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Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS)

Multimedia Room, Polivalente II, 2nd floor Campus de Tafira, Las Palmas 20th January, 2012

**Speaker: Baltasar Pérez Díaz <bperez@idetic.eu>
**

Author: Baltasar Pérez Díaz

www.idetic.eu

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) BACKGROUND INFORMATION

**Broadband digital HF transceiver
**

DUC/DDC multichannel (FPGA)

1KW Power amplifier Driver

Wattmeter Broadband Transceiver

20th January

IDeTIC Seminar

2

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) BACKGROUND INFORMATION

ANT

RX OL TX

Control PS

19’’ subrack 3U form board (100x160mm) with connector DIN41612 Rear: digital signals Front: analog signals Power Supply: 220Vac and 12V DC

20th January

IDeTIC Seminar

3

**Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) PRESENTATION INDEX
**

INDEX

INTRODUCTION

1.

DDS Theory

DDS THEORY

a. Block diagram, spurs, topologies

EXAMPLE: AD9954

DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM

2.

Example: AD9954

a. Datasheet

SUMMARY

3.

DDS in radio subsystems

4.

Summary

20th January

IDeTIC Seminar

4

hopping systems (phase-continuous)) High precision sub Hz (mHz) and sub degree phase tuning Digital circuitry • Small size (single chip) fraction of analog synthesizer size • Fewer components per system . square) Preferred form of signal generation nowadays Fast switching capability (freq.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX • • INTRODUCTION DDS is a method of producing an analog waveform. triangle. PLL (LPF design)) • Fewer assembly operations / reduced product reject rates DDS THEORY • • EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 5 .low cost • Small low-powered devices – portability • Easy implementation (no Barkhaussen criterion. by generating a time-varying signal in digital form • converted into analog signals using a DAC NCO (Numeric Controlled Oscillator) also called Advantages • • • • • Capable of generating a variety of waveforms (sine.usually a sine wave.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Typical DDS Architecture INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY Digital Circuits Frequency Word Sine N Accum W Lookup R D-to-A 14 to 10 to to Fr 24 ulator 16bits 48bits Table 14bits Conv. Ref clk Low Pass Filter fout= EXAMPLE: AD9954 fclkFr 2N DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM Sine Wave SUMMARY 1/fout 1/fout 1/fout 1/fout 1/fclk 1/fclk 1/fclk 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 6 .

The larger the jump size. This word forms the phase step size between reference-clock updates. it sets how many points to skip around the phase wheel. the faster the phase accumulator overflows and completes its equivalent of a sine-wave cycle. Increments its stored number each time it receives a clock pulse. The number of discrete phase points contained in the wheel is determined by the resolution of the phase accumulator (n).Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Phase Accumulator as a digital phase wheel INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY 0 pi 2pi EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • • • • • The phase accumulator is actually a modulo-M counter. Magnitude determined by word (M). IDeTIC Seminar 7 20th January . which determines the tuning resolution of the DDS.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Digital to Analog Converter Output INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • • • • 20th January Sampling theory (sinc(x)) Nyquist: Fundamental signal <= Fclk/2 (1/3 better) Filter required to eliminate unwanted products Let’s increase the fundamental signal frequency IDeTIC Seminar 8 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Digital to Analog Converter Output INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • Sampling theory (sinc(x)) • Nyquist: Fundamental signal <= Fclk/2 (1/3 better) • Filter required to eliminate unwanted products 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 9 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Super-Nyquist Operation INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • SNR. SFDR and power reduction • SAW filter (narrowband) • Change Fs to center sinc envelope peak 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 10 .

.7GHz) DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • DDS vs PLL • DDS generates lower frequency than PLL • DDS frequency can be controlled in very fine increments. • Current DDS systems – 1GHz (new 2. and PLL several • Easy oscillator design in DDS. complex in PLL 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 11 . • The frequency of a DDS synthesizer can be changed much faster than that of the PLL.< 10 MHz– limitation of DAC tech.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX INTRODUCTION • History • Earlier designs – 1970s – for audio signal applications – from sampled values of sine wave in ROM later driving DAC • Modern approaches – much improved and mostly derivative of the classical approach • Practical use in Comms System by 1990s • 1980s – Highest freq. • DDS occupies a single chip.

and sinusoidal outputs from a DDS Also Sweep. RAM profiles. Amplitud control FSK 12 20th January IDeTIC Seminar . also modulations INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY Square-.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Not only waveforms generator. Chirp. triangular-.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Not only waveforms generator. also modulations INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM BPSK (2 phases) and QPSK (4 phases) SUMMARY IQ generator capability AD9958 (2 DDS cores) AD9959 (4 DDS cores) (beamforming) 20th January FSK 13 IDeTIC Seminar .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs !!! Worst problem in DDS INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • • 20th January AD9835 (fclk=50MHz) Spurs situation and quantity depend on output frequency IDeTIC Seminar 14 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs !!! Worst problem in DDS INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • • 20th January AD9835 (fclk=50MHz) Spurs situation and quantity depend on output frequency IDeTIC Seminar 15 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs sources INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY • A DDS have four principal sources of spurs 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 16 .

The improvement is 20 log(N).The spectral characteristics of the reference clock directly impact those of the output. but at a reduced magnitude due to the frequency division. where N is the ratio of input to output frequencies.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs sources: Reference Clock . . .Tip: Use the highest frequency clock INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY Figure: 300MHz clock down to 80MHz and 5MHz 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 17 .A DDS functions like a high-resolution frequency divider with reference clock .

.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs sources: Reference Clock . INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY .The quality of the reference clock imposes limits on DDS performance in ways that are often recognizable (those DDS spurs that maintain their relationship to the carrier as you change the output frequency). EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 18 . and the AM spurs are thus converted to PM (phase modulation) spurs.The limiter stage converts the sine wave to a square wave.Modulating the clock amplitude generates spurs in its output spectrum.

Consider a 32-bit phase accumulator .The phase-truncation spur mechanism models as a noise source summed INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY Example: 20bits accum to 8 bits As the value in the discarded section accumulates. it eventually overflows into the truncated phase word (effect is phase-modulation spurs) 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 19 .Truncating the value from the phase accumulator (passing only the accumulator's most significant bits to the angle-to-amplitude mapper) reduces area and power .Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs sources: Phase truncation . .If we maintain all 32 bits throughout. the DDS core would occupy a large die area and dissipate significant power.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs sources: Phase truncation INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 Spurs level= -6.02x14=-84dBc Note: if no bits in the discarded portion are set to logic one. then no phase-truncation spurs occur 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 20 .02P P (phase truncated word) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY Example: -6.

76(dB)) INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY .Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs sources: DAC error terms .02N+1.Harmonic alias because the DAC is a time-sampled system.SNR is proportional to the DAC resolution in bits (SNR=6. . Real DACs also have nonlinearities due to process mismatches and imperfect bit-weight scaling.SNR calculation describes an ideal DAC. Well-defined relationship EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 21 .A DAC's quantization noise and distortion determine its SNR .

DDS tuned to 25. fifth.DDS has a 14-bit DAC.153 MHz with a reference clock of 100M samples/sec generates low-order odd harmonics close to the fundamental . INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 22 .Raising Fref to 400M samples/sec eliminates the alias products of the third.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Spurs sources: DAC error terms Example: . and seventh harmonics within the first Nyquist zone. The SFDR within the 4-MHz bandwidth is better than –73 dBc .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY SpurKiller Technology: The Results on a DDS Output Spur INDEX INTRODUCTION BEFORE DDS THEORY AFTER EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 500 kHz / DIVISION 500 kHz / DIVISION OUTPUT FREQUENCY = 166 MHz Fclk = 500 MSPS 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 23 .

but 180° out of phase with the highest spur… It’s all in the Digital Domain! DDS Channel for spur reduction EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM Frequency Accumulator FTW Phase Offset 32 14 COS(X) DAC SUMMARY 16 10 AD9911 DDS core Register DDS Channel for phase modulation Register DDS Channel for amplitude modulation Register • • • The frequencies at which spurs appear are simple functions of the sampling rate and the programmed output frequency.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX SpurKiller Technology INTRODUCTION • DDS THEORY Use an auxiliary DDS channel to add in a signal at the same frequency and amplitude as the spur. In addition. Spurs are therefore predictable. 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 24 . the relative phase of each spur does not change.

instabilities in the oscillator electronics. Very good phase noise comparable to profesional equipment!! 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 25 . .Dividing down the frequency of a high-frequency clock is one way to reduce jitter INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY Typical output phase noise plot for the AD9834. ground.Jitter in oscillators is caused by thermal noise. . external interference through the power rails. and even the output connections.Phase noise is a measure (dBc/Hz) of the short-term frequency instability of the oscillator (jitter in time-domain) .DDS introduces some jitter/noise (phase truncation/DAC) but overall is reference clock jitter.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Important parameters for RF: Phase Noise . It’s critical! Also take slew-rate into account. Output frequency is 2 MHz and M clock is 50 MHz.

.If a transmitter’s output sends spurious signals into other frequency bands.SFDR is an important specification in an application where the frequency spectrum is being shared with other communication channels and applications.667MHz (i. .e.8MHz SFDR=50 span=Nyquist INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 26 . . MCLK/3) SFDR=80 Figure (b) fout=4. AD9834 (10-bit DDS) with a 50MHz master/reference clock Figure (a) fout=16. they can corrupt.It’s the ratio (measured in decibels) between the highest level of the fundamental signal and the highest level of any spurious.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Important parameters for RF: SFDR (Spurious-Free Dynamic Range) . it is essential to begin with a high-quality oscillator.For the very best SFDR. or interrupt neighbouring signals.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Synthesizer topologies PLL General Architecture Phase/ Frequency Detector INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 Loop Filter VCO DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM Fref RF SUMMARY ÷N FRF N Fref 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 27 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Synthesizer topologies DDS Used as PLL Reference INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 Phase/ Frequency Detector Loop Filter VCO DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM Fref DDS RF SUMMARY M ÷N FRF NM 20th January Fref 2n 28 IDeTIC Seminar .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Synthesizer topologies DDS Used in Fractional-N Loop Phase/ Frequency Detector INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 Loop Filter VCO DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM Fref RF SUMMARY DDS M FRF 2n 20th January Fref M 29 IDeTIC Seminar .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX Synthesizer topologies DDS Used in Translation Loop Phase/ Frequency Detector INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 Loop Filter VCO DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM Fref RF SUMMARY ÷N Fclk DDS F FRF N Fref M clk 2n 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 30 .

com/dds EXAMPLE: AD9954 Analog Devices DDS product list DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY ADISim DDS DDS configuration assistant RSonline DDS Prices 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 31 .Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS THEORY INDEX DDS Tools INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY Main website: http://www.analog.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) EXAMPLE: AD9954 INDEX INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 400 MSPS internal clock speed Integrated 14-bit DAC Programmable phase/amplitude dithering 32-bit frequency tuning accuracy 14-bit phase tuning accuracy Excellent dynamic performance >80 dB narrowband SFDR Phase noise better than –120 dBc/Hz Serial I/O control Ultrahigh speed analog comparator Automatic linear & nonlinear freq sweeping 4 frequency/phase offset profiles 1.8 V power supply 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 32 .

093Hz Phase resolution = 360/2^14 = 0.02º IDeTIC Seminar 33 .8 V power supply AD9954 datasheet 20th January Freq. resolution = 400MHz/2^32 = 0.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) EXAMPLE: AD9954 INDEX INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 400 MSPS internal clock speed Integrated 14-bit DAC Programmable phase/amplitude dithering 32-bit frequency tuning accuracy 14-bit phase tuning accuracy Excellent dynamic performance >80 dB narrowband SFDR Phase noise better than –120 dBc/Hz Serial I/O control Ultrahigh speed analog comparator Automatic linear & nonlinear freq sweeping 4 frequency/phase offset profiles 1.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) EXAMPLE: AD9954 INDEX AD9833 Evaluation Board (Simple board) INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 34 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) EXAMPLE: AD9954 INDEX AD9959 Evaluation Board (Complex board) INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 35 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM INDEX Broadband Transceiver oscillator board (v0) INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 36 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM INDEX Comparison: frequency output purity 400MHz Clock vs Agilent Generator INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 37 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM INDEX Comparison: frequency output purity 400MHz Clock vs Agilent Generator INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 38 .

2) spurs Solution: Narrow filtering 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 39 .1) & 10.7MHz (F.0 MHz 112 MHz 20 dB BW 1 MHz 10.7 MHz 75 dB Low Pass 10.I.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM INDEX Broadband receiver block diagram Antenna 3-30 MHz ADC Band Pass Filters 3-30MHz RF Amp Image-rejection Filter 3-30MHz BW = 1.I.7 MHz Controller CARDS12 AGC DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM RS232 SUMMARY Problem: 112MHz (F.7 MHz INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 82-109 MHz DDS 122.

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM INDEX Broadband Transceiver oscillator board (v1) (Manolo version) INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 40 .

Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM INDEX Comparison: oscillator board v0 (green) vs v1 (blue) INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 41 .

DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 42 .It moves F.I. (12KHz) inside soundcard bandwidth (96KHz) to avoid spurs .Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM INDEX SDR (Radio Definida por Software) INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY EXAMPLE: AD9954 .Changes DDS oscillator freq.

a DDS has many advantages.Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) SUMMARY INDEX Remember: INTRODUCTION DDS THEORY • • • • • • EXAMPLE: AD9954 DDS can be used to obtain a variety of precision waveforms Compared to other frequency generating techniques. DDS has well known error characteristics Spurious frequency components in the output signal (bad) Bandwidth of the output signal (bad) Output spectrum purity/quality depends largely on reference clock quality DDS IN RADIO SUBSYSTEM SUMMARY Future Trends • • Higher clock speeds (digital technology also DAC conversion speed) Lower spur levels 20th January IDeTIC Seminar 43 .

eu> Author: Baltasar Pérez Díaz www. Polivalente II.eu . Las Palmas 20th January.Seminar in Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) Thanks for your attention!! Any question? En españó. 2nd floor Campus de Tafira.idetic. 2012 Speaker: Baltasar Pérez-Díaz <bperez@idetic. plis!! Multimedia Room.

2nd floor Campus de Tafira. 2012 Speaker: Baltasar Pérez-Díaz <bperez@idetic.eu .idetic. Las Palmas 20th January. Polivalente II.eu> Author: Baltasar Pérez Díaz www.Seminar in Practical Application of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) Thanks for your attention!! Any question? En españó. plis!! Multimedia Room.

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