You are on page 1of 2

Narration refers to the way that a story is told, and so belongs to the level of discourse (although in first-person narration

it may be that the narrator also plays a role in the development of thestory itself). The different kinds of narration are categorized by each one's primary grammatical stance: either 1) the narrator speaks from within the story and, so, uses "I" to refer to him- or herself (see first-person narration); in other words, the narrator is a character of some sort in the story itself, even if he is only a passive observer; or 2) the narrator speaks from outside the story and never employs the "I" (see third-person narration). See alsothird-person omniscient narration; third-person-limited narration; and objective shot.

Process (also called how to, time order, process analysis)

A process paragraph or essay:

explains how to do something in a series of steps explains how something works

Process writing need not be limited to concrete practical subjects such as building a doghouse or installing drywall. A process paragraph or essay might tell you how to plan a budget holiday, prepare for final exams, get a deal on a used car, or revive a sputtering romance. Pick a subject you know about and explain the process in logical steps. Consider all the information your reader would need in order to follow your instructions. Avoid topics like how to tie your shoes or how to bake an apple pie which are unlikely to excite a reader. If you work out regularly, you might write about the steps to improved physical fitness. If you fish, you might offer advice on how to prepare yourself for a fishing trip. Write about what you know, and search for a unique slant on your topic. Process essays that give instructions are most often written in the second person. Address the reader directly as you, but recall that there is an implied you in imperative (command) sentences. For example in the sentence, "Remove the lid.", the subject you is understood but not directly stated. Note how

the reader is addressed and how the steps are organized in the following process paragraphs.