MAC Protocols for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

 Introduction  Issues  Design Goals  Classifications  Contention-based Protocols  Contention-based Protocols with reservation mechanisms  Contention-based Protocols without Scheduling mechanisms  MAC Protocols that use directional antennas  Other MAC Protocols
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Issues
 The main issues need to be addressed while designing a MAC protocol for ad hoc wireless networks:
• Bandwidth efficiency is defined at the ratio of the bandwidth used for actual data transmission to the total available bandwidth. The MAC protocol for ad-hoc networks should maximize it. • Quality of service support is essential for time-critical applications. The MAC protocol for ad-hoc networks should consider the constraint of ad-hoc networks. • Synchronization can be achieved by exchange of control packets.

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Issues
 The main issues need to be addressed while designing a MAC protocol for ad hoc wireless networks:
• Hidden and exposed terminal problems: • Hidden nodes: – Hidden stations: Carrier sensing may fail to detect another station. For example, A and D. – Fading: The strength of radio signals diminished rapidly with the distance from the transmitter. For example, A and C. • Exposed nodes: – Exposed stations: B is sending to A. C can detect it. C might want to send to E but conclude it cannot transmit because C hears B. – Collision masking: The local signal might drown out the remote transmission. • Error-Prone Shared Broadcast Channel • Distributed Nature/Lack of Central Coordination • Mobility of Nodes: Nodes are mobile most of the time.
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Wireless LAN configuration
A Laptops radio obstruction D Wireless LAN Base station/ access point B C

Palmtop Server

E

LAN

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The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol

(a) The hidden station problem. (b) The exposed station problem.
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Design goals of a MAC Protocol
 Design goals of a MAC protocol for ad hoc wireless networks
• The operation of the protocol should be distributed. • The protocol should provide QoS support for real-time traffic. • The access delay, which refers to the average delay experienced by any packet to get transmitted, must be kept low. • The available bandwidth must be utilized efficiently. • The protocol should ensure fair allocation of bandwidth to nodes. • Control overhead must be kept as low as possible. • The protocol should minimize the effects of hidden and exposed terminal problems. • The protocol must be scalable to large networks. • It should have power control mechanisms. • The protocol should have mechanisms for adaptive data rate control. • It should try to use directional antennas. • The protocol should provide synchronization among nodes. 6
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Classifications of MAC protocols
 Ad hoc network MAC protocols can be classified into three types:
• • • • Contention-based protocols Contention-based protocols with reservation mechanisms Contention-based protocols with scheduling mechanisms Other MAC protocols
MAC Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Contention-Based Protocols

Contention-based protocols with reservation mechanisms Synchronous Protocols
D-PRMA CATA HRMA SRMA/PA FPRP

Contention-based protocols with scheduling mechanisms
RI-BTMA MACA-BI MARCH

Other MAC Protocols
Directional Antennas MMAC MCSMA PCM RBAR

Sender-Initiated Protocols Single-Channel Protocols
MACAW FAMA

Receiver-Initiated Protocols Multichannel Protocols
BTMA DBTMA ICSMA

Asynchronous Protocols
MACA/PR RTMAC

RI-BTMA MACA-BI MARCH

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Classifications of MAC Protocols
 Contention-based protocols
• Sender-initiated protocols: Packet transmissions are initiated by the sender node. • Single-channel sender-initiated protocols: A node that wins the contention to the channel can make use of the entire bandwidth. • Multichannel sender-initiated protocols: The available bandwidth is divided into multiple channels. • Receiver-initiated protocols: The receiver node initiates the contention resolution protocol.

 Contention-based protocols with reservation mechanisms
• Synchronous protocols: All nodes need to be synchronized. Global time synchronization is difficult to achieve. • Asynchronous protocols: These protocols use relative time information for effecting reservations.
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Classifications of MAC Protocols
 Contention-based protocols with scheduling mechanisms
• Node scheduling is done in a manner so that all nodes are treated fairly and no node is starved of bandwidth. • Scheduling-based schemes are also used for enforcing priorities among flows whose packets are queued at nodes. • Some scheduling schemes also consider battery characteristics.

 Other protocols are those MAC protocols that do not strictly fall under the above categories.

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Contention-based protocols
 MACAW: A Media Access Protocol for Wireless LANs is based on MACA (Multiple Access Collision Avoidance) Protocol  MACA
• When a node wants to transmit a data packet, it first transmit a RTS (Request To Send) frame. • The receiver node, on receiving the RTS packet, if it is ready to receive the data packet, transmits a CTS (Clear to Send) packet. • Once the sender receives the CTS packet without any error, it starts transmitting the data packet. • If a packet transmitted by a node is lost, the node uses the binary exponential back-off (BEB) algorithm to back off a random interval of time before retrying.

 The binary exponential back-off mechanism used in MACA might starves flows sometimes. The problem is solved by MACAW.
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MACA Protocol

The MACA protocol. (a) A sending an RTS to B. (b) B responding with a CTS to A.
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MACA examples
 MACA avoids the problem of hidden terminals
• A and C want to send to B • A sends RTS first • C waits after receiving CTS from B

RTS CTS A B CTS C

 MACA avoids the problem of exposed terminals
• B wants to send to A, C to another terminal • now C does not have to wait for it cannot receive CTS from A
RTS CTS A B C
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RTS

MACAW
 Variants of this method can be found in IEEE 802.11 as DFWMAC (Distributed Foundation Wireless MAC),  MACAW (MACA for Wireless) is a revision of MACA.
• The sender senses the carrier to see and transmits a RTS (Request To Send) frame if no nearby station transmits a RTS. • The receiver replies with a CTS (Clear To Send) frame. • Neighbors • see CTS, then keep quiet. • see RTS but not CTS, then keep quiet until the CTS is back to the sender. • The receiver sends an ACK when receiving an frame. • Neighbors keep silent until see ACK. • Collisions • There is no collision detection. • The senders know collision when they don’t receive CTS. • They each wait for the exponential backoff time. 13
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MACA variant: DFWMAC in IEEE802.11
sender
idle packet ready to send; RTS RxBusy ACK wait for the right to send CTS; data wait for data RxBusy: receiver busy RTS; RxBusy
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receiver
idle data; ACK time-out ∨ data; NAK RTS; CTS

time-out; RTS

time-out ∨ NAK; RTS wait for ACK

ACK: positive acknowledgement NAK: negative acknowledgement

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Contention-based protocols
 Floor acquisition Multiple Access Protocols (FAMA)
• Based on a channel access discipline which consists of a carrier-sensing operation and a collision-avoidance dialog between the sender and the intended receiver of a packet. • Floor acquisition refers to the process of gaining control of the channel. At any time only one node is assigned to use the channel. • Carrier-sensing by the sender, followed by the RTS-CTS control packet exchange, enables the protocol to perform as efficiently as MACA. • Two variations of FAMA • RTS-CTS exchange with no carrier-sensing uses the ALOHA protocol for transmitting RTS packets. • RTS-CTS exchange with non-persistent carrier-sensing uses nonpersistent CSMA for the same purpose.

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Contention-based protocols
 Busy Tone Multiple Access Protocols (BTMA)
• The transmission channel is split into two: • a data channel for data packet transmissions • a control channel used to transmit the busy tone signal • When a node is ready for transmission, it senses the channel to check whether the busy tone is active. • If not, it turns on the busy tone signal and starts data transmissions • Otherwise, it reschedules the packet for transmission after some random rescheduling delay. • Any other node which senses the carrier on the incoming data channel also transmits the busy tone signal on the control channel, thus, prevent two neighboring nodes from transmitting at the same time.

 Dual Busy Tone Multiple Access Protocol (DBTMAP) is an extension of the BTMA scheme.
• a data channel for data packet transmissions • a control channel used for control packet transmissions (RTS and CTS packets) and also for transmitting the busy tones. 16
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Contention-based protocols
 Receiver-Initiated Busy Tone Multiple Access Protocol (RIBTMA)
• The transmission channel is split into two: • a data channel for data packet transmissions • a control channel used for transmitting the busy tone signal
• A node can transmit on the data channel only if it finds the busy tone to be absent on the control channel. • The data packet is divided into two portions: a preamble and the actual data packet.

 MACA-By Invitation (MACA-BI) is a receiver-initiated MAC protocol.
• By eliminating the need for the RTS packet it reduces the number of control packets used in the MACA protocol which uses the three-way handshake mechanism.

 Media Access with Reduced Handshake (MARCH) is a receiverinitiated protocol. 17
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Contention-based Protocols with Reservation Mechanisms
 Contention-based Protocols with Reservation Mechanisms
• Contention occurs during the resource (bandwidth) reservation phase. • Once the bandwidth is reserved, the node gets exclusive access to the reserved bandwidth. • QoS support can be provided for real-time traffic.

 Distributed packet reservation multiple access protocol (DPRMA)
• It extends the centralized packet reservation multiple access (PRMA) scheme into a distributed scheme that can be used in ad hoc wireless networks. • PRMA was designed in a wireless LAN with a base station. • D-PRMA extends PRMA protocol in a wireless LAN. • D-PRMA is a TDMA-based scheme. The channel is divided into fixedand equal-sized frames along the time axis.
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Access method DAMA: ReservationTDMA
 Reservation Time Division Multiple Access
• every frame consists of N mini-slots and x data-slots • every station has its own mini-slot and can reserve up to k data-slots using this mini-slot (i.e. x = N * k). • other stations can send data in unused data-slots according to a round-robin sending scheme (best-effort traffic)
N mini-slots N * k data-slots e.g. N=6, k=2

reservations for data-slots

other stations can use free data-slots based on a round-robin scheme
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Distributed Packet Reservation Multiple Access Protocol (D-PRMA)
 Implicit reservation (PRMA - Packet Reservation Multiple Access):
• a certain number of slots form a frame, frames are repeated • stations compete for empty slots according to the slotted aloha principle • once a station reserves a slot successfully, this slot is automatically assigned to this station in all following frames as long as the station has data to send • competition for this slots starts again as soon as the slot was empty in the last frame
reservation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F collision at reservation attempts t
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time-slot

ACDABA-F frame1 A C D A B A ACDABA-F frame2 A C AC-ABAF- frame3 A A---BAFD frame4 A A B A B A F

B A F D

ACEEBAFD frame5 A C E E B A F D

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Contention-based protocols with Reservation Mechanisms
 Collision avoidance time allocation protocol (CATA)
• based on dynamic topology-dependent transmission scheduling • Nodes contend for and reserve time slots by means of a distributed reservation and handshake mechanism. • Support broadcast, unicast, and multicast transmissions. • The operation is based on two basic principles: • The receiver(s) of a flow must inform the potential source nodes about the reserved slot on which it is currently receiving packets. The source node must inform the potential destination node(s) about interferences in the slot. • Usage of negative acknowledgements for reservation requests, and control packet transmissions at the beginning of each slot, for distributing slot reservation information to senders of broadcast or multicast sessions.

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Contention-based protocols with Reservation Mechanisms
 Hop reservation multiple access protocol (HRMA)
• a multichannel MAC protocol which is based on half-duplex, very slow frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) radios • uses a reservation and handshake mechanism to enable a pair of communicating nodes to reserve a frequency hop, thereby guaranteeing collision-free data transmission. • can be viewed as a time slot reservation protocol where each time slot is assigned a separate frequency channel.

 Soft reservation multiple access with priority assignment (SRMA/PA)
• Developed with the main objective of supporting integrated services of real-time and non-real-time application in ad hoc networks, at the same time maximizing the statistical multiplexing gain. • Nodes use a collision-avoidance handshake mechanism and a soft reservation mechanism.
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Contention-based protocols with Reservation Mechanisms
 Five-Phase Reservation Protocol (FPRP)
• a single-channel time division multiple access (TDMA)-based broadcast scheduling protocol. • Nodes uses a contention mechanism in order to acquire time slots. • The protocol assumes the availability of global time at all nodes. • The reservation takes five phases: reservation, collision report, reservation confirmation, reservation acknowledgement, and packing and elimination phase.

 MACA with Piggy-Backed Reservation (MACA/PR)
• Provide real-time traffic support in multi-hop wireless networks • Based on the MACAW protocol with non-persistent CSMA • The main components of MACA/PR are: • A MAC protocol • A reservation protocol • A QoS routing protocol
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Contention-based protocols with Reservation Mechanisms
 Real-Time Medium Access Control Protocol (RTMAC)
• Provides a bandwidth reservation mechanism for supporting real-time traffic in ad hoc wireless networks • RTMAC has two components • A MAC layer protocol is a real-time extension of the IEEE 802.11 DCF.
– A medium-access protocol for best-effort traffic – A reservation protocol for real-time traffic

• A QoS routing protocol is responsible for end-to-end reservation and release of bandwidth resources.

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Contention-based protocols with Scheduling Mechanisms
 Protocols in this category focus on packet scheduling at the nodes and transmission scheduling of the nodes.  The factors that affects scheduling decisions
• Delay targets of packets • Traffic load at nodes • Battery power

 Distributed priority scheduling and medium access in Ad Hoc Networks present two mechanisms for providing quality of service (QoS)
• Distributed priority scheduling (DPS) – piggy-backs the priority tag of a node’s current and head-of-line packets o the control and data packets • Multi-hop coordination – extends the DPS scheme to carry out scheduling over multi-hop paths. 25
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Contention-based protocols with Scheduling Mechanisms
 Distributed Wireless Ordering Protocol (DWOP)
• A media access scheme along with a scheduling mechanism • Based on the distributed priority scheduling scheme

 Distributed Laxity-based Priority Scheduling (DLPS) Scheme
• Scheduling decisions are made based on • The states of neighboring nodes and feed back from destination nodes regarding packet losses • Packets are recorded based on their uniform laxity budgets (ULBs) and the packet delivery ratios of the flows. The laxity of a packet is the time remaining before its deadline.

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MAC Protocols that use directional Antennas
 MAC protocols that use directional antennas have several advantages:
• Reduce signal interference • Increase in the system throughput • Improved channel reuse

 MAC protocol using directional antennas
• Make use of an RTS/CTS exchange mechanism • Use directional antennas for transmitting and receiving data packets

 Directional Busy Tone-based MAC Protocol (DBTMA)
• It uses directional antennas for transmitting the RTS, CTS, data frames, and the busy tones.

 Directional MAC Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
• DMAC-1, a directional antenna is used for transmitting RTS packets and omni-directional antenna for CTS packets. • DMAC-1, both directional RTS and omni-directional RTS transmission are used.
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Other MAC Protocols
 Multi-channel MAC Protocol (MMAC)
• Multiple channels for data transmission • There is no dedicated control channel. • Based on channel usage channels can be classified into three types: high preference channel (HIGH), medium preference channel (MID), low preference channel (LOW)

 Multi-channel CSMA MAC Protocol (MCSMA)
• The available bandwidth is divided into several channels

 Power Control MAC Protocol (PCM) for Ad Hoc Networks
• Allows nodes to vary their transmission power levels on a per-packet basis

 Receiver-based Autorate Protocol (RBAR)
• Use a rate adaptation approach

 Interleaved Carrier-Sense Multiple Access Protocol (ICSMA)
• The available bandwidth is split into tow equal channels • The handshaking process is interleaved between the two channels.
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Multicast routing
 Expected advantages from multicast routing
• • • • • • • • Providing efficient bandwidth Reducing communication cost Efficient delivery of data Supporting dynamic topology Minimizing network load Providing basic support for reliable transmission Designing optimal routes Providing robustness, efficiency, and adaptability

 Technical constraints for multicast routing

 Classification
• Globally, there are two main categories of multicast routing protocols: • Tree-based protocols, and • Mesh-based protocols
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Examples of tree-based protocols
 Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) routing protocol  Associatively-based Multicast (ABAM) routing protocol  Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV)
• Extends AODV to offer multicast capabilities • Builds shared multicast trees on-demand to connect group members • Capable of unicast, broadcast, and multicast

 Associatively-based Multicast (ABAM)
• Constructed in an attempt to reduce communication overhead and end-to-end delay

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An example of mesh-based protocols
 On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)
• ODMRP is based on a mesh structure for connecting multicast members using the concept of forwarding group nodes. • When a data packet reaches a multicast receiver, the receiver creates a JoinTable and broadcasts it to the neighbors. • Each group member propagates the Join-Table until it reaches the multicast source via the shortest path. • This process constructs and updates the routes from the source to the receiver, creating a mesh of nodes.

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A quick comparison
ODMRP Mesh MAODV Tree ABAM Tree

Multicast delivery

Routing On-demand On-demand On-demand approach Control overhea d Periodic flood Tree Tree construction construction
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