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Impact, 10% Fines & Crushing Tests

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY School of Civil and Structural Engineering



OBJECTIVES To assess the resistance of an aggregate to mechanical degradation by the Aggregate Impact Test, Ten Percent Fines Test and Aggregate Crushing Test.

BACKGROUND When a road aggregate has been manufactured to a specified grading it is stockpiled, loaded into trucks, transported, tipped, spread and compacted. If the aggregate is weak, some degradation may take place and result in a change in grading and/or the production of excessive and undesirable fines. Thus, an aggregate complying with a specification at the quarry may fail to do so when it is in the pavement. Granular base layers and surfacings are subjected to repeated loadings from truck tyres and the stress at the contact points of aggregate particles can be quite high. These crushing tests can reveal aggregate properties subject to mechanical degradation of this form. The table below indicates some requirements. Country UK Material Structural PC concrete Other PC concrete Road bases Bituminous Surfacing PC concrete Road bases Sealing chips Asphalt concrete All road materials Requirements 10% Fines Force > l00kN 10% Fines Force > 50kN 10% Fines Force > 50kN BSI Abrasion Test 10% Fines Force > 130kN 10% Fines Force > 130kN 10% Fines Force > 230kN Los Angeles Abrasion Test Los Angeles Abrasion Test




1993) 11 . 10% Fines & Crushing Tests Quarry plant such as crushers.Impact.Aggregate Impact Value (SS 1974) 1. Apparatus for the aggregate impact test (Millard. screens. The apparatus consists of a steel test mould with a falling hammer as shown in Figure 1. conveyors. are all subject to wear and these crushing tests can indicate the magnitude of the problem for design purposes. etc. The hammer slides freely between vertical guides so arranged that the lower part of the hammer is above and concentric with the mould. PROCEDURE . Figure 1.

The fraction retained on the sieve is also weighed (mass C). . .36 mm sieve. (1) RESULTS An average is taken of the two tests and the result is recorded to the nearest whole number as the Aggregate Impact Value. The test sample is subjected to 15 blows of the hammer dropping 381 mm. For weak aggregates. 3. the required load for the first ten per cent fines test can be estimated by means of the formula: required load (kN) = 4000 AIV .52 mm sieve. 10% Fines & Crushing Tests 2. 12 .70 mm sieve and retained on a 9. (2) PROCEDURE . Other items are a steel tamping bar 16 mm diameter by 450-600 mm long and a metal measuring cylinder 115 mm diameter by 180 mm deep. The whole of the test sample (mass A) is placed in the steel mould and compacted by a single tamping of 25 strokes of the tamping rod. The AIV is normally about 105 per cent of the Aggregate Crushing Value and it can be used for the same purpose. The crushed aggregate is sieved over a 2.Ten Percent Fines Value (SS 1974) 1. each being delivered at an interval not less than one second. . It shall be clean and dry (washed if necessary) but it must o not be dried for longer than 4 hours nor at a temperature higher than 110 C otherwise certain aggregates may be damaged. If {A-(B+C)}>1 gram.Impact. 4.1 g (mass B). The aggregate impact value (AIV) is AIV = B × 100 (%) A . the result shall be discarded and a fresh test made. 5. The fraction passing 2. Also required is a compression testing machine capable of applying a force of up to 500 kN and which can be operated to give a uniform rate of loading so that this force is reached in 10 minutes. The material used is aggregate passing a 12. The apparatus (Figure 2) consists of a case hardened steel cylinder 154 mm diameter and 125 mm high together with a plunger which just fits inside the cylinder and a base plate. .36 mm is weighed to the nearest 0.

Apparatus for the 10% fines test and aggregate crushing test (Millard. The depth of the sample will then be about 100 mm.g.52 mm sieve. 5. 20 mm for normal crushed aggregates. 13 3.70 mm sieve and retained on a 9. some slag and volcanic rocks). The material from the measuring cylinder is placed in the test cylinder in three layers. 1993) 2.Impact. The material used for both tests is aggregate passing a 12. plunger and sample are placed in the compression testing machine. 10% Fines & Crushing Tests Figure 2. The cylinder. The required volume is obtained by filling the measuring cylinder in three layers. Force is applied at a uniform rate so that the total penetration in 10 minutes is about: 15 mm for uncrushed gravel. This volume is then weighed to the nearest 0. It shall be clean and dry (washed if necessary) but it must not be dried for longer than 4 hours nor at a o temperature higher than 110 C otherwise certain aggregates may be damaged. .. 4. each tamped 25 times with the rod. each tamped 25 times with the rod and the top struck level. The plunger is lowered onto the sample and rotated gently to seat it and level it. 24 mm for honeycombed aggregates (e.1g (mass A).

It is loaded at a uniform rate so that a force of 400 kN is reached in 10 minutes. If the percentage fines lies outside the range 7. The cylinder. applying the force given by the formula over a period of 10 minutes. the test must be repeated. The material passing 2.5%. ACV = B × 100% A . The material passing 2. The load is then released. The sample is then sieved over a 2.36 mm is weighed (mass B) and expressed as a percentage of the original mass (mass A) to give the aggregate crushing value (ACV). The percentage fines is then determined as before. Two tests are required and the ten percent fines values (TFV) are averaged to obtain the final result.5% and 12. 14x y + 4 . it is preferable to pass the whole sample over a larger sieve (say 4. As this is a fairly fine sieve.36 mm sieve. 8. .75 mm) first. The apparatus and sample preparation is identical with that described above for the Ten Percent Fines Test. the following calculation for Ten Percent Fines Value (TFV) is made: TFV = Force to produce 10% fines = where x = maximum force used (kN) y = percentage fines from the test (%) 7. . . 14 .Aggregate Crushing Value (SS 1974) 1. 2. (3) The result should be reported to the nearest whole number.36 mm is then weighed (mass B) and expressed as a percentage of the original mass [y=100%×B/A]. 3. (4) RESULTS The average is taken of two tests and the result recorded as Aggregate Crushing Value.5. If the percentage fines lies between 7. plunger and sample are placed in the compression test machine. reported to the nearest 10 kN (for forces > 100kN) PROCEDURE . . 10% Fines & Crushing Tests 6.5 to 12.Impact.

In this case.Impact. (1993). DISCUSSION (a) Report the geological description of the aggregate. Some countries. London. SS (1974). the result may be anomalous as the broken pieces of aggregate will tend to fill the voids and prevent further crushing. sand and fillers .. the Ten Percent Fines Test is more appropriate. e. HMSO. and the final result (AIV/TFV/ACV). SS73:1974 Specification for methods for sampling and testing of mineral aggregates. Millard. the calculations. R. only use the latter test. the source quarry and particle size. aggregate crushing value and ten percent fines value. (d) Compile results from other group(s) and compare the values obtained. (c) Comment on the results. Singapore Standard. (b) Report the applied force. 10% Fines & Crushing Tests If the percentage fines exceeds 30. Singapore. Road building in the Tropics.S. Australia and New Zealand. 15 .g. Transport Research Laboratory State-of-the-art Review 9.Determination of aggregate impact value. the masses of material before and after sieving. REFERENCES 1. 2.