ETABS MODELLING

AUTHOR: VALENTINOS NEOPHYTOU BEng (Hons), MSc

March 2013
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ETABS MANUAL

Step by step procedure and methodology of how you
developing a modelusing ETABS

Step 1: Specify Material Properties for Concrete

1. Poisson ratio is equal to v = 0 (cracked concrete) and v = 0.2 (un-cracked concrete) as
(EN1992-1-1,cl.3.1.3)
Table 1: Concrete properties (EN 1992, Table 3.1)

Property Data for concrete

C16/20
(N/mm
2
)
C20/25
(N/mm
2
)
C25/30
(N/mm
2
)
C30/37
(N/mm
2
)
Mass per unit Volume 2,5E-09 2,5E-09 2,5E-09 2,5E-09
Weight per unit volume 2,5E-05 2,5E-05 2,5E-05 2,5E-05
Modulus of Elasticity 29000 30000 31000 33000
Poisson’s Ratio (cracked concrete) 0 0 0 0
Coeff. of thermal expansion 10E-06 10E-06 10E-06 10E-06
Charact. ConcCyl. Strength, fck 16 20 25 30
Bending Reinf. Yield stress, fyk 500 500 500 500
Shear Reinf. Yield stress, fyk 500 500 500 500
Figure 1: Concrete properties

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ETABS MANUAL

Step 2: Add frame section for columns

Figure 2: Section properties of concrete columns




















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Step 3: Add frame section for beams
Figure 3: Effective width of beams (EN1992-1-1,cl.5.3.2.1)

Interior beam

Internal beam
supporting an
internal and an
external slab

Exterior beam
supporting
cantilever

External beam
no cantilever

For practice use b
eff 1,2
= 0.2l
o

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Figure 4: Section properties of concrete beams

Notes:
1. Property modification factors are used to reduce moment and torsion stiffness due to
crack section. Torsional stiffness of the cracked section should be set equal to 10% of
the torsional stiffness of the un-cracked section.
2. Unless a more accurate analysis of the cracked elements is performed, the elastic
flexural and shear stiffness properties of concrete and masonry elements may be taken
to be equal to one-half of the corresponding stiffness of the un-cracked elements
(EN1998-1-1,cl. 4.3.1(7)).
3. These modification factor only affect the analysis properties, they do not affect the
design properties.



Column (Line
element)
Beam (Line
element)
Slab (Shell element) Wall (Shell
element)
I
22
=I
33
=0.5 I
22
=I
33
=0.5 m
11
=m
12
=m
22
=0.5 m
11
= m
12
=m
22
=0.5
I
t
=0.1 I
t
=0.1 I
t
=0.1 I
t
=0.1







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ETABS MANUAL

Step 4: Add Slabs & Walls

Figure 5: Section properties of concrete slab


Figure 6: Section properties of concrete wall

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ETABS MANUAL

Step 5: Define Response Spectrum function according to EC8

1. Peak ground acceleration a
gR
=0,25g,
2. Type C or D for building within category of importance I and II,
3. Define two response spectrum cases if the factor q is different in each direction,
4. Modify the existing values of elastic response spectrum case in order to change it into
the design response spectrum.
Figure 7: Response Spectrum to EC8

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Figure 8: Design spectrum for elastic analysis data

ÞLkICD ACCLLLkA1ICN g ! 9.81 #$%&'(
1 Sd(1) µ ! 0.2 )
*+**** *+*,-, So|| 1ype ! C )
*+*--, *+../* q ! 1.S0 )
*+.000 *+./00
o
gk

!
0.10 )
*+(*** *+.1., S ! 1.1S )

*+-*** *+.1.,
1
2

!
0.20 %&'
*+3000 *+.03*
1
4

!
0.60 %&'
.+*--, *+.*,3
1
5

!
2.00 %&'
.+0*** *+*33/ 1 ! 0.S0 %&'
.+/000 *+*,/*





.+,--, *+*-/.

Data for so|| type - 1ype Spectrum 1
(+**** *+*/,/

|ndex So|| 1ype S 18 1C 1D
0+0000 *+*(**

. 6 . *+./ *+7 (

7+---, *+*(**

( 2 .+( *+./ *+/ (
-+**** *+*(**

0 4 .+./ *+( *+- (

,+0000 *+*(**

7 5 .+0/ *+( *+3 (
3+---, *+*(**

/ 8 .+7 *+./ *+/ (

.*+**** *+*(**



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Step 6: Define Load Case

Figure 8: Dead/Live/Wind


Step 5: Define Equivalent Static Analysis

Equivalent static analysis can be used if the following case can be met:

1. Ground acceleration: Check seismic zonation map from National Annex


2. Spectrum type 1: 5.5Hz<M (High seismicity areas)

3. Ground type: Normally type B or C can be used (see EN 1998,table 3.1)

4. Lower bound factor for the horizontal design spectrum: 0.2 (EN 1998-1-
1,cl.3.2.2.5(4)P)

5. Behavior factor q: See table

6. Correction factor ! (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(1"))
!=0.85 if T
1
#2T
C
and more than 2 storey
!=1.0 in all other case
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7. Regular in elevation


8. Regular in elevation and irregular in plan


9. Fundamental period: T
1
#4T_c
T
1
#2,0s

Table 1: Equivalent Static Force Case
Load case name Direction and Eccentricity % Eccentricity
EQXA X Dir + Eccen. Y 0.05
EQYA X Dir – Eccen. Y 0.05
EQXB Y Dir + Eccen. X 0.05
EQYB Y Dir – Eccen. X 0.05






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Step 6: Define Load Combination for Equivalent lateral force analysis
Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Static case
COMBO 1. 1.35DL + 1.5LL
COMBO 2. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 3. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 4. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 5. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 6. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDX)
COMBO 7. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDY)
COMBO 8. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDX)
COMBO 9. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDY)
COMBO 10. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5LL)
COMBO 11. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5LL)
COMBO 12. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW)
COMBO 13. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW)
COMBO 14. 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDX
COMBO 15. 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDY
Seismic case
COMBO 16. DL + 0.3LL + EQXA + 0.3EQYA
COMBO 17. DL + 0.3LL + EQXA – 0.3EQYA
COMBO 18. DL + 0.3LL - EQXA + 0.3EQYA
COMBO 19. DL + 0.3LL - EQXA – 0.3EQYA
COMBO 20. DL + 0.3LL + EQYA + 0.3EQXA
COMBO 21. DL + 0.3LL + EQYA – 0.3EQXA
COMBO 22. DL + 0.3LL - EQYA + 0.3EQXA
COMBO 23. DL + 0.3LL - EQYA – 0.3EQXA

COMBO 24. DL + 0.3LL + EQXB + 0.3EQYB
COMBO 25. DL + 0.3LL + EQXB – 0.3EQYB
COMBO 26. DL + 0.3LL - EQXB + 0.3EQYB
COMBO 27. DL + 0.3LL - EQXB – 0.3EQYB
COMBO 28. DL + 0.3LL + EQYB + 0.3EQXB
COMBO 29. DL + 0.3LL + EQYB – 0.3EQXB
COMBO 30. DL + 0.3LL - EQYB + 0.3EQXB
COMBO 31. DL + 0.3LL - EQYB – 0.3EQXB
Serviceability limit state (SLS)
COMBO 32. DL + LL
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Step 7: Define Response Spectrum case

Modal Response spectrum
1. Independently in X and Y direction,
2. Define design spectrum,
3. Use CQC rule for the combination of different modes (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.2(3))
4. Use SRS rule for combined the results of modal analysis for both horizontal directions
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.5.1(21)).
5. Accidental eccentricity of each storey cause of uncertainties locatin of masses have
been taken into account 5% (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.2).
6. Modal Combination: “Complete Quadratic Combination” (CQC) can be used if the T
j

# 0,9 T
i
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.2(3)P).
Figure 9: Response Spectrum case Data for EQY& EQX


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Step 8: Define Load Combination for modal analysis

Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Static case
COMBO 1. 1.35DL + 1.5LL
COMBO 2. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 3. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.5 (0.7LL + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 4. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 5. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5 SNOW)
COMBO 6. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDX)
COMBO 7. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 1.5 (0.7SNOW + 0.5WINDY)
COMBO 8. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDX)
COMBO 9. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7LL+ 0.5WINDY)
COMBO 10. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDX + 0.5LL)
COMBO 11. 1.35DL + 1.5SNOW + 1.5 (0.7WINDY + 0.5LL)
COMBO 12. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW)
COMBO 13. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 0.7*1.5(LL+SNOW)
COMBO 14. 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDX
COMBO 15. 1.35DL + 1.5(LL+SNOW) + 0.7*1.5WINDY

Seismic case

COMBO 16. DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY
COMBO 17. DL + 0.3LL + EQX – 0.3EQY
COMBO 18. DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY
COMBO 19. DL + 0.3LL - EQX – 0.3EQY
COMBO 20. DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX
COMBO 21. DL + 0.3LL + EQY – 0.3EQX
COMBO 22. DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX
COMBO 23. DL + 0.3LL - EQY – 0.3EQX


Serviceability limit state (SLS)

COMBO 24. DL + LL

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G+0.3Q+Ex+0.3Ey

G+0.3Q+Ex-0.3Ey

G+0.3Q-Ex+0.3Ey

G+0.3Q-Ex-0.3Ey


G+0.3Q+Ey+0.3Ex

G+0.3Q+Ey-0.3Ex
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G+0.3Q-Ey+0.3Ex G+0.3Q-Ey-0.3Ex



1.35G+1.5Q

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ETABS MANUAL






















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ETABS MANUAL

Step 9: Meshing of slab

Assign -> Shell Area -> Area Object Mesh Option

Automatic meshing option for slab element only



Notes:
1. The property assignments to meshed area objectets are the same as the original area
object.
2. Load and mass assignments on the original area object are appropriately broken up
onto the meshed area objects.









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ETABS MANUAL

Step 10: Meshing/Label of wall

Edit>Mesh shells and click on the
Mesh/Quads/Triangles at Intersections with visible grid lines:



Assign->Shell/Area->Pier Label or Spandrel Label.







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Step 11: Define Auto-Line Constraint

Select area element (slab)->Assign->Shell Are-> Auto-Line Constraint



Step 12: Define mass source
Combination of the seismic action with other actions (EN 1998-1-1,cl.3.2.4):
1. Define the category of building (EN 1991,Table 6.1),
2. Define the reduce factor (EN 199, Table A.1.1).

Table 2: Combination of seismic mass

!
!!!
! !
!"
!
!!!
($%1998-1-1,Eq. 3.17)

Combination coefficient for variable action is: !
!"
! ! ! !
!!
($%1998-1-1,Eq. 4.2)

Values of ! for calculating !
!"
(CYS NA EN1998-1-1:2004)
Type of
Variable
action
Storey !

Categories A-
C
1
Roof
Storeys with correlated occupancies
Independently occupied storeys
1,0
0,8
0,5
Categories A-
F
1

1.0





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Table 3: Values of ! coefficients
Category Specific Use
&
'
&
1
&
2

A Domestic and residential 0.7 0.5 0.3
B Office 0.7 0.5 0.3
C Areas for Congregation 0.7 0.7 0.6
D Shopping 0.7 0.7 0.6
E Storage 1.0 0.9 0.8
F Traffic < 30 kN vehicle 0.7 0.7 0.6
G Traffic < 160 kN vehicle 0.7 0.5 0.3
H Roofs 0.7 0 0
Snow, altitude < 1000 m 0.5 0.2 0
Wind 0.5 0.2 0

Figure 10: Adding seismic mass to ETABS





















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ETABS MANUAL


Step 13: Define number of modes

Notes:
1. Minimum number of modes to be taken into account (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.1(5)):
k ( 3.)n

k is the number of modes taken into account.
n is the number of storeys above the foundation or the top of a rigid basement.











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ETABS MANUAL



Step 14: Define restrains at the base
Select the entire base joints



Step 15: Define diaphragms to slab





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ETABS MANUAL

Step 16: Checking the model
















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ETABS MANUAL

MODAL ANALYSIS RESULTS

Step 1: Calculate the effective modal mass

Display> Show Tables > Modal information > Building modal information > Table
modal participation mass ratios

1. The sum of the effective modal masses for the modes taken into account amounts to at
least 90% of the total mass of the structure (EN 1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.1(3)).
2. All modes with effective modal masses greater than 5% of the total mass are taken
into account.

Mode 1 (Translation Y - direction)

Mode 2 (Translation X - direction)
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Mode 3 (Torsional)








Step 2: Damage limitations
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The damage limitation requirements should be verified in terms of the interstorey drift (d
r
)
(EN 1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3.2) using the equation below:
!
!
! ! ! ! ! ! !!
!
!
!
!
!
!

d
r
: is the difference of the average lateral displacement d
s
in CM at the top and bottom of
storey.
v: is the reduction factor which takes into account the lower return period of the seismic
action.
h: is the storey height
Table 4: Damage limitation (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3)
For non-structural elements of brittle material attached to the structure d
r
v!0.005h

For building having ductile non structural elements d
r
v!0.0075h

For building having non-structural elements fixed in a way so as not to
interfere with structural deformation
d
r
v!0.010h


Tab;e 5: Reduction factor of limitation to interstorey drift (CYA NA EN1998-1-
1,cl.NA.2.15)

Importance class Reduction factor v
I 0.5
II 0.5
III 0.4
IV 0.4










1. Export results from ETABS to ECXEL
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ETABS MANUAL



2. Sort the Larger value on top



3. Record the value of each storey in the spread sheet below:
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ETABS MANUAL



Step 3: Second order effects

1. The criterion for taking into account the second order effect is based on the interstorey
drift sensitivity coefficient *, which is define with equation (EN 1998-1-
1,cl.4.4.2.2(2)).
! !
!
!"!
! !
!
!
!"!
! !

h
r
: is the interstorey drift,
h: is the storey height,
V
tot
: is the total seismic storey shear
P
tot
: is the total gravity load at and above storey considered in the seismic design situation
(G+0.3Q).
Table 6: Consequences of value of P-" coefficient # on the analysis
#$0,1 No need to consider P-+ effects
0,1$#$0,2

P-+ effects may be taken into account approximately by
amplifying the effects of the seismic actions by
!
!!!

0,2$#$0,3
P-+ effects must be accounted for by an analysis including
second order effects explicity
#%0,3

Not permitted






1. Explore the results from ETABS to EXCEL
Damage limitation (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3)
!"#$%&'($)*
#%,-./0//1"/0/2
3"#$%&'($)*
#%,-./0//1"/0/2
OK OK
OK OK Storey 1 0,0017 0,0017 3,00 0,50 0,00028 0,00028
Displacement
Drift X
dr (m)
Displacement
Drift Y
dr (m)
Heigh of each
storey, h
(m)
Reduction
factor
v
v*dr
X - direction
v*dr/h
Y - direction
Storey 2 0,0026 0,0026 3,00 0,50 0,00043 0,00043
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2. Select the combo G+0,3Q and record the highest value from each storey





3. Record the heist value for V
tot

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ETABS MANUAL



4. Record all values on the spread sheet as showing below














Step 4: Structural regularity plan
Second order effects (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.2.2)
!
#$%&'()*&+,
!-./0
!
1$%&'()*&+,
!-./0
OK OK
OK OK
Storey 2 709 3,00 220,00 220,00 0,00260 0,00260
Storey 1 1426 3,00 334,00 334,00 0,00170 0,00170
Ptot
(kN)
Heigh of
each storey,
h (m)
Vtot
X-direction
(kN)
Vtot
Y-direction
(kN)
Displaceme
nt Drift X
dr (m)
Displacement
Drift Y
dr (m)
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1. Slenderness ratio of the building !=L
max
/L
min
<4
2. A “compact shape”: one in which the perimeter lines is always convex, or at least
encloses not more than 5% re-entrant area.
3. The floor diaphragms shall be sufficient stiff in-plane not to affect the distribution of
lateral loads between vertical elements.
Table 7: Criteria for regularity in plan
Lateral torsional rensponse condition:
r
x
> 3.33e
ox

r
x
> 3.33e
oy

Torsionally rigidity condition: r
x
> I
s


Apply forces as follow:
Regularity in plan (cl. 4.2.3.2)
Check 1 - slenderness ratio cl.4.2.3.2(5)
Slenderness ratio !=Lmax/Lmin<4 = 2,80
Regularity in plan (cl. 4.2.3.2)
Check 2 - structural eccentricity & torsional radius cl.4.2.3.2(6)
Length in longitudinal direction = 56 m
Length in trasverse direction = 20 m
Stifness in X direction
Sx=1000/dx
Stifness in Y direction
Sy=1000/dy
Torsional stifness
Ts=1000/Rz
Torsional radius ry=Ts/Sx
Torsional radius rx=Ts/Sy
Radius of gyration Is=((Lmax!+Lmin!"#$"%&'(
Structural eccentricity in x direction eox=Rz(Fx)/Rz(Mz)
Structural eccentricity in y direction eox=Rz(Fy)/Rz(Mz)
Table 1: Criteria for regularity in plan - Torsionally rigity condition
rx
(m)
ry
(m)
29,5 30,0
27,1 24,7
Table 2: Criteria for regularity in plan - Lateral torsional respone condition
Storey 2
Storey 1
Storey 2
Storey 1
Rotation Rz
for
Fx=1000kN
Rotation Rz
for
Fy=1000kN
8,18E-06 8,18E-06
8,18E-06 8,18E-06
Rotation Rz
for
Mx=1000kNm
Eccentricity
eox
8,18E-06 1,00
8,18E-06 1
Eccentricity
eoy
166667
136054
200000
1,22E+08
1,22E+08
0.3rx
(m)
0.3ry
(m)
Is
(m)
8,9 9,0 17,2
8,1 7,4 17,2
Is<rx Is<ry
OK
OK OK
5 6
Storey 2
Storey 1
Displacement
X (mm)
dx
Displacement
Y (mm)
dy
7,35 7,14
Rotation Z
(radians)
Rz
OK
3,33eox<rx 3,33eoy<ry
1,00E+00
1,00 OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
8,18E-06
8,18E-06
Stifness X
(kN/m)
Sx
Stifness Y
(kN/m)
Sy
Torsional
Stifness
(kNm/radian)
Ts
140056
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ETABS MANUAL


Storeys Load Case Forces

STOREY 1
FX1 FX1=1000kN
FY1 F,1=1000kN
MZ1 MZ1=1000kNm

STOREY 2
FX2 FX2=1000kN
FY2 F,2=1000kN
MZ2 MZ2=1000kNm



Repeat this process for all load case in order to obtain the displacement values.
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Step 5: Structural type of the building

Table 8: Classification of structural system
Wall system Vertical and lateral load: Wall resist V
b,wall
>65%V
btotal

Frame system Vertical and lateral load: V
b,frame
>65%V
btotal

Frame-equivalent dual system Vertical and lateral load: V
b,frame
>50%V
btotal

Wall-equivalent dual system Vertical and lateral load: V
b,wall
>50%V
btotal


Display >Show Tables> Support/Sprint/Reaction

1. Explore the results from ETABS to EXCEL








ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc Page: 34
ETABS MANUAL

From load case tick the worst-case seismic design combination:

COMBO 1. DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY
COMBO 2. DL + 0.3LL + EQX – 0.3EQY
COMBO 3. DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY
COMBO 4. DL + 0.3LL - EQX – 0.3EQY
COMBO 5. DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX
COMBO 6. DL + 0.3LL + EQY – 0.3EQX
COMBO 7. DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX
COMBO 8. DL + 0.3LL - EQY – 0.3EQX




2. Select the worst-case design combo


3. Select the nodes for frames only

4. Calculate the sum of the base shear that can be resist by column in X and Y
direction



ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc Page: 35
ETABS MANUAL

i.e V
TOTAL
= 1000KN
V
FRAMES, X ,Y
= 500KN
V
TOTAL
/ V
FRAME
500/1000*100= 50%

Therefore the structural system of building is: Wall-equivalent dual system

How to checking base shear
Base shear can be check as follow:
Table 9: Checking the base shear
Direction Lower bound values Upper bound values
X direction F
b
= %Effective mass(X dir.)*Mass *S
dx


F
b
= -mass * S
dx


Y direction F
b
= %Effective mass(Y dir.)*Mass *S
dv


F
b
= -mass * S
dy


Note: The base shear should be within those limits



NOTE: REPEAT ALL THIS PROCESS FROM BEGIN WITH
THE NEW Q VALUE

Revised the design spectrum input data with the new q (for example if q=1.5 adopt at initial
stage and the new q=3 then you have to repeat the process with the new q)










ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc Page: 36
ETABS MANUAL





OUTPUT DATA

Step 1: Print data for steel/concrete design
File > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design

ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc Page: 37
ETABS MANUAL





ADDITIONAL NOTES

SHRINKAGE AREAS
Select Area > Edit > Expand/Srink Area

ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc Page: 38
ETABS MANUAL

PIN JOINT



Export model to SAFE

File menu > Export > Save Story as SAFE.f2k Text File



Local Axis

Local axis 1 X - direction
Local axis 2 Y- direction
ETABS MODELING ACCORDING TO EUROCODES

Valentinos Neophytou BEng (Hons), MSc Page: 39
ETABS MANUAL

Local axis 3 Z - direction
Local axis 2 (My) Y- direction
Local axis 3 (Mx) X - direction

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