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28 CHAPTER

Roosevelt, and the Republican Progressivism 1901-1912


THE CHAPTER PARTI: REVIEWING OBJECTIVES OF LEARNING A. CHECKLIST
you shouldbe ableto this chapter, After mastering l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. movement. the originsand natureof the progressive discuss its rootsat the city and statelevel. movement developed how the earlyprogressive describe socialreform. identifuthe criticalrole that womenplayedin progressive principles to the nationaleconomy. Roosevelt beganapplyingprogressive tell how President progressives, includingRoosevelt. explainwhy Taft's policiesoffended Taft that openlydividedthe Republican revoltagainst led a progressive how Roosevelt describe party.

B. GLOSSARY
yourselfwith the following terms: familiarize vocabulary, To build your socialscience I. improvement, or socialadvancement, in continuing progressiveIn politics,one who believes 'progressives,' wagedwar on many evils.. ." who calledthemselves reform."The new crusaders, (p. 664) Veblen,that much Thorstein by economist consumptionThe theory,developed conspicuous ratherthan from to others primarily wealth and status display to affluent occurs spendingby the 'predatory " wealth' and 'conspicuous on attack enjoymentof the goodsor services. . . . a savage " (p. 665) consumption.' for office througha special of a party'scandidates direct primary In politics,the nomination primary elections.. . ." pushed "These for direct ardentreformers electionof that parfy's voters. (p. 667) wherebyvoterscan,through petition,presentproposed initiative In politics, the procedure 'initiative' so that voterscould directly "They favoredthe legislationdirectly to the electorate. propose legislation. . . ." (p.667) or alreadyin effect,to a direct vote of the of a law, proposed referendum The submission 'referendum.' " (p,667) for the alsoagitated "Progressives electorate. for removing an official from office throughpopularelectionor recall In politics, a procedure 'recall' officials.. . ." (p. elected the votersto removefaithless "The would enable othermeans. 667)

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

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Chapter 28:Progressivism andthe Republican Roosevelt, 1901-1912 7-

255

cify manager An administrator appointed by the city councilor otherelected body to manage affairs,supposedly in a nonpartisan or professional way. "Other communities adopted the ci[manager system. . . ." (p. 669) red-lightdistrict A section ,.. . . of a city whereprostitution is officially or unofficiallytolerated. wide-open prostitution (vice-at-a-price) . . . flourished in red-lightdirt.i"tr. . . .', (p. 669) franchise In government, a specialprivilege or licensegrantedto a companyor group to perform a specificfunction."Public-spirited city-dwellers alsomovedto halt the corruptsaleof franchises for streetcars. . . ." (p. 669) bureaucracy (bureaucrat) The management of governmentor business throughdepartments and subdivisions mannedby a systemof officials (bureaucrats) following definediles and processes. (The term is often thought not necessarily disparaging.) "These wedgesinto the federal bureaucracy, howeversmall, gave femalereformersa nationalstage.. . .,, (p. 670) workers' (workmen's) compensationInsurance, providedeither by governmentor employersor both, providing benefitsto employees sufferingwork-relatedinjury or-disability.* . . . by l9l7 thirty stateshad put workers' compensation laws on the books.. . :, (p. 672) reclamation The process of bringing or restoringwasteland to productiveuse...Settlers repaid the costof reclamation. ." (p.676)

8. 9'

l0'

I l.

l2'

13. collectivism A politicalor socialsystemin which individuals aresubordinated to mass organization and direction."He strenuously soughtthe middle road betweenunbridled individualism and paternalistic collectivism." (p. 633) 14' insubordination Deliberate disobedience pinchoton the to properauthority. ". . . Taft dismissed natrow groundsof insubordination. . . .,' (p. 6g5)

PARTll: CHECKING YOURPROGRESS A. True-False


Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false.circle F.
l.
,' n]

LiJ

2 . aF
3.
4.

I ne progresslve movement believed that socialand economicproblems shouldbe solvedat the communitylevelwithout involvement by the federalgovernment. Muckrakingjournalists,social-gospel ministers,and women reformersall aroused Americans'concern abouteconomic and socialproblems. The leadingprogressive reformerswere primarily immigrantsand urban industrial workers. Many female progressives saw the task of improving life in factoriesand slumsas an extensionof their traditionalroles as wives and mothers. President TheodoreRooseveltendedthe anthracitecoal strike by threatening to use federaltroopsto breakthe miners' union. Rooseveltpromotedstrongerfederallegislationto regulatethe railroadsand other major industries. Rooseveltbelievedthat all the monopolisticcorporate trustsshouldbe brokenup and competitionrestored among smallerbusinesses. Upton Sinclair's novel TheJungle was intendedto arouseconsumers'concernabout unsanitary practicesin the meat industry.

,t,
F

T Ly

/'\

5.

lr'

6 . 0 F

7 -r c
8. T (R

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256

28:Progressivism 1901-1912 Chapter and theRepublican Roosevelt,


policieslike land reclamation were probably Conservation and forestpreservation Theodore Roosevelt's mostpopularand enduringpresidential achievements. Defendersof naturebecamedivided betweenfervent "preservationists" who wantedto stop all humanintrusionsand more moderate"conservationists." Roosevelteffectively usedthe power of the presidency and the federalgovernmentto tame unrestricted capitalism while preserving the basicfoundations of American business. William HowardTaft demonstrated his skill as a politicalcampaigner and leader throughout his presidency. Progressive Republicans Taft because he beganto form becameangry with President alliances with Democrats and Socialists. The Ballinger-Pinchot conservation controversypushedTaft into alliancewith the progressives. Republican"Old Guard" againstthe pro-Roosevelt President Taft usedhis control of the Republicanparty machineryto deny Roosevelt the nomination in 1912.

s . G F ro.C F
il.0 F

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13.r t/ ' + A F
1 5h J F
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B. MultipleGhoice
letter. Selectthe bestanswerand circle the corresponding l. The primary emphasis of the progressive movementwas on a. freeing individualsand business from federalcontrol. protectingfarmersand small business b. from corporatepower. govemmentas an instrumentof social betterment. sfiengthening G) politicalparty. d. organizing workersinto a unifiedand class-conscious Prominentamongthosewho aroused the progressive movementby stirring the public's senseof concernwere journalists. socialists, socialgospelers, women,and muckraking fq politicians, b'. union leaders, machine immigrantspokespeople, and engineers. people, c. bankers, advertising congressmen, and scientists. d. athletes, entertainers, filmmakers, and musicians. Which of the following was not amongthetargetsof muckrakingjournalistic exposds? a. Urban politics and government b. The oil. insuranceand railroadindustries The U.S. Army and Navy O d. Child laborand the'Vhite slave"traffic in women Most progressives were poor farmers. urbanworkers. people. urbanmiddle-class A) d. wealthy people. Among the political reformssoughtby the progressives were a- an end to political parties,political conventions, and the SupremeCourt's right to judicial reviewof legislation. b. an Equal Rights Amendment,federalfinancingof elections,and restrictionson negative campaigning. c. civil-servicereform, racial integration,and free silver. initiative and referendum, direct electionof senators, and women's suffrage. a. b.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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chapter 28:Progressivism andthe Republican Roosevelt, i901-1912 6. The stateswhere progressivism first gainedgreat influencewere Massachusetts, Maine,andNew Hampshire. Wisconsin, Oregon, and California. O c. Michigan,Kansas, and Nevada. d. New York, Florida.and Texas. The Supreme Court caseof Muller v. Orego,? was seenas a victory for both progressivism and women'srightsbecause 2..

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8.

it upheldthe constitutionality of lawsgrantingspecial protection 6' to women in the workplace. b. it heldthat womenshouldreceive"equalpay for equalwork." c. it upheldworkplace safetyregulations to prevent disasters like the TriangleShirtrvaist fire. d. it opened almostall categories of the new industrial employment to women. Roosevelt endedthe Pennsylvania coal strikeby a. b.

urging laborand management to negotiate a settlement. passing federallegislation legalizing unions. forcing mediationby threatening to seizethe coal mines and operatethem with federal E, troops. d. declaring a national stateof emergency and orderingthe minersbackto work. 9. The Roosevelfbacked Elkins Act and HepburnAct were aimedat a. betterprotectionfor industrialworkers. moreeffectiveregulation of the railroadindustry. protection for consumers of beefand produce. d. breaking up the Standard Oil monopoly. t 0 . The controversy overthe HetchHetchyValley in Yosemite Nationalpark revealed "\ philosophical a disagreement between wilderness "preservationists" and more moderate "conservation ists. " President Roosevelt's hostilitytowardcreating any morenationalparks. c. a politicalconflictbetween the lumberindustryand conservationists. d. a split befween urbanCalifornia'sneedfor waterand environmentalists' concerns to preserve free-flowing streams. l l . Two areaswhere Roosevelt'sprogressivism made its substantial headwavwere a. agricultural and mining legislation. b. stock-market and securities legislation. immigration and racial legislation. -q. andconservation lesislation. fd) consumer 1 2 . Xoosevelt was blamedfor the "PanI of l9O7',because his "boat-rocking tactics"had allegedly unsettled industry. @ b. his policiesof regulating and protecting industrial workershad caused a depression. c. his inabilityto establish a stablemonetary policy led to a wall streetcrash. d. the publicwantedhim to run againfor president in 1908. 1 3 . As a resultof his successful campaignin 1908,William Howard Taft was expected to continue andextendRoosevelt's progressive E policies. b. forgea coalitionwith william Jennings Bryan andthe Democrats. c. emphasize foreignpolicy instead of Roosevelt's domestic reforms. d. turn away from Rooseveltand toward the conservative wing of the Republicanparry. t 4 . Progressive Republicans grew disillusionedwith Taft primarily over the issues of a. dollar diplomacyand military interventionin the Caribbean and Central America. laborunionrightsandwomen'sconcerns. P trust-busting, tariffs, and conservation. e d. regulationof the bankingand railroad industries.

(v

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258

1901-1912 Roosevelt, Chapter 28:Progressivism andthe Republican

and form a third parfy because Roosevelt finally decided to breakwith the Republicans he had always regarded the Republicanparty as too conservative. a. b. he could no longerstandto be in the sameparty with Taft. (9) Taft usedhis controlof the Republican convention to deny Roosevelt the nomination. of winning the presidency as a thirdthat he would havea betterchance d. Roosevelt believed parfycandidate.

C. ldentification
for eachnumbered description. Supplythe correctidentification

l. tf 'ttrb>rttr"
2.
J.

to A largely middle-class movementthat aimed to usethe power of government problems of industrialism the economic and social correct Popularjournalistswho usedpublicity to exposecorruptionand attackabuses of power in business and government proposalto allow votersto bypassstatelegislatures and propose Progressive legislation themselves Progressive devicethat would enablevotersto removecorrupt or ineffective officials from office promotethe public interest policy of havingthe federalgovernment Roosevelt's with both laborand business by dealingevenhandedly

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law of 1906that greatly strengthened the Interstate - Effective railroad-regulation m ission com ...n*.t'co,n,nerce workmen'scompensation laws fire of l9l I that spurred Disastrous industrial in New York and somestateregulationof wagesand hours proconsumer federallaws regulating meat, Upton Sinclair'snovelthat inspired food, and drugs

9.

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led by Frances Willard Powerfulwomen'sreformorganization on the Brief but sharpeconomic downturnof 1907,blamedby conservatives supposedlydangerouspresident Taft fbreign policy in which governmentattempted to G"n"rully unsuccessful overseas business ventures encourage antitrust suit in l9l I Powerfulcorporation brokenup by a Taft-initiated

1 0 . \ur,rt\ I l.

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D. Matching People, Places,and Events


Match the person,place,or event in the left column with the properdescriptionin the right column by insertinsthe correctletter on the blank line.

r
2.

T .*.
at

ThorsteinVeblen Lincoln Steffens Ida Tarbell Amendment Seventeenth RobertLa Follette Triangle ShirnvaistCompanyfire

a.

Politicallyineptinheritorof the legacywho endedup allied Roosevelt with the reactionaryRepublican"Old Guard" Casethat upheld protectivelegislation on the groundsof women's supposed physicalweakness

E
5. 6.

b.

D L

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chapter 28:Progressivism and theRepublican Roosevelt, 1g01-1gi2 259


7. 8. 9. 10. il. 12. { ) Anthracite coal strike Meat Inspection Act of 1906 Muller v. Oregon William HowardTaft Lochnerv. New York Gifford Pinchot d.
f?

c.

_12

New York City disaster that underscored urbanworkers'needfor government protection The most influentialof the state-level progressive governorsand a presidential aspirant in 1912 Eccentric economist who criticizedthe wealthyfor "conspicuous consumption" and failureto servereal humanneeds Leading muckrakingjournalist whose articlesdocumented the Standard Oil Company'sabuse of power

A L
lL

D'

Proconservation federalofficial whose dismissal by Taft angered Roosevelt progressives Dangerous labor conflict resolvedby Rooseveltian negotiationand threats against business people Early muckraker who exposed the politicalcorruptionin manyAmerican cities

h.

J.

Progressive law aimedat curbing practices like thoseexposed in Upton Sinclair's TheJungle Progressive measure that required U.S. senators to be electeddirectly by the peopleratherthan by statelegislatures Supremecourt ruling that overtumeda progressive law mandatinga ten-hour workday

k.

E. Putting Things in Order


Put the followingeventsin correctorderby numbering them from I to 5. l. A former president opposes his handpicked successor for the Republican presidential nomination.

2. 3.
4.

A '1
'-)

journalistic accounts Sensational of corruptionand abuseof power in politics and business spurthe progressive movement. A progressive forestryofficial feudswith raft's secretary of the interior, deepening the division within the Republicanparry. A novelisticaccountof chicago's meat-packing industrysparksnew federal laws to protectconsumers.

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260

1901-1912 Roosevelt, andthe Republican 28:Progressivism Chapter ']

5. policies. progressive

F. Matching Cause and Effect


in the left columnwith the propereffectin the right columnby writing the cause Match the historical correctletteron the blank line. Cause I. Effect a. Endedthe eraof uncontrolled exploitationof natureand involved the federalgovernmentin preserving naturalresources Led to reformslike the initiative, and directelectionof referendum, senators settlement of a Forceda compromise wellthe national strikethat threatened being and led to the Outragedconsumers Meat InspectionAct and the PureFood and Drug Act Laid the basisfor a third-partycrusade of I 9l 2 in the election Incensedpro-Rooseveltprogressives their affackson the and increased "Old Guard" Republican and Led the way in usinguniversities to pursue regulatoryagencies goals progressive policy a MadeTaft's dollar-diplomacy failure forceswho Provided the pioneering laid the foundationsfor the Prosressive movement. padsfor Served asthe launching in femaleinvolvement widespread progressive reforms

ists,muckraking Old-timePopul journalists,social-gospe I socialist ministers, and European immigrants concernabout Progressive politicalcorruption like RobertLa Follette Governors Roosevelt's threatto seizethe coal mines anthracite and women's Houses Settlement clubs Upton Sinclair's TheJungle personal interest in Roosevelt's conservation of Taft's politicalmishandling policies conservation tariff and hostilityto Russia's andJapan's an Americanrole in China feelingthat he was Roosevelt's out of the Republican cheated nomination by the Taft machine

2 . 0
3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

b.

_ljl t)

c.

d.

D n

e. f.

9. 10.

L n

g.

h. i.

j.

G DevelopingHistorical Skills g Historical Information Classifyin


by breakingit down can bestbe understood Often a broadhistoricalmovement,suchas progressivism, in this chapterare reform discussed into variouscomponentparts.Among the varietiesof progressive and (C) consumerprogressivism, (B) economicor industrialprogressivism, (A) political progressivism, progressivism. (D) environmental

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