

330-402

Nummus jetton

17-21

260-402 330-41

Radiate Nummus

13-21 17

12400 95533

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

3426 3427 3429 3430 3439 3463 3464 3475 3476 3477 3504 3521 3535 3553 6001 6002 6007 6037 6048 6063 6074 6077 6089 6093 6165 6167 6168 6169 6178 6179

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Post Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman

330-402 367-78 347-8 330-402 364-78 260-402 1625-1649 347-8 270-5 330-402 353-8 260-402

Nummus Nummus Nummus Num copy Nummus Radiate SCI Nummus Radiate Nummus Num copy Radiate jetton

17-21 19 17 17-21 19 13-21

12580 95776 12300 95819 12445 95755 12487 95743 12423 95717 12377 95508 12385 95865

17 13 17-21 19 13-21 12797 95137 12366 95480 12328 95486 13-21 13-21 13-21 13-21 13-21 11995 95635 59 3 9 13 13-21 11365 96159 12411 95763 11430 96222 11972 95795 12392 95866 11381 96130 12360 95436 12493 95484

260-402 260-402 260-402 260-402 260-402

Radiate Radiate Radiate Radiate Radiate CHS

96-192 41-192 260-8 260-402 uncertain 364-78 335-41 335-41 364-78 330-402 330-402

AS DU/AS Radiate Radiate

Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Num copy

19 17 17 19 17-21 17-21

12414 95739 11922 95060 12343 95837 12404 95697 12023 95187 12370 95761

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

6183 6185 6197 6199 6218 6221 6222 6231 6232 6239 6304 6345 6367 6443 6444 6445 6448 6463 6474 6494 6495 6504 6646 7779 7779 7779 7779 8000 8003 8004

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman ain ain ain ain Roman Roman Roman

317-24 260-402 260-96 383-402 387-88 260-402 260-96 260-402 330-41 260-402 321-4

Nummus Radiate Radiate copy SI Nummus Radiate Radiate copy Radiate Nummus Radiate Nummus token/seal

16 13-21 13-14 21 20 13-21 13-14 13-21 17 13-21 16

12305 95695 12332 95685 12326 95713 12276 95582 12102 95047 12027 95029

12440 95653 12132 95789 12420 95654

12372 95538 10 17 13-14 13-21 19 19 12486 95636 12379 95451 12416 95527 12391 95454 12165 95206 12361 95907 12308 95871 12179 95226

193-211 330-41 260-96 260-402 364-75 364-78 335-41 364-78

Sestersius Nummus Radiate Radiate Nummus

Nummus Nummus jetton

17 19

260-402 330-35

Radiate Nummus coin coin coin coin

13-21 17

260-96 335-41 364-75

Radiate Nummus Nummus

13-14 17 19

11790 95430 12483 95732 12478 95741

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

8005 8007 8008 8009 8010 8011 8012 8013 8019 8022 8023 8025 8027 8034 8035 8036 8037 8038 8039 8040 8041 8047 8053 8054 8055 8072 8077 8079 8082 8084

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman

330-402 335-41 330-41 364-75 330-5 260-96 311-17 1485-1509 330-35 321-4 347-8 307-17 330-402 364-78 260-402 260-402

Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate copy Nummus SP Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate Radiate token

17-21 17 17 19 17 13-14 15

12222 95098 12290 95205 13725 94725 12239 95792 12479 95646 12325 95841 12283 95868 12800 95300

17 16 17 15 17-21 19 13-21 13-21

330-402 260-96 364-78 313-17

Nummus Radiate copy Nummus Nummus jetton/token

17-21 13-14 19 15

260-402 260-96 330-402 364-78 41-192 317-24 321-4 260-402

Radiate Radiate Nummus

13-21 13-14 17-21 19

DU/AS Nummus Nummus Radiate

39 16 16 13-21

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

8085 8086 8087 8088 8089 8090 8091 8092 8093 8094 8095 8096 8097 8098 8099 8109 8110 8112 8116 8119 8123 8124 8125 8126 8127 8132 8133 8137 8142 8143

Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Post Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Post Medieval Medieval

260-96 364-78 330-35 335-41 330-402 260-402 321-4 330-402 260-402 330-402 260-96 260-402 364-78 260-402 260-402 364-78 260-402 260-96 260-96 350-3 260-402 1694-1702 364-78 364-78 69 260-402 364-78 318-24 1727-1820

Radiate copy Nummus Num copy Nummus Nummus Radiate Beata Tran Nummus Radiate Nummus Radiate copy Radiate Nummus Radiate Radiate Nummus Radiate Radiate Radiate Nummus Radiate SWIII Nummus Nummus Denarius Radiate Nummus Nummus HP coin weight

13-14 19 17 17 17-21 13-21 16 17-21 13-21 17-21 13-14 13-21 19 13-21 13-21 19 13-21 13-14 13-14 18 13-21

19 19 4 13-21 19 16 12214 95566 12579 95795

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

8151 8153 8154 8155 8156 8157 8158 8159 8160 8161 8162 8163 8164 8165 8166 8167 8168 8169 8171 8172 8173 8174 8175 8176 8177 8178 8179 8180 8181 8182

Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman

1558-1603 330-402 364-78 364-78 388-408 340-41 388-92 330-402 260-96 260-402 260-402 260-402 330-41 260-96 286-93 260-96 318-20 260-96 347-48 330-402 335-41 330-41 260-96 260-402 364-78 388-402 330-402 260-402 330-41 330-402

S3P Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate Radiate Radiate Radiate Nummus Radiate copy Radiate Radiate copy Nummus Radiate copy Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate copy Radiate Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate Nummus Nummus 17-21 19 19 21 17 21 17-21 13-14 13-21 13-21 13-21 17 13-14 14 13-14 16 13-14 17 17-21 17 17 13-14 13-21 19 21 17-21 13-21 17 17-21

11959 95086 12816 95198 12810 95191 12826 95185 12824 95198 12830 95181 12811 95190 12812 95205 12409 95884 12455 95875 12467 95842 13035 94525 21289 95662 21275 95644 11245 96622 11350 96656 11362 96678 11289 96546 12295 95572 12295 95689 12247 95521 12282 95538 12262 95568 12346 95866 12385 95875 12471 95528 12466 95545 12458 95589 12462 95573 12485 95672

Find

Period

Date

Type

Reece

Easting

Northing

8183 8184 8185 8186 8187 8188 8189 8190 8191 8193 8195 8196

Roman Roman Medieval Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman Roman

364-78 260-96

Nummus Radiate jetton

19 13-14

12412 95628 12278 95295 12775 95254

330-402 330-402 330-402 330-402 330-402 330-402 335-41 260-402 330-402

Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Nummus Radiate Nummus

17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17-21 17 13-21 17-21

12434 95732 12367 95798 12369 95745 12375 95648 13190 94492 13156 94425 12389 95847 13058 94569 12848 94839

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

Water Newton Detecting Rally 2007

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