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(CPA)

2554


(CPA)


2554

CODE-SWITCHING BEHAVIOURS OF CATHAY PACIFIC AIRWAYS (CPA)


FLIGHT ATTENDANTS ON DUTY

BY
Prapassorn Sraphothong

An Independent Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
MASTER OF ARTS
Department of Western Languages
Graduate School
SILPAKORN UNIVERSITY
2011


(CPA)

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51113305 :
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:
(CPA).
: .. . 52 .

(CPA)


19
14







CPA



2554
........................................
........................................

51113305 : MAJOR : (LANGUAGE AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION)


KEY WORD : CODE-SWITCHING/CPA FLIGHT ATTENDANTS
PRAPASSORN SRAPHOTHONG : CODE-SWITCHING BEHAVIOURS OF CATHAY
PACIFIC AIRWAYS (CPA) FLIGHT ATTENDANTS ON DUTY. INDEPENDENT STUDY ADVISOR
: ASSOC.PROF.PORNPIMOL SENAWONG,Ph.D. 52 pp.

The purpose of this research is to study the structures and characteristics of


code-switching occurring in the speech of CPA flight attendants on duty. Data was collected
by recording conversations between two groups of these flight attendants. The conversations
can be divided into two types : those which occurred among speakers of the same first
language and those which occurred among speakers of different first language. Nineteen
samples of the first type of conversations and 14 of the second type were collected and
analyzed. The result revealed that nouns were used most often in code-switching in both
groups. Such switching shared the same characteristics: word formation is not influenced by
rules of the matrix language. When speakers code-switched in Thai, it was found that they
usually ended the sentences with polite final particles. The usage is a common practice in
Thai. However, words were found to occur in different forms when code-switched by the
group of the same first language speakers. Sentences and clauses used by this group were
much shorter than those used by the different first language speakers. It is also found that
most passengers, flight attendants and CPA itself do not approve of code-switching practices.
CPA includes in its Inflight Services Policy, Procedures & Requirements that flight attendants
must use English only when on duty. The study points out that the majority of passengers
have shown negative attitude towards code-switching.

Department of Western Languages

Graduate School, Silpakorn University

Student's signature ........................................


Independent Study Advisor's signature ........................................

Academic Year 2011


.


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1
....................................................................................................................... 1
................................................................. 1
. 2
2
3
.. 3
4
4
2
5
3
. 12
4
16
5
. 25
.

29

... 32

33

42

.. 47
52

1
2
3
4
5
6


.

.

...

..

..

.

17
18
22
34
43
48

1.








(2540) (2530)

(flight attendants) (air


stewardesses) (air steward)





3



(Mandarin) (Cantonese)

cockpit, galley, cart, PVC, F/A Kit, drystore

2
1.1 (code-switching)

1.2




2.
2.1

2.2

3.
3.1

3.2

3.3

4.
4.1
4.2





4.3

5.
5.1

(2547)

5.2

5.3

6.
6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

7 .
7.1
7.2


7.3

7.4

2



1. (code-switching)
2. (code-switching)
3.
1. (code-switching)


Romaine (1994: 55-64)

2

(2542: 96-97)


1.


2.





5

3.
(topic)



Blom and Gumperz (1972: 407-434)

Bokml Ranaml
1. Situational switching
Bokml
Ranaml

2. Metaphorical switching
Blom and Gumperz
Bokml Ranaml
Bokml
Ranaml
Varunee Boon-Long (1976: 34)



Wardhough (1986: 103-104)


Marasigan (1983:7)



Marasigan



Hoffman (1991:23)

(code- switching ) (code - mixing ) Hoffman
2


Hoffman
(incomplete code mixing) Hoffman


(2545: 92-94)





(2545: 92-94)



(language mixing)
(language switching) (linguistic borrowing) (linguistic
interference)




2.


(2530)


130


6



40-50
10



(2540)
. . .


+ ++ +







(2541)
(2538)

(2539)

3.







(2535)
1
2
5





10

(2541)

4 /
80
20
(matched-guise technique)





(2546)
( )




225







5

11


- - -






(2535)


(Qualitative Research)




1.
1.1

2.


2.1










12

13



3.


3.1
(2552)
3.1.1

3.1.2

3.1.3

3.1.4
3.1.5

3.1.6

3.1.7


(2527 : 93)
2

14



3.2
Carol Myers Scotton (1993)
(code-switching) (matrix language)
(embedded language)



3.2.1

(2519: 40-41)


(free morpheme) , , bird, like
-, - quickly, lifted

(complex lexical items)


, , happily, noted
, , , happy, note
(compounds)
,
, , sunburn, blackbird, textbook
, homing pigeon, catchers mitt
3.2.2

(2521:140-141)
3.2.2.1

15

3.2.2.2

3.2.2.3

3.3

3.4
(
) (
)
3.5




3.6










33

19
14


1. (
)
2. (
)
1. (
)
16

17







2
1.1.


(2552)
(2527 : 93)

22
17
8
1
0
0
1


()

44.90
34.69
16.33
2.08
0
0
2.08

18

33
8


()

80.48
19.52




sleepy, collection, minutes, bumpy, dizzy, continuously, loading
cloakroom, jclass, boarding pass, uplift, playing card
jacket, seat, pack, secure, reset, infant, blank, board




cloakroom

jacket cloakroom jclass


bumpy, dizzy move
bumpy dizzy move


pre pour collection

19

service pre pour juice


collection set cart
pre pour collection



28 21







2


serious case back pain
serious case left hand side left hand side
93.94


oj orange juice ptv personal television
fo first officer

20



full flight, inflight injury, relay message, baby bassinet, back pain, call light, mixed nuts, duty
free item, order form


1 2



voucher 50 US
voucher 50 US

1 too sleepy
too sleepy

1.2.


2
1.2.1

you have one life; you should take good care of your health

21

what do you think ?


please tell your section leader before you guys go to rest
thank you for your help
1.2.2


service rest rest crew bunk


group 6 rest will start within 15 minutes. please tell your section leader before you
guys go to rest .
you have to write a memo and stick it on the wall relay message
set .
5 minutes ago, captain, he ordered chinese tea
ignore you have one life; you should take good care of your health .
2. (
)

22

2.1

14
3

13
3
4
0
0
0
1


()

61.90
14.28
19.04
0
0
0
4.76




jiro fan, min bao, itali mien, ho sek, sew sam, chang jub
a-gor
mo, gow cho, ka fae, cha

23



12 jiro fan, itali mien, min
bao, hung jao 9 mo, gow cho, siew siew, yao, aiya, lei si, kafae

entre

2.2

2
2.2.1


gow cho, on my side some of them are bad, always press call light and ask for hung
jao many times la.
siew siew la.
umm koy saii
2.2.2


24



moo ei sii

umm koy

gong hei fat choi
jow san











1.


(2530)






Hoffman








25

26








1.









2.






3.

27

Cathay Pacific Airways Limited, Inflight Service Department Operations Part A (2010)






2.







28

29


. . . : , 2552.
. . , 2527.
. . : , 2521.
. . :
, 2519.
. .
. : , 2542.

2547 . . 20 234 ( 2547: 81)

. ( )
.
, 2546.
. : .
, 2538.
.
. .
, 2539.
.

30

.
, 2542.
.
.
, 2541.
.
.
, 2535.
. .
.
, 2540.
.
.
, 2550.
. .
, 2541.
. : .

, 2530.

Blom, Jan-Petter and Gumprez, John J. Social Meaning in Linguistic Struture: CodeSwitching in Norway. in Direction in Sociolinguistics: the Ethnography of
Communication, pp.407-434. Edited by John J. Gumperz and Dell Hymes. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc, 1972.
Cathay Pacific Airways Limited. Inflight Services Department Operation Part A: Inflight

31

Services Policy, Procedures & Requirements, 2010


Hoffman, Charlotte. An Introduction to Bilingualism. London: Longman Inc, 1991.
Marasigan, Elizabeth. Code-Switching and Code-Mixing in Multilingual societies.
Singapore: The Univ. Pr. For SEAMEO Regional Language, 1983.
Myers Scotton, Carol. Dualing Languages : Grammatical Structure in Code-Switching.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Romaine, Suzanne. Language in Society: an Introduction to Sociolinguistics. New York :
Oxford University Press Inc, 1994.
Varunee Boon Long. Introduction of Sociolinguistics. Chiang Mai University, 1976.
Wardhaugh, Ronald. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

34

8
9

OJ
AJ

10

TJ

11

pack


orange juice:
apple juice ;

tomato juice ;

12
13
14

lift
secure
inflight
injury

uplift

seat
boarding
pass
full flight

seat
boarding pass
jacket
full flight uplift OJ,
AJ, TJ pack
lift pack 2
secure inflight
injury

4
5

1 jacket
jacket
2 cloakroom jclass cloakroom

3
jclass business
class

35

PTV

21

reset

Inflight Service
Manager ;

26 brew coffee brew coffee


too sleepy

19 54A PTV
ISM
20 reset
blank

27 too sleepy

MSC

25 Chinese tea

18

blank
Captain
FO Flight Officer :
1
Chinese tea

set
F/A kit

ISM

relay
message

16
17 F/A kit
MSC

22
23 Captain ordered Chinese tea, FO
24 ordered black coffee

15 You have to write a memo and stick


it on the wall relay
message set

()

36

37
back pain
serious case
had an operation

()

back pain

38

serious case

39

had an
operation

31 take off seat belt take off


sign off set
32 baby bassinet
set
33
baby
bassinet
34 board
board
hurry hury!
35
hurry!
36 call light I am so call light
, feel like I back pain

CRD

30

infant
load

28 infant load 3
29 CRD

37

50
51 4 enough

collection (


)
set cart
enough

49

recline
complain
toilet
(

)
flush
lock
Service pre pour Service
juice
pre pour
collection

set cart

45
46
47
48

42
43
44 defect L34
3 toilet flush
lock

report
defect

ignore

40 ignore , you have one


life, you should take good care of
your health
41 report defect ISM
seat 30A
recline
complain

38

rest

crew bulk


group
section
leader

59
60

58

always
every Thai
ISM
he (

57 Service
rest rest
crew bulk group 6 , rest
will start within 15 minutes, please
tell your section leader before you
guys go to rest

56

Diamond

54
55

52 DM 44D
DM
mixed nuts Jclass
always every
Thai ISM he
53
mixed nuts

39

port
lock and
seal

71
72

bar cart
report

OK
the rest
thank you
Left hand
side

69
70

minutes
land
port and
route

74
75
76 Left hand side

voucher 50
US
50

66 Captain 30 minutes to
67 land , port and route
68 port land lock
and seal bar cart cart
report

73 OK lock and
seal the rest thank you

65 voucher 50 US

61 seat 12K duty free


duty free
item no. 162 no. 174 item item
62 pay by credit card order
no.
63 form
pay by
credit card
64
order form

40

81

crew seat

82 crew last sector
last sector

83 chicken rice cart chicken rice

84 check Jclass
check
but I dont think they still have
chicken left also.

85 bumpy dizzy
move

bumpy ( )

86

dizzy

87

move

bread cloth

apron

79 bread cloth
80 apron crew seat

PA


eye glasses

77 ISM PA
eye glasses
78

41

playing
card
continuousl
y
still

90

99

gang

88 Oh my gosh! gang
playing card
continuously

91 still

92 Loading 2 man cart Loading


93
2 man cart

43

1
A: You have to write a memo and stick it
You have to write a memo
on the wall relay message
and stick it on the wall
set

B: F/A kit
MSC
A: 54A PTV
ISM reset
blank

Ok, then Ill go to reset

B: Ok, then Ill go to reset


A:
3

A: Captain ordered Chinese tea, FO


ordered black coffee
B: Chinese tea
A: brew coffee
C: 5 minutes ago, captain he ordered
Chinese tea
A: too sleepy
A: infant load 3
CRD

B: take off seat belt


sign off set baby
bassinet

Captain ordered Chinese


tea, FO ordered black
coffee

5 minutes ago, captain he


ordered Chinese tea
seat belt sign off

44

5
A: call light I am so ,
feel like I back pain
B:
back pain
serious case had
an operation

I am so , feel like I
()
back pain

C: ignore , you have one


life, you should take good care of your
health

you have one life, you


should take good care of
your health

()
()

A: duty end
duty end
6

A: report defect ISM


seat 30A
recline
complain

This aircraft is old

B: defect L34
3 toilet flush lock

A: This aircraft is old

A: Service pre pour


juice
collection set cart

B: C: D:
C: pre pour
A: 4 What do
you think?
D: 4 enough

What do you think?


()

()

45

8
A: DM 44D
mixed nuts Jclass
always every Thai
ISM he

Yes, exactly, thats him


he loves call light very
much!

B: he
Jclass he always
complain he call light

A: Yes, exactly, thats him he loves


call light very much!
A: Service
rest rest
crew bulk group 6 , rest will
start within 15 minutes, please tell your
section leader before you guys go to rest

rest will start within 15


minutes, please tell your
section leader before you
guys go to rest



()
()

Thank you for your help

Youre welcome

()
()

I think so


()

()

B: Bonni
A:
10 A: Thank you for your help
B: Youre welcome
11

A: chicken rice cart but I dont think they still

have chicken left also.


B: only beef pasta left
A: check Jclass but
I dont think they still have chicken left
also.
B: I think so
A:

46

12 A: bumpy dizzy
move
B: I have in my handbag
A: bring it now

I have in my handbag

B: wait a sec.
13 A: Oh my gosh! gang
playing card continuously

wait a sec.
Oh my gosh!

B:
A: gang ask me one by
one 5 how many we
have 2
sector
B: tell them
A: yes, still

bring it now

gang ask me one by one

how many we have

tell them

48

B: Mo ah, I think I think we


better share from another gally.
A: OK, I will get some for you,
Ill be back.
4 A: Today we serve Jiro Faan as Jiro Faan
a first choice and Itali mien as a
second choice.
5 B: , I wanna try
Itali mien
Itali mien if we still have some
left later on.
6 A: Yeah, well see, and I want Min Bao
to eat today Min Bao also!
7 A: You know, passenger on my Gow cho
side are really good, they are so
quiet and nice.
8 B: Gow cho, on my side some Hung Jao
of them are bad, always press
call light and ask for Hung Jao
many times la.

1 A: Moo Ei Sii, Can you pass the Moo Ei Sii


entre to MSC ?
B: yes, how many entre?
2 A: Just two, Thank you.
entre
3 A: Do you see any AJ in a-cart?
Mo

49

9 A: Siew Seiw la, my latest flight Siew Siew


on Monday, the call light was
never stop until landing!
Horrible!
10 A: Owen, my gally is run out of
Yao
a kitchen roll, Do you have one
left?

B: Yao Yao!, here it is.


A: Umm Koy saii Owen,

11

Umm Koy
saii
12 A: Ai-ya, Kwai lo passenger
Ai-ya
drank 3 whisky already and he

keep asking me to make it


double.

B: get drunk yet?


A: Yes, his face turns red, he
keep talking and yelling and I
need to tell ISM now! Gow cho
a!
13 A: Gong hei fat choi , these are Gong hei
your Lei Si for you guys.
fat choi
B: C: Umm koy saii
14 C: Today I already got 3 Lei Si. Lei Si

15 B: I want more haha.

50

B: Yes, I went to China town to


eat a lot of seafood.
A: Seafood is very cheap in

Thailand and
B: Of course la, better than
Jow San
Hongkong.

A: Guide, Can you brew ka fae


ka fae
and bring it to Katie?
B: Yes, Certainly.

A: I need to do PA, this flight chad leng 7, 0


cx chad leng yud right?
yud 1
B: Yes yes, chad leng yud, haha.

A: Short memory la, thats why


I need to ask you, haha.
B: Thats all right, you can ask
everything you want, Sabina.
21 A: Gaii Fann Ho sek right?
B: Yes, Its very soft and I like
this kind of sauce.
22

Gaii Fann

Ho sek

20

19

18

A-Gor

17

16 A: A-Gor, Jow san, Long time


no see.
B: Jow san, haventsee you for
a year!.
A: No la, just 3 months a I
remember, haha did you go out
somewhere in Bangkok?

51

sew sam
Chang-jub

Hor lok

B: How about Hor lok, enough?


A: only one pack.
B: oh, then just uplift hor lok la,
thank you.
26

cha

24
25 A: Nicole, I found a lot of
Chang-jub in back up cart , I
think no need to uplift a lot.

23 Linny, Can you bring these 3


cha to serve passenger 54A,
55D, and 68A and sew sam la,
its very hot. Thank you.

52

597/159
10310

.. 2547


()

.. 2551