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A Project in Methods of Research of Related literature



Authors: U. Rajkumar, H. Karunakaran, B.karthikeyan & M.venkatesh, (March 2012) A Secure Mobile Voting System Using Fingerprint. Retrieved from

The fingerprint shows the most promising future in real-world applications. Because of their uniqueness and consistency over time, fingerprints have been used for identification and authentication purpose. However, there are some challenges in using fingerprint in real-world application. We are interested in designing and analyzing the Mobile voting system using fingerprint texture, which is the core in current modern approach for fingerprint analysis. As the mobile phone become a part of the human, it is very convenient to use. We are using the mobile phone for the purpose of voting. It helps the user to poll their vote in spite of any location and also in short period of time. Keywords Biometric, Fingerprint, Minutiae, Mobile phone. Elections allow the populace to choose their representatives and express their preferences for how they will be governed. Naturally, the integrity of the election process is fundamental to the integrity of democracy itself. The election system must be sufficiently robust to withstand a variety of fraudulent behaviors and must be sufficiently transparent and comprehensible that voters and candidates can accept the results of an election. Most of the countries in the world e-Voting system have been used. Due to rapid growth of technology security problems are getting increased. So instead of developing e-voting systems, also there is a lot research work is being done to make these systems more secure.

Author/s: Oyite David Robinson Et Al. (Thursday, 10 November 2011) Mobile Voting Systems. Retrieved from

Mobile Voting System (MVS) is a system that will operate in parallel with the existing manual and automated voting processes. It will enable legitimate voters to cast their vote from wherever they please using their mobile devices unlike other means that require the voter to appear at the polling station. This will help alleviate the nuisance of long queues at poll-sites which waste a lot of time. It will also ease the vote-counting process which will be done instantly as the voting progresses and a graphical display will be available on a site (attached to the system) for all stakeholders to view progress, hence ensuring transparency. According to Nadja et al (2009) [6], Mobile voting falls under a category of voting called e-voting, which is short for electronic voting, and refers to the option of using electronic means to vote in referendums and elections. There are systems such as DRE (Direct Electronic Recording) voting machines that record the vote without that vote being transmitted over the Internet or another network. The interface of a DRE machine can be a touch screen or a scanner that scans the ballot paper where the voter marked the vote. The vote is then registered and stored in the voting machine. Then there is voting over the Internet that uses a PC with an Internet-connection to cast the vote and send it to be stored in another remote computer. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), telephones or mobile phones can also be used to cast a vote electronically.

Author: Bryan Adams Layosa (November 2011) Alarm Press: SMS Broadcast System. Retrieved from

In this century of computer generation, many organizations rely on fast delivery of information using latest technologies that would allow them to be more productive and efficient. There are many ways in sending messages nowadays and that is by using E-mail services or by using Mobile Technologies. Like in school, Bulletin Boards or sometimes word of mouth are the method use in delivering a message to the student and faculty but sometimes the student or others does not received the messages because they d ont read the bulletin board often or the information is really failed in reaching them. Sending information in a large amount of people using E-mail requires a lot of work and sometimes the information that needs urgent response does not always received. The culprit of that is because people are not always able to check their E-mail. On the other hand, mobile technology is one of the most effective ways in sending and receiving messages as fast as possible. Because almost all people in the world has their own cellular phone and they usually have them always. The delivery of the messages using this medium is more ideal and efficient in sending messages in large amount of people. Universal SMS Broadcast System is a system that can send mobile messages in large quantity of people using a GSM modem or using an SMPP Protocol.

Author/s: Maribeth Arado et al, (September 2012) Sms Based Voting System. Retrieved from

Information technology has played a vital role throughout the world and so in our country. Short Message Service (SMS) is the text communication service component of phone, web or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed line or mobile phone devices. The use of SMS as data application in the world is enormous, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phone subscribers. Therefore, there is the need of a significant alternative to this conventional system in the delivery of trusted elections. This paper develops an SMS Based Voting System that can be used in conducting a trustworthy, secure and robust election. This will allow a fully automated SMS Based Voting System where electoral vote counts are done instantly by the end of Election Day. The design requires the use of a national SIM card module during the electoral process. Using the design for a typical election scenario, the evaluation results show a Voting System that can be used for efficient processing and fast delivery of result within less than 24 hours.

By: Abdooz (2013, 04). Mobile Voting System. Retrieved 04, 2013, from

Mobile Technology is most important in the world and current generation. We can get updated information using mobile devices. Such device can be used for personal and business transactions. Moreover, mobile devices functionality has evolved tremendously. Nowadays, it can be used for a variety of purposes like to locate places much like a GPS, to read barcodes, to play games, to browse the Internet, to know weather reports, to vote, and so much more. Significantly the most important uses are the voice calls, video calls and Short Messaging System (SMS). Currently various models of mobile phones have come out in the market and each one having special advantages over the others. The SMS or message facility is important in the mobile device. It allows the sender to send messages from one mobile to another mobiles device. Most business establishments advertise through print media like the newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, brochures, and so much more. They also make use of the radio to promote their product and services. Furthermore, a lot business establishments conduct market survey like allowing consumer to choose which product they like best or selecting the best brands and so on.

By: Shiexy, (August 2010) Voting System. Retrieved from

The Student Council elections have always been a perennial activity for every school. It is an activity wherein each student is required to choose from a set of candidates who will represent each position in the Student Council. In order for the student to accomplish this, the student must go through several processes. First the student must go to the Administration Office if he is a registered voter, then goes to the voting area and chooses the candidates he likes. After that, the student submits the filled-up ballot form to the voting administrator in order for his votes to be cast. Then the student is marked with an indelible ink to signify that he has already voted. The introduction of computers greatly enhances the speed and efficiency of voting process. Results could be attained even right after the elections reducing the time to a mere fraction compared to the time it takes if the voting is done manually. It also increases the level of the voting experience because of multimedia enhancements. The manual voting system of San Juan National High school lacks the advantages of a Graphical User Interface that the Windows OS could offer.

Mobile Phone Voting System. Retrieved from

Voter can send short text message from his/her smart phone to a specific smart phone running voting software A (Android version).Upon receipt of the short text message containing the ID number of the best poster (only one should be selected), the said ID number will be entered in a Tally Table with attributes Candidate ID, count. The phone number of the voter will be remembered in a Voter Table with attributes Voter Phone No. Candidate ID, so that no voter can use the same phone to vote twice. The administrator at the smart phone running voting software A can issue a special command, which will terminate the voting. The voting software A will display the Tally Table in decreasing number of votes so that the first winner will be displayed first and so on. At the end the Voter Table will be eliminated. Phone to PC voting system requirements: Voter can send email from his/her smart phone to a specific PC running voting software X (Linux version).Upon receipt of the email containing the ID number of the best poster (only one should be selected), the said ID number will be entered in a Tally Table with attributes Candidate ID, count. The phone number of the voter will be remembered in a Voter Table with attributes Voter Phone No. Candidate ID, so that no voter can use the same phone to vote twice.

Swierenga, S. J., & Pierce, G. L. (2012). Testing Usability Performance of Accessible Voting Systems. Retrieved from

Usable voting systems are key to a successful voting experience for everyone, but are especially important for persons with disabilities. Voting systems need to be designed so that these voters can effectively interact with a voting system in a reasonable amount of time and without discomfort. The overall goal of the research was to develop a suitable, rigorous test protocol for a Voting System Test Laboratory (VSTL) to conduct usability conformance testing of accessible voting systems with persons who are blind, have low vision, or have dexterity impairments in order to ensure that they can vote independently. We first conducted a gap analysis and formal study of existing conformance tests and methodologies for conducting usability tests for accessibility. We then developed and refined tests and protocols appropriate to the selected demographic groups, before conducting and analyzing dry runs of the test protocol using multiple voting systems to get expert timings. The materials that were developed are intended to be used in pilot testing.

(2012, 07) E Voting System. Retrieved from

Electronic voting system (EVS) also known as e-voting is a term encompassing several different types of voting embracing both electronic means of counting votes. Electronic voting technology can include punched cards, optical scan voting systems and specialized voting kiosks (including self-contained direct-recording electronic voting systems or DRE). It can also involve transmission of ballots and votes via telephones, private computer networks, or the internet. Generally, the major approaches towards achieving an effective on line electronic. VOTING SYSTEM (EVS) Scope of E-voting system Specifies the system requirements Specifies the participating parties of the system and describes their roles,

Specifies the architecture of the E-voting system, the general description of the functionally, protocols and algorithms, Analyses and describes possible security of hazards & examines the

compliance of the system to security requirements. The Federal Republic of Nigeria. Nigeria is a Federal constitutional republic comprises thirty-six states and its Federal capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the West, Chad and Cameroon in the South lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. The three largest and most influential ethnic groups Nigeria are the Hausas, Igbo and Yoruba in terms of religion Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims and Christians with a very small Minority who practice traditional religions.

By: MarkAngel26 (2011, 05). PSU Bayambang Campus Voting System. Retrieved from

The computer is now recognized as a powerful and positive force in the social, political, and economic progress of nations. The growing use of computers in society is creating new demands for educating and training students in preparation for life in the Information Age. Because of its seemingly endless capabilities, the computer has become the most imposing form of information technology that has intimidated some people. The computer has undergone a great deal of development in the last 50 years that people have regarded it as synonymous with change. Any change is usually met with some form of resistance. This behavior is known as RC Factor the resistance to change. Cyber phobia is the irrational fear of computers. Psychologists easily attribute cyber phobia to the lack or absence of knowledge about computers. Fear of computers has been observed mostly among adults. Computers are merely machines and should not be feared. Instead computer technology can be maximized to advanced development. Such is the case of Pangasinan State University College Student Council (PSU - CSC) which aims to promote peace & order by prioritizing students safety and develop the students potentialities and help strengthen the administration. The CSC also aims to deliver basic services to the students.

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