ME2403 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING

VII Semester A Section

UNIT-I INTRODU TION TO POWER PLANTS AND !OILERS
STEAM POWER PLANT" A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity. Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large proportion of !" is produced by the worlds fossil fired thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread.

The four main circuits one would come across in any thermal power plant layout are # oal andAsh ircuit #Airand$as ircuit # %eed Water and Steam ircuit # ooling Water ircuit

o#$ #n% As& irc'it oal and Ash circuit in a thermal power plant layout mainly takes care of feeding the boiler with coal from the storage for combustion. The ash that is generated during combustion is collected at the back of the boiler and removed to the ash storage by scrap conveyors. The combustion in the oal and Ash circuit is controlled by regulating the speed and the &uality of coal entering the grate and the damper openings. Air #n% G#s irc'it Air from the atmosphere is directed into the furnace through the air preheated by the action of a forced draught fan or induced draught fan. The dust from the air is removed before it enters the combustion chamber of the thermal power plant layout. The e'haust gases from the combustion heat the air, which goes through a heat e'changer and is finally let off into the environment. (ee% W#ter #n% Ste#m irc'it The steam produced in the boiler is supplied to the turbines to generate power. The steam that is e'pelled by the prime mover in the thermal power plant layout is then condensed in a condenser for re#use in the boiler. The condensed water is forced through a pump into the feed water heaters where it is heated using the steam from different points in the turbine. To make up for the lost steam and water while passing through the various components of the thermal power plant layout, feed water is supplied through e'ternal sources. %eed water is purified in a purifying plant to reduce the dissolve salts that could scale the boiler tubes. oo$in) W#ter irc'it The &uantity of cooling water re&uired to cool the steam in a thermal power plant layout is significantly high and hence it is supplied from a natural water source like a lake or a river. After passing through screens that remove particles that can plug the condenser tubes in a thermal power plant layout, it is passed through the condenser where the steam is condensed. The water is finally discharged back into the water source after cooling. ooling water circuit can also be a closed system where the cooled water is sent through cooling towers for re#use in the power plant. The cooling water circulation in the condenser of a thermal power plant layout helps in maintaining a low pressure in the

condenser all throughout. All these circuits are integrated to form a thermal power plant layout that generates electricity to meet our needs. LA*OUT O( +*DEL POWER PLANT"

(ydroelectric power plants convert the hydraulic potential energy from water into electrical energy. Such plants are suitable were water with suitable head are available. The layout covered in this article is )ust a simple one and only cover the important parts of hydroelectric plant.The different parts of a hydroelectric power plant are *,- D#m +ams are structures built over rivers to stop the water flow and form a reservoir.The reservoir stores the water flowing down the river. This water is diverted to turbines in power stations. The dams collect water during the rainy season and stores it, thus allowing for a steady flow through the turbines throughout the year. +ams are also used for controlling floods and irrigation. The dams should be water#tight and should be able to withstand the pressure e'erted by the water on it. There are different types of dams such as arch dams, gravity dams and buttress dams. The height of water in the dam is called head race. .2- S/i$$0#1 A spillway as the name suggests could be called as a way for spilling of water from dams.

Po0er St#tion . . . The difference between head race and tail race is called gross head and by subtracting the frictional losses we get the net head available to the turbine for generation of electricity. A tunnel serves the same purpose as a penstock.t is used to provide for the release of flood water from a dam. This rotational tor&ue is transfered to the generator and is converted into electricity.enstocks are pipes which carry water from the reservoir to the turbines inside power station. They are usually made of steel and are e&uipped with gate systems. The uncontrolled types start releasing water upon water rising above a particular level..3.S'r)e T#n2 Surge tanks are tanks connected to the water conductor system.ower station contains a turbine coupled to a generator. it supplies the collected water thereby regulating water flow and pressure inside the penstock.t is used to prevent over toping of the dams which could result in damage or failure of dams. regulation of flow is possible.3. +iesel electric plants in the range of " to /0 1W capacities are used as central stations for small electric supply . .Water under high pressure flows through the penstock. . The sudden surges of water in penstock is taken by the surge tank. and when the water re&uirements increase.t serves the purpose of reducing water hammering in pipes which can cause damage to pipes. Spillways could be controlled type or uncontrolled type. DIESEL POWER PLANT +iesel power plants produce power from a diesel engine.Penstoc2 #n% T'nne$ . . The used water is released through the tail race. -ut in case of the controlled type. The water brought to the power station rotates the vanes of the turbine producing tor&ue and rotation of turbine shaft.t is used when an obstruction is present between the dam and power station such as a mountain. .4.

eak load plants 2. advanced super 9 turbo charged high speed engines are available for power production. 8ow a days. Starting stations of e'isting plants /. Standby units 3. +iesel power plant is not economical compared to other power plants. entral power station etc. The diesel power plants are cheaply used in the fields mentioned below. 1obile electric plants ". 4ngine is directly connected through a gear bo' to the generator.networks and used as a standby to hydro electric or thermal plants where continuous power supply is needed. The ma)or components of the plant are7 a) Engine 4ngine is the heart of a diesel power plant. . 4mergency power plants 5. $enerally two#stroke engines are used for power generation.. General Layout of Diesel power plants $eneral 6ayout of +iesel power plants %igure shows the arrangements of the engine and its au'iliaries in a diesel power plant.

cooling towers. ooling water is circulated through the engine block to keep the temperature of the engine in the safe range. 3<=se of compressed air from an air compressor at a pressure of "0 >g:cm? . 2< A petrol driven au'iliary engine. f) Lubricating system 6ubrication system includes the air pumps. The heat content of the e'haust gas is utili.b) Air supply system Air inlet is arranged outside the engine room. Air from the atmosphere is filtered by air filter and conveyed to the inlet manifold of engine. they are. oil tanks.ed in a turbine in a turbocharger to compress the air input to the engine. d) Fuel System %uel is stored in a tank from where it flows to the fuel pump through a filter.n large plants supercharger:turbocharger is used for increasing the pressure of input air which increases the power output. coolers and pipe lines. "< =se of electric motors. 6ubricant is given to reduce friction of moving parts and reduce the wear and tear of the engine parts. c) Exhaust System This includes the silencers and connecting ducts. . %uel is in)ected to the engine as per the load re&uirement. g) Starting System There are three commonly used starting systems. e) Cooling system This system includes water circulating pumps. water filter etc. filters.

1ore efficient than thermal plant ". 6ayout etc are simple and cheap 3. 6ife of plant is comparatively less 3. 8uclear Ships and Submarines use controlled nuclear energy to heat water and produce steam. . 8oise pollution is very high 5.t can be started &uickly /.e of a diesel engine ". This is done by varying fuel supply to the engine according to load. .art load efficiency is very high 5.h) Go erning system The function of a governing system is to maintain the speed of the engine constant irrespective of load on the plant. Repair cost is very high /. . (igh lubrication cost NU LEAR POWER PLANT" N'c$e#r /o0er is the use of sustained 8uclear fission to generate heat and do useful work. There is a limitation for si.lants. while in space. Disad antages 2. Ad antages of diesel power plants 2. 6ess cooling water re&uired. +esign. 8uclear 4lectric .t can be located in the heart of town B. Simple 9 easy maintenance @. . nuclear energy decays naturally in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. but these e'periments do not currently generate useful energy. 8o problem with fuel 9 dust handling A. Scientists are e'perimenting with fusion energy for future generation.

S. nuclear power plants convert the energy released from the nucleus of an atom. Also. Fust as many conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels. This nuclear chain reaction can be controlled by using neutron poisons and neutron moderators to change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fissions. %rance.H/GI A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and create more fissions. more than 2/0 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built. Some of these designs have been engineered to . which release more neutrons. with the =. and so on.. rew members are spelling out 4insteinDs mass#energy e&uivalence formula E = mc2 on the flight deck.H@0I 8uclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if unsafe conditions are detected. There are many different reactor designs. and Fapan together accounting for about /0C of nuclear generated electricity. N'c$e#r re#ctor tec&no$o)1 When a relatively large fissile atomic nucleus *usually uranium#"3/ or plutonium#"3G< absorbs a neutron. *top to bottom< nuclear cruisers =SS -ainbridge and =SS 6ong -each with USS Enterprise the first nuclear powered aircraft carrier in 2G@5. %ission splits the atom into two or more smaller nuclei with kinetic energy *known as fission products< and also releases gamma radiation and free neutrons. utili. a fission of the atom often results.ing different fuels and coolants and incorporating different control schemes. typically via nuclear fission.8uclear power provides about @C of the worldDs energy and 23E25C of the worldDs electricity. Three nuclear powered ships.

safer and:or less of a risk to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. diminish or eliminate many of the risks associated with nuclear fission.assively safe plants *such as the 4S-WR< are available to be builtand other designs that are believed to be nearly fool#proof are being pursued. implying that other forms of energy would be re&uired to meet peak demand. which may be viable in the future.ed steam from that boiler will power one or more steam turbine driven electrical generators. where the thermal energy can be harnessed to produce electricity or to do other useful work. Reactors for nuclear submarines and large naval ships. . regulators and engineers. A number of new designs for nuclear power generation. This fuel choice increases the reactorDs power density and e'tends the usable life of the nuclear fuel load. but this may be considered problematic. While that is true for the vast ma)ority of reactors. and since hernobyl and Three 1ile . many involved now consider informed consent and morality should be primary considerations. %usion reactors. oo$in) s1stem A cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the plant. There are trades to be made between safety. collectively known as the $eneration . this is no longer true of at least some modern designs. are the sub)ect of active research and may be used for practical power generation in the future.J reactors.meet a specific need. for e'ample. and the pressuri.t is often claimed that nuclear stations are infle'ible in their output. =nit A at the $erman -iblis 8uclear . (istorically these decisions were often made in private by scientists.lant is designed to in# and decrease .sland. economic and technical properties of different reactor designs for particular applications.ower . ($e4i5i$it1 o6 n'c$e#r /o0er /$#nts . 8uclear plants are routinely used in load following mode on a large scale in %rance. 1any of these new designs specifically attempt to make fission reactors cleaner. but is more e'pensive and a greater risk to nuclear proliferation than some of the other nuclear fuels. commonly use highly enriched uranium as a fuel. Typically the hot coolant will be used as a heat source for a boiler.

where fuel is mi'ed with air and ignited. spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and. which in turn usually drives electrical generators.le over the turbineDs blades. The remaining heat *e. OM!INED POWER * LES" . combustion of the fuel increases the temperature. increasing the systemDs overall efficiency.n the high pressure environment of the combustor. and a combustion chamber in#between. a successful. 4nergy is added to the gas stream in the combustor. is a type of internal combustion engine. also called a com5'stion t'r5ine.his output 2/ C per minute between 50 and 200 C of itDs nominal power. .g.n electric power generation a com5ine% c1c$e is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem off the same source of heat. There. -oiling water reactors normally have load#following capability. ombining two or more thermodynamic cycles results in improved overall efficiency.. common combination is the -rayton cycle *in the form of a turbine burning natural gas or synthesis gas from coal< and the Rankine cycle *in the form of a steam power plant<. . This works because heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates *usually less than /0C<.. the high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a no. . for some turbines. . converting it into mechanical energy.t has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature and pressure of the e'haust gas. thus e'tracting more useful energy from the heat. reducing fuel costs. 1ultiple stage turbine or steam cylinders are also common. drives their mechanical output. The principle is that the e'haust of one heat engine is used as the heat source for another. implemented by varying the recirculation water flow. GASS TUR!INE POWER PLANT" A )#s t'r5ine.n stationary power plants. hot e'haust fumes< from combustion is generally wasted.

LOAD DURATION URVE" A $o#% %'r#tion c'r7e *6+ < is used in electric power generation to illustrate the relationship between generating capacity re&uirements and capacity utili. There may also be practical limitations in using wet steam. A 6+ is similar to a load curve but the demand data is ordered in descending order of magnitude.ation re&uirements for each increment of load. There are advantages to superheated steam that may. The product of the two is a measure of electrical energy *e. as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.e the water and then further heat the steam in a superheater. a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas e'haust path. saturated steam. There are several ways to circumvent this problem. The 6+ curve shows the capacity utili. Superheated steam boilers vapori. increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilisation7 gains in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and e'pense. +IG+ PRESSURE !OILERS" A 5oi$er is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.ation rate or capacity factor. or both. The heated or vapori. and often will. that is.ed fluid e'its the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications. 1ost boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temperature. This provides steam at much higher temperature. Since the escaping steam will initially . Superheated steam presents uni&ue safety concerns because. The height of each slice is a measure of capacity. kilowatthours<. instantaneous harm to anyone in its path.ation. if any system component fails and allows steam to escape. but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating plant because the higher steam temperature re&uires a higher flue gas e'haust temperature. rather than chronologically. the high pressure and temperature can cause serious. typically by providing an economizer that heats the feed water.g. and the width of each slice is a measure of the utili.

and the boiler has no water # steam separation.a or ""0. detection can be difficult. the pressure of the steam does not7 the turbine or moving pistons offer a continuously expanding space and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit. Through either method. The term KboilerK should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator. Some are a combination of the two types. they absorb heat by radiation.@00 degrees elsius. SUPER RITI AL !OILER" Supercritical steam generators *also known as -enson boilers< are fre&uently used for the production of electric power.n contrast to a Ksubcritical boilerK. a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure *over 3.ed bed .@ bar< that actual boiling ceases to occur.ndia is of low &uality. The traditional grate fuel firing systems have got limitations and are techno#economically unviable to meet the challenges of future. There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water.t passes below the critical point as it does work in the high pressure turbine and enters the generatorDs condenser. although for a different purpose. the e'treme heat in the flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. The temperature in this area is typically between 2. because the pressure is above the Kcritical pressureK at which steam bubbles can form. They operate at Ksupercritical pressureK. resulting in slightly less fuel use. as no KboilingK actually occurs in this device. (LUIDI8ED !ED !OILERS" The ma)or portion of the coal available in ."00 psi:"". !thers are convection type. While the temperature of the steam in the superheater rises. This is more efficient. that is. Some superheaters are radiant type. although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence. %luidi. Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.0@ 1.300E2. . high ash content and low calorific value. .be completely superheated vapor. absorbing heat from a fluid.

facilities. The fuels burnt in these boilers include coal.. leading to a higher risk of spontaneous combustion. rice husk. fuel fle'ibility.ed bed boilers have a wide capacity range# 0.. . etc. and conveyed around the . St#c2in) Travelling... pushed into heaps with bulldo.combustion has emerged as a viable alternative and has significant advantages over conventional firing system and offers multiple benefits E compact boiler design. Taller and wider stockpiles reduce the land area re&uired to store a set tonnage of coal. 6arger coal stockpiles have a reduced rate of heat lost. oal handling is part of the larger field of bulk material handling.. The fluidi. constant rate. and reclaimers to retrieve the coal when re&uired for product loading.ers or from conveyor booms. and is a comple' and vital part of the . bagasse 9 other agricultural wastes. either from dump trucks. A R!1 stockpile is used to allow the washplant to be fed coal at lower./ T:hr to over 200 T:hr. R!1 coal is A delivered with large variations in production rate of tonnes per hour *tph<. higher combustion efficiency and reduced emission of no'ious pollutants such as S!' and 8!'. UNIT-II STEAM POWER PLANT oal needs to be stored at various stages of the preparation process. lugging boom stackers that straddle a feed conveyor are commonly used to create coal stockpiles. Stoc2/i$es Stockpiles provide surge capacity to various parts of the . washery re)ects. 1ore controlled stockpiles are formed using stackers to form piles along the length of a conveyor. simple stockpile is formed by machinery dumping coal into a pile.

and usually they are collected in chimneys. and . There are different types of ashes. %ront#end loaders and bulldo. Taking their so formed ash away from the Plant / Boiler is called – " !" " #$%&#' !(!T)*" This is done in either • • 1echanical conveying . Sometimes front#end loaders are the only means of reclaiming coal from the stockpile. And any coal contains some non combustible portion which is called ash. Solid fuel is usually coal. These can achieve very high rates AS+ +ANDLING S*STEMS" Ash (andling Systems is the none : un combusted portion or residue. • -ottom ash • fly ash. .ers can be used to push the coal into feeders. This has a low up#front capital cost.Rec$#imin) Tunnel conveyors can be fed by a continuous slot hopper or bunker beneath the stockpile to reclaim material. but much higher operating costs. ontent of that coal.neumatic conveying 1echanical system re&uires conveyors. after taking combustion of any solid fuel. measured in dollars per tonne handled. (igh#capacity stockpiles are commonly reclaimed using bucket#wheel reclaimers. Bottom ash is the residue which remains in the solid form at the bottom and fly ash is the light particle which goes out along with exhaust gases.neumatic system re&uires E compressed air to carry out the ash.

%uel handling e&uipment includes gas boosters. STO :ERS" A mechanical stoker is a device which feeds coal into the firebo' of a boiler. fuel metering and instrumentation packages are available to match individual installation re&uirements. oil pumping and heating stations. controlled by the fireman.Ash (andling Systems -ulk 1aterial (andling Systems onveyors And 1aterial (andling 4&uipments .ower stations usually use pulveri. The coal is then distributed across the grate by steam )ets.neumatic onveying Systems 1agnetic 4&uipments Jibratory 4&uipments Spares !verhead -ag (andling Systems OM!USTION E9UIPMENTS" ombustion control options range from electro : mechanical through to full microprocessor control systems to match both application and customer needs.ed coal#fired boilers. .ortable (andling 4&uipments Rotary 4&uipments .t is standard e&uipment on large stationary boilers and was also fitted to large steam locomotives to ease the burden of the fireman. . The locomotive type has a screw conveyor *driven by an au'iliary steam engine< which feeds the coal into the firebo'.rocess 4&uipments And Storage 4&uipments . ochran supply an e'tensive range of fuel handling e&uipment to complement and help ensure that the optimum performance from the combustion and control e&uipment is maintained. .

the material. T1/es o6 /'$7eri.PULVERISER" A /'$7eri. containing a charge of tumbling or cascading steel balls. .e of the pulveri.er *depending on the design< and is ground as the lower ring rotates causing the balls to orbit between the upper and lower rings.ed is introduced into the center or side of the pulveri.er that consists of a hori. they are used to pulveri. is fed into the chamber from one end. and passes out the other end as slime *slurry<.ontal rotating cylinder. Rin) #n% 5#$$ mi$$ This type of mill consists of two rings separated by a series of large balls.e coal for combustion in the steam#generating furnaces of fossil fuel power plants. These are usually found in utility plants.ation of ore. or rods.ed material is carried out of the mill by the flow of air moving through it. mi'ed with water.er or )rin%er is a mechanical device for the grinding of many different types of materials. Vertic#$ ro$$er mi$$ Similar to the ring and ball mill. The lower ring rotates. and other such materials. The si.ers !#$$ #n% t'5e mi$$s A ball mill is a pulveri. A tube mill is a revolving cylinder of up to five diameters in length used for fine pulveri. rock. pebbles. up to three diameters in length.ed particles released from the grinding section of the mill is determined by a classifer separator. The pulveri. %or e'ample. while the upper ring presses down on the balls via a set of spring and ad)uster assemblies. this mill uses large KtiresK to crush the coal. The material to be pulveri.

n addition. The grinding force for coal pulveri. +epending on the re&uired coal fineness..le ring and are plowed. which consists of a stationary angled inlet vane assembly surrounding a rotating vane assembly or cage.one to achieve coal fineness control real#time to make immediate accommodation for a .les surrounding the grinding table.ed coal particles upward into a classifier. into the pyrites chamber to be removed. The dynamic classifier. %ine pulveri.yrites and e'traneous dense impurity material fall through the no. while oversi. The fi'ed#a'is roller in each roller wheel assembly rotates on a segmentally#lined grinding table that is supported and driven by a planetary gear reducer direct#coupled to a motor. The air mi'es with and dries coal in the grinding . by scraper blades attached to the grinding table.one and carries pulveri.ed coal particles are re)ected and returned to the grinding .ed coal e'its the outlet section through multiple discharge coal pipes leading to the burners.Raw coal is gravity#fed through a central feed pipe to the grinding table where it flows outwardly by centrifugal action and is ground between the rollers and table. There are three grinding roller wheel assemblies in the mill grinding section. This frame is connected by vertical tension rods to three hydraulic cylinders secured to the mill foundation.ation is applied by a loading frame. ad)usting the speed of the rotating cage can easily change the intensity of the centrifugal force field in the classification . which results in no radial loading against the mill housing during the pulveri.e distribution. there are two types of classifier that may be selected for a vertical roller mill. which are mounted on a loading frame via pivot point.ed as an applied force mill. .ing process are transmitted to the foundation via the gear reducer and loading elements. .one for further grinding.ing process. is capable of producing micron fine pulveri. All forces used in the pulveri.ed coal with a narrow particle si. The pendulum movement of the roller wheels provides a freedom for wheels to move in a radial direction. the vertical roller mill is categori. (ot primary air for drying and coal transport enters the windbo' plenum underneath the grinding table and flows upward through a swirl ring having multiple sloped no. 1echanically..

a deep bowl mill.s continue to be e'cellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions. which consists of a cone e&uipped with ad)ustable vanes. it also uses tires to crush coal. %or the applications where a micron fine pulveri. Demo$ition /'$7eri. There are two types. ommonly used in demolition work to break up large pieces of concrete. Mo%ern in%'stri#$ e$ectrost#tic /reci/it#tors 4S.er An attachment fitted to an e'cavator.change in fuel or boiler load conditions. or e$ectrost#tic #ir c$e#ner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas *such as air< using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. while one e&uipped with a dynamic classifier produces coal fineness levels of 200C L200 mesh and G/C L"00 mesh. With ade&uate mill grinding capacity. the static classifier. and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream. ./C or higher L/0 mesh and B0C or higher L"00 mesh.<. 4lectrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device. an 4S. applies energy only to the particulate matter being collected and therefore is very efficient in its consumption of energy *in the form of electricity<. is an option at a lower cost since it contains no moving parts. including smoke from electricity#generating utilities *coal and oil fired<. !o0$ mi$$ Similar to the vertical roller mill.H2I . or better.n contrast to wet scrubbers which apply energy directly to the flowing fluid medium. and a shallow bowl mill. ELE TROSTATI PRE IPITATOR" An e$ectrost#tic /reci/it#tor *4S.ed coal is not necessary. a vertical mill e&uipped with a static classifier is capable of producing a coal fineness up to GG.

The preferred and most modern type of W4S. The W4S. minimi. These devices treat gas volumes from several hundred thousand A %1 to ". have particles that are sticky in nature. This design allows the collected moisture and particulate to form a slurry that helps to keep the collection surfaces clean.ed bed catalytic cracker units in oil refineries to name a few. ma'imi. %or some difficult applications with low#sulfur fuel hot#end units have been built operating above 3A2 N *A00 deg. 1odern controls. contain combustible particulate.%< which provides optimal resistivity of the coal#ash particles.salt cake collection from black li&uor boilers in pulp mills.2B0 mM:s< in the largest coal#fired boiler applications. is a downflow tubular design.%<. Transformer# rectifier systems apply voltages of /0 E 200 kJ at relatively high current densities.e electric sparking and prevent arcing *sparks are &uenched within 2:" cycle of the TR set<. avoiding damage to the components. Automatic plate#rapping systems and hopper# evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line./ million A %1 *2. W4S. and catalyst collection from fluidi.s to stay in operation for years at a time. or wet 4S. is also commonly used where the gases are high in moisture content. today focusing on rigid *pipe#frame< discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached *barbed wire<. Wet e$ectrost#tic /reci/it#tor A wet electrostatic precipitator *W4S. The original parallel plateEweighted wire design *described above< has evolved as more efficient *and robust< discharge electrode designs were developed.ing corona production.< operates with saturated air streams *200C relative humidity<.s are commonly used to remove li&uid droplets such as sulfuric acid mist from industrial process gas streams. %or a coal#fired boiler the collection is usually performed downstream of the air preheater at about 2@0 N *3"0 deg. . such as an automatic voltage control. theoretically allowing 4S.

suggested by several manufacturers. which re&uire e'pensive filters and can become Kproduction sinksK for many harmful forms of bacteria. . if the collection plates are allowed to accumulate large amounts of particulate matter. %or shipboard engine rooms where gearbo'es generate an oil fog. ons'mer-oriente% e$ectrost#tic #ir c$e#ners . where the entire plate array is removed from the precipitator and soaked in a large container overnight.A filtration. is to wash the collector plates in a dishwasher. to help loosen the tightly bonded particulates. (owever. A negative side#effect of electrostatic precipitation devices is the production of to'ic o. The two#stage design *charging section ahead of collecting section< has the benefit of minimi. electrostatic precipitators offer benefits over other air purifications technologies. Some consumer precipitation filters are sold with special soak#off cleaners. With electrostatic precipitators.one and 8!'.late style and upflow design W4S. The close spacing of the plates can make thorough cleaning difficult.s are very unreliable and should not be used in applications where particulate is sticky in nature. two#stage 4S.ing o. the particles can sometimes bond so tightly to the metal plates that vigorous washing and scrubbing may be re&uired to completely clean the collection plates.one production which would adversely affect health of personnel working in enclosed spaces. such as (4. and the stack of plates often cannot be easily disassembled for cleaning. !ne solution.late precipitators are commonly marketed to the public as air purifier devices or as a permanent replacement for furnace filters.Ds are used to clean the air improving the operating environment and preventing buildup of flammable oil fog accumulations. but all have the undesirable attribute of being somewhat messy to clean. ollected oil is returned to the gear lubricating system..

All these factors make proper draught hard to attain and therefore make mechanical draught e&uipment much more economical. The second method is through use of a steam )et. which. There are three types of mechanical draught7 !nduced draught" This is obtained one of three ways. The denser column of ambient air forces combustion air into and through the boiler. in which the flue gas is less dense than the ambient air surrounding the boiler. as well as the chimney height. This is because natural draught is sub)ect to outside air conditions and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace. +ampers are used to control the &uantity of air admitted to the furnace. Forced draught" +raught is obtained by forcing air into the furnace by means of a fan *%+ fan< and ductwork. filters provided the best. This method was common on steam driven locomotives which could not have tall chimneys. as the name suggests.A study by the anada 1ortgage and (ousing orporation testing a variety of forced#air furnace filters found that 4S.+ fan< which removes flue gases from the furnace and forces the e'haust gas up the stack. and most cost# effective means of cleaning air using a forced#air system. . %orced draught furnaces usually have a positive pressure. DRAUG+T" 1ost boilers now depend on mechanical draught e&uipment rather than natural draught. Almost all induced draught furnaces operate with a slightly negative pressure. heats the air going into the furnace in order to increase the overall efficiency of the boiler. The steam )et oriented in the direction of flue gas flow induces flue gasses into the stack and allows for a greater flue gas velocity increasing the overall draught in the furnace. The third method is by simply using an induced draught fan *. the first being the Kstack effectK of a heated chimney. Air is often passed through an air heater.

An air#cooled condenser is however significantly more e'pensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine e'haust pressure as a water cooled surface condenser. This is more common with larger boilers where the flue gases have to travel a long distance through many boiler passes."alanced draught" -alanced draught is obtained through use of both induced and forced draught.n thermal power plants. The induced draught fan works in con)unction with the forced draught fan allowing the furnace pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric. Surface condensers are also used in applications and industries other than the condensing of steam turbine e'haust in power plants. Therefore. which increases the amount of heat available for conversion to mechanical power. the better is its efficiency. SUR(A E ONDERSER" S'r6#ce con%enser is the commonly used term for a water#cooled shell and tube heat e'changer installed on the e'haust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations These condensers are heat e'changers which convert steam from its gaseous to its li&uid state at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. the steam pressure drop between the inlet and e'haust of the turbine is increased. The steam turbine itself is a device to convert the heat in steam to mechanical power. The difference between the heat of steam per unit weight at the inlet to the turbine and the heat of steam per unit weight at the outlet to the turbine represents the heat which is converted to mechanical power. the more the conversion of heat per pound or kilogram of steam to mechanical power in the turbine. Where cooling water is in short supply. the primary purpose of a surface condenser is to condense the e'haust steam from a steam turbine to obtain ma'imum efficiency and also to convert the turbine e'haust steam into pure water *referred to as steam condensate< so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. -y condensing the e'haust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. . 1ost of the heat liberated due to . an air#cooled condenser is often used.

000 cubic metres an hour H5I and that amount of water . and for other industrial facilities such as in condensers of distillation columns. 3.condensation of the e'haust steam is carried away by the cooling medium *water or air< used by the surface condenser OOLING TOWERS" oo$in) to0ers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. gallons per minute< H3I and the circulating water re&uires a supply water make#up rate of perhaps / percent *i. The towers vary in si. for cooling li&uid in crystalli. cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. or rectangular structures that can be over 50 metres tall and B0 metres long.. power stations and building cooling. chemical plants. .000 =. ooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove ircuit +ry ooling TowersK rely solely on air to cool the ommon applications include process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet#bulb air temperature or in the case of K lose working fluid to near the dry#bulb air temperature.@00 cubic metres an hour *32/.@00 cubic metres an hour<.e from small roof#top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to "00 metres tall and 200 metres in diameter. although cooling towers are constructed on many types of buildings. industrial cooling towers is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants. while larger ones are constructed on site.H"I The circulation rate of cooling water in a typical A00 1W coal#fired power plant with a cooling tower amounts to about A2. etc. Smaller towers are normally factory#built. They are often associated with nuclear power plants in popular culture. In%'stri#$ coo$in) to0ers . it would re&uire about 200. food processing plants.ation.e.f that same plant had no cooling tower and used once-t&ro')& coo$in) water.S. petroleum refineries. petrochemical plants. semi#conductor plants. natural gas processing plants.ndustrial cooling towers can be used to remove heat from various sources such as machinery or heated process material. The primary use of large.

would have to be continuously returned to the ocean. *See thermal pollution.ing convective heat transfer. The worldDs tallest cooling tower is the "00 metre tall cooling tower of 8iederaussem . A typical large refinery processing 50. . lake or river from which it was obtained and continuously re#supplied to the plant. utili. • luid coolers or Closed Circuit Cooling Towers are hybrids that pass the working fluid through a tube bundle. %urthermore.000 m3< per day< circulates about B0.000 cubic metres of water per hour through its cooling tower system.etroleum refineries also have very large cooling tower systems. -ut even there. 4levated water temperatures can kill fish and other a&uatic organisms. They do not use evaporation. discharging large amounts of hot water may raise the temperature of the receiving river or lake to an unacceptable level for the local ecosystem. the main types are7 • Wet cooling towers or simply open circuit cooling towers operate on the principle of evaporation. the offshore discharge water outlet re&uires very careful design to avoid environmental problems. The resulting heat transfer performance is much closer to that of a .000 barrels *5B. • Dry Cooling Towers operate by heat transfer through a surface that separates the working fluid from ambient air. Some coal#fired and nuclear power plants located in coastal areas do make use of once#through ocean water.000 metric tonnes of crude oil per day *300. +e#t tr#ns6er met&o%s With respect to the heat transfer mechanism employed. such as in a tube to air heat e'changer. upon which clean water is sprayed and a fan#induced draft applied.< A cooling tower serves to dissipate the heat into the atmosphere instead and wind and air diffusion spreads the heat over a much larger area than hot water can distribute heat in a body of water. The working fluid and the evaporated fluid *usually ( "!< are one and the same.ower Station.

with the advantage provided by a dry cooler of protecting the working fluid from environmental e'posure and contamination. if the air is relatively dry. moist air naturally rises due to the density differential to the dry. cooler outside air. As ambient air is drawn past a flow of water. Warm moist air is less dense than drier air at the same pressure. . This moist air buoyancy produces a current of air through the tower. Warm. Splash !ill consists of material placed to interrupt the water flow causing splashing. which utili. the warm water can be cooled to a temperature lower than the ambient air dry#bulb temperature. 4vaporation results in saturated air conditions.J < upon which the water flows. . which uses power driven fan motors to force or draw air through the tower.es buoyancy via a tall chimney. To achieve better performance *more cooling<. lowering the temperature of the water process by the tower to a value close to wet bulb air temperature. the difference determined by the humidity of the ambient air. which is lower than the ambient dry bulb air temperature. #echanical dra!t.wet cooling tower. the energy re&uired by that portion of the water to evaporate is taken from the remaining mass of water reducing his temperature *apro'imately by GA0 -T= for each pound of evaporated water<. -oth methods create increased surface area and time of contact between the fluid *water< and the gas *air<. *see7 dew point and psychrometrics<. there are three types of cooling towers7 "atural dra!t. an small portion of the water evaporate.n a wet cooling tower *or !pen ircuit ooling Tower<. a medium called !ill is used to increase the surface area and the time of contact between the air and water flows. Air 6$o0 )ener#tion met&o%s With respect to drawing air through the tower. ilm !ill is composed of thin sheets of material *usually .

The low e'iting velocity is much more susceptible to recirculation.a. .mage ". as the same kind of cooling towers are often used at large coal#fired power plants as well. *see . With the fan on the air intake.k. The forced draft benefit is its ability to work with high static pressure. This fan:fin arrangement is also known as draw%through. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge. (yperboloid *a. creating high entering and low e'iting air velocities. They can be installed in more confined spaces and even in some indoor situations. river or ocean water. The fan !orces air into the tower. A hybrid type that appears like a natural draft though airflow is assisted by a fan. not all nuclear power plants have cooling towers.$nduced dra!t7 A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower. They are popularly associated with nuclear power plants. instead cooling their heat e'changers with lake. 3< orced dra!t7 A mechanical draft tower with a blower type fan at the intake.mage 2< have become the design standard for all natural#draft cooling towers because of their structural strength and minimum usage of material. the fan is more susceptible to complications due to free.ing conditions. This fan:fill geometry is also known as &low%through. reducing the possibility of recirculation in which discharged air flows back into the air intake. Another disadvantage is that a forced draft design typically re&uires more motor horsepower than an e&uivalent induced draft design. Similarly. *see .mage 5< %an assisted natural draft. hyperbolic< cooling towers *. The hyperboloid shape also aids in accelerating the upward convective air flow. This produces low entering and high e'iting air velocities. (owever. improving cooling efficiency. this association is misleading.

The air. The water is sprayed through pressuri.ed no. -oth crossflow and counterflow designs can be used in natural draft and mechanical draft cooling towers.ation and evaporation of water. o'nter6$o0 . A collection or cold water &asin is used to contain the water after its interaction with the air flow.les uniformly across the fill material. $ravity distributes the water through the no. . now saturated with water vapor. opposite to the air flow.les and flows downward through the fill. Water flows *perpendicular to the air< through the fill by gravity.#te)ori.n a counterflow design the air flow is directly opposite to the water flow *see diagram below<. Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically. is discharged from the cooling tower. A distri&ution or hot water &asin consisting of a deep pan with holes or nozzles in the bottom is utili.. The air continues through the fill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum area..#tion 51 #ir-to-0#ter 6$o0 ross6$o0 rossflow is a design in which the air flow is directed perpendicular to the water flow *see diagram below<. ommon to both designs7 The interaction of the air and water flow allow a partial e&uali.ed in a crossflow tower. Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material.

such as $reenpeace . Some serious nuclear and radiation accidents have occurred.A4A. such as the World 8uclear Association and .H20I 8uclear#powered submarine mishaps include the >#2G reactor accident *2G@2<.roponents.RS. more than 2/0 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built. 8uclear Ships and Submarines use controlled nuclear energy to heat water and produce steam. but these e'periments do not currently generate useful energy.. with the =. %rance. 8uclear power plant accidents include the hernobyl disaster *2GB@<.sland accident *2GAG<. and Fapan together accounting for about /0C of nuclear generated electricity. Also. .lants. 8uclear power provides about @C of the worldDs energy and 23E25C of the worldDs electricity.S.nternational research is continuing into .UNIT-III NU LEAR AND +*DEL POWER PLANT NU LEAR ENERG*" N'c$e#r Ener)1 is the use of sustained 8uclear fission to generate heat and do useful work. !pponents. 8uclear power is controversial and there is an ongoing debate about the use of nuclear energy. %ukushima . believe that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment. Scientists are e'perimenting with fusion energy for future generation. and the >#532 reactor accident *2GB/<. the >#"A reactor accident *2G@B<.nternational and 8. while in space. nuclear energy decays naturally in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. and the Three 1ile . nuclear accidents *"022<. . 8uclear 4lectric . contend that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions.

n order for fission to produce energy. which give the same products every time.n nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry. NU LEAR (ISSION" . NU LEAR (USION" . alpha decay and cluster decay. three positively#charged fragments are produced in a ternary fission. n'c$e#r 6ission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts *lighter nuclei<. especially in very high#mass#number isotopes. although it is occasionally seen as a form of spontaneous radioactive decay. typically with a mass ratio around 37" for common fissile isotopes. and the possible future use of nuclear fusion.safety improvements such as passively safe plants. but occasionally *" to 5 times per 2000 events<. %ission is usually an energetic nuclear reaction induced by a neutron. The two nuclei produced are most often of comparable si. The smallest of these ranges in si. %ission of heavy elements is an e'othermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments *heating the bulk material where fission takes place<.e from a proton to an argon nucleus.H2IH"I 1ost fissions are binary fissions. the total binding energy of the resulting elements must be less than that of the starting element. The unpredictable composition of the products *which vary in a broad probabilistic and somewhat chaotic manner< distinguishes fission from purely &uantum#tunnelling processes such as proton emission. %ission is a form of nuclear transmutation because the resulting fragments are not the same element as the original atom. .e. often producing free neutrons and photons *in the form of gamma rays<.

The opposite is true for the reverse process. sometimes called KprotiumK. along with nickel. This is usually accompanied by the release or absorption of large &uantities of energy. although this has not yet been completely controlled as a source of nuclear power *see7 fusion power<. These e'plosions have always used the heavy isotopes of hydrogen.n nuclear physics. two protons must be brought close enough for the weak nuclear force to convert either of the identical protons into a neutron. the amount of energy put into the process has always e'ceeded the energy output.n the simplest case of hydrogen fusion. 8uclear fusion occurs naturally in all active stars. .n fact. . 6arge#scale thermonuclear fusion processes. which results in a deliberate e'plosion. deuterium *(#"< and tritium *(#3<.n more comple' cases of heavy ion fusion involving two or more nucleons. thus forming the hydrogen isotope deuterium.n the laboratory. but the same result occursO smaller nuclei are combined into larger nuclei. has the largest binding energy per nucleon< generally releases energy while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy. . . =ncontrolled nuclear fusion has been carried out many times in nuclear weapons testing. Synthetic fusion as a result of human actions has also been achieved. the reaction mechanism is different. successful nuclear physics e'periments have been carried out that involve the fusion of many different varieties of nuclei. or KfuseK. and never the much more common isotope of hydrogen *(#2<. but the energy output has been negligible in these studies. The fusion of two nuclei with lower masses than iron *which. nuclear fission. .. must occur in matter at very high densities and temperatures. involving many nuclei fusing at once. nuclear chemistry and astrophysics n'c$e#r 6'sion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei )oin together. to form a single heavier nucleus.

the fusion of the light nuclei *hydrogen isotopes< was first accomplished by 1ark !liphant in 2G3". .S. pressure in the primary coolant loop prevents the water from boiling within the reactor. in the . and nuclear fusion on a large scale in an e'plosion was first carried out on 8ovember 2..WRs were originally designed to serve as nuclear propulsion for nuclear submarines and were used in the original design of the second commercial power plant at Shippingport Atomic . . RussiaDs JJ4R reactors are similar to =. the steps of the main cycle of nuclear fusion in stars were first worked out by (ans -ethe throughout the remainder of that decade. 2G/". All 6WRs use ordinary light water as both coolant and neutron moderator.vy 1ike hydrogen bomb test. Research into fusion for military purposes began in the early 2G50s as part of the 1anhattan .n a .ower Station. in turn. carried out several years earlier. .n contrast to a boiling water reactor. %rance operates many . spins an electric generator.-uilding upon the nuclear transmutation e'periments by 4rnest Rutherford. the other type being boiling water reactors *-WRs<.WRs to generate the bulk of their electricity . reactors. and it continues to this day. .e% 0#ter re#ctors *PWRs< constitute a ma)ority of all western nuclear power plants and are one of two types of light water reactor *6WR<.ro)ect. Then. T*PES O( REA TORS" Press'ri.WRs. The heated water then flows to a steam generator where it transfers its thermal energy to a secondary system where steam is generated and flows to turbines which. Research into developing controlled thermonuclear fusion for civil purposes also began in the 2G/0s.WRs currently operating in the =nited States are considered $eneration . but this was not accomplished until 2G/2 *see the $reenhouse .WR the primary coolant *water< is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy generated by the fission of atoms.tem nuclear test<. .

. Desi)n .n the =S.#" in 2GAG essentially ended the growth in new construction nuclear power plants in the =nited States.#".H2I The first commercial nuclear power plant at Shippingport Atomic .WRs are used for marine propulsion in aircraft carriers.Several hundred .ower Station was originally designed as a pressuri. Rickover that a viable commercial plant would include none of the Kcra. nuclear submarines and ice breakers.ower .ed water reactor.ed water reactor plants. %ollow#on work was conducted by Westinghouse -ettis Atomic .ed water reactor.sland 8uclear $enerating Station initially operated two pressuri. Three 1ile .ictorial e'planation of power transfer in a pressuri.ower 6aboratory. T1. The partial meltdown of T1. on insistence from Admiral (yman $. . .y thermodynamic cycles that everyone else wants to build.rogram operated pressuri.ed water reactors from 2G/5 to 2GA5. they were originally designed at the !ak Ridge 8ational 6aboratory for use as a nuclear submarine power plant.#2 and T1.rimary coolant is in orange and the secondary coolant *steam and later feedwater< is in blue.K The =S Army 8uclear .

The steam generated has other uses besides power generation. the pressuri. is ma'imi. where it flows through hundreds or thousands of tubes *usually 3:5 inch in diameter<. .ed water reactor *. The condenser converts the steam to a li&uid so that it can be pumped back into the steam generator.ed. . Some common steam generator arrangements are u#tubes or single pass heat e'changers. and maintains a vacuum at the turbine outlet so that the pressure drop across the turbine. After passing through the turbine the secondary coolant *water#steam mi'ture< is cooled down and condensed in a condenser. -efore being fed into the steam generator. by contrast. the steam is fed through a steam turbine connected to a set of speed reduction gears to a shaft used for propulsion. +istrict heating by the steam is used in some countries and direct heating is applied to internal plant applications.ed steam. which is desirable since the primary coolant might become radioactive.WR.e thermal shock.ed:deioni. the condensed steam *referred to as feedwater< is sometimes preheated in order to minimi. has only one .8uclear fuel in the reactor vessel is engaged in a fission chain reaction. (eat is transferred through the walls of these tubes to the lower pressure secondary coolant located on the sheet side of the e'changer where it evaporates to pressuri. Two things are characteristic for the pressuri. A boiling water reactor. The transfer of heat is accomplished without mi'ing the two fluids. which produces heat.ed water. and hence the energy e'tracted from the steam.n a nuclear power station.n nuclear ships and submarines. there are two separate coolant loops *primary and secondary<. +irect mechanical action by e'pansion of the steam can be used for a steam#powered aircraft catapult or similar applications.ed steam is fed through a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator connected to the electric grid for distribution. which are both filled with deminerali. .n a . heating the water in the primary coolant loop by thermal conduction through the fuel cladding. The hot primary coolant is pumped into a heat e'changer called the steam generator.WR< when compared with other reactor types7 coolant loop separation from the steam system and pressure inside the primary coolant loop.

and nearly twice that of a boiling water reactor *-WR<. sodium in its li&uid state as coolant or graphite as a moderator<. The pressure in the primary coolant loop is typically 2/E2@ megapascals *2/0E2@0 bar<. -y contrast. in a boiling water reactor the primary coolant is designed to boil. only locali.ed boiling occurs and steam will recondense promptly in the bulk fluid. while more e'otic designs such as breeder reactors use substances other than water for coolant and moderator *e. which is notably higher than in other nuclear reactors.coolant loop. As an effect of this. PWR Re#ctor Desi)n PWR Re#ctor Vesse$ oo$#nt .g.

Thermal transients in the reactor coolant system result in large swings in pressuri.a *3"00 ."/0 psig<.a *@0 atm. */30 N%< O for use in the steam turbine.ressure in the primary circuit is maintained by a pressuri.er volume is designed around absorbing these transients without uncovering the heaters or emptying the pressuri. the primary coolant transfers heat in a steam generator to water in a lower pressure secondary circuit.6ight water is used as the primary coolant in a . the critical point occurs at around @5A > *3A5 N atm<. The cooled primary coolant is then returned to the reactor vessel to or A0/ N%< and "". The water remains li&uid despite the high temperature due to the high pressure in the primary coolant loop. the primary circuit temperature./ 1. To achieve ma'imum heat transfer. To achieve a pressure of 2// bar. which gives a subcooling margin *the difference between the pressuri.n water.er li&uid volume.S. After picking up heat as it passes through the reactor core. which can consume up to @ 1W each.er temperature is maintained at 35/ N .ressure transients in the primary coolant system manifest as temperature transients in the pressuri.t enters the bottom of the reactor core at about "A/ N */30 N%< and is heated as it flows upwards through the reactor core to a temperature of about 32/ N *@00 N%<. ".0@5 1. . the pressuri. a separate vessel that is connected to the primary circuit and partially filled with water which is heated to the saturation temperature *boiling point< for the desired pressure by submerged electrical heaters. pressure and flow rate are arranged such that subcooled nucleate boiling takes place as the coolant passes over the nuclear fuel rods. . The coolant is pumped around the primary circuit by powerful pumps. G00 psia<. usually around 2// bar *2/.WR. respectively.A or "2B . "A/ N be heated again. .er temperature. total pressuri.a 2/3 atm.er.er.HAI . which raise and lower pressuri." 1.er and are controlled through the use of automatic heaters and water spray. evaporating the secondary coolant to saturated steam O in most designs @.er temperature and the highest temperature in the reactor core< of 30 N .

and in an R-1> reactor like hernobyl. This KmoderatingK of neutrons will happen more often when the water is denser *more collisions will occur<.ed water reactors. like all thermal reactor designs. water also has a property of absorbing neutrons. known as the negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The use of water as a moderator is an important safety feature of .WR reactors very stable. though it is not as large as .ressuri. producing less heat. Thus there is less water to absorb thermal neutrons that have already been slowed down by the graphite moderator.WRs the coolant water is used as a moderator by letting the neutrons undergo multiple collisions with light hydrogen atoms in the water. that increases heat generation when coolant water temperatures increase. causing rapid transients. the boiling increases. re&uire the fast fission neutrons to be slowed down *a process called moderation or thermali. This makes the R-1> design less stable than pressuri.H20I (eavy water has very low neutron absorption. if reactivity increases beyond normal. makes . has a large positive thermal coefficient of reactivity. which creates voids. which uses graphite instead of water as the moderator and uses boiling water as the coolant. .n contrast. . the void coefficient is positive. . so heavy water reactors such as A8+= reactors also have a positive void coefficient.n addition to its property of slowing down neutrons when serving as a moderator.n . the R-1> reactor design used at hernobyl.Mo%er#tor .WRs. This design characteristic of the R-1> reactor is generally seen as one of several causes of the hernobyl accident. and fairly large.ation< in order to interact with the nuclear fuel and sustain the chain reaction. This property. Therefore. This property is called the void coefficient of reactivity. losing speed in the process. as an increase in temperature may cause the water to turn to steam # thereby reducing the e'tent to which neutrons are slowed down and hence reducing the reactivity in the reactor.ed water reactors. When the coolant water temperature increases. albeit to a lesser degree. causing an increase in reactivity. the reduced moderation of neutrons will cause the chain reaction to slow down.

meaning that more fissile nuclei fail to fission on neutron absorption and instead capture the neutron to become a heavier nonfissile isotope. !ne ne't generation design. though heavy waterDs neutron absorption is much lower. called fuel bundles. A typical . . sintering furnace to create hard. The cylindrical pellets are then clad in a corrosion#resistant . that are then used to build the core of the reactor. After enrichment the uranium dio'ide *=!"< powder is fired in a high#temperature. making the void coefficient positive. wasting one or more neutrons and increasing accumulation of heavy transuranic actinides. the supercritical water reactor. Pircaloy is chosen because of its mechanical properties and its low absorption cross section. because if moderation were near saturation. light water is actually a somewhat stronger moderator of neutrons than heavy water. A less moderated neutron energy spectrum does worsen the capture:fission ratio for "3/ = and especially "3G . which are designed to handle or react to this as needed. -ecause of these two facts.irconium metal alloy Pircaloy which are backfilled with helium to aid heat conduction and detect leakages.u. +esigned and built by the -abcock and Wilco' ompany. these reactors are designed with a number of safety systems not found in the original R-1> design. some of which have long half#lives.ed water reactor of the nuclear passenger and cargo ship 8S Sa'annah. is even less moderated. Also.that of an R-1> like hernobyl. ceramic pellets of enriched uranium dio'ide. The finished fuel rods are grouped in fuel assemblies. ('e$ PWR 6'e$ 5'n%$e This fuel bundle is from a pressuri. meaning that there is room for increased water volume or density to further increase moderation.WRs are designed to be maintained in an undermoderated state. then a reduction in density of the moderator:coolant could reduce neutron absorption significantly while reducing moderation only slightly. light water reactors have a relatively small moderator volume and therefore have compact cores.

< -oron and control rods are used to maintain primary system temperature at the desired point. This results in the primary loop increasing in temperature. though some more modern refueling schemes may reduce refuel time to a few days and allow refueling to occur on a shorter periodicity.WRs is normally achieved by varying the concentration of boric acid dissolved in the primary reactor coolant. The higher temperature causes the reactor to fission less and decrease in power. A . -oron readily absorbs neutrons and increasing or decreasing its concentration in the reactor coolant will therefore affect the neutron activity correspondingly.WR fuel bundles are about 5 meters in length. An entire control system involving high pressure pumps *usually called the charging and letdown system< is re&uired to remove water from the high pressure primary loop and re#in)ect the water back in with differing concentrations of boric acid. .n . and a large reactor would have about 2/0E"/0 such assemblies with B0E200 tonnes of uranium in all. the fuel bundles consist of fuel rods bundled 25 Q 25 to 2A Q 2A. are moved for the following reasons7 .WR has fuel assemblies of "00 to 300 rods each. *See7 8egative temperature coefficient. $enerally. . Appro'imately one third of the core is replaced each refueling. This would result in less steam being drawn from the steam generators. inserted through the reactor vessel head directly into the fuel bundles. Reactivity ad)ustment to maintain 200C power as the fuel is burned up in most commercial . The operator could then add boric acid and:or insert control rods to decrease temperature to the desired point.WRs reactor power can be viewed as following steam *turbine< demand due to the reactivity feedback of the temperature change caused by increased or decreased steam flow. ontro$ ./00 1We.n order to decrease power.WRs is on an 2BE"5 month cycle. the operator throttles shut turbine inlet valves. The reactor control rods..WR produces on the order of G00 to 2. Refuelings for most commercial .

-WRs have no boron in the reactor coolant and control the reactor power by ad)usting the reactor coolant flow rate. To compensate for nuclear fuel depletion. (owever. =pon loss of coolant the decay heat can raise the rods above ""00 degrees elsius. .f cooling fails during this post#shutdown period. To shut down the primary nuclear reactions in the reactor. where upon the hot Pirconium alloy metal used for casing the nuclear fuel rods spontaneously neededI has . the reactor can still overheat and meltdown. this makes the reactor easier to operate from a stability standpoint as long as the post shutdown period of 2 to 3 years Hcitation pumped cooling. .WR turbine cycle loop is separate from the primary loop. so the water in the secondary loop is not contaminated by radioactive materials.WRs can passively scram the reactor in the event that offsite power is lost to immediately stop the primary nuclear reaction. The control rods can also be used7 • • To compensate for nuclear poison inventory. The control rods are held by electromagnets and fall by gravity when current is lost. .n contrast.• • • To start up the reactor. but these effects are more usually accommodated by altering the primary coolant boric acid concentration.WR reactors are very stable due to their tendency to produce less power as temperatures increase. A%7#nt#)es" . To accommodate short term transients such as changes to load on the turbine. nuclear reactions of the fission products continue to generate decay heat at initially roughly AC of full power level. full insertion safely shuts down the primary nuclear reaction. which re&uires 2 to 3 years of water pumped cooling. .

H25I The reactor pressure vessel is manufactured from ductile steel but. Additional high pressure components such as reactor coolant pumps.er. this can cause radioactive corrosion products to circulate in the primary coolant loop. !ccasionally. pressuri. 4ventually the ductility of the steel will reach limits determined by the applicable boiler and pressure vessel standards. as the plant is operated.WR operation<. Dis#%7#nt#)es The coolant water must be highly pressuri. . This might not be practical or economic. this has resulted in severe corrosion to control rod drive mechanisms when the boric acid solution leaked through the seal between the mechanism itself and the primary system. neutron flu' from the reactor causes this steel to become less ductile. This also increases the capital cost and comple'ity of a . but the systems that filter out the corrosion products and ad)ust the boric acid concentration add significantly to the overall cost of the reactor and to radiation e'posure. steam generators. and so determines the life of the plant. threatening structural damage and:or the e'posure of highly radioactive stored fuel rods in the vicinity outside the plant in pools *appro'imately 2/ tons of fuel is replenished each year to maintain normal . This re&uires high strength piping and a heavy pressure vessel and hence increases construction costs. etc.n this event there is a high danger of hydrogen e'plosions. The high temperature water coolant with boric acid dissolved in it is corrosive to carbon steel *but not stainless steel<. and the pressure vessel must be repaired or replaced. which leads to the separation of water in to its constituent elements *hydrogen and o'ygen<. The higher pressure can increase the conse&uences of a loss#of# coolant accident.ed to remain li&uid at high temperatures. are also needed. .e'plodes in contact with the cooling water or steam.WR power plant. This not only limits the lifetime of the reactor.

The 8avy. The -WR was developed by the . sent their man in engineering. -ecause water acts as a neutron moderator. Rickover decided on the .is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power. and was a collaboration between $4 and several =S national laboratories.t is the second most common type of electricity# generating nuclear reactor after the pressuri. +evelopment of the -WR started in the early 2G/0s. This makes it necessary to enrich the uranium fuel.ed water reactor *. Research into nuclear power in the =S was led by the 3 military services. E#r$1 conce/ts The -WR concept was developed slightly later than the . A reduced moderation water reactor may however achieve a breeding ratio greater than unity.WR design. aptain (yman Rickover to run their nuclear power program. which increases the costs of fuel production. . but the production of heavy water re&uires large amounts of energy and is hence e'pensive. . as the early researchers in the field of nuclear power feared that the direct production of steam within a reactor . and ships that could steam around the world without refueling. also a type of light water nuclear reactor. the isotope necessary for thermal reactors. which speciali.f heavy water is used.8atural uranium is only 0.WR<.WR concept. it is possible to operate the reactor with natural uranium.!WR. The main present manufacturer is $4 (itachi 8uclear 4nergy.es in the design and construction of this type of reactor. it is not possible to build a fast neutron reactor with a .AC uranium#"3/. seeing the possibility of turning submarines into full#time underwater vehicles.daho 8ational 6aboratory and $eneral 4lectric in the mid#2G/0s. though this reactor design has disadvantages of its own.WR route for the 8avy. !oi$in) W#ter Re#ctor" The 5oi$in) 0#ter re#ctor .

The first. .. proving the safety principles of the -WR. proposed and oversaw a series of e'periments7 the -!RAR e'perimentsOto see if a boiling water reactor would be feasible for use in energy production. but it was eliminated on production models of the -WR.WRs could be made compact and high#power enough to fit in such.!WR<. and -WR:@s are the most common types in service today.=!WR<>The first generation of production boiling water reactors saw the incremental development of the uni&ue and distinctive features of the -WR7 the torus *used to &uench steam in the event of a transient re&uiring the &uenching of steam<.< The .would cause instability. a researcher at .ation of reactor control and safety systems. the steam dryer. as well as the drywell. after sub)ecting his reactors to &uite strenuous tests.daho 8ational 6aboratory *. and . *-WR:5s. in any event. as space was at a premium.. while they knew that the use of pressuri. series of production -WRs evolved through @ iterative design phases. especially<. the distinctive general layout of the reactor building. each termed -WR:2 through -WR:@. the elimination of the heat e'changer. The literature does not indicate why this was the case. which was highly suited for naval vessels *submarines. $4 got involved and collaborated with . -WR:/s. (e found that it was.ed water would definitively work as a means of heat transfer. 6arger#scale tests were conducted through the late 2G/0s:early:mid#2G@0s that only partially used directly#generated *primary< nuclear boiler system steam to feed the turbine and incorporated heat e'changers for the generation of secondary steam to drive separate parts of the turbines. Samuel =ntermyer . (irst series o6 /ro%'ction !WRs .n particular. %ollowing this series of tests.86<. and the standardi. -ut other researchers wanted to investigate whether the supposed instability caused by boiling water in a reactor core would really cause instability.WR. This concern led to the =SDs first research effort in nuclear power being devoted to the . $eneral 4lectric.86 to bring this technology to market.

including computer control. The A-WR incorporates advanced technologies in the design. control rod removal. 2st generation -WR7 -WR:2 with 1ark . !ther -WR:5. containment ontainment variants were constructed using either concrete or steel for the . and nuclear safety to deliver improvements over the original series of production -WRs. 1ost significantly. and insertion. in#core pumping. -WR:3 and some -WR:5 with 1ark .. 1. The A-WR was developed in the late 2GB0s and early 2GG0s. See 6ist of boiling water reactors.A!WRA newer design of -WR is known as the Advanced -oiling Water Reactor *A-WR<. 8uclear Regulatory ommission for production as a standardi. the A-WR was a completely standardi. T&e #%7#nce% 5oi$in) 0#ter re#ctor . plant automation. and a significantly lowered probability of core damage. containment.rimary ontainment. containment.. containment.H/I Apart from the $4 designs there were others by A--. motion. Subse&uently. with a high power output *23/0 1We per reactor<.Hcitation neededI The A-WR was approved by the =.S. "nd generation -WRs7 -WR:". and has been further improved to the present day.ed design in the early 2GG0s.TS=.ed design. numerous . containment. +rywell and Wetwell in various combinations. that could be made for series production.. -rowns %erry =nit 2 drywell and wetwell under construction.vast ma)ority of -WRs in service throughout the world belong to one of these design phases. and -WR:/ with 1ark#. 3rd generation -WRs7 -WR:@ with 1ark#. a -WR:5 using the 1ark . Toshiba and >W=.

and . rather than re&uiring the intervention of active systems. who is now the ma)or worldwide developer of the -WR design. The tank containing the soluble neutron absorbers would be located above the reactor. they were e'pensive. once the system was triggered. thus accomplishing residual heat removal. these pumps were used in other -WR designs to keep cooling water moving. !ne development spurred by the success of the A-WR in Fapan is that $4Ds nuclear energy division merged with (itachi orporationDs nuclear energy division. or a solution of bora'<. and bring the reaction to a near#complete stop. and the absorption solution. known as the simplified boiling water reactor *S-WR<. Set another e'ample was the omission of recirculation pumps within the core.solation ondenser system. was instead designed to return to a safe state solely through operation of natural forces if a safety#related contingency developed. This smaller *@00 megawatt electrical *1We< per reactor< was notable for its incorporationOfor the first time ever in a light water reactorO of Kpassive safetyK design principles. T&e sim/$i6ie% 5oi$in) 0#ter re#ctor . The concept of passive safety means that the reactor. forming $4 (itachi.S!WR$eneral 4lectric *$4< also developed a different concept for a new boiling water reactor *-WR< at the same time as the A-WR. such as emergency in)ection pumps. Another e'ample was the . into the reactor core. if the reactor got too hot. it would trigger a system that would release soluble neutron absorbers *generally a solution of borated materials. would flow into the core through force of gravity.A-WRs were built in Fapan. which relied on the principle of hot water:steam rising to bring hot coolant into large heat e'changers located above the reactor in very deep tanks of water. %or e'ample. hard to reach to repair. or materials that greatly hamper a chain reaction by absorbing neutrons. to keep the reactor within safety margins.

so that even if several failed.could occasionally fail. The ultimate result of the passive safety features of the S-WR would be a reactor that would not re&uire human intervention in the event of a ma)or safety contingency for at least 5B hours following the safety contingency. it would only re&uire periodic refilling of cooling water tanks located completely outside of the reactor.Hcitation neededI *That is. the concept remained intriguing to $eneral 4lectricDs designers. a sufficient number would remain serviceable so that an unscheduled shutdown would not be necessary. isolated from the cooling system. the designers of the Simplified -oiling Water Reactor used thermal analysis to design the reactor core such that natural circulation *cold water falls. 4arlier designs of the -WR *the .nstead. there would need to be 3 million 4S-WRs operating before one would e'pect a single core# damaging event during their 200#year lifetimes. and designed to remove reactor waste heat through evaporation. hot water rises< would bring water to the center of the core to be boiled. and the subse&uent %inal +esign Review is near completion. the A-WR incorporated no less than 20 of these recirculation pumps. it was withdrawn prior to approval.e of 2.@00 1We *5. and served as the basis of future developments. thence. along with scaling up the resulting design to a larger si. T&e economic sim/$i6ie% 5oi$in) 0#ter re#ctor . Reportedly.S. $4 engineers proposed to combine the features of the advanced boiling water reactor design with the distinctive safety features of the simplified boiling water reactor design. 8uclear Regulatory ommission for approval. however. and the pumps could be repaired during the ne't refueling outage. This 4conomic Simplified -oiling Water Reactor design has been submitted to the =.ES!WR+uring a period beginning in the late 2GG0s. this design has been advertised as having a core damage probability of only 3Q20TB core damage events per reactor#year. . still. The Simplified -oiling Water Reactor was submitted to the =nited States 8uclear Regulatory ommission. so as to improve reliability./00 1Wth<.

< • 6ower risk *probability< of a rupture causing loss of coolant compared to a . the average -WR would be less likely to sustain core damage than the average .WR.WR due to the robustness and redundancy of the 4mergency ore ooling System *4 S<. !perates at a lower nuclear fuel temperature.WR *about 2/B times atmospheric pressure<. fewer large diameter pipes. *!lder -WRs have e'ternal recirculation loops. • 8R assessments of limiting fault potentials indicate if such a fault occurred. A%7#nt#)es #n% %is#%7#nt#)es A%7#nt#)es • The reactor vessel and associated components operate at a substantially lower pressure *about A/ times atmospheric pressure< compared to a . fewer welds and no steam generator tubes. for the 4S-WR far e'ceeds the other large 6WRs on the market.-WR:5< had core damage probabilities as high as 2Q20 T/ core#damage events per reactor#year. such as the A-WR. and so does not become as brittle with age. but even this piping is eliminated in modern -WRs. and lower risk of core damage should such a rupture occur. .ressure vessel is sub)ect to significantly less irradiation compared to a . %ewer components due to no steam generators and no pressuri. • • • .er vessel.<H@I This e'traordinarily low +.WR. This is due to fewer pipes.

ed.e boric acid. This results in less dependence on emergency diesel generatorsOof which there are fourOin any event. uniform designs that. which normally consist of four KtrainsK of components. and re&uire no electrical power. .WRs. This generally means that up to two of the four components of a safety system can fail and the system will still perform if called upon. the current fleet of -WRs have predictable. • • an operate at lower core power density levels using natural circulation without forced flow.WRs.< • -WRs generally have "#" redundancy on their ma)or safety#related systems. • +ue to their single ma)or vendor *$4:(itachi<. -WRs have at least a few steam#turbine driven 4 S systems that can be directly operated by steam produced after a reactor shutdown.• =nlike . Westinghouse. A -WR may be designed to operate using only natural circulation so that recirculation pumps are eliminated entirely.WR fleet * ombustion 4ngineering.< • -WRs do not use boric acid to control fission burn#up.WRs. • 1easuring the water level in the pressure vessel is the same for both normal and emergency operations.ation remains a problem with . *The new 4S-WR design uses natural circulation.ed. See +avis#-esse. at least in the =nited States. it has been demonstrated that reactor vessel head corrosion can occur if the reactor vessel head is not properly maintained. * orrosion from boric acid must be carefully monitored in . while not completely standardi. 6ack of standardi. Since -WRs do not utili. The A-WR:4S-WR designs are completely standardi. generally are very similar to one another. there are three design families represented among the current . as. within these families. which results in easy and intuitive assessment of emergency conditions. these contingencies are eliminated. there are &uite divergent designs. leading to less possibility of corrosion within the reactor vessel and piping. and -abcock 9 Wilco'<.

which come at the e'pense of larger si. construction. the indigenous design won. and WestinghouseDs A. the overall cost is reduced because . and safety focus. possibly on technical merits. process:industrial:district heating. and desalini. *(owever. which was a showdown between the -WR *preferred for its easily understood design as well as for being predictable and KboringK< and the A$ R. or special national aspirations *special national aspirations lead to a marked preference for the A8+= reactor type due to special features of that type<.open competition in the early 2G@0s for a standard design for => "nd#generation power reactors. they cause national skill to be developed in .WRs are favored by nuclear naval states due to their compact. Dis#%7#nt#)es • 1uch larger pressure vessel than for a .R. if the importing nation doesnDt have a nuclear navy *.WR didnDt even make it to the final round. 1e'icoDs only two reactors are -WRs.WR design. with correspondingly higher cost. the . due to low cost. and operation<. ArevaDs =S#4. specifically A-WRs. • -WRs are overrepresented in imports. simplicity. a uni&uely -ritish design. and possibly cause customers seeking stability and predictability to seek other designs. %or e'ample. Fapan e'perimented with both .• Additional families of . but most builds as of late have been of -WRs.e and slightly lower thermal efficiency. .ed mainly on -WRs. possibly due to the pro'imity of a general election.@00 will add diversity and comple'ity to an already diverse crowd. This may be due to the fact that -WRs are ideally suited for peaceful uses like power generation. high#power design used on nuclear#powered vessels.WRs and -WRs.n the 4$.WRs are being introduced. • • • • Sweden is standardi.WR.WR of similar power.2000:A. since naval reactors are generally not e'ported.ation. such as the -WR. 1itsubishiDs A.

makes this less of an issue.WRs are *due to increased 4 S robustness and redundancy< there have been concerns raised about the pressure containment ability of the as#built. • • -WR has no main steam generators and associated piping.n this double failure scenario. re&uiring . namely. as most of the radiation flu' is due to 8itrogen#2@. containment.000 reactor#yearK limiting fault than the present fleet of . an unmodified 1ark . containment E that such may be insufficient to contain pressures generated by a limiting fault combined with complete 4 S failure that results in e'tremely severe core damage. containment can allow some degree of radioactive release to occur. the addition of an outgas stack system that. allowing the turbine chamber to be entered into within minutes of shutdown. This is a moderately minor concern. • Though the present fleet of -WRs are said to be less likely to suffer core damage from the K2 in 200.< ontamination of the turbine by short#lived activation products. This re&uires more instrumentation in the reactor core. depending on its power history. assumed to be e'tremely unlikely prior to the %ukushima . (owever. This is supposed to be mitigated by the modification of the 1ark .HAI • A -WR re&uires active cooling for a period of several hours to several days following shutdown. unmodified 1ark . if containment pressure e'ceeds critical setpoints. %ull insertion of -WRs control rods safely shuts down the primary nuclear reaction.a modern omple' calculations for managing consumption of nuclear fuel during operation due to Ktwo phase *water and steam< fluid flowK in the upper part of the core. . radioactive decay of the fission products in the fuel will continue to actively generate decay heat at a gradually decreasing rate. is supposed to allow the orderly discharge of pressuri. however. nuclear accidents.ing gases after the gases pass through activated carbon filters designed to trap radionuclides. which has a half#life measured in seconds. This means that shielding and access control around the steam turbine are re&uired during normal operations due to the radiation levels arising from the steam entering directly from the reactor core. The innovation of computers.

pumping of cooling water for an initial period to prevent overheating of the fuel. ,f active cooling fails during this post#shutdown period, the reactor can still overheat to a temperature high enough that ;irconium in the fuel cladding will react with water and steam, producing hydrogen gas. ,n this event there is a high danger of hydrogen e'plosions, threatening structural damage to the reactor and:or associated safety systems and:or the e'posure of highly radioactive spent fuel rods that may be stored in the reactor building *appro' 2/ tons of fuel is replenished each year to maintain normal -WR operation< as happened with the %ukushima , nuclear accidents. • ontrol rods are inserted from below for current -WR designs. There are two available hydraulic power sources that can drive the control rods into the core for a -WR under emergency conditions. There is a dedicated high pressure hydraulic accumulator and also the pressure inside of the reactor pressure vessel available to each control rod. 4ither the dedicated accumulator *one per rod< or reactor pressure is capable of fully inserting each rod. 1ost other reactor types use top entry control rods that are held up in the withdrawn position by electromagnets, causing them to fall into the reactor by gravity if power is lost. NU LEAR WASTE AND ITS DISPOSAL" R#%io#cti7e 0#ste is a waste product containing radioactive material. ,t is usually the product of a nuclear process such as nuclear fission, though industries not directly connected to the nuclear power industry may also produce radioactive waste. Radioactivity diminishes over time, so in principle the waste needs to be isolated for a period of time until it no longer poses a ha;ard. This can mean hours to years for some common medical or industrial radioactive wastes, or thousands of years for high#level wastes from nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons reprocessing.

The ma)ority of radioactive waste is Klow#level wasteK, meaning it has low levels of radioactivity per mass or volume. The main approaches to managing radioactive waste to date have been segregation and storage for short#lived wastes, near#surface disposal for low and some intermediate level wastes, and deep burial or transmutation for the long#lived, high# level wastes. A summary of the amounts of radioactive wastes and management approaches for most developed countries are presented and reviewed periodically as part of the ,A4A Foint onvention on Safety of Spent %uel 1anagement and the Safety of Radioactive Waste 1anagement.

T1/es o6 r#%io#cti7e 0#ste
Although not significantly radioactive, uranium mill tailings are waste. They are byproduct material from the rough processing of uranium#bearing ore. They are sometimes referred to as 22*e<" wastes, from the section of the =.S. Atomic 4nergy Act that defines them. =ranium mill tailings typically also contain chemically ha;ardous heavy metals such as lead and arsenic. Jast mounds of uranium mill tailings are left at many old mining sites, especially in olorado, 8ew 1e'ico, and =tah. (ow le'el waste )((W* is generated from hospitals and industry, as well as the nuclear fuel cycle. ,t comprises paper, rags, tools, clothing, filters, etc., which contain small amounts of mostly short#lived radioactivity. ommonly, 66W is designated as such as a precautionary measure if it originated from any region of an DActive AreaD, which fre&uently includes offices with only a remote possibility of being contaminated with radioactive materials. Such 66W typically e'hibits no higher radioactivity than one would e'pect from the same material disposed of in a non#active area, such as a normal office block. Some high activity 66W re&uires shielding during handling and transport but most 66W is suitable for shallow land burial. To reduce its volume, it is often compacted or incinerated before disposal.

6ow level waste is divided into four classes, class A, -, K$reater Than lass K.

and $T

, which means

$ntermediate le'el waste )$(W* contains higher amounts of radioactivity and in some cases re&uires shielding. ,6W includes resins, chemical sludge and metal reactor fuel cladding, as well as contaminated materials from reactor decommissioning. ,t may be solidified in concrete or bitumen for disposal. As a general rule, short#lived waste *mainly non#fuel materials from reactors< is buried in shallow repositories, while long#lived waste *from fuel and fuel#reprocessing< is deposited in deep underground facilities. =.S. regulations do not define this category of waste; the term is used in 4urope and elsewhere. Spent %uel %lasks are transported by railway in the =nited >ingdom. 4ach flask is constructed of 25 in *3@0 mm< thick solid steel and weighs in e'cess of /0 tons +igh le'el waste )+(W* is produced by nuclear reactors. ,t contains fission products and transuranic elements generated in the reactor core. ,t is highly radioactive and often thermally hot. (6W accounts for over G/C of the total radioactivity produced in the process of nuclear electricity generation. The amount of (6W worldwide is currently increasing by about 2",000 metric tons every year, which is the e&uivalent to about 200 double#decker buses or a two#story structure with a footprint the si;e of a basketball court. A 2000#1We nuclear power plant produces about "A tonnes of spent nuclear fuel *unreprocessed< every year. Transuranic waste )T,UW* as defined by =.S. regulations is, without regard to form or origin, waste that is contaminated with alpha#emitting transuranic radionuclides with half#lives greater than "0 years, and concentrations greater than 200 n i:g *3.A 1-&:kg<, e'cluding (igh 6evel Waste. 4lements that have an atomic number greater than uranium are called transuranic *Kbeyond uraniumK<. -ecause of their long half#lives, TR=W is disposed more cautiously than either low level or intermediate level waste. ,n the =S it arises mainly from weapons

ed into Kcontact#handledK * (< and Kremote#handledK *R(< on the basis of radiation dose measured at the surface of the waste container. This can be done by using new reactor types such as $enerationU. The most troublesome transuranic elements in spent fuel are 8p#"3A *half#life two million years< and . rags. See also7 (igh#level radioactive waste management. ( TR=W has a surface dose rate not greater than "00 mrem per hour *" mSv:h<. residues. nor its high heat generation. it is today possible to reduce the radioactive waste by a factor 200. followed by a long#term . Pre7entin) o6 W#ste +ue to the many advances in reactor design.ilot .production. Tc#GG *half#life ""0. but R( TR=W can be highly radioactive. =nder =S law.000 years<. This reducion of nuclear waste is possible these new reactor types are capable of burning the lower actinides. and consists of clothing. M#n#)ement o6 W#ste 1odern medium to high level transport container for nuclear waste. whereas R( TR=W has a surface dose rate of "00 mrem per hour *" mSv:h< or greater. with surface dose rates up to 2000000 mrem per hour *20000 mSv:h<.solation . 8uclear waste re&uires sophisticated treatment and management to successfully isolate it from interacting with the biosphere.lant. The =S currently permanently disposes of defense#related TR=W at the Waste . ( TR=W does not have the very high radioactivity of high level waste. transuranic waste is further categori.#2"G *half#life 2A million years<.u#"3G *half life "5. debris and other items contaminated with small amounts of radioactive elements *mainly plutonium<.000 years< and . 6ist of nuclear waste treatment technologies. which dominate spent fuel radioactivity after a few thousand years. and 4nvironmental effects of nuclear power !f particular concern in nuclear waste management are two long#lived fission products. tools. This usually necessitates treatment.JUreactor.

management strategy involving storage, disposal or transformation of the waste into a non#to'ic form. $overnments around the world are considering a range of waste management and disposal options, though there has been limited progress toward long#term waste management solutions.

Initi#$ tre#tment o6 0#ste

Vitri6ic#tion
6ong#term storage of radioactive waste re&uires the stabili;ation of the waste into a form which will neither react nor degrade for e'tended periods of time. !ne way to do this is through vitrification.H"3I urrently at Sellafield the high#level waste alcination *.=R4R first cycle raffinate< is mi'ed with sugar and then calcined.

involves passing the waste through a heated, rotating tube. The purposes of calcination are to evaporate the water from the waste, and de#nitrate the fission products to assist the stability of the glass produced. The DcalcineD generated is fed continuously into an induction heated furnace with fragmented glass.H"/I The resulting glass is a new substance in which the waste products are bonded into the glass matri' when it solidifies. This product, as a melt, is poured into stainless steel cylindrical containers *KcylindersK< in a batch process. When cooled, the fluid solidifies *KvitrifiesK< into the glass. Such glass, after being formed, is highly resistant to water. After filling a cylinder, a seal is welded onto the cylinder. The cylinder is then washed. After being inspected for e'ternal contamination, the steel cylinder is stored, usually in an underground repository. ,n this form, the waste products are e'pected to be immobili;ed for a long period of time *many thousands of years<. The glass inside a cylinder is usually a black glossy substance. All this work *in the =nited >ingdom< is done using hot cell systems. The sugar is added to control the ruthenium chemistry and to stop the formation of the volatile Ru!5 containing radioactive ruthenium isotopes. ,n the west, the glass is normally a borosilicate

glass *similar to .yre'<, while in the former Soviet bloc it is normal to use a phosphate glass. The amount of fission products in the glass must be limited because some *palladium, the other .t group metals, and tellurium< tend to form metallic phases which separate from the glass. -ulk vitrification uses electrodes to melt soil and wastes, which are then buried underground. H"BI ,n $ermany a vitrification plant is in use; this is treating the waste from a small demonstration reprocessing plant which has since been closed down.H"5IH"GI Ion e4c&#n)e ,t is common for medium active wastes in the nuclear industry to be treated with ion e'change or other means to concentrate the radioactivity into a small volume. The much less radioactive bulk *after treatment< is often then discharged. %or instance, it is possible to use a ferric hydro'ide floc to remove radioactive metals from a&ueous mi'tures.H30I After the radioisotopes are absorbed onto the ferric hydro'ide, the resulting sludge can be placed in a metal drum before being mi'ed with cement to form a solid waste form. H32I ,n order to get better long#term performance *mechanical stability< from such forms, they may be made from a mi'ture of fly ash, or blast furnace slag, and .ortland cement, instead of normal concrete *made with .ortland cement, gravel and sand<. S1nroc The Australian Synroc *synthetic rock< is a more sophisticated way to immobili;e such waste, and this process may eventually come into commercial use for civil wastes *it is currently being developed for =S military wastes<. Synroc was invented by the late .rof Ted Ringwood *a geochemist< at the Australian 8ational =niversity.H3"I The Synroc contains pyrochlore and cryptomelane type minerals. The original form of Synroc *Synroc < was designed for the li&uid high level waste *.=R4R raffinate< from a light water reactor. The main minerals in this Synroc are hollandite *-aAl"Ti@!2@<, ;irconolite * aPrTi"!A< and perovskite * aTi!3<. The

;irconolite and perovskite are hosts for the actinides. The strontium and barium will be fi'ed in the perovskite. The caesium will be fi'ed in the hollandite.

Lon) term m#n#)ement o6 W#ste The time frame in &uestion when dealing with radioactive waste ranges from 20,000 to 2,000,000 years, according to studies based on the effect of estimated radiation doses. Researchers suggest that forecasts of health detriment for such periods should be e'amined critically. .ractical studies only consider up to 200 years as far as effective planning and cost evaluations are concerned. 6ong term behavior of radioactive wastes remains a sub)ect for ongoing research pro)ects. Geo$o)ic %is/os#$ The process of selecting appropriate deep final repositories for high level waste and spent fuel is now under way in several countries *Schacht Asse ,, and the Waste ,solation .ilot .lant< with the first e'pected to be commissioned some time after "020. The basic concept is to locate a large, stable geologic formation and use mining technology to e'cavate a tunnel, or large#bore tunnel boring machines *similar to those used to drill the hannel Tunnel from 4ngland to %rance< to drill a shaft /00E2,000 meters below the surface where rooms or vaults can be e'cavated for disposal of high#level radioactive waste. The goal is to permanently isolate nuclear waste from the human environment. 1any people remain uncomfortable with the immediate stewardship cessation of this disposal system, suggesting perpetual management and monitoring would be more prudent. -ecause some radioactive species have half#lives longer than one million years, even very low container leakage and radionuclide migration rates must be taken into account. 1oreover, it may re&uire more than one half#life until some nuclear

? The proposed land#based subductive waste disposal method disposes of nuclear waste in a subduction .revention of 1arine . burial in a subduction .ollution by +umping of Wastes and !ther 1atter. A 2GB3 review of the Swedish radioactive waste disposal program by the 8ational Academy of Sciences found that countryVs estimate of several hundred thousand yearsOperhaps up to one million yearsObeing necessary for waste isolation Wfully )ustified. as well as the seabed and the subsoil thereof. while decay of radionuclides over this time period significantly reduces the level of radioactivity and associated harmful effects to the container material. and burial beneath a remote natural or human# made island. *the . . and as the state#of#the#art as of "002 in nuclear onvention on the .? Storing high level nuclear waste above ground for a century or so is considered appropriate by many scientists. and therefore is not prohibited by international agreement.materials lose enough radioactivity to cease being lethal to living things. it does not include sub#seabed repositories accessed only from land. While these approaches all have merit and would facilitate an international solution to the problem of disposal of radioactive waste.one that would slowly carry the waste downward into the 4arthDs mantle..one accessed from land. A. of the 2GG@ . thus increasing the longevity of the container once it is permanently buried. This method has been described as the most viable means of disposing of radioactive waste. This allows the material to be more easily observed and any problems detected and managed. they would re&uire an amendment of the 6aw of the Sea.rotocol to the 6ondon +umping onvention< states7 WSea? means all marine waters other than the internal waters of States.t is also considered likely that over the ne't century newer materials will be developed which will not break down as &uickly when e'posed to a high neutron flu'. Article 2 *+efinitions<. Sea#based options for disposal of radioactive wasteH5"I include burial beneath a stable abyssal plain.

ntegral %ast Reactor was a proposed nuclear reactor with a nuclear fuel cycle that produced no transuranic waste and in fact. See 8uclear transmutation. less#harmful nuclear waste. The estimated world total of plutonium in the year "000 was of 2.waste disposal technology. but was then canceled by the =S $overnment. is to dedicate subcritical reactors to the transmutation of the left#over transuranic elements. considered safer but re&uiring more development. due to the presence in it of highly to'ic radioactive elements such as plutonium.@5/ 1T. An isotope that is found in nuclear waste and that represents a concern in terms of proliferation is . Several fuel types with differing plutonium destruction efficiencies are under study. Tr#nsm't#tion There have been proposals for reactors that consume nuclear waste and transmute it to other. +eep borehole disposal is the concept of disposing of high#level radioactive waste from nuclear reactors in e'tremely deep boreholes.t proceeded as far as large# scale tests. An option for getting rid of this plutonium is to use it as a fuel in a traditional 6ight Water Reactor *6WR<. Another approach. the .u#"3G.n particular. Another approach termed Remi' 9 Return would blend high#level waste with uranium mine and mill tailings down to the level of the original radioactivity of the uranium ore. . This approach has the merits of providing )obs for miners who would double as disposal staff. . . +eep borehole disposal seeks to place the waste as much as five kilometers beneath the surface of the 4arth and relies primarily on the immense natural geological barrier to confine the waste safely and permanently so that it should never pose a threat to the environment. of which "20 1T had been separated by reprocessing. and of facilitating a cradle#to#grave cycle for radioactive materials. could consume transuranic waste. The large stock of plutonium is a result of its production inside uranium#fueled reactors and of the reprocessing of weapons#grade plutonium during the weapons program. but would be inappropriate for spent reactor fuel in the absence of reprocessing. then replace it in inactive uranium mines.

H/2I +ue to the economic losses and risks. it reduces the &uantity of waste produced. Re-'se o6 W#ste 1ain article7 8uclear reprocessing Another option is to find applications for the isotopes in nuclear waste so as to re# use them.artnership *$84.84T has been started in the 4= to make transmutation possible on a large. +ue to high energy demand. According to . . could be KdopedK with a small amount of the KminorK transuranic atoms which would be transmuted *meaning fissioned in the actinide case< to lighter elements upon their successive bombardment by the very high energy neutrons produced by the fusion of deuterium and tritium in the reactor. work on the method has continued in the 4=.< of "00A. Already.nternational Thermonuclear 4'perimental Reactor *. a new research program called A T.T4R< could transmute the entire annual minor actinide production from all of the light water reactors presently operating in the =nited States fleet while simultaneously generating appro'imately 2 gigawatt of power from each reactor. but .T found that only " or 3 fusion reactors with parameters similar to that of the . strontium#G0 and a few other isotopes are e'tracted for certain industrial applications such as food irradiation and radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Additionally.resident Reagan rescinded the ban in 2GB2. caesium#23A. This has resulted in a practical nuclear research reactor called 1yrrha in which transmutation is possible.resident arter due to the danger of plutonium proliferation. While re#use does not eliminate the need to manage radioisotopes. construction of reprocessing plants during this time did not resume.resident -ushDs $lobal 8uclear 4nergy . industrial scale. There have also been theoretical studies involving the use of fusion reactors as so called Kactinide burnersK where a fusion reactor plasma such as in a tokamak.Transmutation was banned in the =S in April 2GAA by . A study at 1. the =S is now actively promoting research on transmutation technologies needed to markedly reduce the problem of nuclear waste treatment.

t is the most widely used form of renewable energy. +*DEL POWER PLANT" +1%roe$ectricit1 is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower. The thermal flu' of the waste materials fracture the formation. -reeder reactors can run on =#"3B and transuranic elements. S/#ce %is/os#$ Space disposal is an attractive notion because it permanently removes nuclear waste from the environment. the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. which comprise the ma)ority of spent fuel radioactivity in the 2000#200000 year time span. the pro)ect produces no direct waste. and has . . hydrogen. The high number of launches that would be re&uired *because no individual rocket would be able to carry very much of the material relative to the total which needs to be disposed of< makes the proposal impractical *for both economic and risk#based reasons<.@/G. To further complicate matters. A mi'ture of hydrocarbons. !nce a hydroelectric comple' is constructed.The 8uclear Assisted (ydrocarbon .t has significant disadvantages. is a method for the temporary or permanent storage of nuclear waste materials comprising the placing of waste materials into one or more repositories or boreholes constructed into an unconventional oil formation. and:or other formation fluids are produced from the formation. The radioactivity of high#level radioactive waste affords proliferation resistance to plutonium placed in the periphery of the repository or the deepest portion of a borehole. international agreements on the regulation of such a program would need to be established.H//I anadian patent application ". . not least of which is the potential for catastrophic failure of a launch vehicle which would spread radioactive material into the atmosphere and around the world. alters the chemical and:or physical properties of hydrocarbon material within the subterranean formation to allow removal of the altered material.roduction 1ethod.30".

A large pipe *the KpenstockK< delivers water to the turbine. and accounted for about BBC of electricity from renewable sources. Ti%e . When there is higher demand.%#ms1ost hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator.a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dio'ide * !"< than fossil fuel powered energy plants. The power e'tracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the waterDs outflow. R'n-o6-t&e-ri7er Run#of#the#river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity. Worldwide. an installed capacity of AAA $We supplied "GGB TWh of hydroelectricity in "00@. At times of low electrical demand. This height difference is called the head. so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment. or must be allowed to bypass the dam. water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine.umped#storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large#scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. P'm/e%-stor#)e This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. e'cess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. . The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. on7ention#$ . This was appro'imately "0C of the worldDs electricity.

can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. such sources are highly predictable. An underground tunnel is constructed to take water from the high reservoir to the generating hall built in an underground cavern near the lowest point of the water tunnel and a hori. facilities from over a few hundred megawatts to more than 20 $W are generally considered large hydroelectric facilities. . Si./ $W. Three $orges +am at "".es #n% c#/#cities o6 &1%roe$ectric 6#ci$ities L#r)e #n% s/eci#$i.e% in%'stri#$ 6#ci$ities The Three $orges +am is the largest operating hydroelectric power station. at "". Although no official definition e'ists for the capacity range of large hydroelectric power stations. such as a waterfall or mountain lake. 6ess common types of hydro schemes use waterDs kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels.ontal tailrace taking water away to the lower outlet waterway." $W. Un%er)ro'n% An underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways. and $uri +am at 20.A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides. 6arge#scale hydroelectric power stations are more commonly seen as the largest power ./00 1W. only three facilities over 20 $W *20. and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs.000 1W< are in operation worldwide.taipu +am at 25 $W. urrently.

the =nited States *3 $W<. +edicated hydroelectric pro)ects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants. look into these matters on a global scale. 8ew PealandDs 1anapouri .H20I . and their changes on the environment. . are also often on grand scales.producing facilities in the world. raising the total world small#hydro capacity to B/ $W. some are created to serve specific industrial enterprises. such as the . !ver A0C of this was in hina *@/ $W<. and . airplanes before it was allowed to provide irrigation and power to citi.oint.ens *in addition to aluminium power< after the war.ower Station was constructed to supply electricity to the aluminium smelter at Tiwai . Sm#$$ Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community or industrial plant.. While many hydroelectric pro)ects supply public electricity networks. =nited States for American World War . followed by Fapan *3. The $rand oulee +am switched to support Alcoa aluminium in -ellingham.n Suriname. Small#scale hydroelectricity production grew by "BC during "00B from "00/.ed organi. The definition of a small hydro pro)ect varies but a generating capacity of up to 20 megawatts *1W< is generally accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed small hydro.ndia *" $W<. creating as much damage to the environment as at helps it by being a renewable resource.ations. with some hydroelectric facilities capable of generating more than double the installed capacities of the current largest nuclear power stations. The construction of these large hydroelectric facilities. the -rokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry. This may be stretched to "/ 1W and 30 1W in anada and the =nited States./ $W<. Washington. for e'ample.nternational (ydropower Association. 1any speciali.

particularly in developing nations as they can provide an economical source of energy without purchase of fuel.t is useful in small. Micro A micro#hydro facility in Jietnam 1icro hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 200 >W of power. is highest in the winter when solar energy is at a minimum. Since small hydro pro)ects usually have minimal reservoirs and civil construction work. remote communities that re&uire only a small amount of electricity. Alternatively. Pico .H22I 1icro hydro systems complement photovoltaic solar energy systems because in many areas.Small hydro plants may be connected to conventional electrical distribution networks as a source of low#cost renewable energy. they are seen as having a relatively low environmental impact compared to large hydro. or are sometimes connected to electric power networks. This decreased environmental impact depends strongly on the balance between stream flow and power production.ico hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power generation of under / >W. . These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community. or in areas where there is no national electrical distribution network. water flow. There are many of these installations around the world. and thus available hydro power. small hydro pro)ects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a network. .

to power one or two fluorescent light bulbs and a TJ or radio for a few homes. . where .B m:s". h is height in meters.ower in watts.ico#hydro setups typically are run#of#the#river. 4fficiency is often higher *that is. Y is the density of water *Z2000 kg:m3<..n some installations the water flow rate can vary by a factor of 2072 over the course of a year. closer to 2< with larger and more modern turbines.is . . but rather pipes divert some of the flow.%or e'ample. is a coefficient of efficiency ranging from 0 to 2. #$c'$#tin) t&e #mo'nt o6 #7#i$#5$e /o0er A simple formula for appro'imating electric power production at a hydroelectric plant is7 • • • • • • X Yhrg. meaning that dams are not used. r is flow rate in cubic meters per second. A%7#nt#)es #n% %is#%7#nt#)es o6 &1%roe$ectricit1 A%7#nt#)es . Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply. drop this down a gradient. g is acceleration due to gravity of G. .H2"I 4ven smaller turbines of "00#300W may power a single home in a developing country with a drop of only 2 m *3 ft<. and through the turbine before returning it to the stream.

Where a dam serves multiple purposes. While some carbon dio'ide is produced during manufacture and construction of the pro)ect. (ydroelectric plants have long economic lives. .t has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three $orges +am will cover the construction costs after / to B years of full generation. !ne measurement of greenhouse gas related and other e'ternality comparison between energy sources can be found in .The %festiniog . with some plants still in service after /0E200 years. as plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation. a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost. natural gas or coal. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil. providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation. they do not directly produce carbon dio'ide.H23I !perating labor cost is also usually low. this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of e&uivalent fossil#fuel electricity generation.ower Station can generate 3@0 1W of electricity within @0 seconds of the demand arising. Economics The ma)or advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel.H25I O2 emissions Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels. and no imports are needed.

third was nuclear energy. which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the pro)ect. and fourth was solar photovoltaic.H2@I oming in second place was wind. 6arge hydro dams can control floods. 1ulti#use dams installed for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply. Ot&er 'ses o6 t&e reser7oir Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports. .the 4'tern4 pro)ect by the . natural free. which all see a regular. presumably similar conditions prevail in 8orth America and 8orthern Asia. a&uaculture in reservoirs is common.n some countries.nstitut and the =niversity of Stuttgart which was funded by the 4uropean ommission.aul Scherrer . Dis#%7#nt#)es Ecos1stem %#m#)e #n% $oss o6 $#n% (ydroelectric power stations that use dams would submerge large areas of land due to the re&uirement of a reservoir.e:thaw cycle *with associated seasonal plant decay and regrowth<.H2@I The e'tremely positive greenhouse gas impact of hydroelectricity is found especially in temperate climates. and become tourist attractions themselves. The above study was for local energy in 4urope. .H2/I According to that study. hydroelectricity produces the least amount of greenhouse gases and e'ternality of any energy source.

4'amples include the Tekapo and .acific coasts of 8orth America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream. even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed. the daily cyclic flow variation caused by $len anyon +am was found to be contributing to erosion of sand bars.6arge reservoirs re&uired for the operation of hydroelectric power stations result in submersion of e'tensive areas upstream of the dams. Some hydroelectric pro)ects also use canals to divert a river at a shallower gradient to increase the head of the scheme. +issolved o'ygen content of the water may change from pre#construction conditions. water e'iting from turbines is typically much warmer than the pre#dam water. marshland and grasslands. %or e'ample. . the entire river may be diverted leaving a dry riverbed. (ydroelectric pro)ects can be disruptive to surrounding a&uatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site. have been demolished due to the high impact on fish. $eneration of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment. which can change a&uatic faunal populations. Salmon spawn are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines. 1itigation measures such as fish ladders may be re&uired at new pro)ects or as a condition of re#licensing of e'isting pro)ects. The loss of land is often e'acerbated by the fact that reservoirs cause habitat fragmentation of surrounding areas. . and prevent natural free. %or instance. which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks. including endangered species.ing processes from occurring. . Water e'iting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment.H2BI Since turbine gates are often opened intermittently. +epending on the location. such as the 1armot +am.n some cases. rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed.ukaki Rivers in 8ew Pealand. in the $rand anyon. studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and .n some cases dams.H2AI Turbine and power#plant designs that are easier on a&uatic life are an active area of research. This has led to some areas transporting smolt downstream by barge during parts of the year. destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests.

Si$t#tion When water flows it has the ability to transport particles heavier than itself downstream. climate change or upstream dams and diversions will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity. some reservoirs can become completely full of sediment and useless or over#top during a flood and fail.ontal pressure on the upstream portion of the dam. particularly those on rivers or within catchment areas with high siltation. 6ower river flows because of drought. Siltation can fill a reservoir and reduce its capacity to control floods along with causing additional hori. anyon +am for a ($o0 s&ort#)e hanges in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam. H2GIH"0I See Risks to the $len specific e'ample. The result of diminished river flow can be power shortages in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. This has a negative effect on dams and subse&uently their power stations. 4ventually. Met&#ne emissions .6rom reser7oirs- .

with an installed capacity of ".H""I Although these emissions represent carbon already in the biosphere.0B0 1W. however. a potent greenhouse gas. A new class of underwater logging operation that targets drowned forests can mitigate the effect of forest decay. See also7 4nvironmental impacts of reservoirs 6ower positive impacts are found in the tropical regions. . This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic environment. greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil#fired thermal generation plant.H"2I where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity *less than 200 watts per s&uare metre of surface area< and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir. not fossil deposits that had been se&uestered from the carbon cycle. there is a greater amount of methane due to anaerobic decay. and forming methane. According to the World ommission on +ams report. causing greater damage than would otherwise have occurred had the forest decayed naturally. countries E can be sold to companies and governments in rich countries.H"3I .nternational Rivers accused hydropower firms of cheating with fake carbon credits under the lean +evelopment 1echanism. as it has been noted that the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions may produce substantial amounts of methane. in order to .n boreal reservoirs of anada and 8orthern 4urope. for hydropower pro)ects +1 in developing already finished or under construction at the moment they applied to )oin the +1.The (oover +am in the =nited States is a large conventional dammed#hydro facility.n "00A. These carbon credits E of hydropower pro)ects under the comply with the >yoto protocol. . greenhouse gas emissions are typically only "C to BC of any kind of conventional fossil#fuel thermal generation.

1illions were left homeless.lisu +am in Turkey. and another 25/. such as !peration World War . Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities create less risk.. or other cause can be catastrophic to downriver settlements and infrastructure. %or e'ample. historically and culturally important sites can be flooded and lost.#r% -ecause large conventional dammed#hydro facilities hold back large volumes of water. The -an&iao +am failure in Southern hina directly resulted in the deaths of hastise in "@. +ams are tempting industrial targets for wartime attack. the lyde +am in 8ew Pealand. Additionally. the creation of a dam in a geologically inappropriate location may cause disasters such as 2G@3 disaster at Ja)ont +am in . and the . a failure due to poor construction.Re$oc#tion Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. where almost "000 people died. Also.n many cases. no amount of compensation can replace ancestral and cultural attachments to places that have spiritual value to the displaced population. +am failures have been some of the largest man#made disasters in history. sabotage and terrorism..000 people. the small >elly -arnes .H"/I . Such problems have arisen at the Aswan +am in 4gypt between 2G@0 and 2GB0.n %ebruary "00B it was estimated that 50# B0 million people worldwide had been physically displaced as a direct result of dam construction. good design and construction are not an ade&uate guarantee of safety. but can form continuing ha. . terrorism.taly. the Three $orges +am in hina.ards even after being decommissioned. Also.000 from epidemics. (#i$'re &#.

R#tin)" Should not be used for onstruction . factories etc. Small portable diesel generators range from about 2 kJA to 20 kJA may be used as power supplies on construction sites. Typical peak demand 200C of .H 1ost hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. This height difference is called the head. *4&uivalent to %uel Stop . AS"ABG. UNIT-IV DIESEL AND GAS TUR!INE POWER PLANT DIESEL POWER PLANTS" A %iese$ )ener#tor is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator *often called an alternator< to generate electric energy.Un$imite% R'nnin) Time. The power e'tracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the waterDs outflow. offices. Average power output is A0C of the prime rating. A large pipe *the KpenstockK< delivers water to the turbine. causing 3G deaths with the Toccoa %lood. !utput available with varying load for an unlimited time. 8ominally rated. Gener#tor R#tin) De6initions St#n%51 R#tin) 5#se% on Applicable for supplying emergency power for the duration of normal power interruption. Prime . The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. 8o sustained overload capability is available for this rating.S!305@. Typical application # emergency power plant in hospitals.ower applications.+am failed in 2G@A. +. or as au'iliary power for vehicles such as mobile homes.ower in accordance with . 8ot connected to grid. ten years after its power plant was decommissioned.8@"A2 and -S//25<. +iesel generating sets are used in places without connection to the power grid or as emergency power#supply if the grid fails.

S!B/"B and !verload . !ften a set might be given all three ratings stamped on the data plate. +. This rating is not applicable to all generator set models. AS"ABG.8@"A2.rime .S!B/"B.R#tin) 5#se% on" Applicable for supplying power continuously to a constant load up to the full output rating for unlimited hours. (owever these ratings vary according to manufacturer and should be taken from the manufacturerDs data sheet. not the ratings onsult authori. !#se Lo#% . or paralleled with the mains and continuously feeding power at the ma'imum permissible level BA@0 hours per year. AS"ABG.ower in accordance with .ower in accordance with . *4&uivalent to to all generator set models Typical application # a generator running a continuous unvarying load. 8o sustained overload capability is available for this rating.8@"A2. distributor for rating. ontin'o's.rime .S!305@. and the ontinuous Rating B00 kW.ower in accordance with .prime#rated ekW with 20C of overload capability for emergency use for a ma'imum of 2 hour in 2". and -S//25<. +. As an e'ample if in a particular set the Standby Rating were 2000 kW. A 20C overload capability is available for limited time.ower rating might be B/0 kW. and -S//25<. Typical application # where the generator is the sole source of power for say a remote mining or construction site.ed ontinuous .e of the ma'imum load that has to be connected and the acceptable ma'imum voltage drop which determines the set si.in) Typically however it is the si.S!305@. *4&uivalent to . . This also applies to sets used for peak shaving :grid support even though this may only occur for say "00 hour per year. Si. fairground. This rating is not applicable . but sometimes it may have only a standby rating. or only a prime rating. then a .e. festival etc.

. for some turbines. GAS TUR!INE POWER PLANT" A )#s t'r5ine. These gasses are then slowed using a diverging no. trains. the high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a no. or even tanks. drives their mechanical output.. These are isentropic compression. spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and. then the set will have to be at least 3 times the largest motor.le over the turbineDs blades. 4nergy is added to the gas stream in the combustor. gasses are first accelerated in either a centrifugal or radial compressor. .. Together these make up the -rayton cycle. . is a type of internal combustion engine. also called a com5'stion t'r5ine. which is normally started first.n the high pressure environment of the combustor. 4nergy can be e'tracted in the form of shaft power. This means it will be unlikely to operate at anywhere near the ratings of the chosen set. 1anufactures have sophisticated software that enables the correct choice of set for any given load combination. compressed air or thrust or any combination of these and used to power aircraft.themselves. isobaric *constant pressure< combustion and isentropic e'pansion. There. where fuel is mi'ed with air and ignited.t has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine. generators. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. and a combustion chamber in#between. . The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature and pressure of the e'haust gas.le known as a . T&eor1 o6 o/er#tion $asses passing through an ideal a gas turbine undergo three thermodynamic processes. ships.n a practical gas turbine.f the set is re&uired to start motors. combustion of the fuel increases the temperature.

(owever. be used to propel an aircraft. higher combustion temperatures can allow for greater efficiencies. or other materials that make up the engine to withstand high temperatures and stresses. (owever.n practice this process is not isentropic as energy is once again lost to friction and turbulence. -lade tip speed determines the ma'imum . . or similar device.n the case of a )et engine only enough pressure and energy is e'tracted from the flow to drive the compressor and other components. To combat this many turbines feature comple' blade cooling systems. As there is no change in pressure the specific volume of the gasses increases. .n an ideal system this occurs at constant pressure *isobaric heat addition<. -rayton cycle As with all cyclic heat engines.n an ideal system these are gasses e'panded isentropicly and leave the turbine at their original pressure. . the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of the shaft*s< needs to be to maintain tip speed.f the device has been designed to power to a shaft as with an industrial generator or a turboprop. %inally. The remaining high pressure gasses are accelerated to provide a )et that can. . in practice energy is lost to heat. these process increase the pressure and temperature of the flow. the e'it pressure will be as close to the entry pressure as possible.n practical situations this process is usually accompanied by a slight loss in pressure. temperatures are limited by ability of the steel. $asses then pass from the diffuser to a combustion chamber. for e'ample. .. nickel. ceramic. this larger volume of gasses is e'panded and accelerated by no. As a general rule.n practice it is necessary that some pressure remains at the outlet in order to fully e'pel the e'haust gasses.le guide vanes before energy is e'tracted by a turbine. due to friction.diffuser. .n an ideal system this is isentropic. due to friction and turbulence. where heat is added. . .

gas turbines can be considerably less comple' than internal combustion piston engines. whereas those that generate most of their thrust from the action of a ducted fan are often called turbofans or *rarely< fan#)ets.pressure ratios that can be obtained by the turbine and the compressor. Traditionally. T1/es o6 )#s t'r5ines ?et en)ines Airbreathing )et engines are gas turbines optimi.000 rpm. . which have been successfully used in micro turbines and au'iliary power units. not counting the fuel system. the re&uired precision manufacturing for components and temperature resistant alloys necessary for high efficiency often make the construction of a simple turbine more complicated than piston engines. . (owever. and a vast system of comple' piping.000 rpm. 1echanically. they have been hydrodynamic oil bearings. if the diameter of a rotor is reduced by half. This in turn limits the ma'imum power and efficiency that can be obtained by the engine. combustors and heat e'changers. or from ducted fans connected to the gas turbines.n order for tip speed to remain constant. Thrust bearings and )ournal bearings are a critical part of design. movable stator blades. Simple turbines might have one moving part7 the shaft:compressor:turbine:alternative#rotor assembly *see image above<. Fet engines that produce thrust primarily from the direct impulse of e'haust gases are often called turbo)ets. while micro turbines spin as fast as /00. %or e'ample large Fet engines operate around 20. These bearings are being surpassed by foil bearings. the rotational speed must double. hundreds of turbine blades.ed to produce thrust from the e'haust gases. 1ore sophisticated turbines *such as those found in modern )et engines< may have multiple shafts *spools<. or oil#cooled ball bearings.

Am#te'r )#s t'r5ines . Rolls#Royce R-"22 and Rolls#Royce Avon are common models of this type of machine. 6ike many technology based hobbies. They are also used in the marine industry to reduce weight. including the fabrication of a centrifugal compressor wheel from plywood. The simplest form of self#constructed gas turbine employs an automotive turbocharger as the core component. The $eneral 4lectric 61"/00. 1ore sophisticated turbo)ets are also built. then operated for display as part of the hobby of engine collecting. which saves considerable dry mass. The Schreckling design constructs the entire engine from raw materials. . the gas turbines are used to power a turbopump to permit the use of lightweight. $eneral 4lectric 61@000. Several small companies now manufacture small turbines and parts for the amateur.n its most e'treme form.ncreasing numbers of gas turbines are being used or even constructed by amateurs.n its most straightforward form. low pressure tanks. . epo'y and wrapped carbon fibre strands. these are commercial turbines ac&uired through military surplus or scrapyard sales. and handle load changes more &uickly than industrial machines. A combustion chamber is fabricated and plumbed between the compressor and turbine sections. where their thrust and light weight are sufficient to power large model aircraft. Aero%eri7#ti7e )#s t'r5ines Aeroderivatives are also used in electrical power generation due to their ability to be shut down. they tend to give rise to manufacturing businesses over time. amateurs have even rebuilt engines beyond professional repair and then used them to compete for the 6and Speed Record.$as turbines are also used in many li&uid propellant rockets. 1ost turbo)et#powered model aircraft are now using these .

en hours per year. compared to years for base load power plants. They supply compressed air for aircraft ventilation *with an appropriate compressor design<.=s are small gas turbines designed for au'iliary power of larger machines. .n . .e from truck# mounted mobile plants to enormous. they are usually used as peaking power plants. and blading is of heavier construction. . and electrical and hydraulic power. rather than a Schreckling#like home#build. start#up power for larger )et engines. comple' systems.Hcitation neededI Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within minutes. Since single cycle *gas turbine only< power plants are less efficient than combined cycle plants. or drives an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration.Hcitation neededI The construction process for gas turbines can take as little as several weeks to a few months. which operate anywhere from several hours per day to a few do.ndustrial gas turbines range in si. depending on the electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region.ndustrial gas turbines differ from aeroderivative in that the frames. both to protect the engine from the elements and the operators from the noise. supplying power during peak demand. bearings.commercial and semi#commercial microturbines. Such engines re&uire a dedicated enclosure. Hclari!ication neededI They can be particularly efficientOup to @0COwhen waste heat from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration They can also be run in a cogeneration configuration7 the e'haust is used for space or water heating. A'4i$i#r1 /o0er 'nits A. this 5B0#megawatt unit has a rated thermal efficiency of @0C. In%'stri#$ )#s t'r5ines 6or /o0er )ener#tion $4 ( series power generation gas turbine7 in combined cycle configuration. such as those inside an aircraft.

and the compressed air released to operate the turbine when re&uired.n a conventional turbine.n 2G@3. The first shaft bears the compressor and the high speed turbine *often referred to as K$as $eneratorK or K8gK<.H2/I om/resse% #ir ener)1 stor#)e !ne modern development seeks to improve efficiency in another way. A large single cycle gas turbine typically produces 200 to 500 megawatts of power and have 3/E50C thermal efficiency. Fan 1owill initiated the development at >ongsberg J[penfabrikk in 8orway. . . up to half the generated power is used driving the compressor. while the second shaft bears the low speed turbine *or K. . R#%i#$ )#s t'r5ines .areas with a shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity or low fuel costs. by separating the compressor and the turbine with a compressed air store. T'r5os&#6t en)ines Turboshaft engines are often used to drive compression trains *for e'ample in gas pumping stations or natural gas li&uefaction plants< and are used to power almost all modern helicopters. This arrangement is used to increase speed and power output fle'ibility. perhaps from a wind farm or bought on the open market at a time of low demand and low price. a gas turbine power plant may regularly operate during most hours of the day. power. Jarious successors have made good progress in the refinement of this mechanism.n a compressed air energy storage configuration. is used to drive the compressor. !wing to a configuration that keeps heat away from certain bearings the durability of the machine is improved while the radial turbine is well matched in speed re&uirement.ower TurbineK or K8fK # the DfD stands for Dfree wheeling turbineD on helicopters specifically due to the fact that the gas generator turbine spins separately from the power turbine<.

A2/ megawatts *1W<. $eothermal power is considered to be sustainable because the heat e'traction is small compared with the 4arthDs heat content. Technologies in use include dry steam power plants. . >urt Schreckling. This engine can produce up to "" newtons of thrust.0B@ 1W<. the %+3:@A. flash steam power plants and binary cycle power plants. produced one of the worldDs first 1icro#Turbines. such as a metal lathe. with the largest capacity in the =nited States *3. The emission intensity of e'isting geothermal electric plants is on average 2"" kg of !" per megawatt#hour *1W\h< of electricity. and .ndonesia.Sc#$e @et en)ines Scale )et engines are scaled down versions of this early full scale engine Also known as miniature gas turbines or micro#)ets. With this in mind the pioneer of modern 1icro#Fets. $eothermal electricity generation is currently used in "5 countries while geothermal heating is in use in A0 countries. OTE " urrent worldwide installed capacity is 20. about one#eighth of a conventional coal#fired plant. 4stimates of the electricity generating potential of geothermal energy vary from 3/ to "000 $W. UNIT-V OT+ER POWER PLANTS AND E ONOMI S O( POWER PLANTS GEOT+ERMAL POWER PLANT" Geot&erm#$ e$ectricit1 is electricity generated from geothermal energy. and can be built by most mechanically minded people with basic engineering tools. .hilippines.

. !T4 can also supply &uantities of cold water as a by#product . 1odern designs allow arnot efficiency and the performance approaching the theoretical ma'imum largest built in 2GGG by the =SA generated "/0 kW .t is still considered an emerging technology. usually in the form of electricity. Systems may be either closed#cycle or open#cycle. 1c$e t1/es plants can operate continuously providing a base load supply for an electrical power generation . H"I urrent designs are e'pected to be closer to the ma'imum. 4arly !T4 systems were of 2 to 3C thermal efficiency.t is therefore in the tropics that !T4 offers the greatest possibilities. losed#cycle engines use working fluids that are typically thought of as refrigerants such as ammonia or R#235a.n the oceans the temperature difference between surface and deep water is greatest in the tropics. !T4 has the potential to offer global amounts of energy that are 20 to 200 times greater than other ocean energy options such as wave power. !pen#cycle engines use vapour from the seawater itself as the working fluid. !T4 system. The first operational system was built in uba in 2G30 and generated "" kW. The main technical challenge of !T4 is to generate significant amounts of power efficiently from small temperature differences. Another by#product is fresh water distilled from the sea. . A heat engine gives greater efficiency and power when run with a large temperature difference. The most commonly used heat cycle for !T4 is the Rankine cycle using a low# pressure turbine. .Oce#n t&erm#$ ener)1 con7ersion */TEC <uses the difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface ocean waters to run a heat engine and produce useful work. This can be used for air conditioning and refrigeration and the fertile deep ocean water can feed biological technologies. although still a modest "0o to "/o . well below the theoretical ma'imum for this temperature difference of between @ and AC.

$ose% +iagram of a closed cycle !T4 plant losed#cycle systems use fluid with a low boiling point. which causes it to rise to the surface. and hybrid. +esalinating seawater near the sea floor lowers its density. which is then recycled through the system. The e'panding vapor turns the turbo# generator. To operate.e the fluid. pumped through a second heat e'changer. open#cycle.old seawater is an integral part of each of the three types of !T4 systems7 closed#cycle. the cold seawater must be brought to the surface. such as ammonia. condenses the vapor into a li&uid. Warm surface seawater is pumped through a heat e'changer to vapori. The primary approaches are active pumping and desalination. thus reducing pumping volumes and reducing technical and environmental problems and lowering costs. to power a turbine to generate electricity. .ed low boiling point fluid into the depths to be condensed. The alternative to costly pipes to bring condensing cold water to the surface is to pump vapori. old water.

/ miles *" km< off the (awaiian coast and produced enough net electricity to illuminate the shipDs light bulbs and run its computers and television.t is condensed into a li&uid by e'posure to cold temperatures from deep# . . The steam. the 8atural 4nergy 6aboratory and several private#sector partners developed the Kmini !T4 K e'periment. is pure fresh water. which has left its salt and other contaminants in the low#pressure container.. H2"I The mini !T4 vessel was moored 2.lacing warm seawater in a low#pressure container causes it to boil. . which achieved the first successful at#sea production of net electrical power from closed#cycle !T4 .n 2GAG. The e'panding steam drives a low#pressure turbine attached to an electrical generator. O/en +iagram of an open cycle !T4 plant !pen#cycle !T4 uses warm surface water directly to make electricity.

ed fresh water. produced /0. this would create competition for use of them directly as fuels.esearch $nstitute *now the 8ational Renewable 4nergy 6aboratory< developed a vertical#spout evaporator to convert warm seawater into low#pressure steam for open#cycle plants.ocean water. The vapori. onversion efficiencies were as high as GAC for seawater#to#steam conversion *overall efficiency using a vertical#spout evaporator would still only be a few per cent<. Ammonia.n a hybrid. (ydrocarbons too are good candidates. the Solar Energy .e is dependent upon the vapor pressure of the working fluid. suitable for drinking water or irrigation.000 watts of electricity during a net power#producing e'periment. With increasing vapor pressure. +15ri% A hybrid cycle combines the features of the closed# and open#cycle systems. %luorinated carbons such as % s and ( % s are not to'ic or flammable.e of the turbine and heat e'changers decreases while the wall thickness of the pipe and heat e'changers increase to endure high pressure especially on the evaporator side. The steam condenses within the heat e'changer and provides desalinated water.ed fluid then drives a turbine to produce electricity. easy availability.one layer depletion.n 2GB5. Wor2in) 6$'i%s A popular choice of working fluid is ammonia. an open#cycle !T4 plant at >eahole . warm seawater enters a vacuum chamber and is flash#evaporated. which has superior transport properties. . .oint. This broke the record of 50 kW set by a Fapanese system in 2GB". but they are highly flammable. however. . but they contribute to o. The steam vapori. is to'ic and flammable. similar to the open#cycle evaporation process. This method produces desalini. (awaii. in addition.er. and low cost. the si. The power plant si.n 1ay 2GG3.es the ammonia working fluid of a closed#cycle loop on the other side of an ammonia vapori. .

!ther natural energies e'ploited by human technology originate directly or indirectly with the Sun. tidal lagoons< and turbine technology *e. both in design *e. Among sources of renewable energy. biofuel. thus constricting its total availability. and local geography of the sea floor and coastlines. The first large#scale tidal power plant *the Rance Tidal . and to a lesser e'tent in the 4arthESun system.g. 8uclear energy makes use of 4arthDs mineral .ower Station< started operation in 2G@@. crossflow turbines<. tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities. These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the worldDs oceans. indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed. (owever. many recent technological developments and improvements. (istorically. both in 4urope and on the Atlantic coast of 8orth America. including fossil fuel. The earliest occurrences date from the 1iddle Ages. and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. conventional hydroelectric. is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. or even from Roman times. The magnitude and character of this motion reflects the changing positions of the 1oon and Sun relative to the 4arth. tide mills have been used.TIDEL POWER PLANT" Ti%#$ /o0er. Tidal power is e'tracted from the 4arthDs oceanic tides. tidal forces are periodic variations in gravitational attraction e'erted by celestial bodies. dynamic tidal power.g. also called ti%#$ ener)1. wind. new a'ial turbines. the effects of 4arthDs rotation. Although not yet widely used. tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. wave and solar energy. Tidal power is the only technology that draws on energy inherent in the orbital characteristics of the 4arthE1oon system.

$reater tidal variation and higher tidal current velocities can dramatically increase the potential of a site for tidal electricity generation. 1ovement of tides causes a loss of mechanical energy in the 4arthE1oon system7 this is a result of pumping of water through natural restrictions around coastlines and conse&uent viscous dissipation at the seabed and in turbulence. The strong wake shows the power in the tidal current. while geothermal power taps the 4arthDs internal heat. +uring the last @"0 million years the period of rotation of the earth *length of a day< has increased from "2. While tidal power may take additional energy from the system. -lue and dark red colors indicate low and high tides. This loss of energy has caused the rotation of the 4arth to slow in the 5. A tidal generator converts the energy of tidal flows into electricity. dam. Tidal power can be classified into three generating methods7 Ti%#$ stre#m )ener#tor . which comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion *about "0C< and heat produced through radioactive decay *B0C<. Top#down view of a +T. respectively./ billion years since its formation. the effect is negligible and would only be noticed over millions of years.H5I in this period the 4arth has lost 2AC of its rotational energy.G hours to "5 hours. Gener#tin) met&o%s The worldDs first commercial#scale and grid#connected tidal stream generator E Sea$en E in Strangford 6ough.deposits of fissionable elements. -ecause the 4arthDs tides are ultimately due to gravitational interaction with the 1oon and Sun and the 4arthDs rotation. tidal power is practically ine'haustible and classified as a renewable energy resource.

. pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. D1n#mic ti%#$ /o0er +ynamic tidal power *or +T. demand. Tidal phase differences are introduced across the dam. the stored water is released through turbines. Ti%#$ 5#rr#)e Tidal barrages make use of the potential energy in the difference in height *or head< between high and low tides. PUMPED STORAGE" P'm/e%-stor#)e &1%roe$ectricit1 is a type of hydroelectric power generation used by some power plants for load &alancing.Tidal stream generators *or TS$s< make use of the kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines. leading to a significant water#level differential in shallow coastal seas E featuring strong coast#parallel oscillating tidal currents such as found in the =>. . The method stores energy in the form of water.< is a theoretical generation technology that would e'ploit an interaction between potential and kinetic energies in tidal flows. SOLAR ENTRAL RE IVER S*STEM" . when electricity prices are highest. hina and >orea.umped storage is the largest#capacity form of grid energy storage now available. without enclosing an area. the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of pea. 6ow#cost off# peak electric power is used to run the pumps. +uring periods of high electrical demand.t proposes that very long dams *for e'ample7 30E/0 km length< be built from coasts straight out into the sea or ocean. -arrages are essentially dams across the full width of a tidal estuary. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall. in a similar way to wind turbines that use moving air.

. This is distinct from the local wiring between high voltage substations and customers. while in the => the network is known as the Knational grid. from generating power plants to substations located near to population centers. but over the last decade or so many countries have liberali.nterconnection.K 8orth America has three ma)or grids7 The Western . and used the resulting steam to power a turbine.The so$#r /o0er to0er *also known as Dcentral towerD power plants or DheliostatD power plants or power towers< is a type of solar furnace using a tower to receive the focused sunlight.t uses an array of flat. These working fluids have high heat capacity. 4arly designs used these focused rays to heat water. which can be used to store the energy before using it to boil water to drive turbines. 8ewer designs using li&uid sodium has been demonstrated. (istorically. @0C sodium nitrate< as the working fluids are now in operation. pollution free energy production with currently available technology.n the =S. when interconnected with each other.nterconnection and the 4lectric Reliability ouncil of Te'as *or 4R !T< grid. which is typically referred to as electricity distribution. Transmission lines. . and systems using molten salts *50C potassium nitrate.ed the electricity market in ways that have led to the separation of the electricity transmission business from the distribution business. The 4astern . movable mirrors *called heliostats< to focus the sunDs rays upon a collector tower *the target<. . become high voltage transmission networks. these are typically referred to as Kpower gridsK or )ust Kthe gridK. OST O( ELE TRI AL ENERG*" E$ectric /o0er tr#nsmission or Khigh voltage electric transmissionK is the bulk transfer of electrical energy. oncentrated solar thermal is seen as one viable solution for renewable. transmission and distribution lines were owned by the same company. These designs allow power to be generated when the sun is not shining.

A sophisticated system of control is therefore re&uired to ensure electric generation very closely matches the demand. submarine power cables *typically longer than 30 miles. 4lectricity is transmitted at high voltages *220 kJ or above< to reduce the energy lost in long distance transmission. electric transmission networks are interconnected into regional. (igh#voltage direct# current *(J+ < technology is used only for very long distances *typically greater than 500 miles. To reduce the risk of such failures. or for connecting two A networks that are not synchroni. to ensure spare capacity is available should there be any such failure in another part of the network. electrical energy cannot be stored.ower is usually transmitted through overhead power lines. .ed. generation plants and transmission e&uipment can shut down which. and may vary signicantly from locality to locality within a particular country. There are many reasons that account . and therefore must be generated as needed. 2GAA and "003. although single phase A is sometimes used in railway electrification systems. with minor e'ceptions. national or continental wide networks thereby providing multiple redundant alternate routes for power to flow should *weather or e&uipment< failures occur.f supply and demand are not in balance. 1uch analysis is done by transmission companies to determine the ma'imum reliable capacity of each line which is mostly less than its physical or thermal limit.Transmission lines mostly use three#phase alternating current *A <. A key limitation in the distribution of electricity is that. . or @00 km<. =nderground power transmission has a significantly higher cost and greater operational limitations but is sometimes used in urban areas or sensitive locations. ENERG* RATES" E$ectricit1 /ricin) *sometimes referred to as e$ectricit1 t#ri66 or the /rice o6 e$ectricit1< varies widely from country to country. or /0 km<. in the worst cases. can lead to a ma)or regional blackout. such as occurred in alifornia and the =S 8orthwest in 2GG@ and in the =S 8ortheast in 2G@/.

electricity *both power and energy< is a commodity capable of being bought. T*PES O( TARI((S" . 3#phase. etc. . sold and traded. / kW. prices can vary by a factor of ten or so between times of low and high system#wide demand. and even local weather patterns.g. and for any single customer class. "5 kW are typical in some of the large developed countries<. The price of power generation depends largely on the type and market price of the fuel used. . -ids and offers use supply and demand principles to set the price. for industrial customers.ower is the metered net electrical transfer rate at any given moment . government subsidies. a more recent option in only a few markets to date. 2" kW. and short#term trades. through offers to sell. .for these differences in price. even within a single region or power# district of a single country. and industrial customers. The commodities within an electric market generally consist of two types7 .. Wholesale transactions *bids and offers< in electricity are typically cleared and settled by the market operator or a special#purpose independent entity charged e'clusively with that function. sales.n standard regulated monopoly markets.f a specific market allows real#time dynamic pricing. business.n economic terms. might vary by time#of#day or by the capacity or nature of the supply circuit *e. they typically vary for residential.ower and 4nergy. An e$ectricit1 m#r2et is a system for effecting purchases. through bids to buy. !#sis o6 e$ectricit1 r#tes 4lectricity prices vary all over the world. 6ong#term trades are contracts similar to power purchase agreements and generally considered private bi#lateral transactions between counterparties. 1arket operators do not clear trades but often re&uire knowledge of the trade in order to maintain generation and load balance. 2B kW. government and industry regulation. generally in the form of financial or obligation swaps. single#phase vs.

and installed capacity. 1arkets for energy related commodities re&uired by. These markets developed as a result of the restructuring .n addition. non#spinning reserve. there are markets for transmission congestion and electricity derivatives. 4nergy is electricity that flows through a metered point for a given period and is measured in 1egawatt (ours *1Wh<. responsive reserve. such as electricity futures and options. . managed by *and paid for by< market operators to ensure reliability. for most ma)or operators. 2/ and @0 minutes. are considered Ancillary Services and include such names as spinning reserve. 1arkets for power related commodities are net generation output for a number of intervals usually in increments of /. regulation down. regulation up. operating reserves. which are actively traded.and is measured in 1egawatts *1W<.

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