Sampler

Projects in Speech Communication
Review Board
Review Board for Projects in Speech Communication
The pages in this sampler are taken from the Student Edition and the Teacher’s Wraparound Edition of Projects in Speech Communication to illustrate the student projects and other features in both editions that make this brand-new program effective and enjoyable .

Sampler Table of Contents

Projects in Speech Communication has been developed with the guidance of an outstanding panel of expert teachers.

Student Edition Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v–xix

The Student Edition begins with the fundamental elements of communication and then Senior Consultant Professor Diana Carlin teaches a explores each of the main categories of communication. No other book covers group variety of courses on political debates, Diana B. Carlin, Ph.D. mass communications as thoroughly. Exemplary speeches within communication and speechwriting, models of successful speaking. chapters and at the end of the book Department of Communication Studiesprovide an abundance ofand women in politics. She is the author of secondary textbooks on University of Kansas debate and public speaking and is a former Chapter Sampler—Selections from school teacher and forensics coach. high

Unit 1, Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–63

Chapter Opener Each chapter opens with an Essential Question and a brief description of the learn-by-doing project the students will complete. Each chapter opener also includes a Teacher Reviewers lively graphic and a Speak Up! activity to excite and energize students from the start. Linda L. Alderson, Director of Forensics Mary Schick (See pages 46–47.)

and UIL Academic Coordinator Speech and Debate Teacher/Coach Boling High School (retired) Core The mainMiami-Dade County Public the core content Selections from the Chapter part of the chapter—where Schools is Texas Boling,presented—provides the background for the project. (See pages 48–51.) When students Miami, Florida have completed this part, they move on to sections focused on Preparing, Presenting, and Russell Kirksceytheir projects. (See pages 57–59.) In addition, each Williford Stephen Douglas chapter includes features Evaluating that enrich Speech Teacher the core content. Those in Chapter 3 areTeacher Speech typical. Blanco High School Harding Academy • ommunication in a Diverse World presents communication in a global context. C Blanco, Texas Memphis, Tennessee The Chapter 3 feature, “The Message in the Movement,” explores cultural differences in body Roseboro, NBCT Anna J. Small language and social space (proxemics). (SeeWoodhouse Cynthia page 56.) Communication Arts and Sciences Language Arts/Debate Teacher • ommunication Past and Present analyzes communication throughout history. C Department West Senior High School The Chapter 3 feature, “Shake on It,” reviews Citysignificance and evolution of the Calvin College Iowa the Community Schools handshake and its cousin the “high five.” (See pages 60–61.) Grand Rapids, Michigan Iowa City, Iowa
Chapter Review Activities at the end of each chapter reinforce key ideas, encourage reflection and synthesis, provide real-world applications, and offer additional projects. (See pages Compliance of Standards 62–63.)

Projects in Speech Communication

Projects in Speech Communication supports state standards as well as the K–12The unit closers offer more opportunitiesby the National Communication Association. Standards of Communication developed for active learning and for applying what students have learned in new ways. Each unit closer has four types of activities.

Unit Closer Sampler—Unit 1: Communication Basics . . . .108–109

iv
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• orkplace Workout—a scenario requiring a decision from the world of work W • ender Journey—a hands-on project exploring gender differences in communication G • edia Master—an activity centered on media and technology M • wn It!—an opportunity to think back through the unit and refine understandings O

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Projects in Speech Communication

Overview
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

One

Unit

Communication Basics .

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2

The Fundamentals of Communication . Oral Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonverbal Communication . . . . . . . . . . Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influences on Communication . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Unit

Two

Interpersonal Communication
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

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110
112 136 152 172

Effective Interpersonal Communication Strategies Interpersonal Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solving Problems and Managing Conflict . . . . . . . . Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Three

Unit

Group Communication
Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13

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196
198 214

The Power of Groups . . . . . Group Dynamics and Roles Group Discussions . . . . . . . Parliamentary Procedure . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Four

Unit

Public Speaking
Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19

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274
276

Preparing to Speak . . . . . . . . . . Researching Your Subject . . . . . Organizing Your Speech . . . . . . Preparing Supporting Materials . Using Language Effectively . . . Presenting Your Speech . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

372

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Five

Unit

Types of Presentations .
Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23

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420
422 478

The Speech to Inform . . . . . . . . . The Speech to Persuade . . . . . . . Speeches for Special Occasions Competitive Speech Events . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

Unit
Six

Mass Communications

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540

Chapter 24 Mass Communications in Society . Chapter 25 Technology in Everyday Life. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562

v

vii

Unit

ONE

Communication Basics
ChaPTER

1 The Fundamentals of Communication
EssEntial Question:

. . . . . . 04

What is communication? Chapter Project: Instant Replay
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The Importance of Communication in Daily Life . Feature: Communication in a Diverse World .
A World Without Language

06 07 08 09 13 14 15 20

Standards for Communication Decisions . a Model of the Communication Process Expanding the Communication Model Feature: Is This Job for Me?
Motivational Speaker

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Refining the Definition of Communication

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Feature: Communication Past and Present

Mass Communications—From Gutenberg to the Internet

ChaPTER

2 Oral Language

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24

EssEntial Question: how can people use language to achieve effective oral communication? Chapter Project: “Who’s on First?”

Identifying Characteristics of Oral Language . Feature: Is T his Job for Me? .
Lawyer

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26 29 30 32 42

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analyzing Standards for Using Oral Language . Making Communication Choices Feature: Communication Past and Present
to Modern Humans

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Neanderthal Speech and Musical Sounds—From Neanderthals

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ChaPTER

3 Nonverbal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

46

how and what do people communicate without words? Chapter Project: Silence, Please!
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Types of Nonverbal Communication .

48 55 56 60

The Effects of Nonverbal Communication.
The Message in the Movement

Feature: Communication in a Diverse World Feature: Communication Past and Present.
to the “High Five” ChaPTER

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Shake on It—From the “Right Hand of Friendship”

4 Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
how does effective listening help people communicate meaningfully? Chapter Project: Listen here
EssEntial Question:

64

The Listening Process and Its Components . Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening Feature: Is This Job for Me?
Sign Language Interpreter

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66 72 73 78 82

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academic Listening .

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Feature: Communication Past and Present.

The Gift of Listening—From Trumpets to Implants

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ChaPTER

5 Influences on Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

86

What influences your ability to

communicate effectively? Chapter Project: What Do You See? Perception of Self and Others
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88 98 100 101 104

Other Influences on Communication Feature: Is This Job for Me?
Mediator

Social and Ethical Responsibilities of Communicators .

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Feature: Communication Past and Present.

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Stereotypes Through History—From Historical Times to Today

Unit

TWO
ChaPTER

Interpersonal Communication
6 Effective Interpersonal
Communication Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
EssEntial Question:

What strategies enhance interpersonal communication? Chapter Project: Different People, Different Talk Interpersonal Relationships .
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114 121

Feature: Communication in a Diverse World applying Decision-Making Strategies in Everyday Communication . . . . . . . . . . .

He Says, She Says: Gender and Body Language

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122 132

Feature: Communication Past and Present .

Say Hey!—From Greetings Past to Greetings Present

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ChaPTER

7 Interpersonal Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
EssEntial Question:

how can skillful listening enhance interpersonal relationships? Chapter Project: Lend Me Your Ear
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Critical Listening in Interpersonal Relationships . Feature: Is This Job for Me?
Investigative Journalist

138 141 142 144 148

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Empathic Listening in Interpersonal Relationships Feature: Communication Past and Present .
to Everyday Life

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Reflective Listening in Interpersonal Relationships .
The Listening Revolution—From Therapy Sessions

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ChaPTER

8 Solving Problems and
Managing Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
EssEntial Question:

What communication strategies are effective for solving problems and managing conflict? Chapter Project: Work It Out Problem-Solving .
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154 156 161 162 164 168

Communication Strategies for Problem-Solving . Feature: Is This Job for Me? .
Human Resources Manager

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Managing Conflict.

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Evaluating Interpersonal Communication .
Problem-Solving—From Lao-tzu to Toyota

Feature: Communication Past and Present

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xi

ChaPTER

9 Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

172

how can you make the

most of interviews? Chapter Project: “So Tell Me about Yourself . . .” Interview Basics
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174 175 180 183 190

The Job or School Interview

Feature: Communication in a Diverse World
Affirmative Action at the University of Michigan

Conducting an Interview .

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Feature: Communication Past and Present .

Equal Opportunity—From Oppression to Inclusion

THREE
ChaPTER

Unit

Group Communication
10 The Power of Groups
EssEntial Question: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

198

What purposes and functions of groups make them so important? Chapter Project: Power to the Group! Groups in a Democratic Society . Types and Functions of Groups .
Our Town in Compton
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200 203 206 210

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Feature: Communication in a Diverse World . Feature: Communication Past and Present .
of the Monarch to the Voice of the People

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Individuals, Groups, and Government—From the Voice

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xii

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ChaPTER

11 Group Dynamics and Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

214

how do the roles of group members influence a group’s effectiveness? Chapter Project: The Group Roles On Group Dynamics
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216 217 221 222 226

Member Roles

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Feature: Communication in a Diverse World .
In a Japanese Classroom

Evaluating Group Performance

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Feature: Communication Past and Present
Group Dynamics—From the 20th Century to the High-Tech 21st Century

ChaPTER

12 Group Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

230

What are the elements of effective group discussion? Chapter Project: Got a Problem? here’s the Solution.
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Planning for Group Discussion Leading a Group Feature: Is This Job for Me? .
Group Facilitator

232 236 239 240 250

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Participating in Group Discussions .

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Feature: Communication Past and Present .
Leadership Styles—From the Transactional to the Transformational

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ChaPTER

13 Parliamentary Procedure
EssEntial Question:

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254

how does parliamentary procedure work? Chapter Project: You’re Out of Order! Rules of Order and Parliamentary Procedure
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256 257 260 261 268

Parliamentary Roles .

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Feature: Communication in a Diverse World .
The Power of the Talking Stick

a Parliamentary Meeting

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Feature: Communication Past and Present .
Scribes to Microphones and Computer Chips

Setting the Record Straight—From Ancient Egyptian

FOUR
ChaPTER

Unit

Public Speaking
14 Preparing to Speak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
EssEntial Question:

What can you do

to prepare for a speech? Chapter Project: Get to the Point! analyzing audience, Purpose, and Occasion Choosing Your Topic Limiting Your Topic .
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278 280 281 282 285 289 292

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Limiting Your Purpose.

analyzing a Speech to Understand Purpose . Feature: Is This Job for Me? .
Speechwriter

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Feature: Communication Past and Present
at Home to the Public Spotlight

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Finding a Public Voice—From “True Womanhood”

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ChaPTER

15 Researching Your Subject
EssEntial Question:

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296

how can I find and use the information necessary for my speech? Chapter Project: Says Who? The Need for Research
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298 300 301 303 307 308 311 316

Primary and Secondary Sources Research Efficiency Using the Internet .
Digital Librarian

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Feature: Is This Job for Me? . Print Sources .

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Supporting Your Thesis

Feature: Communication Past and Present
Public Libraries—From the Library Company of Philadelphia to Your Local Public Library ChaPTER

16 Organizing Your Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

320

how should a

speech be organized? Chapter Project: Map It! The Importance of Organization . The Introduction of the Speech
Culture and Public Speaking
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322 322 328 329 338 339 346

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Feature: Communication in a Diverse World . The Body of the Speech

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The Conclusion of the Speech .

analyzing Speech Form: Organizational Principles Feature: Communication Past and Present
Getting Organized—From Cicero to Dave Barry

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ChaPTER

17 Preparing Supporting Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
EssEntial Question:

how are supporting materials used to enhance a speech? Chapter Project: Worth a Thousand Words Speech Delivery Formats
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352 355 357 359 364 368

Preparing Notes for Extemporaneous Delivery . Producing Standard Visual aids . Using Presentation Software Feature: Is This Job for Me?
Graphic Designer

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Feature: Communication Past and Present.
“Back in the Day” to Our Day ChaPTER

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A Visual History of Presentation Equipment—From

18 Using Language Effectively
EssEntial Question:

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372

how do speakers use language to enhance a message? Chapter Project: The One That Got away The Right Words at the Right Time . Expressive Language Pulling It all Together
News Writer
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374 378 381 382 387 390

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Language Dos and Don’ts

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Feature: Is This Job for Me?

Feature: Communication Past and Present.
Memorable Commencement Speeches—From the 1800s to the 20th Century and Beyond

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ChaPTER

19 Presenting Your Speech
EssEntial Question:

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394

What strategies can you use to present your speech effectively and powerfully? Chapter Project: Check It Out Qualities of Effective Deliveries
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396 397 403 404 406 408 409 414

Voice .

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Using Supporting Tools appropriately Interacting with Your audience . Building Self-Confidence Feature: Is This Job for Me? . Evaluating Your Speech

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Pharmaceutical Sales Representative
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Feature: Communication Past and Present

Unit

Inspiring Deliveries—From Yesteryear to Modern Day

FIVE
ChaPTER

Types of Presentations
20 The Speech to Inform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
EssEntial Question:

how can you make speeches to inform as effective as possible? Chapter Project: here’s how
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Types of Informative Speeches. Feature: Is This Job for Me? .
Teacher

424 425 428 433 436 438 441 446

Steps for Preparing an Expository Speech

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Steps for Preparing a Process Speech . Presenting Your Informative Speech analyzing Speeches to Inform Evaluating Informative Speeches .

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Feature: Communication Past and Present
to George W. Bush

State of the Union Address—From George Washington

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ChaPTER

21 The Speech to Persuade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

450

how can you make speeches to persuade as effective as possible? Chapter Project: The Triple Play Persuasion
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452 463 464 467 468 470 474

Organizing the Persuasive Speech

analyzing the Characteristics of Persuasive Speech . Presenting Your Persuasive Speech Evaluating Persuasive Speeches .
Global Persuasion

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Feature: Communication in a Diverse World . Feature: Communication Past and Present

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The Art of Persuasion—From Aristotle to Advertising

ChaPTER

22 Speeches for Special Occasions . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question: how do speeches for special occasions differ in content and organization? Chapter Project: and the Winner Is . . .

478

Understanding Special Occasion Speeches The Graduation Speech The Speech of Introduction. The Presentation Speech . The acceptance Speech The after-Dinner Speech

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480 481 484 486 488 492 496 498 500 504

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The Commemorative Speech .

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Presenting Your Special Occasion Speech
Know Your Audience

Feature: Communication in a Diverse World Feature: Communication Past and Present.

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Praising the Dead—From Ancient Greece to John Cleese

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ChaPTER

23 Competitive Speech Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

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What can you learn from preparing for competitive speech events even if you never compete? Chapter Project: Bring It to Life Competitive Speaking .
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510 514 517 518 520 526 534

analyzing an Extemporaneous Speech .
“Chinese Bridge” Speech Competition

Feature: Communication in a Diverse World Competitive Impromptu Speaking. Competitive Dramatic Events Competitive Debate

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Feature: Communication Past and Present.

Unit

The Story of Debate—From Disputation to Debate Camp

SIX
ChaPTER

Mass Communications
24 Mass Communications in Society . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

542

What are

mass communications? Chapter Project: Media Crystal Ball Mass Communications and Mass Media Purposes of Mass Communications . Potential Drawbacks .
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544 545 547 549 551 552 558

a Model of the Mass Communications Process.

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Feature: Communication in a Diverse World .
Freedom of the Press

Ethical Issues

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Feature: Communication Past and Present
Getting the News Out—From Town Criers to Satellite Transmissions

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25 Technology in Everyday Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EssEntial Question:

562

how does technology affect the way people communicate? Chapter Project: Technology Tales Technology’s Impact on Communication
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564 570 572 576 578 579 580 586

Technology’s Impact on Democracy . Forms of Mass Technology .

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Director’s Cut: Creating Video Presentations . . . . . .
Forms of Individual Technology . Feature: Is This Job for Me? .
Network Systems Analyst
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The Positive and Negative Impact of Technology . Feature: Communication Past and Present
Letter Writing—From Pen and Ink to E-mail

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Communication
SOURCEBOOk

Speeches, Commentary, and Humor
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
xviii abraham Lincoln: The Gettysburg Address . Mary Louise Gilman: Courtroom Bloopers . helen Keller: How to Help the Blind Plato: Is a Just Man Useful?
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592 593 594 595 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 605 606

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Winston Churchill: We Shall Fight on the Beaches. henrik Ibsen: A Doll’s House . Deborah Tannen: I Heard What You Didn’t Say . Margaret Chase Smith: In Defense of Dissent Rachel N.: My Grandmother, Shizue Kobayashi English College Students: Organizing a Group . Daniel Goleman: Humor and Problem-Solving . Rachel Donadio: Revising Robert’s Rules .

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Cesar Chavez: Recognizing the Power of a Group .

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14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Glossary . Index

Ray Suarez: Writing Speeches for Presidents . Nicholas Carr: Is Google Making Us Stupid? Sojourner Truth: Ain’t I a Woman? . Richard Lederer: Crazy English .

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607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 619 620

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Michael hyatt: What to Do When Technology Fails Taylor Branch: Presenting “I Have a Dream” . Carmen hernandez: In Favor of a Skate Park Lindsey Morgan: Pirate Myths and Realities Sandra Tsing Loh: Be Plus Like .

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Ralph Linton: One Hundred Percent American .

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Sara Martinez Tucker: A Commencement Address . Condoleezza Rice: My Grandfather and Education .

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622 634 638

Acknowledgments

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Chapter

3
Chapter

Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is characterized by facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, posture and stance, movement, and appearance. It can enrich verbal communication or take the place of words entirely. Volume, rate, and pitch are also considered nonverbal indicators, but they will not be covered until Chapter 19.

3

Nonverbal Communication
EssENtial Question
Chapter Project: Silence, Please!
Have you ever been more pleased—or more hurt—by the look on someone’s face than by any words spoken? This project will help you understand how expressive wordless communication can be. With a partner, you will present a two-minute conversation in which two people communicate without using words. Your exchange can be friendly or hostile, funny or tragic. Use your imagination. Classmates will take note of your body language, facial expression, gestures, and movements to evaluate how well you complete this activity. Refer to the following CAPS guidelines as you work to meet this challenge. The rubric on page 59 shows the traits on which your presentation will be evaluated.

EssENtial Question
How and what do people communicate without words? Ask students to discuss ways they communicate without words. Have volunteers demonstrate a variety of widely understood facial expressions, gestures, and movements, and ask students to translate them into words.

How and what do people communicate without words?

Chapter Project: Silence, Please!
Play a clip of a classic silent movie and ask students to note and discuss the nonverbal messages. Talk about the effects of nonverbal communication such as mannerisms and how speakers convey credibility.

CAPS
Point out to students that live conversations are easier to decode accurately than phone conversations, and each of those are easier to decode than email. Explain that nonverbal communication supports, limits, and annotates a speaker’s message.

C once pt A u d i e nce P u r pos e S ituation
46
n imp
Unit 1 Communication Basics

nonverbal communication can be as effective as the spoken word partner, classmates, and teacher to practice effective nonverbal communication a two-minute wordless “conversation”

Objectives
• Interpret types of nonverbal communication, including facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, posture, movement, and appearance. • Analyze how proxemics are affected by culture, gender, and work or social contexts. • Analyze the effects of nonverbal communication, such as mannerisms, and how a speaker conveys credibility. 46 Unit One Communication Basics

Pacing for a Year’s Study
Day 1 pp. 46-52 Day 2 pp. 53-56 Day 3 p. 57 Day 4 pp. 58-59 Day 5 pp. 60-63 NOTE: Pacing for a semester’s study appears on p. 2.

Critical Thinking
Have students work in groups to identify contemporary forms of nonverbal, nonelectronic communication. Do the following in front of the class: ’ Interpret Strike an impatient pose with your hands on your hips. Tap one foot. Ask students the meaning of the pose. Analyze Change your position so that you are slouching against something. Have students discuss how your change in posture changes your nonverbal message.

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KEy VoCabulary
nonverbal communication body language multi-channeled emphatic gestures descriptive gestures posture stance proxemics communication imperative mannerism credibility

Key Vocabulary
nonverbal communication anything people communicate beyond the literal meaning of words body language gestures, eye contact, posture, facial expression, and proxemics as conveyors of feeling multi-channeled conducted through both verbal and nonverbal means emphatic gestures movements of the limbs, body, or head that allow a speaker to emphasize spoken words descriptive gestures movements of the limbs, body, or head that help listeners visualize spoken words posture how you hold your body stance how you distribute the weight of your body on your feet proxemics the use of space communication imperative the idea that you are always communicating something, whether you do something or not mannerism a distinctive behavior credibility worthiness of belief

Sign language is a highly developed form of nonverbal communication. List some of the gestures you use to express information without words.

Speak Up!
Your voice can say one thing while your body says something completely different.
Your Voice Says
Yes, Mother, I’d love to clean my room. I don’t care which movie we see. Yeah. I’ll go rock climbing with you.

Say the sentences at the left while your body indicates the thoughts at the right.
While Your Body Says
Cleaning my room is the last thing I want to do. Nobody ever does what I want. Man! Rock climbing terrifies me.

Speak Up!
Tell students to avoid using sarcasm as it undermines the meaning of the words. Note that body language is so tied to meaning that it can be difficult to say one thing in body language while making an opposite statement in words.
47

Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication

Responding to the Caption
Discuss with students their interpretations of the nonverbal clues represented in the photograph. Students will probably suggest various gestures such as nods, winks, hand signals, and so on.

Evaluate Ask students which posture communicated more strength and why. Students should recognize that the firm, active stance both demonstrates and communicates strength. Apply Ask students to give specific examples of when they would use an emphatic gesture and when they would use a descriptive gesture. Have them demonstrate each.

National Communication Association Standards
Chapter 3 meets the following standards: 1-3, 1-11, 3-6, 4-7, 4-9, 4-18, 5-2, 8-14, 9-8, 9-9, 10-16, 14-7, 14-8, 14-14

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47

Background for the Project
Discuss with students their ideas for presenting nonverbal communication in original ways, such as in the form of a silent movie or with musical accompaniment.

baCKGrouND
tHe

ProJECt

FoR

Pages 48—56 will provide the information you’ll need to complete this project.

Types of Nonverbal Communication
Explain to students that smileys and other emoticons were developed precisely because verbal communication often lacks nuances that body language and movement provide. Ask students to draw on the board their favorite emoticons and discuss how and when they use each one, then challenge them to invent a new emoticon for a communication particular to your school.

Types of Nonverbal Communication
The letters on a keyboard can be used to make all the possible words in our language. Why, then, do people who communicate casually with friends by email or instant message use smileys so much? The answer is that even

though there are thousands of words to choose from, people communicate with much more than words. Anything people communicate beyond the literal meaning of words is called nonverbal communication. For example, in faceto-face exchanges, you often signal your feelings about what you are saying through your body language—gestures, eye contact, posture, facial expression, and even how close you stand to another person. Just like those smileys, your body language conveys a message without the use of words. (See page 56 for body language customs in other cultures.)

Responding to the Caption
Ask students to identify all the elements of nonverbal communication in the photo. Students should comment on the facial expressions, laughter, and gestures.

These people are communicating with words but they are also sending messages through their bodies. What is each person communicating nonverbally to the others? How can you tell?

48 Unit 1

Communication Basics

Differentiated Instruction
Students with Disabilities ASD Students who don’t read expressions instinctively should try to memorize the meanings commonly associated with them. Encourage students to develop a graphic glossary of expressions. On the left side of each page, have them attach pictures of facial expressions. On the right, have them enter a definition signifying what each expression means. 48 Unit One Communication Basics

Struggling Learners Most people will respond to a facial expression with an expression of their own rather than verbally. Encourage students to practice verbalizing what they see by asking them to try to use the phrase, “I see by your expression that . . .” in their interactions.

;->

:-( :-)
)-;

;->:-( ;-)

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Communicating with Body Language
You can often tell what people are thinking by their body language. Sighing or looking out the window might signal boredom or distraction. Folding the arms or moving away can show resistance. A shake of the head or a frown usually shows disagreement. Nonverbal communication may not be effective when expressing complicated, What do their facial expressions tell you about what these people are thinking? deep ideas, but it is a powerful means of types of nonverbal communication communicating attitudes and can help you clarify your messages and subtle shades of meaning. You may not interpret the messages of others. know why the person is bored, resistant, or unhappy, but you can learn to read the Facial Expressions signals. If you watched TV with the sound turned In Chapter 1, you read that the means off, you would still be able to understand used to transmit a message is called the a lot just by looking at facial expressions. channel and that not all channels use Often you can tell how someone feels by words. Nonverbal channels transmit noting a raised eyebrow, a wrinkled brow, messages via facial expression, gestures, or a tight-lipped smile. Facial expressions movement, and even silence. Most of add very clear meanings to verbal our communication is multi-channeled, communication and can turn a plain conducted through both the verbal and message into a sparkling one. nonverbal channels. The smile is a facial expression understood To express exactly what you mean, become around the world to mean the same aware of the ways you communicate thing: good feeling. Smiling may not be nonverbally and the effect your nonverbal appropriate in all situations, but it does communication has on your overall put people at ease, and it also shows your message. Understanding the different pleasure in communicating with them.

Communicating with Body Language
Encourage students to respond to nonverbal communication just as they would to verbal communication—by paying attention and replying either verbally or nonverbally. Invite a volunteer to demonstrate a variety of facial expressions, gestures, and postures that send messages. Then challenge classmates to respond verbally to each nonverbal communication.

Responding to the Caption
Students should recognize that the background figure is expressing disappointment, anger, betrayal, or dislike. They may be ambivalent about the foreground figure, who may be perceived as angry, uncaring, or distracted. Use discussion of the photo as an opportunity to point out that nonverbal communication relies heavily on interpretation.

Facial Expressions
Invite a volunteer to stand in front of the class with a neutral expression and neutral posture. Direct the student to remain expressionless until you whisper in his or her ear. Then the student should respond in some way. • getting a new car • finding an odd-looking package • hearing that your best friend is moving away • seeing someone slip on a banana Ask the rest of the class to take notes describing what they see on the person’s face. Then lead the class in a discussion of the volunteer’s facial expressions and what they thought each expression meant.

Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication

49

Accelerated Learners Challenge interested students to spend an hour communicating with a friend using only facial expressions.

Visual Learners To increase students’ awareness of their own facial expressions, encourage them to watch themselves in the mirror as they talk on the phone with a friend, and perhaps draw what they see.

Framing the Project
Direct students to begin jotting down and analyzing in their Communication Notebooks the expressions they encounter each day.

Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication

49

Visual Impact
Ask students if the first thing they noticed when they opened these pages was the image of the eyes. Explain that human beings begin responding to faces early in infancy. Discuss the judgments students make about people after looking them in the eye.
Because facial expressions are such a natural and spontaneous part of your communication, you may not always be aware of the ones you are using. In fact, the naturalness of facial expressions is one reason they convey messages so honesty, eye contact conveys earnestness, sincerity, confidence, and expertise. Speakers who rely too heavily on notes, looking up at their audience infrequently, are seen as insincere, incapable, or weak.

Eye Contact
Discuss with students why many people in the United States are more comfortable when speakers and listeners maintain eye contact. Students may suggest that in addition to showing respect, eye contact conveys emotional reactions and connections that enrich communication. Discuss the idea that eye contact that lasts longer than five seconds becomes staring, which can make the receiver uncomfortable.

powerfully. Listeners can tell if a speaker is overdoing facial expressions and will likely regard that speaker with less trust than a speaker whose expressions appear natural. Too much facial expression is sometimes called “mugging.”

In a small group, speakers should make eye contact with all the listeners, moving from one person to another. Speakers in front of a large audience should make eye contact with all the sections of the audience. Eye contact does more than validate the importance of your listeners. It is also a key part of interpreting feedback. A communicator who really looks at listeners can see through their nonverbal messages if they are having trouble understanding, or if they agree, disagree, or appear to be losing interest. A good speaker will pick up on these cues and adjust his or her comments to the needs of the listeners. Without eye contact, those cues would go unnoticed.

Eye Contact Have you ever heard one person say to another, “Look at me while I’m talking to you!” The speaker is asking for eye contact so that he or she can confirm that the person is really listening. Most people in the United States view eye contact as a way to acknowledge someone’s importance.
Both speakers and listeners should make eye contact. People trust someone who can “look them in the eye.” In addition to

50 Unit 1

Communication Basics

Differentiated Instruction
Students with Disabilities Hearing Impaired/Deaf Scientists at the University of Chicago have discovered that deaf children who are not exposed to a spoken language develop a grammar for the gestures they use. This finding suggests that gestures can be a language in themselves. American Sign Language (ASL) uses both gestures and symbols to create a unique hybrid language. Invite students who know ASL to demonstrate the way in which it uses both symbol and gesture to communicate complex ideas quickly. Struggling Learners Encourage students to use imagery to help themselves achieve particular postures. For example, to stand up straight, students might imagine a string tugging upward from the crown of the head. To achieve a cowed posture, they might imagine they are in a small cave.

50 Unit One Communication Basics

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Gestures Gestures are the movements of the limbs, body, or head. Gestures typically come in two types:

Gestures
To drive home the usefulness of gestures, divide the class into two groups. Offer the following description to each group, one at a time. The birdhouse is rectangular at the base, but it gets wider at the top and is capped by a triangular pyramid, which houses a perch. The perch is cylindrical and large enough to support a grown raven.

• •

Emphatic gestures allow a speaker to emphasize spoken words. Such gestures include shrugging, nodding, enumerating, and pointing. Descriptive gestures allow a speaker to help listeners visualize spoken words. For example, a speaker describing something flat or smooth might use a flat hand in a palm-down position to help listeners picture it.

What does this gesture convey?

Posture and Stance How you hold your body is your posture. How you distribute the weight of your body on your feet is your stance. Posture and stance are important to both speakers and listeners.
In speakers, an upright posture (standing or sitting) can improve breathing and sharpen alertness. It also conveys interest in and respect for the subject being discussed.

In listeners, posture and stance communicate a general attitude. For example, if listeners slouch in a chair or at a desk (even if it’s because they’re tired), others will likely read their posture as communicating a lack of interest or boredom. On the other hand, sitting or standing with good posture creates a favorable impression—listeners appear to be more a part of the communication.

Recite the passage to each group but add illustrative gestures as you recite it to the second. Just before the end of the class period, ask each student to draw a picture of the birdhouse. Review the pictures and discuss with students the advantage enjoyed by the students who viewed gestures.

Responding to the Caption
Students should perceive that a hand held out in front of a person means “stop.”

Posture and Stance
If possible, bring students to a large space. Challenge volunteers to stand 20 feet away from the class and talk while assuming each posture below. • curled up in a ball • sitting up straight • standing in a slouch
In which photo do these girls look friendlier? Why?

• standing up straight Ask the class to discuss which postures allowed the speaker to be heard and why.

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51

Responding to the Caption

Curriculum Connection
Accelerated Learners Invite interested students to investigate the physical theatre of Jerzy Grotowsky and teach one or more of his physical exercises to the class. Kinesthetic Learners Explain to students that attaching a gesture to a word or concept can help speakers recall that concept. Encourage them to develop gestures and movements as they memorize speeches for this and other classes. Social Studies In Bulgaria, custom holds that shaking the head sideways from ear to shoulder means “yes.” Nodding the head up indicates “no.” Invite students to research and report on other gestures or body language that people worldwide use to indicate “yes” and “no.”

Invite students to suggest word bubbles that illustrate the attitudes and emotions of each pair. These should reflect an awareness that the pair at left seems tired or disaffected and the right pair is the one that looks friendly and enthusiastic.

Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication

51

Communication in a Diverse World
The Message in the Movement
Social scientists have long been interested in cultural variations regarding nonverbal language. Some have developed subspecialties devoted to particular aspects of nonverbal communication. The study of eye contact is called oculesics, for example, and the study of body language is kinesics. Scientists study both oculesics and kinesics as a way of bridging cultural differences that lead to misunderstanding.

The Message in the Movement
Some body language seems to be universally understood throughout the world. Smiling, laughing, and shaking the head in disagreement share the same meaning in all cultures. Other kinds of nonverbal communication, however, mean different things to different people. If you visit another country, try to learn something about that culture’s nonverbal communication customs so you can avoid misunderstandings.

Cultural Differences in Body Language
One of the most important cultural disagreements about the meaning of body language concerns eye contact. Most western cultures, such as those in Europe, regard eye contact as Americans do—as part of a positive, respectful exchange. In Japan and many cultures in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, however, people who make eye contact in certain situations are considered rude and disrespectful. In many Arabic cultures, eye contact that is more prolonged than most Americans would feel comfortable with is the norm. In these cultures it communicates sincerity and truthfulness.

Cultural Differences in Body Language
Like eye contact, gestures vary in meaning from one culture to the next. In the United States, Asia, Africa, South America, and most of Europe, for example, “thumbs up” is a gesture of approval. In Sardinia and Greece, however, it is often interpreted as an insult. Similarly, the OK sign made with the thumb and forefinger signifies anger in Brazil. In most other locations, however, it signifies that everything is fine.

Cultural Differences in Proxemics
While people in the United States tend to reserve two feet of space for very personal interaction, other cultures view the same distance as more appropriate for social interactions. For example, North Americans tend to require a larger bubble of personal space around them to feel comfortable than do Europeans, especially those from Spain and Italy. People in Arabic cultures tend to stand very close while talking. While you cannot know the spatial variations for all cultures, you can be tolerant and understanding of those whose proxemics differ from yours, just as you would expect members of other cultures to be for you.

Cultural Differences in Proxemics
Unlike body language, proxemics often vary widely between closely neighboring European countries. Most of the time, however, speakers automatically adjust their proxemics as they interact with each other. Have students share any proxemics problems they have observed or experienced.
56 Unit 1

The bow shows not only respect in Japan but also status. Visitors are wise to learn the customs for showing rank.

Communication Basics

Visual Impact
Ask students to investigate how status in Japanese culture is communicated and acknowledged through bowing.

Differentiated Instruction
Students with Disabilities Anxiety Disorders Encourage students to focus upon each other during the presentation rather than the audience. As they do this, they can offer each other encouragement and support. Struggling Learners Students who feel blocked or stuck in the process of developing a script may want to contribute by responding to verbal and nonverbal communication from their partner. Their responses will set in motion a chain of communications that will keep the scene moving.

56 Unit One Communication Basics

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PrEPariNG tHe ProJECt
Begin your project by looking back at the Project Prep activities in this chapter and using the directions below.

Preparing the Project
Explain that the following activities will help students refresh their understanding of nonverbal communication.

Make Connections
Remind them to include in their personal examples details regarding body language, proxemics, and mannerisms.

Make Connections
Discuss with your partner all the important elements of nonverbal communication as you remember them. Share any personal examples of events in your life in which nonverbal communication made an impact. Finally, think about the following: • how body language impacts verbal communication • the six types of body language • the concept of personal space • how mannerisms and culture influence our perceptions of nonverbal communication.

Focus
Encourage one student to read to the other the project description on page 46. Instruct them to include at least one type of body language, a mannerism, and an example of proxemics.

Plan

Focus
Briefly review the project you and your partner are working on: the two-minute conversation without words. Be sure you both understand what you will be doing.

• • •

Plan
Brainstorm ideas for your nonverbal conversation. Come up with three or four good ones and then choose the one you both like best. Talk through the scene and decide the following:

What facial expressions, gestures, and movements will you use? Try to use as many as you can. What will happen in the middle of the scene? How will you end the scene? Try to make your ending as dramatic or funny as possible.

Suggest that students begin by summarizing the main points of the conversation they are planning.

Visual Impact
As a warm-up, have students work in pairs to analyze each of the expressions shown on this page. Encourage students to identify more than one possible interpretation of each expression. Then ask them to try to copy the expressions (offer a mirror, if you have one).

Develop
With your partner, develop a “script” for your nonverbal scene. Talk about the characters you are playing and what motivates them in this scene. Work on your movement, gestures, and facial expressions as you discuss the script.

• •

Will the scene be funny or dramatic? How will you begin your presentation?

Develop
Have students discuss their characters’ motivations in terms of what they want from the other character.

Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication

57

Personal Message
Accelerated Learners Students seeking a challenge may want to adapt an existing short story or plot line. Direct them to follow the same steps in creating an adaptation that they would if they were developing an original scene. I speak two languages, Body and English. –Mae West

Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication

57

Surefire Impact
Discuss these techniques with the students. Remind them that by keeping these points in mind they can ensure that their nonverbal communication reflects their intentions.

Surefire Impact

Practice
To keep their presentations from becoming automatic, suggest that students vary practices by rehearsing their scenes first in slow motion and then in double time. Students may also try using exaggerated and then an understated emotional expression.

Use these techniques to make a strong nonverbal impact. • Be sure your gestures, facial expressions, posture, and movement support your intent. • Adapt your appearance to reflect the situation and the listener’s expectations. • n public speaking, use appropriate I lighting, space, and media to accomplish your task.

that invitation? Will you, like the mute performers in Blue Man Group, come out wearing blue makeup on your face? Be prepared with whatever device, if any, you decide to use to capture attention right from the start.

Practice
Practice your presentation as often as needed until you both feel that you will have no trouble. Ask someone to time you. If your scene is running long, cut and practice again without that part. If it is short, add to it and practice it again.

Presenting the Project
Remind students that the CAPS guidelines on page 46 and the rubric on page 59 can offer tips for polishing their scenes before presentation.

PrEsENtiNG tHe ProJECt
Use the strategies that follow to help make your presentation as good as it can be.

Getting Off to a Good Start
Encourage students to allow for a moment of stillness before they enter the presentation area to begin their scenes.

You and your partner are almost ready to present your nonverbal conversation. Before you do, go over the CAPS guidelines on page 46 and the rubric on page 59 to be sure your project is on the right track. Also try the suggestions below for grabbing your audience right away.

Visual Impact
Discuss with students the visual clues, such as the large blue eye and the encircling white device, that let the viewer know that a unique experience is about to unfold.
58
Unit 1

Getting Off to a Good Start
Plan ahead for how you can make an instant impact on your audience. You are inviting them into the world of nonverbal communication—how will you extend
From the opening moments of the show, the audience members know they are in for something special from Blue Man Group.

Communication Basics

Differentiated Instruction
Students with Disabilities Struggling Learners Encourage performers to present a synopsis of their scenes for the benefit of students who have difficulty interpreting nonverbal communication. Accelerated Learners In addition to having students evaluate their classmates' scenes, invite them to make suggestions for ways to expand upon them.

58 Unit One Communication Basics

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EValuatiNG tHe ProJECt
Evaluate the presentations using the following rubric.

Evaluating the Project
Encourage students to write notes next to each rating giving examples of behavior that prompted that rating. Because nonverbal presentations are visually demanding, you may want to make a video or DVD of each presentation. Later, you can play it back and have students call out “stop!” to point out moments they found especially entertaining, instructive, or striking.

Score the demonstration on each point, with 4 being “outstanding” and 1 being “needs much improvement.” Come up
understanding of the Elements of Nonverbal Communication Demonstration of a Nonverbal Conversation

with an overall score and write a brief paragraph that explains your score.

Creativity and originality

Preparation and use of time

Rubric Revamp
4 Presenters’ nonverbal conversation was instructive and very enjoyable. 4 The presentation was unique, wellperformed, and interesting. 4 The presentation flowed smoothly and was neither too long nor too short.

4 Presenters showed an understanding of nonverbal communication.

To maximize students’ observation time, allow them to adapt the rubric on this page by reformatting it as a checklist.

3 Presenters understood most aspects of nonverbal communication.

3 Presenters’ nonverbal conversation was enjoyable but not very instructive.

3 The presentation was unique, well-performed, and somewhat interesting.

3 The presentation progressed fairly smoothly and was neither too long nor too short.

2 Presenters did not seem to understand many elements of nonverbal communication.

2 Presenters’ nonverbal conversation was somewhat enjoyable but not instructive. 1 Presenters’ nonverbal conversation was neither enjoyable nor instructive.

2 The presentation was fairly interesting and well-performed but not unique.

2 The presentation had a few awkward moments and went a bit over or under the time limit.

1 Presenters misunderstood most elements of nonverbal communication.

1 The presentation was neither unique, wellperformed, nor interesting.

1 The presentation was not smoothly executed and went well over or under the time limit.

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Substitute Teacher Activity
Verbal Learners Some students may feel most comfortable writing a narrative response to each presentation. Have these students use the rubric as a guide to topics they should cover in their narratives. Play a newscast clip of talking heads with the audio turned off and challenge students to describe the kind of news being reported. Then play the newscast with sound. Have students compare and contrast the content of the newscasters’ nonverbal language with the content of the news.

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Communication Past and Present
Shake on It
Handshakes and “high fives” have become a fairly universal greeting, but other forms of nonverbal greeting are also prominent. Bowing, for example, is especially prominent in Asian cultures, and both bows and curtseys are still in use among European aristocrats and Americans in formal contexts. People in Russian, European, and Latin American cultures greet each other and demonstrate friendship with a kiss on both cheeks, and Americans sometimes kiss close friends and relatives on one cheek. People in many cultures combine the two by kissing the hand of a person they respect or revere—though hand kissing is most often performed by men and received by women. On more informal occasions, kisses are supplanted by hugs. Hugs, even more than kisses, tend to communicate affection as well as greeting. People also greet each other nonverbally with gestures that can be read from a distance. Waving and tipping the hat are common gestures. So is making a prayerlike gesture at the head or the chest while nodding or bowing. Saluting is a gesture that signifies loyalty or obedience as well as greeting. Salutes range in motion from the extravagant Roman salute in which the individual raises his or her entire arm in greeting to a minor wrist salute. The military salute consists of raising the right hand to the right eyebrow so that the first finger of the hand touches the eyebrow. Invite students to demonstrate salutes they’ve used in scouting or ones they've seen in historical and fictional contexts. What do they have in common? How do they differ?

Communication Communication

Shake on It

Past and Present and Mass Communication
time were known to pull their concealed swords on unsuspecting strangers. To convey that they had no such intentions, peaceful knights took to offering an open hand to show that they had no hidden weapons. Soon, all manner of men adopted this greeting. Even today, males are more likely to shake hands when they meet than are females. English Quakers in the 1600s adopted the handshake, replacing the more formal, upper-class bow. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for further popularizing the handshake during his presidency, perhaps believing it to be a more democratic form of greeting than the bow.

From the “right hand of friendship”…
Some nonverbal expressions have a long history. The handshake is a good example. This quick, powerful interaction has been around for centuries. There are many

theories about how the handshake originated. One looks to Biblical times and the Book of Galatians, in which Paul indicates that in Jerusalem he met with James and John, both of whom extended “the right hand of friendship.” Some anthropologists believe, however, that the handshake originated in medieval Europe. Certain knights at that

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Further Research
Articles Lester, Benjamin, “Handshake: Window on Your Genes?” ScienceNOW, November 2007, p. 4. Morrison, Terry, Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands, Adams Media, 2006. Other Media For an entertaining evaluation of high fives, visit the following Web site: www.nationalhighfiveday.com/origin.html

Survey Says. . .
Ask students to survey classmates about their most common form of greeting and their most preferred form of greeting. If possible, encourage students to film or videotape unusual greetings.

60 Unit One Communication Basics

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. . . to the “high five”

In the course of producing a documentary about handshakes, filmmaker Michael Britto has been researching the meaning behind handshakes around the globe and exploring the kinds of handshakes one might encounter on the streets of New York City. He describes a variety of handshakes that are similar to the “soul brother” shakes described in this feature. These variations include “biscuit bumps” and “pounds,” in which participants each make a fist or “biscuit” and then lightly bump the fists together, knuckle to knuckle or top to bottom. “Daps,” which may get their nickname as an acronym for “dignity and pride,” are yet another variation. They consist of slaps, shakes, snaps, and other movements that people have developed as a sort of secret handshake.

In contemporary America, the “soul brother handshake” became popular in the 1960s in African American communities. It is an extended handshake, with a gripping of thumbs and a hook clasp of the fingers following the traditional handshake. The hand slaps of the “gimme five” or “high five” variety followed and are still popular. The classic handshake, however, remains an expected part of social interactions, regardless of gender, class, or occasion. The handshake communicates friendliness and observance of social convention. It helps put others at ease. It is as much a part of communication in the business world as the phone call or the e-mail.

A good handshake has these qualities: • The whole hand is involved, not just the tips of the fingers. • The palm is vertical, thumb on top. • The grip is firm, but polite. A limp or loose grip (the wet fish grip) is almost universally seen as a sign of weakness. Too tight a squeeze will be resented as aggressive or intimidating. • The up-and-down “pump” is not exaggerated. A few pumps (1−3) are enough. Unless you are very close friends, hanging on to another person’s hand longer than 1−3 “pumps” is usually perceived as too intimate.

In doing his street research, Britto sometimes encountered resistance from groups that have secret handshakes and want to keep them that way. Some students may recall having invented secret handshakes for clubs of their own. Ask students to share their secret handshakes or invent one they can teach to the class. To spark students’ imaginations, play a clip of the handshake scene from the 1998 version of The Parent Trap.

Visual Impact
Initiate a discussion of the situation and purpose behind each of the greetings pictures on these pages.

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From the Field: Tips from Teachers
“After discussing nonverbal communication, I give my class the following exercise: Go out in the hall and line up by birthday (month and day) without using any verbal communication. I watch them carefully so that they don’t communicate by writing or any other method. They realize that they can use their fingers for months and days. When they are finished, I have each one (beginning with January) give his or her birthday. We all laugh when someone is out of order.”

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Chapter 3 Review
Debriefing
Facilitate a discussion about what students learned regarding their own nonverbal communication and the customs they have adopted as members of this culture. How would they take culture into account when approaching a foreign exchange student?

Chapter 3 Review
Using Vocabulary Words
For each of the following terms, answer two questions: 4. Identify the four principal spatial distances and the types of communication common to each.

• •

What is it? What is an example?

Reflecting on Your Project
With your partner, discuss which parts of the project went especially well and which gave you the most trouble. Come up with two or three strategies for making the hard parts easier on a future project.

1. body language 2. communication imperative 3. credibility 4. mannerism 5. multi-channeled 6. nonverbal communication 7. posture 8. proxemics 9. stance

Using Vocabulary Words
1. body language gestures, eye contact, posture, facial expression, and proxemics that convey feeling. Example: slouching when one is bored or tired 2. communication imperative the idea that you are always communicating something. Example: You cannot NOT communicate. 3. credibility worthiness of belief. Example: what a sincere, honest speaker conveys to the audience 4. mannerism a distinctive behavior. Example: pushing up one’s glasses every few seconds 5. multi-channeled conducted through both verbal and nonverbal means. Example: a tale told via book form, audiotape, and DVD 6. nonverbal communication what people communicate beyond the literal meaning of words. Example: a gesture, such as when someone nods his or her head “yes” 7. posture how you hold your body. Example: keeping your head high and shoulders back 8. proxemics the use of space. Example: standing very close to a loved one to speak privately 9. stance how you distribute the weight of your body on your feet. Example: feet apart; legs straight

Responding to the Essential Question
Use the headings in this chapter to help you write a brief chapter summary that answers the question, “How and what do people communicate without words?” Compare your summary with your partner’s to see if you both covered the main points.

Reviewing Key Ideas
1. Give two reasons why nonverbal communication is important to the creation of meaning. 2. Explain why audiences might place more faith in nonverbal communication than in verbal communication. 3. List the six types of nonverbal communication and provide an example of how each can alter or improve an audience’s understanding of a speaker’s message.

Extending Your Understanding
Everyday Life 1. Observe interactions of others in a social setting—perhaps at a school sporting event or on a field trip. Discuss the nonverbal behaviors you see, including use of space.
2. Seek out people your age from other cultures. Use the six types of nonverbal communication as a guide to ask about differences in nonverbal communication between their native culture and the culture they are now in.

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because words are sometimes not spoken in truth but gestures, eyes, and facial expressions often reveal the truth. 3. Facial expressions, when friendly and natural, help you connect to the audience and gain their trust. Eye contact shows confidence and tells the audience that you are engaged, honest, and sincere. Gestures help emphasize important words and also help when describing. They help listeners understand your message. An alert posture and friendly stance convey

Reviewing Key Ideas
1. Nonverbal communication is important in creating meaning because it sends real messages to the receiver. 2. Audiences might place more faith in nonverbal communication 62 Unit One Communication Basics

authority and alertness. Relaxed, easy movement sets the audience at ease. Too little movement looks uncomfortable; too much is distracting. Your appearance will hurt your message if you are sloppy, uncombed, or inappropriately dressed. Dress in a way that makes your audience comfortable. 4. 3 to 18 inches = intimate 1.5 to 4 feet = personal 4 to 12 feet = social 12 to 20 feet = public speaking

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3. Keep track of the ways you may be using gestures, facial expressions, and silence to communicate with others. How do people respond to your nonverbal messages?
ProxEmiCs iN thE uNitED statEs

2. Answers will vary, but should reflect an understanding of nonverbal communication and culture. 3. Answers will vary, but should indicate how others respond to students’ gestures, facial expressions, and nonverbal communication.

In the Media 4. Rent an old silent movie such as The General with Buster Keaton or The Gold Rush with Charlie Chaplin. Take note as you watch the actors perform. How do they go about silently conveying emotion? What gestures, movements, and facial expressions do they use?
5. Watch an interview on a television news program. Try to find examples of instances in which the person being interviewed displayed mannerisms. 6. Read articles by famous mimes about how to express feelings and concepts without the use of words. 7. Look through magazines and newspapers and study the body language of the people in the photographs. What kinds of nonverbal messages are they sending? 8. Find a Web site that shows images illustrating the use of sign language. Learn as many signs as you can and share them with your classmates and family.

12 feet to 20 feet public: public speaking

1.5 feet to 4 feet personal: small groups talking

In the Media
4. Discuss with students the conventions of silent films. Which gestures and movements function as a form of sign language? Which are natural expressions of emotion? 5. Encourage students to identify and mimic mannerisms of widely known celebrities. Invite the class to guess which celebrity is being portrayed. 6. Challenge interested students to learn and perform a pantomime exercise such as the mime examining a wall or walking against the wind. 7. Have students work in groups to evaluate nonverbal messages surrounding particular market segments such as teens, young adults, parents, and business people. 8. Challenge interested students to develop sign language to accompany a scene or speech.

4 feet to 12 feet social: party conversation

3 inches to 18 inches intimate: 2 people sharing

Additional Projects
1. Group Project: In a small group, research some aspect of being an interior designer or architect, two careers that deal with public spaces. Look for information on how the use of space is important in each. Do your research separately and then come together to share your findings. Write a report based on this information. Bring pictures, drawings, blueprints, or other examples to show the class. 2. Individual Project: Research the “dress for success” concept in at least two sources, from books, articles, or Web sites. List the suggestions you find about clothing and makeup. Apply the CAPS model to your research and present your research to the class. If your teacher permits, consider the use of costumes to help you make your points.

Interpreting Graphics
Look at the graphic above. On a separate sheet of paper, draw a representation of the people who would fit into each group.

Interpreting Graphics
Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication

63

Make sure that students understand and demonstrate the links between distances, numbers of people, and types of communication.

Reflecting on Your Project
Invite students to describe elements of the process that worked well for their group. Ask them what they plan to do differently next time. Encourage them to use their Communication Notebook entries to help clarify their thoughts.

answers should reflect an understanding that nonverbal communication provides conceptual and emotional information.

Additional Projects
1. Group Project: Encourage students to use model figures to demonstrate how people will relate to each space they design. 2. Individual Project: Ask students to demonstrate the concept of “dress for success.” They may take a serious approach or develop a satire in order to convey the concept to classmates in a memorable way.

Extending Your Understanding
Everyday Life
1. Students will observe many nonverbal behaviors, including hugs, handshakes, high fives, frowns, smiles, and variables in proxemics according to how well the people involved know each other, their culture, or gender.

Responding to the Essential Question
Students’ responses should include the six types of nonverbal communication, proxemics, and body language. Their

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Unit One
Culminating Activities
The activities on these two pages offer career-related, real-world applications for using communication strategies. They also provide opportunities for: • exploring the role of gender in communication • increasing media literacy and expression • reflecting on the unit’s learning • synthesizing new learning with prior knowledge and experience.
Ryan had been working at the electronics store for just a week. A co-worker named Gwen was showing him how to handle returned merchandise. Gwen reminded Ryan of his bossy older sister. When Gwen was explaining the return process, Ryan was thinking about his sister and felt Gwen too was being bossy. Gwen also used a few terms that Ryan didn’t know, such as manufacturer incentive and rebate. Ryan didn’t want to look stupid so he just nodded and said, somewhat impatiently, that he understood. Ryan got his first return on a busy Saturday afternoon, and

Unit One
Culminating Activities
In this unit you have explored communication basics: the elements of communication, oral language, nonverbal communication, listening, and factors that influence communication. The activities on these pages will help you apply your understandings to situations in everyday life.

Workplace Workout
You might ask volunteers to role-play the parts of Ryan and Gwen to help students see firsthand the communication difficulties the two experience.

he couldn’t remember the procedure. He was embarrassed to ask Gwen, so he kept trying different things on the cash register as the checkout line got longer and longer. Finally the cash register froze—and he had to turn to Gwen for help after all. Ryan was humiliated and when he got home later that afternoon told his parents he didn’t want to go back to that job.

What Went Wrong
Students might identify the following as factors in what went wrong: As the sender, Gwen was trying to communicate a message that would teach Ryan a set of procedures. However, she failed to notice that Ryan did not understand her directions. As the receiver, Ryan allowed biases and fear of failure to cause interference. Ryan also failed to use feedback effectively.

What Went Wrong? With a partner, use the terms from the communication model to analyze the interaction between Ryan and Gwen. Identify the purpose, audience, and occasion for the exchange. Then draw a model with the elements labeled and show where in the process successful communication broke down. Make it Right Then with your partner, reenact the scene between Gwen and Ryan to show a successful communication experience. Your characters can use asides (times when they step out of character and speak directly to the audience) to explain the improved communication. Present your reenactment to the class.

Make it Right
Students might suggest the following to help improve the communication: Gwen should try to make her message simple and clear. She should state her purpose and ask for feedback at each stage of every procedure. Ryan should provide feedback and let Gwen know what he does and does not understand. Gwen can then alter her message to overcome interference.
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Unit 1 Communication Basics

Differentiated Instruction
Struggling Learners Students who struggle with the pressure of speaking in front of large audiences may want to take a backseat after writing their radio advertisement with a partner. Perhaps they could be the sound effects person for the presentation or play the smallest speaking part in order to ease into the task. Accelerated Learners Challenge technologically savvy students to include in their radio advertisement indications for attention-grabbing sound effects, voiceovers, or video clips to enhance the production of their message.

Evaluation Checklist
___Sender was clear. ___Message was easy to understand. ___Receiver initiated feedback. ___Interference was eliminated. 108 Unit One Communication Basics Unit One Communication Basics

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Gender Journey
Tell students that when they gather information from sources directly, they are conducting primary research (also called field research). It’s a good way to get specific, new, real-world data. To insure credibility in their research, students should choose clear guidelines for determining what expressions constitute a “smile.”

GenderJourney
With a small group, obtain a copy of a recent yearbook. Choose a class (eighth graders or sophomores, for example) and count the number of individual photos for that class. Assign each group member a page or more of photos to tally the number of males who are smiling in the photos and the number of females who are smiling. Record the results on a two-column chart. When all the results are in, compile them into one master chart. Then, in discussion with your group, explain what the results might mean, referring to information in Unit 1 to help you. Write a paragraph to share your explanation.

Media Master
With a partner, create a script for a 30-second anti-drug radio advertisement aimed at middle school students that would be played on a rock music station. Use information from Unit 1 to make sure you shape the message to the audience in all possible ways.

Have students discuss the results of their research. What number of girls and boys smiled? What percentages of girls and boys smiled? Interested students may want to broaden their sample to include other grades. You may want to share with students the results of a study by Washington University researcher David Dodd, who found that beginning around age 12, girls and women tend to smile more than boys and men. Dodd also found that women’s increased tendency to smile seemed to continue through adulthood. For more on this study, visit: http:// record.wustl.edu/archive /2000/03-02-00/ articles/smile.html.

Yearbook Smiles
Males Females

Own It!
Unit 1 began with an anonymous quote: “There is only one rule to become a good speaker: learn how to listen.” (See page 3.) Think back over what you learned in Unit 1. Think about the projects you worked on and the other activities you completed. Think about your own real-world communication. Does what you learned in Unit 1 support the idea expressed in that quote? If not, what “one rule” would you come up with to become a good speaker? Write a paragraph or create a visual to express your response.

Media Master
Before they begin work on their advertisement script, ask partners to determine whether their audience will be supportive, neutral, indifferent, or hostile to their subject. Would an appeal to middle school students be most effective using reason, credibility, or emotion? Have them think back a few years and come up with a unique slant that will draw in the audience.
109

IIII

IIII II

Auditory Learners Allow students to develop their radio scripts by improvising and recording “drafts.” They can listen to each draft, take notes, and use the best lines in the script.

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Chapter 5

Influences on Communication

Then ask them to think about how to take advantage of the radio medium in a scant 30 seconds. After first outlining their short scripts, have students read them aloud with any sound effects in place, timing the length.

Own It!
Have students discuss the “one rule” they would employ for becoming a good speaker. Students should recognize the importance of listening in crafting a message, evaluating feedback, and changing a message to suit an audience. They may also suggest that refining their own thoughts is important to effective communication. Invite students to use illustration, graphic design, and abstract symbolism to create visuals. Culminating Activities 109

Review Board
Review Board for Projects in Speech Communication
Projects in Speech Communication has been developed with the guidance of an outstanding panel of expert teachers.

Senior Consultant Diana B. Carlin, Ph.D. Department of Communication Studies University of Kansas

Professor Diana Carlin teaches a variety of courses on political debates, speechwriting, and women in politics. She is the author of secondary textbooks on debate and public speaking and is a former high school teacher and forensics coach.

Teacher Reviewers Linda L. Alderson, Director of Forensics and UIL Academic Coordinator Boling High School (retired) Boling, Texas Russell Kirkscey Speech Teacher Blanco High School Blanco, Texas Anna J. Small Roseboro, NBCT Communication Arts and Sciences Department Calvin College Grand Rapids, Michigan Mary Schick Speech and Debate Teacher/Coach Miami-Dade County Public Schools Miami, Florida Stephen Douglas Williford Speech Teacher Harding Academy Memphis, Tennessee Cynthia Woodhouse Language Arts/Debate Teacher West Senior High School Iowa City Community Schools Iowa City, Iowa

Standards Compliance of Projects in Speech Communication
Projects in Speech Communication supports state standards as well as the K–12 Standards of Communication developed by the National Communication Association.

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Projects in Speech Communication

Technology Resources
1 2 3 4 5

Overview
Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

One

Unit

Unit

Two

The Fundamentals technology components .in .Projects .in .Speech Communication enhance The of Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 Oral Language the. program’s content, .appeal,. and. ease .of use. . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonverbal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 ® Listening . . . . . ExamView. . scores. tests .automatically .and. provides teachers an easy way to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 customize and manage their students’ assessments. Influences on Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Seeing Speech: Videos to Accompany Projects in Speech Communication Interpersonal Communication . . .videos. on .DVD. in. three. categories to demonstrate effective provides engaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Chapter 6 Effective Interpersonal and listening strategies: speaking Communication Strategies . . . . 112 Chapter 7 Interpersonal Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Chapter 8 Solving Problems and Managing Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Chapter 9 Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Communication Basics . . . . . . . . . .in. Projects. in .Speech Communication Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Three

Unit

Group Communication
Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13

Students at Their Best The The Power of Groups . . . . nation’s. best student. speakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Dynamics and Roles . . . . award-winning . . . . . . . deliver . . . . . . . . . . . Group Discussions . . . . . . presentations. demonstrating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parliamentary Procedure . . the. highest .standards. of .speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . communication skills.

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Public Speaking
Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19

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Preparing to Speak . . . . . . . . . . Researching Your Subject . . . . . Organizing Your Speech . . . . . . Preparing Supporting Materials . Using Language Effectively . . . Presenting Your Speech . . . . . .

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Five

Unit

Types of Presentations .
Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23

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The Speech to Inform . . . . . . . . . The Speech to Persuade . . . . . . . Speeches for Special Occasions Competitive Speech Events . . . .

372 Professionals Showing How 394 Professional videos show everyday communication situations and explore 420 the communication decisions in each. 422 478

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Unit
Six

Mass Communications

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Chapter 24 Mass Communications in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 25 Technology in Speakers in the. Public. Eye. .Videos .from .public. Everyday Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
life capture the memorable words and effective delivery of those who have reached a wide audience, sometimes shaping history with their words.

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Projects in Speech Communication

Student Edition ©2009

Teacher’s Wraparound Edition

Teacher’s Resource Binder

a NEW practical and comprehensive communication textbook with a hands-on communication project in every chapter! Students practice and apply communication skills from the first to the last chapter! as students prepare, present, and evaluate a speaking project, they learn essential communication skills and concepts. each chapter also raises an essential question, and end-of-chapter activities direct students to respond to the question and reflect on their learning. Features We collaborated with exemplary speech communication educators from across the United States to develop a unique text that is exciting for both students and teachers. • Project-based, active learning • ssential questions to engage students in critical thinking E • xceptional coverage of group communication, mass communications, and technology E • ast and present features in each chapter to provide historical context P • pecial focus on cultural and gender communication issues S • areer exploration throughout the text C

Teacher Materials • Teacher’s Wraparound Edition with teaching and pacing suggestions, strategies for A differentiating instruction, cross-curricular activities—even activities for the substitute teacher • Teacher’s Resource Binder with black-line masters of related activities and assessment A for each chapter • xamView® software for customized tests and performance reports E • A DVD with student and professional speakers demonstrating various communication concepts

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