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Teacher: Mohamed Lhabib KATHI Reported speech is used to report something that you or somebody else said before.

The most common verbs are: say, tell, ask, etc. When reporting speech, a few changes occur. First, choose an appropriate reporting (introductory) verb depending on the type of discourse. Then, change the tenses to their past form, unless what is said is still true. Dont forget to change personal pronouns,

Class: 2nd baccalaureate

possessive adjectives or pronouns depending on the speaker(s) and to change time and place adverbs. Tenses backshift 1. Dont change the tense if the introductory verb is in the simple present (e.g. he says). Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb (3rd person singular). Example: he says, I speak English. He says that he speaks English.

2. When the reporting verb is in the past, you have to backshift the verb tense, i.e. you move the tense in the sentence you report one step back in time. Therefore:

Tense in Direct Speech

Simple present Cindy said: I like watching TV. Present progressive (continuous) Frank said: I am thinking about moving. Present perfect She said: I have just seen an old friend of mine. Present perfect continuous Lula said: I have been waiting here for ages. Simple past Ali said: I visited my grandparents yesterday.

Tense to use in Reported Speech

Simple past Cindy said (that) she liked watching TV. Past progressive (continuous) Frank said (that) he was thinking about moving. Past perfect She said she had just seen an old friend of hers.

Past perfect continuous Lula said (that) she had been waiting there for ages. Past perfect Ali said that he had visited his grandparents the day before.

Past perfect past perfect continuous Future simple (will/shall + infinitive) Nihal said: I will spend my holiday in Agadir can + infinitive may + infinitive might/ would/ should + infinitive must/ have to + infinitive

Past perfect (no change) past perfect continuous (no change) Conditional (would/should + infinitive) Nihal said she would spend her holiday in Agadir. could + infinitive. might + infinitive. might/ would/ should + infinitive had to + infinitive

Adverbs of time and place and demonstrative pronouns

Direct Speech Now Reported Speech Then Direct Speech Tomorrow Reported Speech a. The next day b. The following day Today That day Next week/ month/ year/ decade Yesterday a. The day before b. The previous day Last week/ month/ year/ decade, etc a. The week/ month/ year, etc before b. The previous week/ month, etc This That These Those Here There a. The week/ month/ year, etc after b. The following week, etc That That Those Those There There

3. When you report questions you bring the same changes to verb tenses. The most common reporting verbs are ask, want to know, wonder, etc

a. Where is the post office? he asked b. Will you be there tomorrow? She asked He wanted to know where the post office was. She asked him if he would be there the next day.

4. When reporting advice, suggestions, apologies, warnings, it is better to use the verbs: advised, suggested, apologized, warned, etc

a. You had better stop smoking. he said. b. Dont play with fire, boys. I said He advised him to stop smoking I warned the boys not to play with fire.

To sum up: