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use of solvent. Powdered material is extracted with suitable solvent or mixtures of solvents for extracting the various phytoconstituents present in the crude drug. Solvent chosen for extraction is expected to possess the following properties: 123456Should dissolve the Phytoconstituents. Non-inflammable. Inert. Non-toxic. Easily removable. Should be distilled or double distilled.
Solvent chosen depending upon the characteristic of the secondary metabolites, polarity, PH and thermo stability of the constituents are also to be considered during extraction. Solvent Acetic Acid Acetone Acetonitrile Benzene 1-butanol 2-butanone T-butyl alcohol Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Cyclohexane Diethylene glycol Diglyme Dimethoxy-Ethane (Glyme) Dimethyl-Formamide (DMF) Dimethyl-Sulfoxide (DMSO) Dioxane Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene glycol Glycerin Heptane Hexane Methanol Methyl t-butyl Ether (MTBE) Methylene Chloride Pentane 1-propanol 2-propanol Tetrahydrofuran Formula C2H4O2 C3H6O C2H3N C6H6 C4H10O C4H8O C4H10O CCl4 CHCl3 C6H12 C4H10O3 C6H10O3 C4H10O2 C3H7NO C2H6OS C4H8O2 C2H6O C4H10O C4H8O2 C2H6O2 C3H8O3 C7H16 C6H14 CH4O C5H12O CH2Cl2 C5H12 C3H8O C3H8O C4H8O Boiling Point 118 56.2 81.6 80.1 117.6 79.6 82.2 76.7 61.2 80.7 245 162 85 153 189 101.1 78.5 34.6 77 197 290 98 69 64.6 55.2 39.8 36.1 97 82.4 66 Polarity 0.648 0.355 0.46 0.111 0.602 0.327 0.389 0.052 0.259 0.006 0.713 0.244 0.231 0.404 0.444 0.164 0.654 0.117 0.228 0.79 0.812 0.012 0.009 0.762 0.148 0.309 0.009 0.617 0.546 0.207
such as the overall characteristics of the secondary metabolites to be extracted e. Rinsing of extractive substance out of disintegrated plant cells The dissolution of extractive substance out of intact plant cell by diffusion which requires:Prior steeping and swelling of drug plant material in order to increase the permeability of cells and swelling of cells. heavy Basics of Extraction: - C7H8 H2O D2O 110.099 1 0.6 100 101. Dissolution of extractive material.g.3 0. Diffusion of the dissolved substance out of the plant cells. some glycosides are thermo labile or pH sensitive.Toluene Water Water. During the extraction of the herbal drugs two processes run parallel with each other in the extraction of drugs.991 Extraction is the process of leaching out active constitution from the crude plant material. Penetration of the solvent into the plant cells and swelling of cells. The choice of extraction procedure depends on the nature of the plant material and the component to be isolated. Some general points should be considered in terms of the extraction procedure. Classification: Extraction with organic solvents: Percolation Maceration Extraction using Soxhlet Apparatus Extraction with water: Infusion Decoction Steam distillation Other special methods: Supercritical fluid extraction Enflurage Expression Phytonics Microwave treatment Extraction by electric energy Per evaporation Sublimation Counter current extraction Ultrasound extraction Maceration: - - 1- .
so less yield More expensive Time consuming in comparison to other methods Factors affecting maceration: There are certain parameters which affect the efficiency of extraction maceration . Clarify by subsidence or filtration”. 7 days are considered to an adequate period of time to bring about an equilibrium between solutes and solvent. Senna liquid extract. Kinetic maceration It is carried out at room temperature. Opium tincture. E. the total mensruum is divided into two (double maceration) or three parts (triple maceration) and each part is separately used for maceration. Closed vessel is preferred to avoid undue loss of solvent due to evaporation. Squill tincture. Circulation maceration The solvent is continuously circulated by pumps. Catechu tincture.g. Pressing is avoided as these drugs form compact mass and volume is making up finally to avoid variation in final concentration. Vacuum maceration When pressure is reduced to desired extent the menstuum is allowed to inter.Maceration is the process of extraction of a drug with the solvent with several days shaking or stirring at room temperature. like simple maceration. press the marc and mix the liquids obtained. and after filtration the residue is extracted with the remainder of the solvent and the drug residue squeezed out to express as much solvent as possible. IP 1966: “Place the solid material with the whole mensruum in a closed vessel and allow standing for 7 days. the intensity of movement is so slow that we can use the term “Stationary conditions”. and strain. drugs showing strong swelling properties and high mucous content can be effectively extracted Disadvantages: Not exhaustive extraction. Advantages: Small sample is required Very simple process Can be done on small scale in the pharmacist laboratory only In the preparation of homeopathic mother tinctures in small scale as they are prepared the same way in the industry Versatile. but differs in that the material is kept constant. Compound benzoin tincture. Multiple macerations To obtain concentrated extract. Compared to other methods. It is used for large scale extraction. shaking occasionally. Modified maceration For unorganized drugs such as gums and resins. this increases the permeability of cell walls and thus short time required for maceration. Re-maceration In this case some of the solvent is added to the drug.
and that from second lot is menstruum for next. The type and intensity of movement: It is an important factor effecting maceration. first lot is being treated as same simple percolation and the percolate of this is used as a menstruum for next lot. normally at 40 – 50 C. allow to stand for four hours in a well closed vessel. and add sufficient menstruum to saturate the material. close the outlet. Reserved percolation . Surfactants added to improve wetting and to increase the permeability of the cell membrane 2. Additives: Other additives play major role which are also significant. mix the expressed liquid with the percolate. When the liquid commences to drop from the percolator. Equilibrium and in certain cases it improves yield. add sufficient menstruum to leave a layer above the drug. 3. add sufficient menstruum to produce the required volume. alcohol. Clarify by subsidence or filtration. The process of percolation implies a slow passage of the menstruum under the influence of gravity through a column of drug powder and during this movement it goes on extracting the drug particles layer wise. and allow macerating for 24 hours. Re-percolation Drug powder is divided into 4 or 5 lots.g. acid or base added to form salts or to retrain dissociation. Hot percolation Percolation at elevated temperature as higher temperature increases extraction efficiency. but for large batches it must be remembered that. Press the marc. The following can be considered as important additives: Solvent additives for altering the polarity when water is being used e. fine.Digestion: Digestion is maceration at higher temperature. Intermittent percolation 24 hours maceration and subsequent 12 hours maceration are altered with percolation to effect greater extraction. Temperature: Another important parameter is the temperature at which the maceration is carried out in accordance with the laws of reaction kinetics “a rise in temperature results in a more rapid establishment of conc. Allow percolation to proceed slowly until the percolate measures about 3 quarters of the volume required for the finished tincture. packed in a percolator. IP 1966: “Moisten the solid materials with sufficient quantity of the menstruum. That’s why on large scale the particle size should be kept moderate for effective extraction. This is acceptable for small samples where the sediment can be quickly and effectively separated by centrifugation.Influence of the particle size of the drug: Some experiments show that the degree of comminution for the extraction must be kept as fine as possible. it bring displaced by other layers above. swollen sediment frequently cause difficulties in filtration. It has been proved that increasing the speed of stirrer from 20 – 30 rev/min to 50 – 250 rev/min in a bucket mixer has significant influence on the extraction results. higher temperature enhances solvent action.Percolation: Short successive maceration/extraction by method of displacement Percolate: I pass through In the percolation the drug plant material is exhaustively extracted by fresh solvent.
Infusion: These are very simple methods of extraction. so as to get efficient extraction. This allows that most of active constituents present in first percolate are not subjected to any heat treatment. sample compartment and reflux condenser is a separate item of glassware. The solvent in the lower container is heated to boiling and the vapor passes through the side arm up into the reflux condenser. The cycle of solvent evaporation and siphoning back can be continued as many times as possible without changing solvent. The solvent is placed in a round buttom flask RBF and a reflux condenser is attached above the central sample compartment. In this method. Diacolation Same as diffusion just instead of hydrostatic pressure positive pressure of compressed air is utilized. which is assembled together with the appropriate content to make the complete apparatus. Circulating percolation Menstruum continuously circulates in sequentially attached percolator receivers. Siphon tube is set up as liquid reaches the point of return. The condensed liquid gradually increases level liquid in extractor and in siphon tube. Diffusion percolation Menstruum is made to flow from the bottom upwards to the top under hydrostatic pressure. Here the vapor liquefies and drip into the thimble containing material to be extracted. thus they may precipitate out in the lower container and require much more solvent for later dissolution For large scale extraction it is not suitable for use with solvents with relatively high boiling points. Solvent container RBF. such as CH3OH and water.Reserving the first part of percolate and subsequent percolate is collected separately. Advantages: Small amount of solvent is used as solvent re-circulated Effective extraction Takes less time in comparison to other methods Exhaustive extraction almost complete Varying sizes of soxhlet apparatus are available to suit the scale of the operation Disadvantages: Thermo labile active constituents cannot be extracted as there is continuous heating of the solvent plus the extracted material The total amount of certain substances extracted will exceed their solubility level in that particular solvent. the material to be extracted is placed in a “thimble” made of cellulose or cloth in a central compartment. since the whole apparatus below the condenser needs to be at this temperature for effective movement of the solvent vapor 4. Hot continuous counter-current extraction Process where in same quantity of menstruum is made to circulate through a column of drug by evaporation and subsequent condensation. in which powdered drug is extracted with hot or cold water . and contents of the extraction chamber are transferred to flask.
The waves are generated in a magnetic stricture transmitter or piezoelectric transmitter The sound waves increases cell wall permeability and causes mechanical stressing of the cells. Fat is applied onto the glass plate as a thin layer and petals are exhausted.1. By changing the pressure. The vapors of the volatile oil component are allowed to condense along with the vapor of the steam. Electromagnetic field is created in the drug powder for extraction Application: . they become liquids of low viscosity and have good penetration power. steam vaporizes the volatile components.5- 6- 7- 8- 9- 10- 11- In this method the powdered drug is soaked in hot water at room temperature for the specified period with or without stirring and filtered If necessary the marc can be extracted again with fresh water Decoction: In this method the drug powder is boiled with water for 15 min and then filtered These two methods are suitable for drugs containing water soluble constituents Application: These are mainly used for making “Herbal Tea” Steam distillation: This method is most suitable for extraction of essential oils (volatile oils) The plant material is heated to boiling with water in a distillation unit. 1.1. This can be used for extraction of fluid and is called “Phytosols”.2 tetrafluroethane is a gas and can be liquefied. Dissolved oil is separated from the fatty layer can be preserved for a longer time before being separated Phytonics method of extraction: This method is used for the extraction of volatile oils Some substances are gaseous at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. steam is generated and passed through the plant material suspended in water. This continued till the fatty layer is saturated with volatile oil. the material to be extracted is spread on a mesh as thin layers and the generated ateam is passed through the material Expression: This method is adopted for the extraction of fixed oils from the seeds and other parts of plant Mechanical pressure is applied to the crushed material of the plant part either in cold or at specified temperature to express the oil. extraction happens faster Extraction by electrical energy: Electric energy accelerates the extraction and improves the yield. Hydraulic pressure can be used for extraction Enflurage: This method is used for extraction of delicate oils from the petals Solvent used for the extraction of the oils is fat. condensed and separated In direct steam distillation. Because of this. fresh petals are spread. Solvents which can solubilise phyto-constituents from the drug Advantages: Phytosols are better than steam distillation. solvent extraction and SCFE & the temperature of extraction is not too high Cost of production is low Quality of essential oil is better & also the yield is very high Ultrasound extraction: Sound waves above 2000 Hz are used to accelerate the extraction. which dissolves the oils from the material upon prolonged contact. The oil separates from water upon cooling This method is not suitable for volatile compounds which deteriorate because of prolonged boiling at high temperature In hydro-distillation.
from which it can be scrapped off Application: Caffeine of high purity can be obtained by this method from dry tea leaves 15. phenols. change from solid to gas or vice versa without passing through the liquid state. including water from organic solvents and. anthraquinones.Counter current extraction: This is a liquid – liquid extraction process and is based on the principle of partition chromatography It is developed by Craig in 1944 The apparatus consist of a series of tubes connected and contain a lower. conversely hydrophobic membranes can be used to remove organic compounds from aqueous phase Application: This method has been used to remove aroma compounds from fruit juices This method is currently being developed. prostaglandins. The upper moving phase is moved along to the second tube containing the lower phase.Sublimation: In this process some substances. stationary phase and an upper moving immiscible liquid. The components of a mixture will be distributed between the two layers according to their partition coefficients. cardiac glycosides.Prevaporation: In this method. steroids etc 13.Supercritical fluid extraction: The critical point of a pure substance is defined as the highest temperature and pressure at which the substance can exist in vapor-liquid equilibrium Above this temperature and pressure fluid is formed and this point is said to be supercritical point .This method is used for the extraction of scoplolamine from stramonium and valerianic acid from valerian 12. The process is repeated and fraction is done The distribution of each substance over given number by the tubes can be increased by the use of series of buffer solution of graded pH This method is best suited for separation than extraction Application: Extraction of alkaloids. vitamins. amino acids. perhaps even for specific enantiomers 14. and its success will depend on the generation of new membranes which show selective binding for particular chemical groups. The sublimation substance vaporizes from the plant material and condensed as a solid on the cold surface. substances dissolved in a liquid phase are removed by binding onto a membrane Hydrophilic membranes may be used to remove polar materials. The mobile phase can be transferred from one tube to another after shaking and allowing to separate The extract is placed in the first tube and the apparatus is agitated and the layers are allowed to separate. More moving phase is brought into contact with the lower phase of tube 1. on heating or cooling. antibiotics. This property can be used to obtain the substance from dried plant material or dry crude extract Plant material is warmed and the vapor allowed coming into contact with a cold surface.
Isolation of vindoline from Catharanthus roseus 5.Pyrethrins from pyrethrum flower heads (increase upto 60%) 2.Permits the low temperature process and thermo labile. expensive fragrances can be extracted 4. environment acceptability is the preferred solvent for many supercritical fluid extraction Supercritical or liquid CO2 extraction processes are highly technical processes. delicate. Equipment operating under high pressure transforms carbon dioxide (normally a gas at atmospheric pressure) into a fluid with enhanced solvent characteristics Advantages: CO2 is non-hazardous and leaves no undesirable solvent residue CO2 extraction is an environmentally friendly process Extraction conditions can be controlled for optimal results Low extraction temperatures preserve product integrity and quality CO2 extracted-products exhibit storage stability Advantages of supercritical extraction: 1.No solvent residue in the product 3.Extraction of pigments from Annatto seeds 7. cost effectiveness. non-corrosive. inert. moderate low critical pressure (73 atm).Extraction of taxol from Taxus brevifolia & Taxus cuspidate 6. easy availability. Juniper.Isolation of bitter principle from hops 4. Illicium.Decaffeination of green coffee 3.No environmental pollution 2. Coriander. Rosemary.Volatile oil from Rose petals.Non corrosive in nature Disadvantages of supercritical extraction: Use of high temperature and pressure may cause problems in some cases Application: 1. low critical temperature (304 C). non-flammable. Piment etc Purification steps: Physical: 1234567Chromatography Dropler counter current chromatography (DCCC) Distillation Evaporation Crystallization Sublimation Precipitation Chemical: . Supercritical fluid can dissolve wide variety of organic compounds and their solvent power can be varied near their critical points by small pressure and temperature changes Supercritical fluid possess superior mass transfer properties by virtue of their low viscosity and high solute diffusivity along with the ability to penetrate micro-porous materials Supercritical dioxide (SCO2) with its particular attractive properties such as: Non-toxic.
Salt formation 3. alkali or enzyme) 2.Acetylation .Hydrolysis (acid.1.
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