# Preparation and Properties of Buﬀer Solutions Laboratory #11

Henry Ko AP Chemistry Dulaney High School February 3rd, 2009

Abstract:
In this experiment the pH of water and a number of solutions will be measured, and then acids and bases will be added to see how the pH is aﬀected. Several buﬀer solutions of diﬀerent pH values was prepared and tested for their ability to resist change in pH. a pH of 5 was prepared and was tested with strong acids and bases. When HCl was added, the pH did not change. When NaOH was added, the pH increased by 0.1.

Theory:
Buﬀers are solutions that resist changes in pH when an acid or base is added. In order to accomplish this, a buﬀer must contain both an acidic and basic component. These two components should not neutralize each other, but be available to neutralize hydrogen or hydroxide ions from other sources. One possible way to carry this out is to combine a weak acid-base conjugate pair. −− HA(aq) −− H+ (aq) + A – (aq) The acid dissociation constant expression for the reaction above would then be [H+ ][A− ] [HA] [HA] [A− ]

Ka =

or

H+ = Ka

(1)

If we take the negative logarithm of both sides, we have [HA] [A− ] [HA] [A− ]

− log[H+ ] = − log Ka − log

or

pH = pKa + log

(2)

Equation (2) is also known as the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, and is frequently used to calculate the pH of buﬀers. By applying the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, the equation for a basic buﬀer can be written as: [HA] [A− ]

pH

=

14 − pKb + log

(3)

Procedure:

Data Analysis:
Part 1. pH Changes in Non-buﬀered Solutions Initial pH pH of distilled water 6.9 pH of 0.10 M NaCl 7.1 pH of distilled water 7.0 pH of 0.10 M NaCl 6.9 pH after Addition of Solution 1 drop HCl 2 drops HCl 3 drops HCl 3.9 3.6 3.4 1 drop HCl 3.9 1 drop NaOH 10.2 1 drop NaOH 9.8 2 drops HCl 3.6 2 drops NaOH 10.5 2 drops NaOH 10.2 3 drops HCl 3.4 3 drops NaOH 10.8 3 drops NaOH 10.5

1. 2. 3. 4.

Part 2. pH Changes in Buﬀered Solutions Initial pH pH of acetate buﬀer 4.5 pH of acetate buﬀer 4.4 pH of ammonia buﬀer 9.4 pH of ammonia buﬀer 9.3 pH after Addition of Solution 1 drop HCl 2 drops HCl 3 drops HCl 4.4 4.4 4.2 1 drop HCl 4.6 1 drop NaOH 9.3 1 drop NaOH 9.5 2 drops HCl 4.7 2 drops NaOH 9.3 2 drops NaOH 9.6 3 drops HCl 4.8 3 drops NaOH 9.2 3 drops NaOH 9.6

5. 6. 7. 8.

Part 3. Preparation of a Buﬀer of a Given pH Weak acid Mass of weak acid Volume of NaOH titrant pH of buﬀer solution pKa of weak acid Assigned pH Volume of weak acid solution Volume of conjugate base solution Measured pH pH Changes in Prepared Buﬀer Initial pH pH of prepared buﬀer 5.0 pH of prepared buﬀer 5.0 pH after Addition of Solution 1 drop HCl 2 drops HCl 3 drops HCl 5.0 5.0 5.0 1 drop NaOH 2 drops NaOH 3 drops NaOH 5.0 5.1 5.1 KHC8 H4 O4 2.026 g 26.5 mL 5.0 5.0 5 25 mL 25 mL 5.0

2

Conclusion:
In this experiment, the pH of water and a number of solutions will be measured , and then acids and bases will be added to see how the pH is aﬀected. Several buﬀer solutions of diﬀerent pH values was prepared and tested for their ability to resist change in pH. For example, a buﬀer of pH 5 was prepared, and when 3 drops of a strong acid, HCl, and a strong base, NaOH, was introduced, the pH did not change. With HCl, the pH did not change from 5.0. With NaOH, the pH did increase by 0.1 when 2-3 drops were added, but this change is not signiﬁcant. Contamination was a large source of error in this experiment. Adding the wrong amount of acids or base could have dynamic eﬀects on buﬀer equlibria. For example, because the pH scale is logarithmic, from one pH to another, there is one-hundred fold diﬀerence in the amount of hydrogen ions present. Therefore, this clearly makes a diﬀerence on the anions present when a buﬀer solution is made. Also, the accidental mixture of any solution that is not supposed to be in the buﬀer solution also changes the pH and the subsequent buﬀering system. This includes, but not limited to, the contamination of equipment used. For example, many beakers and graduated cylinders were used in this experiment. Therefore, unclean equipment could contain contaminants that could alter the pH. Or, on the other hand, washed equipment with distilled water introduces a neutral compound in the solution, which can also alter pH. This paradox forces the experiment to use consistant equipment, meaning that the entire equipment set must either be cleaned with distilled water, or left dry and risk the contamination of foreign material. Overall, this experiment was not very precise nor accurate. Precision was a problem because of the pH meter used was ﬂuxuated between the measured values. For example, when tested in a sample of distilled water, the pH meter provided two diﬀerent readings. Although both were within acceptable limits (6.9 and 7.0) this ﬂuxuation can be expand to problems with more complex solutions such as the acetic or ammonium solution used in Part 2. Also, when placing drops of strong acid/base, the drops were not very consistant in terms of volume. This would give a diﬀerent amount of acid or base in the solution, and the pH could vary depending on the amount added. Accuracy was also not guarenteed in this experiment due to the lack of accurate measuring tools. Most solution measurements were based on beakers or Erlenmeyer ﬂasks, which do not provide an accurage gauge of volume. Also, the pH meter was also not very accurate, as sometimes it displayed clear inaccurate results. For example, the pH of distilled water was meausured at 5 at one point, which makes it very acidic for deionized water, clearly an error. This experiment can be improved by more accurate measuring equipement, like better pH meters or more accurate ﬂasks. This way, more accurate measurements can be taken with a higher degree of conﬁdence. Pre-Lab Questions: 1. The pH of a solution is measured to be 3.50. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration. 1 × 10−3.5 = 3.16 × 10−4 M 2. Fill in the chart below with the formula of the missing conjugate acid or base. a. b. c. d. Conjugate Acid HC2 H3 O2 HCN – HSO4 – HCO3 Conjugate Base – C2 H 3 O 2 CN – SO4 2− CO3 2−

3. A buﬀer is prepared using the conjugate acid-base pair acetic acid and acetate ions. Write chemical equations showing the reactions that take place when H+ and when OH – are added to the buﬀer.

HC2 H3 O2 + OH− HC2 H3 O2

−− −− −− −−

H2 O + C 2 H3 O − 2 C2 H3 O− + H+ 2

4. Acetic acid has a Ka value of 1.8 × 10−5 . How many grams of NaC2 H3 O2 would have to be added to 100 mL of 0.10 M HC2 H3 O2 to prepare a buﬀer with a pH of 4.50?

3

4.5 −0.245 x x

= = = =

4.745 + log log

0.01 x

x 0.01 0.01 × 10−.245

0.00569

0.00569 × 82 ≈ 0.47 g Post-Lab Calculations and Analysis: 1. In step 1, how did the strong acid aﬀect the pH of the distilled water? The strong acid lowered the pH of the distilled water because the concentration of H+ ions increased when HCl dissociates in H2 O. 2. Compare the pH values of steps 1 and 2. Did the addition of NaCl, a salt of a strong-acid-strong base, buﬀer the pH changes? Explain. No, the addition of the NaCl solution did not buﬀer the changes because NaCl is a salt, and is therefore, neutral in solution. In the experiment, the pH after 3 drops on HCl for both solutions was measured to be at 3.4, and therefore, did not buﬀer pH changes. 3. Compare the pH values of steps 1 and 3. How did the strong base aﬀect the pH of distilled water? A strong base increased the pH of distilled water. For example, after 3 drops of NaOH, the pH of the water went from 7.0 (neutral) to 10.8 (basic). Compared to step 1, where a strong acid was used instead of a strong base, the pH decreased signiﬁcantly to 3.4. 4. Compare the pH values of steps 1 and 4. Did NaCl, the salt of a strong acid-strong base, buﬀer the pH changes? Explain. The ﬁnal pH measurement in step 1 after the addition of HCl was 3.4 while the ﬁnal pH reading in step 4 after the addition of NaOH was 10.5. No, NaCl did not buﬀer the pH changes because the ﬁnal pH of the distilled water solution and NaOH was 10.8. Since the pH of the distilled water and NaCl after the addition of the NaOH was approximately the same, it can be concluded that the NaCl did not buﬀer the pH changes. 5. Compare the pH values of steps 1 and 5. How did the acetic acid-acetate ion buﬀer aﬀect the pH changes with HCl? Explain. Write a chemical equation to show the reaction of HCl with the buﬀer.
– −− H+ (aq) + C2 H3 O2 (aq) −− HC2 H3 O2 (aq)

The ﬁnal pH in step 1 after the addition of HCl was 3.4 while the ﬁnal pH in step 5 after the addition of HCl was 4.2, making the pH of step 5 to be higher than the pH of step 1. The acetic acid-acetate ion buﬀer aﬀected the pH changes with the HCl by reacting the extra hydrogen ions from the HCl, which dissociated in solution, with the acetate ions present in solution at equilibrium to form acetic acid. This causes the total concentration of hydrogen ions, which was disturbed from equilibrium due to the addition of HCl, to establish a new equilibrium concentration in relation with the other ions/reactants in solution while keeping the overall pH of the solution constant by remaining constant concentration itself. 6. Compare the pH values of steps 1 and 6. How did the acetic acid-acetate ion buﬀer aﬀect the pH changes with NaOH? Explain. Write a chemical equation to show the reaction of NaOH with the buﬀer. 4

– −− H+ (aq) + OH – (aq) + HC2 H3 O2 (aq) −− H2 O + C2 H3 O2 (aq) + H+ (aq)