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Hand Calculation Method for Orifice Design

Abstract

This appendix explains how to perform the calculations for orifice plate design by hand. For manual look-up of the orifice coefficient, S (given beta) or the diameter ratio, beta (given S), the following eight figures are provided: Figure B-1 Figure B-2 Figure B-3 Figure B-4 Figure B-5 Figure B-6 Flange Taps - 6 Inch Pipe Size (6.056 in.); S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Flange Taps; Pipe Size Corrections for S Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Radius Taps; S vs. Beta for Different R D Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Corner Taps; S vs. Beta for Different R D Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Pipe Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) ASME Small Bore with Flange Taps; S vs. Beta for Different RD Values—1 in. to 1-1/2 in. Pipe Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME) ASME Small Bore with Corner Taps (.546 in.); S vs. Beta for Different RD Values—1/2 in. Schedule 80 Pipe Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application", 6th ed., 1971. Courtesy of ASME) Quadrant — Edge Data; S and Thickness Ratio vs. Beta

Figure B-7

Figure B-8

Orifice calculation sheets have been prepared for guidance through the orifice calculation steps. Calculation sheets filled in with appropriate examples are attached. The four orifice calculation sheets are as follows: • • • • LIQUID, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59B (Figure B-9) LIQUID, quadrant-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59C (Figure B-10) GAS, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59D (Figure B-11) VAPOR/STEAM, square-edge orifice, Form ICM-EF-59E (Figure B-12)

Note that in these calculation sheets, the term "sharp edge" is used instead of "square-edge." Results of the hand calculations agree closely with the computer program ORIFICE. The two types of calculations that can be performed are orifice sizing and orifice reranging, except for quadrant-edge.

Chevron Corporation

B-1

July 1999

or GPH. BPH. TEMPERAURE PRESSURE ---degrees Fahrenheit for liquid and vapor/steam degrees Rankine = °F + 460 for gas PSIA for gas and vapor -Gb at 60 F (Gb for water = 1.333 × (full-scale flow rate) --use centistokes use centipoise LIQUID SPECIFIC GRAVITY VAPOR/STEAM SPECIFIC GRAVITY --GAS SPECIFIC GRAVITY -- 1/3 FS: 3. is used = M./lb.W. dry air = Zb × Real sp. use steam tables Ideal sp. LIQUID KINEMATIC VISCOSITY GAS AND VAPOR ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY 2. gr.ft. equal to . Fill in the FLOW RATE input blocks.707 × (full-scale flow rate) For quadrant-edge. For square-edge and ASME small-bore this should be the mid-range dp value.W. which equals . TYPE OF ORIFICE PLATE ---TYPE OF TAPS ---PIPE INSIDE DIAMETER ORIFICE DIAMETER --Square-edge ASME small-bore Quadrant-edge Flange. UNITS: FULL SCALE: NORMAL: For liquid use BPD. gas/M. Fill in the ORIFICE DATA input blocks. for steam. radius. for gas use SCFH. Fill in the STREAM PROPERTY input blocks. Flow that creates a dp across the orifice taps equal to the maximum value of the dp transmitter range. gr.0 Calculation Procedure 1. For vapor use lbs/hour. corner or pipe for square-edge Flange or corner only for ASME small-bore Flange for quadrant-edge Use 3 decimal places Entered for orifice re-ranging calculation July 1999 B-2 Chevron Corporation . GPM.00) cu.Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual B1.

use mid-range differential pressure (dp) Supercompressibility correction factor Rarely used in refinery calculations (usually set = 1. Calculation for quadrant-edge orifice size. 7.0) Look up in table or chart when used. Look up beta ratio in table. Use Table in Figure B-2 to correct for pipe size other than 6-inches (2-12 inches). Given d. Compressibility factor at 60°F. Fa -- Use 3 decimal places Entered for orifice sizing calculation Standard value = 100 inches of water Correction for thermal expansion of orifice meter at flowing temperature found in ASME MFC-3M Tables or API MPMS. Chevron Corporation B-3 July 1999 . Y -- Fpv -- Zb -- 5. Calculate Pipe Reynold’s Number. 6. 1 Atm Rarely used in refinery calculations (usually set = 1. See examples on sheets provided. Given h. Interpolation is necessary. Find d Fill in equations and solve for S. See examples on sheets provided. Space is provided for values in equations. Gas expansion factor for mid-scale flow Y1 = correction based on upstream pressure Y2 = correction based on downstream pressure Look up in table or chart .0) Look up in table or chart when used. Calculate orifice size or dp range for square-edge or ASME small-bore orifice. Look up S in table. Use Reynold’s number column that is closest to value calculated in step 5. Chapter 14. Use Reynold’s number that is closest to value calculated in Step 5. Interpolation is necessary. Find h Calculate beta ratio.3/AGA-3.Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B -FULL SCALE DP --4. Fill in the CORRECTIONS FACTORS.

Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Select a plate thickness. look up values from Figure B-8.0 0. If h is too large. RD max. make plate thicker.5 450.2 670.0 28000. if too small.0 0.0 See example on calculation sheet provided.0 85000. and repeat calculation.3 770. July 1999 B-4 Chevron Corporation .0 0.4 630.6 320. The permissible range of Reynold’s numbers (at 1/3 full-scale flow) for a quadrant-edge orifice is a function of the beta ratio: beta ratio min. h should equal about 100 inches of water. make plate thinner.0 45000.0 0.0 17500. and calculate the differential pressure h. RD 0.0 70000.

6 Inch Pipe Size (6. S vs.Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig.056 in. B-1 Flange Taps . Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Chevron Corporation B-5 July 1999 .).

Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. Pipe Size Corrections for S Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) July 1999 B-6 Chevron Corporation . B-2 Flange Taps.

Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig. B-3 Radius Taps. Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Chevron Corporation B-7 July 1999 . S vs.

Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) July 1999 B-8 Chevron Corporation . B-4 Corner Taps.Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. S vs.

Beta for Different RD Values (Based on Data from ISO 5167) Chevron Corporation B-9 July 1999 .Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig. S vs. B-5 Pipe Taps.

6th ed. 1971. S vs. B-6 ASME Small Bore with Flange Taps.. Beta for Different RD Values—1 in. Courtesy of ASME) July 1999 B-10 Chevron Corporation .Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. Pipe Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application". to 1-1/2 in.

Schedule 80 Pipe Size (Based on Data from "Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Application". Beta for Different RD Values—1/2 in. 6th ed. Courtesy of ASME) Chevron Corporation B-11 July 1999 . S vs.Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig.)..546 in. B-7 ASME Small Bore with Corner Taps (. 1971.

Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. Beta July 1999 B-12 Chevron Corporation . S and Thickness Ratio vs. B-8 Quadrant — Edge Data.

B-9 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Liquid. Square-edge Orifice Chevron Corporation B-13 July 1999 .Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig.

Quadrant-edge Orifice July 1999 B-14 Chevron Corporation .Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. B-10 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Liquid.

B-11 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Gas.Instrumentation and Control Manual Appendix B Fig. Square-Edge Orifice Chevron Corporation B-15 July 1999 .

Square-Edge Orifice July 1999 B-16 Chevron Corporation .Appendix B Instrumentation and Control Manual Fig. B-12 Orifice Calculation Sheet—Vapor/Steam.

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