ADVICE NOTE No.

1

THE ROUTE TO A SUCCESSFUL CONCRETE REPAIR
(Second edition)
CONCRETE REPAIR ASSOCIATION Kingsley House, Ganders Business Park, Kingsley, Bordon, Hampshire GU35 9LU Tel: +44 (0)1420 471615 Fax: +44 (0)1420 471611 E-mail: admin@cra.org.uk

www.cra.org.uk

BS EN 1504 clearly states that any repair project must identify the goals and objectives of the building or structure owners. appropriate for health & safety and environmental conditions and the client’s requirements. 1. Supervision of the work 8. Short. is as important. Assessment of damage or deterioration and diagnosis of its cause 4. Care should also be taken with regard to the impact of the site on the environment. Definition of the client's objectives 3. Preparation of contract documents including a full specification and bill of quantities 6. The new BS EN 1504 (1) Standard covers all of these steps (see later section). must also be available to enable the most cost-effective repair solution to be agreed. can build a specification. The result of thorough testing and analysis of the extent of the structure's problems can affect the client's considerations and will enable the correct contingencies to be put into place prior to tenders being requested. Safety and the Environment are set out in this document as the number one step as these aspects together are very important in all cases throughout the whole repair process. ensuring that structurally the building or structural element is sound and that any loose debris are at least safely restrained or collected. DEFINITION OF THE CLIENT'S OBJECTIVES An understanding and consideration of the client's objectives.org/iso14000.htm).INTRODUCTION This document has been produced for the benefit of specifiers. Rather. It contains the basic information needed to establish a route to achieving a good level of concrete repair. Overall. or site works. ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGE OR DETERIORATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF ITS CAUSE It is important that a thorough investigation of the nature and extent of the damage/deterioration is carried out by an appropriate professional. The publication does not attempt to delve into the intricacies of specification. Options might include the downgrading of the load bearing capacity or function of the structure. medium and long term options. The objective must be to treat the causes as well as the symptoms.htm) and the specific safety requirements of.cra. at this early stage. Compliance with the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (http://www. always based on whole life costs. that take the needs of local residents and the neighbourhood into account. safety for the occupants or pedestrians is of paramount importance. following the publication of ISO 14000 (http://www. future use and budget considerations. before work commences. strengthening. 2 www. both safety and environmental considerations are major factors in the management of a successful concrete repair project. Proper adherence to the regulations must be enforced by all parties. Post-repair management of the structure. Contractor selection and evaluation 7. Health. As Local Authorities become more environmentally aware. with regard to financial constraints and the future requirements of the structure. prevention or reduction of further deterioration. the conditions that sites enforce on their surrounding areas must be properly managed. It is necessary to ensure that each of the listed steps is seriously considered and covered. The standard is a framework around which clients and their consultants. requirements. for example scaffolded sites.gov.Definitions. the reader should avoid many of the pitfalls endemic in concrete repair projects of all sizes. are of paramount importance to all members of the project team. as the assessment of the structure's problems. residents and visitors is a crucial objective for all project teams. The advice contained is consistent with BS EN 1504 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT Health.hse.uk/construction/cdm. Safety & Environment 2.org. or designers. by following the steps outlined and by reference to the more detailed publications and advisors referred to in this publication. Specification of the repair work 5. during and after carrying out the repair. 'Friendly' practices. THE ESSENTIAL STEPS There is a whole list of essential steps that need to be followed or considered before. Safety of site personnel. Even if subsequently the repair option chosen is to do nothing but monitor.standardsdirect. contractors and owners of structures and/or buildings containing concrete components.uk . quality control and evaluation of conformity (1). reconstruction and partial or complete repair. HEALTH. should be implemented. This includes life expectancy.

listed in BS EN 1504 Part 9 (see Table 2). in order to allow the specifier to form an accurate diagnosis. Part 2. Preventing or slowing continued deterioration 5. need to be chosen for any of the deterioration types shown in Figure 1. therefore. the repair method must comply fully with BS EN 1504 (see later section). Due regard should be given to the reputation of the manufacturer. who is now expected to comply with BS EN 1504 and should. A list of such manufacturers can be found in the CRA Members Directory. do any of the repaired components require strengthening) 4. according to the Repair Principle chosen (see later BS EN 1504 section). are covered in Concrete Society Technical Report 54(3) and BRE Digest 444(2) Part 2. does a second or third intervention need to be factored into a long-term repair strategy). including practical problems of how the work can be carried out. or if the concrete has low cover. or ‘Defects caused by reinforcement corrosion’. The specialist specifying the methods should have a thorough understanding of how each of the techniques work and how it is executed. Effects of repair work on the environment (e. in order to make the right choice for the client. ‘Degradation of the concrete matrix’.g. Degradation of the concrete matrix Defects caused by reinforcement corrosion Mechanical Chemical Physical Carbonation Corrosive contaminants Stray currents • Impact • Overload • Movement (e. The final choice of repair method and materials will depend on a number of factors. ingressing chlorides • Other contaminants Figure 1: Common causes of defects in concrete www. This knowledge and importantly. possess CE marking for the product.g. Appearance of repaired concrete 6. the specification of the correct calibre of specialist contractor who also understands the intricacies of each repair option.cra. will ensure the success of a repair project. Health and safety considerations 3.uk 3 . 1. In all cases. salts) • Tribological activities • Freeze/ thaw • Thermal • Salt crystallisation • Shrinkage • Erosion • wear • Mixed-in chlorides • External. BRE Digest 444(2). SPECIFICATION OF THE REPAIR WORK Repair work should be specified by a person or company experienced in the causes of concrete and reinforced concrete deterioration and repair. One or more of the eleven Principles of Repair.org.) 2. sulphates. Structural considerations (e. including both visible and latent deterioration. Materials should be properly selected for the repair required. Consideration should also be given to past. which can easily be separated into the two types. as do some specialist consultants. etc. Inspection and testing procedures required. Some members of the CRA offer this service. In most cases. soft water.g. current and future exposure.g. Durability of chosen repair method (e. dust.g. gives a good account of how the structure can be assessed. The effect of these underlying causes is accelerated in certain environments. noise. or if it is highly porous.A proper assessment will include analysis of the current condition of the structure. the underlying causes of a problem can be traced to one or more of the processes shown in Figure 1. settlement) • Explosion • Vibration • Alkaliaggregate reaction • Aggressive agents (e.

It is possible to produce accurate costing for all items. with the exception of the precise number and volume of repairs to be made and time related items. notwithstanding these. The repair of concrete structures is a specialist skill. The Clerk of Works 3. such as access. It is advisable only to consider contractors with an established reputation and proven competence in concrete repair and protection work. However. Other factors include the use of trained operatives. The Principal Contractor .000. such as CE Marking. technical referees. Each individual contract must be given continuing consideration. has accredited accounts for the previous year showing a total turnover of only (say) £100.org. The team should include: 1. The concrete repair system Manufacturer to offer technical support 6.cra. despite years of experience and previous good workmanship. trained operatives and the support of qualified management. the area to be treated and the method of measurement. Even then. British Board of Agrément certification. to those BS EN ISO 9001 Quality Assured accredited manufacturers whose concrete repair and protection materials also possess third party accreditation. any additional aspects such as weather precautions. preparatory work and the precise nature and sequence of the repair operation. Membership of the CRA and manufacturers recommendation/ approval are additional factors that are considered as useful guides in the selection of suitably qualified concrete repair contractors. The Quantity Surveyor. be defined and outlined with regard to the method to be used. The Structural/Consulting Engineer 7. www. The concrete repair Contractor 5.uk . such as accreditation to BS EN ISO 9000 and British Board of Agrément certification are available. accurate bills of quantities are difficult to compile.who may also be the specialist concrete repair contractor 4.e. For example. Normal commercial considerations should not be forgotten. material thicknesses and consumption and curing procedures. It is a requirement of the Concrete Repair Association that all members are BS EN ISO 9000 Quality Assured accredited. real value. i. surface cleaning. Competence in concrete repair and protection works. taking into account special factors. The Building Surveyor 8. the amount of concrete to be removed will often not only depend on the strict interpretation of the survey and test results. It must be remembered that with concrete repair and protection. It is recommended to allow for re-measurement of the repairs carried out and for the inclusion of contingency and/or provisional sums to cater for any unexpected situation that may come to light during the course of the repair works. The specification should be detailed and cover all aspects of the work including progressive investigation and testing. contract references and previous experience. It is strongly recommended that the Concrete Repair Association's Method of Measurement for concrete repair be used for this process. it is not sensible to award a contract of six months duration with an estimated value in excess of £1 million to a contractor who. The contract should offer the client quality assurance and therefore security i. QA schemes for concrete repair and protection contractors. The size and quantity of repairs can only be reasonably accurately determined after the structure has been cleaned and surveyed. False economies at this stage often carry heavy penalties later.e. CONTRACTOR SELECTION AND EVALUATION When assessing tenders one must look beyond a seemingly attractive price. Drinking Water Inspectorate and Water Research Council approvals. the project team must be vigilant in supervising the works. however. and all the tasks involved must be carried out by trained 4 operatives with experience of the repair systems selected. are essential requirements for members of the Concrete Repair Association. but also on engineering judgment. to include those identified as areas of latent damage by the initial and the ongoing site testing. but as previously stated.PREPARATION OF CONTRACT DOCUMENTS INCLUDING A FULL SPECIFICATION AND BILL OF QUANTITIES Repair is not a standard process as the quantity of work required and the nature of that work may vary greatly. As quantities for repair works can only be assessed approximately. protection and co-ordination with other trades. Specific materials should be selected for the repair required. The repairs must. The Supervising Officer 2. Due consideration should be given not only to track record. SUPERVISION OF THE WORK All parties involved with a contract have professional and contractual obligations. Special attention should be given to this area in the survey works and allowances made in budgets for likely increases in both the number and size of repairs. It should specify the repair methods and materials. the ultimate aim is to rectify a problem rather than to perpetuate it.

It addresses all stages of the repair process. The supervising officer provides guidance in all aspects of the contract.The function of supervision is to ensure consistency of the correct standards and quality of the works carried out. To ensure that this is realistic and that other adjoining structural elements have at least the same residual service life. The standard is in ten parts (see Table 1) and is principally a product standard. such as the repair of load bearing elements. It is worth noting that the ability of the project team to fulfil these objectives must be taken into account at the specification and tender stages. would have been designed to achieve a certain minimum residual service life. Part Part Part Part Part Part Part Part 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Definitions Surface protection systems for concrete Structural and non-structural repair Structural Bonding Concrete Injection Anchoring of reinforcing bars Reinforcement corrosion protection Quality control and evaluation of conformity General principles for the use of products and systems Site application of products and systems and quality control of the works POST-REPAIR MANAGEMENT OF THE STRUCTURE The repaired area. These standards ensure that testing of the products will be according to the same standards for all products for protection and repair of concrete structures used in Europe.uk 5 . As progressive testing may reveal the unexpected.cra. access. removed and replaced. When working in a laboratory. or element of the structure. working methods and varying weather conditions. the designer must identify locations where the load must be supported before the damaged concrete is broken out. to the handover of a structure to the client.org. there also has to be an ability to adapt and incorporate additional elements into the contract. The appropriate structure management and monitoring will ensure that any built-in interventions to the repaired or adjoining structural elements that have been planned as part of the longterm repair programme are carried out at the appropriate times. To allow CE marking of the products. BS EN 1504-1 Definitions BS EN 1504-9 General Principles for the use of the products and systems BS EN 1504-2 to 7 Products • • • • • • Surface Protection Repair Mortars Bonding Materials Injection Materials Anchoring Products Coatings for Steel Test Methods BS EN 1504-10 Site application and quality control of the works (Over 60 standards) BS EN 1504-8 Quality control of the products Figure 2: Structure of BS EN 1504 and relation to other Test Methods (Raupach) www. conditions can remain constant. For items that are of structural importance. through properly designed and executed repairs. Part 9 Part 10 Table 1: The parts of BS EN 1504 How the different parts of the standard fit together is summarised in Figure 2. but on site there has to be a continuing awareness of the changing state of the building. more than 60 standards describing test methods for the different properties of the products have been prepared. from becoming aware of an existing problem. BS EN 1504 The new BS EN 1504 Standard (1) covers the abovementioned essential steps and needs to be followed closely. a monitoring programme would need to be agreed and implemented as part of the management of the structure.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE USE OF PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS Having identified a need for some form of remediation of the structure. may be the case when sacrificial anodes are omitted in patch repairs of steel reinforced concrete elements. 69 produced by the Joint Working Party of the Concrete Society. according to the appropriate part of the standard and the appropriate test methods. patch repair. such additional protection can significantly increase the life expectancy of the repair by eliminating the development of new areas of damage around the patch repair. repair. which are applicable for known forms of deterioration (see Figure 1). Install galvanic anodes etc. 6 www. demolish.) Choose repair method(s) (Coat surface. current output etc. EN 1504-9 in providing for a wider review of the condition and future use of the structure.) Specify material performance (Permeability of coating. It is essential to first undertake a formal assessment of the structure’s condition so that the causes of deterioration can be accurately determined. considering options and selecting principles aimed at achieving economic choices based on whole life-costing. Each product must also be applicable for use in at least one of eleven different Principles of Repair as described in Part 9 of the standard (see Table 2). Longterm. Superficially less expensive options. before a decision is made based on timescales and costs relative to the residual service life of the structure or structural element. Figure 3 illustrates these steps. steel corrosion. etc. as illustrated in Figure 3. The necessary steps in the repair process are illustrated well in Technical Report No. suggests that the following options be taken into account in deciding the appropriate action to meet the future requirements and the desired residual service life of the structure: a) Do nothing for a certain time b) Analyse again the structural capacity. All realistic repair options must be considered therefore. principles and methods. for example. without improvement of the concrete structure d) Improve. strengthen or refurbish all or parts of the concrete structure e) Reconstruct part or all of the concrete structure and f) Demolish all or part of the concrete structure.cra. apply cathodic protection etc. Part 9 is the first document the specifier or engineer needs to look at. possibly leading to the downgrading of the function of the concrete structure c) Prevent or reduce further deterioration.org. Corrosion Prevention Association and Institute of Corrosion(4) and described in some detail in BRE Digest 444(2).) Select repair principles (Protect against salt ingress. Principles related to degradation of the concrete matrix Principle 1 Protection against ingress Principle 2 Moisture control Principle 3 Concrete restoration Principle 4 Structural strengthening Principle 5 Increasing physical resistance Principle 6 Increasing resistance to chemicals Principles related to reinforcement corrosion Principle 7 Preserving or restoring passivity Principle 8 Increasing resistivity Principle 9 Cathodic control Principle 10 Cathodic protection Principle 11 Control of anodic areas and systems Table 2: Repair principles in BS EN 1504 Part 9 Assess structure (Salt exposure. the route to a successful repair is based on a hierarchy of different levels. restore concrete. namely options.Enforcement of the standard in 2009 means that all product manufacturers are obliged to produce repair materials that fully comply with minimum specifications. in the short term. may prove to be more expensive over the residual service life of the structure as.uk . concrete defects. strength. As depicted in Figure 3.) Consider Options (Do nothing. etc. The process should then follow a logical number of steps.) Carry out repair Set out ongoing requirements (Define inspection and maintenance requirements) Figure 3: Steps in the repair process with examples BS EN 1504 PART 9. It provides a structured approach to the investigation and the identification of the cause of deterioration and outlines all the principles of remedial action.

The specific performance characteristics of these products are contained within EN 1504-2 to 7 together with the corresponding test methods. that additional productspecific information. www.1 General 9. safety and the environment (Section 11) are important aspects of the whole repair procedure and policies must be considered.For protection and repair. For the manufacturers.uk 7 . or at planned intervals as part of an overall management strategy (see also earlier section: Post repair management of the structure).org. Terms and definitions Section 4 Structural stability during preparation. It cross-references the protection and repair Principles from Part 9 with repair methods (Section 6). Normative references. Sections 1-3 Scope. however. different principles have been defined. The breakdown of the appropriate sections within this part is detailed in Table 3. provided by the manufacturer. however. it may require specific properties against chloride ingress in an external environment. It must therefore be made very clear. application requirements (Section 8) and the relevant quality control method (Section 9). In this way. as to who does what within this part. Altogether 37 methods are described within EN 1504-9. Some offer guidance as to how each product is applicable for the appropriate repair principle. application and quality control of selected systems. This part of the standard can easily be considered as the installer’s section as it essentially deals with the installation of the repair scheme chosen.3 Defects caused by reinforcement corrosion Section 9 Quality control 9. Running through the steps in Figure 3. Health.2 Defects in Concrete and structural strengthening 8. a coating may be required only for internal use or alternatively. It should be understood.1 General 8. This has resulted in a high level of flexibility. SITE APPLICATION OF PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS AND QUALITY CONTROL OF THE WORKS Part 10 gives general guidance for site application and quality control. BS EN 1504 PART 10. that the selection of the preparation and repair process would normally rest with the designer. achieving the minimum specification of the appropriate part of the standard is the first step towards CE marking of each product or system. separately for repair and protection of damages to the concrete and damages induced by reinforcement corrosion (see Table 2). Some are not standardised. but are expected to be regulated in future. the products are selected individually for the demands of the special case of repair or protection of a concrete structure. Most manufacturers have classified their products according to BS EN 1504 Parts 2-7. It is also advisable. which will become mandatory in many parts of Europe. Maintenance of the structure post repair (Section 10) is an essential element of the overall rehabilitation process to ensure that repaired areas perform to specifications and are achieving the necessary residual service life. Electrochemical rehabilitation of steel reinforced concrete structures(5).2 Quality control tests and observations Section 10 Maintenance Section 11 Health. protection and repair Section 5 General requirements Section 6 Methods of protection and repair Section 7 Preparation of substrate Section 8 Applications of products and systems 8. Each section thus details the considerations that must be taken into account in the execution of each stage of the work. As mentioned at the beginning of this Advice Note. agreed and implemented throughout. ensuring that they perform according to the specification. should also be incorporated into the procedures prior to the initiation of work. This includes preparation.cra. Examples of how the process deals with problems associated with damage caused by corrosion of the steel reinforcement can be found in CRA Advice Note 4. Maintenance may be combined with monitoring of critical elements of the structure either on a continual basis. but it also passes responsibility to the designer. if there is overlap of responsibilities. safety and the environment Annex Informative Table 3: Sections of part 10 of BS EN 1504 The standard gets to the basics of actual repair specification from Section 6. For example. the designer selects the required performance characteristics based on the requirements of the individual repair project and the selected repair methods. Not all of them are covered by the EN 1504 series but are covered by other standards. preparation requirements (Section 7).

guarantee the end user a successful repair. and quality control of the works. Digest 444. particularly as applied on site. 2000. It is advisable. nor on the site quality control of the processes. Advice Note 4. Concrete Repair Association. British Standards Institution. Similarly. “Repair of concrete structures with reference to BS EN 1504”. REFERENCES 1. Part 4: Structural Bonding.org. Part 3: Structural and non-structural repair. Technical Report No. Birmingham City Laboratories Although care has been taken to ensure to the best of our knowledge that all data and information contained herein is accurate to the extent that it relates to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication the Concrete |repair Association assumes no responsibility for any errors in the misinterpretation of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related to its use.Definitions. Cement & Concrete Industry Publication. “Diagnosis of deterioration in concrete structures Identification of defects. Building Research Establishment. BRE. Part 6: Anchoring of reinforcing bars. Part 3: Protection and remediation. that an engineer qualified and experienced in the use of the appropriate repair principle and chosen system within that principle is engaged. © October 2009: The Concrete Repair Association www. Part 10: Site application of products and systems. “Products and systems for the repair and protection of concrete structures. Part 5: Concrete injection. quality control and evaluation of conformity”. Part 8: Quality control and evaluation of conformity. Part 1: Durability of reinforced concrete structures. “Corrosion of Steel in Concrete”. Part 7: Reinforcement corrosion protection. evaluation and development of remedial action” 2000. Corrosion Consultant. 3. It does not. specifying and applying the chosen repair principle or principles. “Electrochemical rehabilitation of steel reinforced concrete structures”. 69. Part 1: Definitions. AUTHOR Dr George Sergi.cra. the Standard does not offer guidance or restrictions on the techniques and methods covered by the principles. Technical Report No. BSI. however. therefore. April 2009. BS EN 1504. Part 2: Surface protection systems for concrete. various dates. requirements. 5. Watford. 4. such as members of the Concrete Repair Association (CRA). 2. It is best to seek advice and guidance on how to best carry out the works on site from material manufacturers and specialist contractors. Part 9: General principles for the use of products and systems. This is because the right material may not have been chosen in the first instance. London. 2009. Part 2: Investigation and assessment. or the material or procedure may not have been applied properly.uk . 54. Garston.CLOSING REMARKS This Advice Note (in conjunction with BS EN 1504) provides a framework for designing.

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