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UN North Korea Human Rights Report - Main Findings

UN North Korea Human Rights Report - Main Findings

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Published by Matthew Keys
Released by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights - 18/Feb/2014
Released by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights - 18/Feb/2014

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Published by: Matthew Keys on Feb 18, 2014
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04/17/2014

United Nations

A/HRC/25/63
Dist .! Gene a" # $e% &a ' 2014 ( igina"! Eng"is)

General Assembly

Human Rights Council
Twenty-fifth session Agenda item 4 Human rights situations that require the Council’s attention

GE.14-10866



A/HRC/25/ !

Re"ort of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea
&

Summary
*)e + esent e+o t ,ontains t)e main -indings and e,ommendations o- t)e ,ommission o- in.&i ' on )&man ig)ts in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. &&

2

2 2

*)e anne3es to t)e + esent e+o t a e ,i ,&"ated as e,ei4ed5 in t)e "ang&age os&%mission on"'. 22 $o detai"ed -indings o- t)e ,ommission o- in.&i '5 see do,&ment A/HRC/25/CR/.1.

2

2

A/HRC/25/ !

Contents
Paragraphs Page

6. 66.

6nt od&,tion.............................................................................................................. 8andate and met)odo"og'....................................................................................... A. :. C. D. Non-,oo+e ation %' t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea.................. 8et)ods o- ;o <.............................................................................................. =ega" - ame;o < and standa d o- + oo- -o e+o ted 4io"ations...................... A ,)i4ing and e,o d-<ee+ing o- testimon'.................................................... >io"ations o- t)e - eedoms o- t)o&g)t5 e3+ ession and e"igion...................... Dis, imination................................................................................................. >io"ations o- t)e - eedom o- mo4ement and esiden,e................................... >io"ations o- t)e ig)t to -ood and e"ated as+e,ts o- t)e ig)t to "i-e............. A %it a ' detention5 to t& e5 e3e,&tions and + ison ,am+s.............................. A%d&,tions and en-o ,ed disa++ea an,es - om ot)e ,o&nt ies......................

172 3723 9711 12720 21722 23 247#3 26731 3273# 38745 46755 56763 647#3 #47#9 80794

3 3 4 4 6 6 6 # 8 9 10 11 13 14 15

666.

/ in,i+a" -indings o- t)e ,ommission....................................................................... A. :. C. D. E. $.

6>. >. Anne3es 6. 66.

C imes against )&manit'.......................................................................................... Con,"&sions and e,ommendations..........................................................................

Co es+onden,e ;it) t)e ?&+ eme =eade o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea and $i st ?e, eta ' o- t)e @o <e s0 /a t' o- 1o ea5 1im Aong-&n................................................... Co es+onden,e ;it) C)ina...............................................................................................................

22 26

!

A/HRC/25/ !

'(

'ntro)uction

1. 6n its eso"&tion 22/135 ado+ted on 21 8a ,) 20135 t)e H&man Rig)ts Co&n,i" esta%"is)ed t)e ,ommission o- in.&i ' on )&man ig)ts in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. 6n eso"&tion 22/135 t)e Co&n,i" mandated t)e ,ommission to in4estigate t)e s'stemati,5 ;ides+ ead and g a4e 4io"ations o- )&man ig)ts in t)e ?tate5 ;it) a 4ie; to ens& ing -&"" a,,o&nta%i"it'5 in +a ti,&"a 5 -o 4io"ations t)at ma' amo&nt to , imes against )&manit'. 2. (n # 8a' 20135 t)e / esident o- t)e H&man Rig)ts Co&n,i" anno&n,ed t)e a++ointment o- 8i,)ae" 1i %' BA&st a"iaC and ?onDa :ise <o B?e %iaC5 ;)o Doined t)e ?+e,ia" Ra++o te& on t)e sit&ation o- )&man ig)ts in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o1o ea5 8a E&<i Da &sman B6ndonesiaC to se 4e as t)e mem%e s o- t)e ,ommission oin.&i '. 8 . 1i %' ;as designated to se 4e as C)ai . *)e ,ommission im+"emented t)e mandate ent &sted %' t)e ?tates 8em%e s o- t)e H&man Rig)ts Co&n,i"5 %ea ing in mind t)e de,ision o- t)e Co&n,i" to t ansmit t)e e+o ts o- t)e ,ommission to a"" e"e4ant %odies o- t)e United Nations and to t)e ?e, eta '-Gene a" -o a++ o+ iate a,tion.

''(

*an)ate an) metho)ology

+

3. *)e mandate o- t)e ,ommission o- in.&i ' is des, i%ed in +a ag a+) 5 o- H&man Rig)ts Co&n,i" eso"&tion 22/135 in ;)i,) t)e Co&n,i" made s+e,i-i, e-e en,e to +a ag a+) 31 o- t)e 2013 e+o t o- t)e ?+e,ia" Ra++o te& on t)e sit&ation o- )&man ig)ts in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea.2 Reading t)e t;o +a ag a+)s toget)e 5 t)e ,ommission dete mined t)at it )ad %een mandated to in4estigate t)e s'stemati,5 ;ides+ ead and g a4e 4io"ations o- )&man ig)ts in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea in,"&ding5 in +a ti,&"a 5 t)e -o""o;ing nine s+e,i-i, s&%stanti4e a eas! • >io"ations o- t)e ig)t to -ood • *)e -&"" ange o- 4io"ations asso,iated ;it) + ison ,am+s • *o t& e and in)&man t eatment • A %it a ' a est and detention • Dis, imination5 in +a ti,&"a in t)e s'stemi, denia" and 4io"ation o- %asi, )&man ig)ts and -&ndamenta" - eedoms • >io"ations o- t)e - eedom o- e3+ ession • >io"ations o- t)e ig)t to "i-e • >io"ations o- t)e - eedom o- mo4ement • En-o ,ed disa++ea an,es5 in,"&ding in t)e -o m o- a%d&,tions o- nationa"s o- ot)e ?tates 4. *)e a%o4e "ist is not e3)a&sti4e. @)e e a++ o+ iate5 t)e ,ommission a"so in4estigated 4io"ations int insi,a""' "in<ed to one o- t)e nine a eas. 5. *)e mandate -& t)e indi,ates t)at t)e in.&i ' s)o&"d +& s&e t) ee inte "in<ed o%De,ti4es!
1

2

$o -& t)e in-o mation on t)e inte + etation o- t)e mandate and t)e Commission0s met)ods o- ;o <5 see A/HRC/25/CR/.15 se,t. 66. A/HRC/22/5#.

,

A/HRC/25/ !

BaC $& t)e in4estigating and do,&menting )&man ig)ts 4io"ationsF B%C Co""e,ting and do,&menting 4i,tim and +e +et ato a,,o&ntsF B,C Ens& ing a,,o&nta%i"it'. 6. *)e ,ommission +aid s+e,i-i, attention to gende -%ased 4io"ations5 +a ti,&"a "' 4io"en,e against ;omen5 and t)e im+a,t o- 4io"ations on +a ti,&"a g o&+s5 in,"&ding ;omen and ,)i"d en. #. /a ag a+) 5 o- Co&n,i" eso"&tion 22/13 does not "imit t)e tem+o a" s,o+e -o t)e ,ommission0s in.&i ' to a +a ti,&"a +e iod ;it)in t)e e3isten,e o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. 8. @it) ega d to its geog a+)i, s,o+e5 t)e ,ommission inte + eted its mandate to in,"&de 4io"ations ,ommitted on t)e te ito ' o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o1o ea5 as ;e"" as t)ose 4io"ations t)at in4o"4e e3t ate ito ia" a,tion o iginating - om t)e ?tate5 s&,) as a%d&,tions - om ot)e ,o&nt ies. *)e ,ommission a"so ,onside ed 4io"ations t)at ,a&sa""' ena%"e5 o a e t)e immediate ,onse.&en,e o-5 4io"ations in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 and made -indings ega ding t)e e3tent to ;)i,) ot)e ?tates ,a ' e"e4ant es+onsi%i"it'.

A(

-on-coo"eration by the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea

9. 6n its eso"&tion 22/135 t)e H&man Rig)ts Co&n,i" & ged t)e Go4e nment o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea to ,oo+e ate -&""' ;it) t)e ,ommission0s in4estigation5 to +e mit t)e ,ommission0s mem%e s &n est i,ted a,,ess to 4isit t)e ,o&nt ' and to + o4ide t)em ;it) a"" in-o mation ne,essa ' to ena%"e t)em to -&"-i" t)ei mandate. 6mmediate"' a-te t)e ado+tion o- eso"&tion 22/135 t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o1o ea +&%"i,"' stated t)at it ;o&"d Gtota""' eDe,t and dis ega dH it. 6n a "ette dated 10 8a' 20135 it in-o med t)e / esident o- t)e H&man Rig)ts Co&n,i" t)at it Gtota""' and ,atego i,a""' eDe,ts t)e ,ommission o- in.&i 'H. Reg etta%"'5 t)is stan,e )as emained &n,)anged5 des+ite n&me o&s attem+ts at engagement %' t)e ,ommission. 10. *)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea did not es+ond to t)e ,ommission0s e+eated e.&ests -o a,,ess to t)e ,o&nt ' and to in-o mation on t)e )&man ig)ts sit&ation Bsee se,t. 666 %e"o;C. 11. *)e Commission s)a ed its detai"ed -indings BA/HRC/25/CR/.1C ;it) t)e Go4e nment o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 and in4ited its ,omments and -a,t&a" ,o e,tions. A s&mma ' o- t)e most se io&s ,on,e ns5 in +a ti,&"a t)e + in,i+a" -indings on , imes against )&manit'5 ;as a"so in,"&ded in a "ette add essed to t)e ?&+ eme =eade o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 1im Aong-&n Bsee anne3 6C. 6n t)e "ette 5 t)e ,ommission d e; attention to t)e + in,i+"e o- ,ommand and s&+e io es+onsi%i"it' &nde inte nationa" , imina" "a;. 6t & ged t)e ?&+ eme =eade to + e4ent and s&++ ess , imes against )&manit'5 and to ens& e t)at +e +et ato s a e + ose,&ted and % o&g)t to D&sti,e.

.(

*etho)s of wor/

12. (;ing to its "a,< o- a,,ess to t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 t)e ,ommission o%tained -i st-)and testimon' t) o&g) +&%"i, )ea ings t)at ;e e t ans+a ent5 o%se 4ed d&e + o,ess and + ote,ted 4i,tims and ;itnesses. 8o e t)an 80 ;itnesses and e3+e ts testi-ied +&%"i,"' and + o4ided in-o mation o- g eat s+e,i-i,it'5 detai" and e"e4an,e5 in ;a's t)at o-ten e.&i ed a signi-i,ant deg ee o- ,o& age.

5

A/HRC/25/ !

13. /&%"i, )ea ings ;e e ,ond&,ted in ?eo&" B20 to 24 A&g&st 2013C5 *o<'o B29 and 30 A&g&st 2013C5 =ondon B23 (,to%e 2013C and @as)ington5 D.C. B30 and 31 (,to%e 2013C.3 *)e ,ommission in4ited t)e a&t)o ities o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o1o ea to ma<e e+ esentations at t)e +&%"i, )ea ings5 %&t e,ei4ed no e+"'. 14. *)e ,ommission and its se, eta iat ,ond&,ted mo e t)an 240 ,on-identia" inte 4ie;s ;it) 4i,tims and ot)e ;itnesses. 15. 6n A&"' 20135 t)e ,ommission made a ,a"" -o ; itten s&%missions to a"" ?tates 8em%e s o- t)e United Nations and e"e4ant sta<e)o"de s. At t)e -ina"iEation o- t)e + esent e+o t5 80 s&,) s&%missions )ad %een e,ei4ed. 16. *)e ,ommission ,ond&,ted o--i,ia" 4isits to t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 Aa+an5 *)ai"and5 t)e United 1ingdom o- G eat : itain and No t)e n 6 e"and and t)e United ?tates oAme i,a. 1#. *)e ,ommission so&g)t a,,ess to C)ina in o de to ,ond&,t in.&i ies and to ,ons&"t ;it) o--i,ia"s o- t)e Go4e nment and "o,a" e3+e ts. A ;o <ing meeting ;as )e"d in A&"' 20135 at ;)i,) t)at e.&est ;as made. *)e ,ommission e.&ested a,,ess to +a ts o- C)ina %o de ing t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. (n # No4em%e 20135 t)e ,ommission t ansmitted a -& t)e e.&est -o an in4itation to 4isit C)ina. (n 20 No4em%e 20135 t)e /e manent 8ission o- C)ina in Gene4a in-o med t)e se, eta iat t)at5 gi4en t)e ?tate0s +osition on ,o&nt '-s+e,i-i, mandates5 es+e,ia""' on t)e 1o ean +enins&"a5 it ;o&"d not %e +ossi%"e to e3tend an in4itation to t)e ,ommission. 6n a -o""o;-&+ "ette dated 16 De,em%e 20135 t)e ,ommission e.&ested in-o mation on t)e stat&s o- ,itiEens o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea and t)ei ,)i"d en in C)ina5 -o ,ed e+at iations to and e"ated ,oo+e ation ;it) t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 t a--i,<ing in +e sons and ot)e iss&es e"e4ant to t)e mandate o- t)e ,ommission Bsee anne3 66C. 18. *)e ,ommission engaged ;it) a n&m%e o- United Nations entities and ot)e )&manita ian a,to s. 6t eg ets t)at ot)e s&,) entities and a,to s ;e e not in a +osition to + o4ide e"e4ant in-o mation. *)e ,ommission e3+ esses its g atit&de to t)e (--i,e o- t)e United Nations Hig) Commissione -o H&man Rig)ts B(HCHRC -o its s&++o t. *)e ,ommission %ene-ited - om t)e in4a"&a%"e s&++o t o- a n&m%e o- non-go4e nmenta" o ganiEations t)at t)o o&g)"' do,&ment )&man ig)ts 4io"ations in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 des+ite t)e inade.&ate -inan,ia" eso& ,es a4ai"a%"e to t)em. 19. *)e most signi-i,ant in4estigati4e ,)a""enge -a,ed %' t)e ,ommission5 aside - om t)e ina%i"it' to )a4e a,,ess to t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 ;as t)e -ea oe+ isa"s %' ;itnesses. 8ost o- t)e +otentia" ;itnesses esiding o&tside t)e ?tate ;e e a- aid to testi-'5 e4en on a ,on-identia" %asis5 %e,a&se t)e' -ea ed -o t)e sa-et' o- -ami"' mem%e s and ass&med t)at t)ei ,ond&,t ;as sti"" %eing ,"andestine"' monito ed %' t)e a&t)o ities. 20. *)e ,ommission +aid +a ti,&"a attention to t)e + ote,tion o- 4i,tims and ;itnesses. 6t e,a""s t)at + ima ' es+onsi%i"it' -o + ote,ting 4i,tims5 ;itnesses and ot)e +e sons ,oo+e ating ;it) t)e ,ommission ests ;it) t)ei ?tates o- esiden,e and nationa"it'. *)e ,ommission t)e e-o e & ges 8em%e ?tates to + o4ide additiona" + ote,tion meas& es ;)e e ne,essa '.

C(

0egal framewor/ an) stan)ar) of "roof for re"orte) 1iolations

21. 6n assessing t)e sit&ation o- )&man ig)ts in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o1o ea5 t)e ,ommission e"ied ,)ie-"' on t)e %inding "ega" o%"igations t)at t)e ,o&nt '
3

>ideo e,o dings and t ans, i+ts - om a"" t)e +&%"i, )ea ings a e a4ai"a%"e on t)e ;e%site o- t)e ,ommission o- in.&i ' at ;;;.o),) .o g/EN/HR:odies/HRC/Co6D/R1.

A/HRC/25/ !

4o"&nta i"' ass&med as a ?tate +a t' to t)e 6nte nationa" Co4enant on Ci4i" and /o"iti,a" Rig)ts5 t)e 6nte nationa" Co4enant on E,onomi,5 ?o,ia" and C&"t& a" Rig)ts5 t)e Con4ention on t)e Rig)ts o- t)e C)i"d and t)e Con4ention on t)e E"imination o- A"" $o ms o- Dis, imination against @omen. @)e e a++ o+ iate5 t)e ,ommission a"so ,onside ed e"e4ant o%"igations o- ot)e ?tates5 in,"&ding t)e + o)i%ition o- e-o&"ement &nde inte nationa" e-&gee "a; and inte nationa" )&man ig)ts "a;. 8atte s e"ating to , imes against )&manit' ;e e assessed on t)e %asis o- de-initions set o&t %' ,&stoma ' inte nationa" , imina" "a; and in t)e Rome ?tat&te o- t)e 6nte nationa" C imina" Co& t. 22. *)e ,ommission %ases its -indings on a G easona%"e g o&ndsH standa d o- + oo-. 6t ,on,"&ded t)at t)e e a e easona%"e g o&nds esta%"is)ing t)at an in,ident o +atte n o,ond&,t )ad o,,& ed ;)ene4e it ;as satis-ied t)at it )ad o%tained a e"ia%"e %od' oin-o mation5 ,onsistent ;it) ot)e mate ia"5 %ased on ;)i,) a easona%"e and o dina i"' + &dent +e son ;o&"d )a4e eason to %e"ie4e t)at s&,) an in,ident o +atte n o- ,ond&,t )ad o,,& ed.

#(

Archi1ing an) recor)-/ee"ing of testimony

23. A"" in-o mation gat)e ed %' t)e ,ommission5 in,"&ding in-o mation +e taining to indi4id&a" +e +et ato s5 )as %een sto ed in a ,on-identia" e"e,t oni, data%ase. *)e ,ommission )as a&t)o iEed (HCHR5 a,ting as t)e esid&a" se, eta iat o- t)e ,ommission5 to + o4ide a,,ess to t)e e3isting mate ia"s ,ontained in t)e data%ase to ,om+etent a&t)o ities t)at ,a ' o&t , edi%"e in4estigations -o +& +oses o- ens& ing a,,o&nta%i"it' -o , imes and ot)e 4io"ations ,ommitted5 esta%"is)ing t)e t &t) a%o&t 4io"ations ,ommitted o im+"ementing United Nations-mandated ta geted san,tions against +a ti,&"a indi4id&a"s o instit&tions. A,,ess m&st on"' %e g anted to t)e e3tent t)at ;itnesses o ot)e + o4ide s oin-o mation )a4e gi4en t)ei in-o med ,onsent and an' + ote,tion and o+e ationa" ,on,e ns a e d&"' add essed.

'''( $rinci"al fin)ings of the commission
24. *)e ,ommission -inds t)at s'stemati,5 ;ides+ ead and g oss )&man ig)ts 4io"ations )a4e %een and a e %eing ,ommitted %' t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. 4 6n man' instan,es5 t)e 4io"ations -o&nd entai"ed , imes against )&manit' %ased on ?tate +o"i,ies. *)e main +e +et ato s a e o--i,ia"s o- t)e ?tate ?e,& it' De+a tment5 t)e 8inist ' o- /eo+"e0s ?e,& it'5 t)e 1o ean /eo+"e0s A m'5 t)e (--i,e o- t)e /&%"i, / ose,&to 5 t)e D&di,ia ' and t)e @o <e s0 /a t' o- 1o ea5 ;)o a e a,ting &nde t)e e--e,ti4e ,ont o" o- t)e ,ent a" o gans o- t)e @o <e s0 /a t' o- 1o ea5 t)e Nationa" De-en,e Commission and t)e ?&+ eme =eade o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. 25. *)e ,ommission em+)asiEes t)at t)e ,& ent )&man ig)ts sit&ation in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea )as %een s)a+ed %' t)e )isto i,a" e3+e ien,es ot)e 1o ean +eo+"e. Con-&,ian so,ia" st &,t& es and t)e e3+e ien,e o- t)e Aa+anese ,o"onia" o,,&+ation )a4e to some deg ee in-o med t)e +o"iti,a" st &,t& es and attit&des + e4ai"ing in t)e ,o&nt ' toda'. *)e di4ision im+osed on t)e 1o ean +enins&"a5 t)e massi4e dest &,tion ,a&sed %' t)e 1o ean @a and t)e im+a,t o- t)e Co"d @a )a4e engende ed an iso"ationist mindset and an a4e sion to o&tside +o;e s t)at a e &sed to D&sti-' inte na" e+ ession. *)e +a ti,&"a nat& e and t)e o4e a"" s,a"e o- )&man ig)ts 4io"ations in t)e ?tate ,an %e mo e easi"' &nde stood t) o&g) an a++ e,iation o- t)e nat& e o- its +o"iti,a" s'stem5 ;)i,) is

4

?ee a"so A/HRC/25/CR/.15 se,t. 6>. 2

A/HRC/25/ !

%ased on a sing"e +a t' "ed %' a sing"e ?&+ eme =eade 5 an e"a%o ate g&iding ideo"og' and a ,ent a""' +"anned e,onom'.5

A(

3iolations of the free)oms of thought4 e5"ression an) religion

26. *) o&g)o&t t)e )isto ' o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 among t)e most st i<ing -eat& es o- t)e ?tate )as %een its ,"aim to an a%so"&te mono+o"' o4e in-o mation and tota" ,ont o" o- o ganiEed so,ia" "i-e. *)e ,ommission -inds t)at t)e e is an a"most ,om+"ete denia" o- t)e ig)t to - eedom o- t)o&g)t5 ,ons,ien,e and e"igion5 as ;e"" as o- t)e ig)ts to - eedom o- o+inion5 e3+ ession5 in-o mation and asso,iation. 2#. *)e ?tate o+e ates an a""-en,om+assing indo,t ination ma,)ine t)at ta<es oot - om ,)i"d)ood to + o+agate an o--i,ia" +e sona"it' ,&"t and to man&-a,t& e a%so"&te o%edien,e to t)e ?&+ eme =eade BSuryongC5 e--e,ti4e"' to t)e e3,"&sion o- an' t)o&g)t inde+endent o- o--i,ia" ideo"og' and ?tate + o+aganda. / o+aganda is -& t)e &sed %' t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea to in,ite nationa"isti, )at ed to;a ds o--i,ia" enemies o- t)e ?tate5 in,"&ding Aa+an5 t)e United ?tates o- Ame i,a and t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 and t)ei nationa"s. 28. >i t&a""' a"" so,ia" a,ti4ities &nde ta<en %' ,itiEens o- a"" ages a e ,ont o""ed %' t)e @o <e s0 /a t' o- 1o ea. *) o&g) t)e asso,iations t)at a e &n and o4e seen %' t)e /a t'5 and to ;)i,) ,itiEens a e o%"iged to %e mem%e s5 t)e ?tate is a%"e to monito its ,itiEens and to di,tate t)ei dai"' a,ti4ities. ?tate s& 4ei""an,e +e meates t)e + i4ate "i4es o- a"" ,itiEens to ens& e t)at 4i t&a""' no e3+ ession , iti,a" o- t)e +o"iti,a" s'stem o o- its "eade s)i+ goes &ndete,ted. CitiEens a e +&nis)ed -o an' Ganti-?tateH a,ti4ities o e3+ essions o- dissent. *)e' a e e;a ded -o e+o ting on -e""o; ,itiEens s&s+e,ted o- ,ommitting s&,) G, imesH. 29. CitiEens a e denied t)e ig)t to )a4e a,,ess to in-o mation - om inde+endent so& ,esF ?tate-,ont o""ed media a e t)e on"' +e mitted so& ,e o- in-o mation in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. A,,ess to te"e4ision and adio % oad,asts5 as ;e"" as to t)e 6nte net5 is se4e e"' est i,ted5 and a"" media ,ontent is )ea4i"' ,enso ed and m&st ad)e e to di e,ti4es iss&ed %' t)e @o <e s0 /a t' o- 1o ea. *e"e+)one ,a""s a e monito ed and most"' ,on-ined to domesti, ,onne,tions -o ,itiEens. CitiEens a e +&nis)ed -o ;at,)ing and "istening to -o eign % oad,asts5 in,"&ding -o eign -i"ms and soa+ o+e as. 30. ?t engt)ening ma <et -o ,es and ad4an,ements in in-o mation te,)no"og' )a4e a""o;ed g eate a,,ess to in-o mation - om o&tside t)e ,o&nt ' as in-o mation and media - om t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea and C)ina in, easing"' ente t)e ,o&nt '. *)e ?tate0s mono+o"' on in-o mation is t)e e-o e %eing ,)a""enged %' t)e in, easing -"o; o- o&tside in-o mation into t)e ,o&nt ' and t)e ens&ing ,& iosit' o- t)e +eo+"e -o Gt &t)sH ot)e t)an t)ose + o4ided %' ?tate + o+aganda. A&t)o ities see< to + ese 4e t)ei mono+o"' on in-o mation %' ,a 'ing o&t eg&"a , a,<do;ns and en-o ,ing )a s) +&nis)ments. 31. *)e ?tate ,onside s t)e s+ ead o- C) istianit' a +a ti,&"a "' se io&s t) eat5 sin,e it ,)a""enges ideo"ogi,a""' t)e o--i,ia" +e sona"it' ,&"t and + o4ides a +"at-o m -o so,ia" and +o"iti,a" o ganiEation and inte a,tion o&tside t)e ea"m o- t)e ?tate. A+a t - om t)e -e; o ganiEed ?tate-,ont o""ed ,)& ,)es5 C) istians a e + o)i%ited - om + a,tising t)ei e"igion and a e +e se,&ted. /eo+"e ,a&g)t + a,tising C) istianit' a e s&%De,t to se4e e +&nis)ments in 4io"ation o- t)e ig)t to - eedom o- e"igion and t)e + o)i%ition o- e"igio&s dis, imination.

5

?ee i%id.5 se,t. 666.

6

A/HRC/25/ !

.(

#iscrimination

32. *)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea + esents itse"- as a ?tate ;)e e e.&a"it'5 non-dis, imination and e.&a" ig)ts in a"" se,to s )a4e %een -&""' a,)ie4ed and im+"emented. 6n ea"it'5 it is a igid"' st ati-ied so,iet' ;it) ent en,)ed +atte ns odis, imination5 a"t)o&g) t)ese a e %eing modi-ied to some e3tent %' t)e t ans-o mati4e so,ioe,onomi, ,)anges int od&,ed %' ma <et -o ,es and te,)no"ogi,a" de4e"o+ments. ?tate-s+onso ed dis, imination in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea is +e 4asi4e5 %&t is a"so s)i-ting. Dis, imination is ooted in t)e songbun s'stem5 ;)i,) ,"assi-ies +eo+"e on t)e %asis o- ?tate-assigned so,ia" ,"ass and %i t)5 and a"so in,"&des ,onside ation o+o"iti,a" o+inions and e"igion. Songbun inte se,ts ;it) gende -%ased dis, imination5 ;)i,) is e.&a""' +e 4asi4e. Dis, imination is a"so + a,tised on t)e %asis o- disa%i"it'5 a"t)o&g) t)e e a e signs t)at t)e ?tate ma' )a4e %eg&n to add ess t)is +a ti,&"a iss&e. 33. *)e songbun s'stem &sed to %e t)e most im+o tant -a,to in dete mining ;)e e indi4id&a"s ;e e a""o;ed to "i4eF ;)at so t o- a,,ommodation t)e' )adF ;)at o,,&+ations t)e' ;e e assigned toF ;)et)e t)e' ;e e e--e,ti4e"' a%"e to attend s,)oo"5 in +a ti,&"a &ni4e sit'F )o; m&,) -ood t)e' e,ei4edF and e4en ;)om t)e' mig)t ma '. *)is t aditiona" dis, imination &nde t)e songbun s'stem ;as e,ent"' ,om+"i,ated %' in, easing ma <etiEation in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea and %' t)e in-"&en,e omone'5 in,"&ding -o eign ,& en,'5 on +eo+"e0s a%i"it' to )a4e g eate a,,ess t)ei e,onomi,5 so,ia" and ,&"t& a" ig)ts. At t)e same time5 signi-i,ant segments o- t)e +o+&"ation ;)o )a4e neit)e t)e eso& ,es no -a4o& a%"e songbun -ind t)emse"4es in, easing"' ma gina"iEed and s&%De,t to -& t)e +atte ns o- dis, imination5 gi4en t)at %asi, +&%"i, se 4i,es )a4e ,o""a+sed o no; e--e,ti4e"' e.&i e +a'ment. 34. Ea "' e-o ms aimed at ens& ing -o ma" "ega" e.&a"it' )a4e not es&"ted in gende e.&a"it'. Dis, imination against ;omen emains +e 4asi4e in a"" as+e,ts o- so,iet'. 6ndeed5 it mig)t e4en %e in, easing5 as t)e ma"e-dominated ?tate + e's on %ot) e,onomi,a""' ad4an,ing ;omen and ma gina"iEed ;omen. 8an' ;omen5 s& 4i4a"-d i4en d& ing t)e -amine o- t)e 1990s5 %egan o+e ating + i4ate ma <ets. *)e ?tate im+osed5 )o;e4e 5 man' est i,tions on -ema"e-dominated ma <ets. Gende dis, imination a"so ta<es t)e -o m o;omen %eing ta geted to +a' % i%es o -ines. *)e e is e,ent e4iden,e t)at ;omen a e %eginning to o%De,t and to esist s&,) im+ositions. 35. *)e e,onomi, ad4an,es o- ;omen )a4e not %een mat,)ed %' ad4an,es in t)e so,ia" and +o"iti,a" s+)e es. Ent en,)ed t aditiona" +at ia ,)a" attit&des and 4io"en,e against ;omen +e sist in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. *)e ?tate )as im+osed %"atant"' dis, iminato ' est i,tions on ;omen in an attem+t to maintain t)e gende ste eot'+e o- t)e +& e and inno,ent 1o ean ;oman. ?e3&a" and gende -%ased 4io"en,e against ;omen is + e4a"ent t) o&g)o&t a"" a eas o- so,iet'. >i,tims a e not a--o ded + ote,tion - om t)e ?tate5 s&++o t se 4i,es o e,o& se to D&sti,e. 6n t)e +o"iti,a" s+)e e5 ;omen ma<e &+ D&st 5 +e ,ent o- t)e to+ +o"iti,a" ,ad e and 10 +e ,ent o- ,ent a" go4e nment em+"o'ees. 36. Dis, imination against ;omen a"so inte se,ts ;it) a n&m%e o- ot)e )&man ig)ts 4io"ations5 +"a,ing ;omen in a +osition o- 4&"ne a%i"it'. >io"ations o- t)e ig)ts to -ood and to - eedom o- mo4ement )a4e es&"ted in ;omen and gi "s %e,oming 4&"ne a%"e to t a--i,<ing and in, eased engagement in t ansa,tiona" se3 and + ostit&tion. *)e ,om+"ete denia" o- t)e - eedoms o- e3+ ession and asso,iation )as %een a "a ge ,ont i%&ting -a,to to t)e gene a""' &ne.&a" stat&s o- ;omen 4is-I-4is men. *)ese "imitations )a4e5 inte a"ia5 + e4ented ;omen - om ,o""e,ti4e"' ad4o,ating -o t)ei ig)ts as ;omen )a4e done e"se;)e e in t)e ;o "d.

7

A/HRC/25/ !

3#. @)i"e dis, imination e3ists to some e3tent in a"" so,ieties5 t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea )as + a,tised a -o m o- o--i,ia" dis, imination t)at )as )ad a 4e ' signi-i,ant im+a,t on indi4id&a" enDo'ment o- )&man ig)ts. Gi4en t)e e3,e+tiona" e3tent o- ?tate ,ont o"5 t)is o--i,ia" dis, imination in-"&en,es most as+e,ts o- +eo+"e0s "i4es. Dis, imination emains a maDo means -o t)e "eade s)i+ to maintain ,ont o" against +e ,ei4ed t) eats5 %ot) inte na" and e3te na".

C(

3iolations of the free)om of mo1ement an) resi)ence

38. *)e s'stems o- indo,t ination and dis, imination on t)e %asis o- so,ia" ,"ass a e ein-o ,ed and sa-eg&a ded %' a +o"i,' o- iso"ating ,itiEens - om ,onta,t ;it) ea,) ot)e and ;it) t)e o&tside ;o "d5 4io"ating a"" as+e,ts o- t)e ig)t to - eedom o- mo4ement. 39. 6n t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 t)e ?tate im+oses on ,itiEens ;)e e t)e' m&st "i4e and ;o <5 4io"ating t)ei - eedom o- ,)oi,e. 8o eo4e 5 t)e -o ,ed assignment to a ?tate-designated +"a,e o- esiden,e and em+"o'ment is )ea4i"' d i4en %' dis, imination %ased on songbun. *)is )as , eated a so,ioe,onomi,a""' and +)'si,a""' seg egated so,iet'5 ;)e e +eo+"e ,onside ed +o"iti,a""' "o'a" to t)e "eade s)i+ ,an "i4e and ;o < in -a4o& a%"e "o,ations5 ;)e eas -ami"ies o- +e sons ;)o a e ,onside ed +o"iti,a""' s&s+e,t a e e"egated to ma gina"iEed a eas. *)e s+e,ia" stat&s o- /'ong'ang5 ese 4ed on"' -o t)ose most "o'a" to t)e ?tate5 e3em+"i-ies t)is s'stem o- seg egation. 40. CitiEens a e not e4en a""o;ed to "ea4e t)ei + o4in,e tem+o a i"' o to t a4e" ;it)in t)e ,o&nt ' ;it)o&t o--i,ia" a&t)o iEation. *)is +o"i,' is d i4en %' t)e desi e to maintain dis+a ate "i4ing ,onditions5 to "imit t)e -"o; o- in-o mation and to ma3imiEe ?tate ,ont o"5 at t)e e3+ense o- so,ia" and -ami"ia" ties. 41. 6n an attem+t to <ee+ /'ong'ang0s G+& eH and &ntainted image5 t)e ?tate s'stemati,a""' %anis)es enti e -ami"ies - om t)e ,a+ita" ,it' i- one -ami"' mem%e ,ommits ;)at is deemed to %e a se io&s , ime o +o"iti,a" ; ong. $o t)e same eason5 t)e "a ge n&m%e o- st eet ,)i"d en mig ating ,"andestine"' to /'ong'ang and ot)e ,ities 7 + in,i+a""' in sea ,) o- -ood 7 a e s&%De,t to a est and -o ,i%"e t ans-e %a,< to t)ei )ome + o4in,es5 e3+e ien,ing neg"e,t and -o ,ed instit&tiona"iEation on t)ei et& n. 42. *)e ?tate im+oses a 4i t&a""' a%so"&te %an on o dina ' ,itiEens t a4e""ing a% oad5 t)e e%' 4io"ating t)ei )&man ig)t to "ea4e t)e ,o&nt '. Des+ite t)e en-o ,ement o- t)is %an t) o&g) st i,t %o de ,ont o"s5 nationa"s sti"" ta<e t)e is< o- -"eeing5 main"' to C)ina. @)en t)e' a e a++ e)ended o -o ,i%"' e+at iated5 o--i,ia"s - om t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea s'stemati,a""' s&%De,t t)em to +e se,&tion5 to t& e5 + o"onged a %it a ' detention and5 in some ,ases5 se3&a" 4io"en,e5 in,"&ding d& ing in4asi4e %od' sea ,)es. Re+at iated ;omen ;)o a e + egnant a e eg&"a "' s&%De,ted to -o ,ed a%o tions5 and %a%ies %o n to e+at iated ;omen a e o-ten <i""ed. *)ese + a,ti,es a e d i4en %' a,ist attit&des to;a ds inte a,ia" ,)i"d en o- 1o eans5 and t)e intent to +&nis) -& t)e ;omen ;)o )a4e "e-t t)e ,o&nt ' and t)ei ass&med ,onta,t ;it) C)inese men. /e sons -o&nd to )a4e %een in ,onta,t ;it) o--i,ia"s o nationa"s - om t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea o ;it) C) istian ,)& ,)es ma' %e -o ,i%"' Gdisa++ea edH into +o"iti,a" + ison ,am+s5 im+ isoned in o dina ' + isons o e4en s&mma i"' e3e,&ted. 43. Des+ite t)e g oss )&man ig)ts 4io"ations a;aiting e+at iated +e sons5 C)ina +& s&es a igo o&s +o"i,' o- -o ,i%"' e+at iating ,itiEens o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea ;)o , oss t)e %o de i""ega""'. C)ina does so in +& s&an,e o- its 4ie; t)at t)ese +e sons a e e,onomi, Band i""ega"C mig ants. Ho;e4e 5 man' s&,) nationa"s ot)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea s)o&"d %e e,ogniEed as e-&gees -"eeing +e se,&tion o e-&gees sur place. *)e' a e t)e e%' entit"ed to inte nationa" + ote,tion. 6n -o ,i%"' et& ning nationa"s o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 C)ina a"so
+8

A/HRC/25/ !

4io"ates its o%"igation to es+e,t t)e + in,i+"e o- non- e-o&"ement &nde inte nationa" e-&gee and )&man ig)ts "a;. 6n some ,ases5 C)inese o--i,ia"s a"so a++ea to + o4ide in-o mation on t)ose a++ e)ended to t)ei ,o&nte +a ts in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. 44. Dis, imination against ;omen and t)ei 4&"ne a%"e stat&s in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 as ;e"" as t)e + os+e,t o- e-o&"ement5 ma<e ;omen e3t eme"' 4&"ne a%"e to t a--i,<ing in +e sons. 8an' ;omen a e t a--i,<ed %' -o ,e o de,e+tion - om t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea into o ;it)in C)ina -o t)e +& +oses o- e3+"oitation in -o ,ed ma iage o ,on,&%inage5 o + ostit&tion &nde ,oe ,i4e ,i ,&mstan,es. An estimated 205000 ,)i"d en %o n to ;omen - om t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea a e ,& ent"' in C)ina. *)ese ,)i"d en a e de+ i4ed o- t)ei ig)ts to %i t) egist ation5 nationa"it'5 ed&,ation and )ea"t) ,a e %e,a&se t)ei %i t) ,annot %e egiste ed ;it)o&t e3+osing t)e mot)e to t)e is< o- e-o&"ement %' C)ina. 45. *)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea )as e+eated"' % ea,)ed its o%"igations to es+e,t t)e ig)ts o- its nationa"s ;)o )a4e s+e,ia" ties to5 o ,"aims in e"ation to5 anot)e ,o&nt '5 in t)is ,ase t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 to et& n t)e e o ot)e ;ise to enDo' a -a,i"it' to meet "ong se+a ated -ami"ies. *)e se4e e im+ediments +&t in +"a,e %' t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea to + e4ent ,onta,t and ,omm&ni,ation ;it) -ami"' mem%e s in t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea a e a % ea,) o- t)e ?tate0s o%"igations &nde inte nationa" )&man ig)ts "a;. *)e est i,tions a e a %it a '5 , &e" and in)&man. *)is is +a ti,&"a "' t)e ,ase ;)en + e4io&s"' ag eed tem+o a ' e&nions o- se+a ated -ami"ies a e ,an,e""ed -o ;)o""' &n+e s&asi4e easons5 es+e,ia""' gi4en t)e ad4an,ed age o- t)e +e sons ,on,e ned.

#( life

3iolations of the right to foo) an) relate) as"ects of the right to

46. *)e ig)ts to -ood5 - eedom - om )&nge and to "i-e in t)e ,onte3t o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea ,annot %e ed&,ed to a na o; dis,&ssion o- -ood s)o tages and a,,ess to a ,ommodit'. *)e ?tate )as &sed -ood as a means o- ,ont o" o4e t)e +o+&"ation. 6t )as + io itiEed t)ose ;)om t)e a&t)o ities %e"ie4e to %e , &,ia" in maintaining t)e egime o4e t)ose deemed e3+enda%"e. 4#. Con-is,ation and dis+ossession o- -ood - om t)ose in need5 and t)e + o4ision o- -ood to ot)e g o&+s5 -o""o;s t)is "ogi,. *)e ?tate )as + a,tised dis, imination ;it) ega d to a,,ess to and dist i%&tion o- -ood %ased on t)e songbun s'stem. 6n addition5 it + i4i"eges ,e tain +a ts o- t)e ,o&nt '5 s&,) as /'ong'ang5 o4e ot)e s. *)e ?tate )as a"so -ai"ed to ta<e into a,,o&nt t)e needs o- t)e most 4&"ne a%"e. *)e ,ommission is +a ti,&"a "' ,on,e ned a%o&t ongoing ,) oni, ma"n&t ition in ,)i"d en and its "ong-te m e--e,ts. 48. *)e ?tate ;as a;a e o- t)e dete io ating -ood sit&ation in t)e ,o&nt ' ;e"" %e-o e t)e -i st a++ea" -o inte nationa" aid in 1995. ?tate-,ont o""ed + od&,tion and dist i%&tion o-ood )ad not %een a%"e to + o4ide t)e +o+&"ation ;it) ade.&ate -ood sin,e t)e end o- t)e 1980s. *)e "a,< o- t ans+a en,'5 a,,o&nta%i"it' and demo, ati, instit&tions5 as ;e"" as est i,tions on - eedom o- e3+ ession5 in-o mation and asso,iation5 + e4ented t)e ado+tion o- o+tima" e,onomi, so"&tions o4e t)ose in a,,o dan,e ;it) /a t' di e,ti4es. *)e ?tate )as e4aded st &,t& a" e-o ms to t)e e,onom' and ag i,&"t& e -o -ea o- "osing its ,ont o" o4e t)e +o+&"ation. 49. D& ing t)e +e iod o- -amine5 ideo"ogi,a" indo,t ination ;as &sed in o de to maintain t)e egime5 at t)e ,ost o- se io&s"' agg a4ating )&nge and sta 4ation. *)e ,on,ea"ment o- in-o mation + e4ented t)e +o+&"ation - om -inding a"te nati4es to t)e ,o""a+sing +&%"i, dist i%&tion s'stem. 6t a"so de"a'ed inte nationa" assistan,e t)at5 + o4ided
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A/HRC/25/ !

ea "ie 5 ,o&"d )a4e sa4ed man' "i4es. Des+ite t)e ?tate0s ina%i"it' to + o4ide its +eo+"e ;it) ade.&ate -ood5 it maintained "a;s and ,ont o"s e--e,ti4e"' , imina"iEing +eo+"e0s &se o- <e' ,o+ing me,)anisms5 +a ti,&"a "' mo4ing ;it)in o o&tside t)e ,o&nt ' in sea ,) o- -ood and t ading o ;o <ing in in-o ma" ma <ets. 50. E4en d& ing t)e ;o st +e iod o- mass sta 4ation5 t)e ?tate im+eded t)e de"i4e ' o-ood aid %' im+osing ,onditions t)at ;e e not %ased on )&manita ian ,onside ations. 6nte nationa" )&manita ian agen,ies ;e e s&%De,t to est i,tions ,ont a4ening )&manita ian + in,i+"es. Aid o ganiEations ;e e + e4ented - om + o+e "' assessing )&manita ian needs and monito ing t)e dist i%&tion o- aid. *)e ?tate denied )&manita ian a,,ess to some o- t)e most a--e,ted egions and g o&+s5 in,"&ding )ome"ess ,)i"d en. 51. *)e ?tate )as ,onsistent"' -ai"ed in its o%"igation to &se t)e ma3im&m o- its a4ai"a%"e eso& ,es to -eed t)ose ;)o a e )&ng '. 8i"ita ' s+ending 7 + edominant"' on )a d;a e and t)e de4e"o+ment o- ;ea+ons s'stems and t)e n&,"ea + og amme 7 )as a";a's %een + io itiEed5 e4en d& ing +e iods o- mass sta 4ation. Ne4e t)e"ess5 t)e ?tate sti"" -ai"ed to -eed t)e o dina ' so"die s o- its dis+ o+o tionate"' "a ge a m'. =a ge amo&nts o- ?tate eso& ,es5 in,"&ding +a a""e" -&nds di e,t"' ,ont o""ed %' t)e ?&+ eme =eade 5 )a4e %een s+ent on "&3& ' goods and t)e ad4an,ement o- )is +e sona"it' ,&"t instead o- + o4iding -ood to t)e sta 4ing gene a" +o+&"ation. 52. *)e ?tate )as a"so &sed de"i%e ate sta 4ation as a means o- ,ont o" and +&nis)ment in detention -a,i"ities. *)is )as es&"ted in t)e deat)s o- man' +o"iti,a" and o dina ' + isone s. 53. *)e ,ommission -o&nd e4iden,e o- s'stemati,5 ;ides+ ead and g a4e 4io"ations ot)e ig)t to -ood in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. @)i"e a,<no;"edging t)e im+a,t o- -a,to s %e'ond ?tate ,ont o" o4e t)e -ood sit&ation5 t)e ,ommission -inds t)at de,isions5 a,tions and omissions %' t)e ?tate and its "eade s)i+ ,a&sed t)e deat) o- at "east )&nd eds o- t)o&sands o- +eo+"e and in-"i,ted +e manent +)'si,a" and +s',)o"ogi,a" inD& ies on t)ose ;)o s& 4i4ed. 54. 6n t)e )ig)"' ,ent a"iEed s'stem o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 de,isions e"ating to -ood5 in,"&ding its + od&,tion and dist i%&tion5 ?tate %&dget a""o,ation5 de,isions e"ating to )&manita ian assistan,e and t)e &se o- inte nationa" aid5 a e &"timate"' made %' a sma"" g o&+ o- o--i,ia"s5 ;)o a e not a,,o&nta%"e to t)ose a--e,ted %' t)ei de,isions. 55. @)i"e ,onditions )a4e ,)anged sin,e t)e 1990s5 )&nge and ma"n&t ition ,ontin&e to %e ;ides+ ead. Deat)s - om sta 4ation ,ontin&e to %e e+o ted. *)e ,ommission is ,on,e ned t)at st &,t& a" iss&es5 in,"&ding "a;s and +o"i,ies t)at 4io"ate t)e ig)t to ade.&ate -ood and - eedom - om )&nge 5 emain in +"a,e5 ;)i,) ,o&"d "ead to t)e e,& en,e o- mass sta 4ation.

9(

Arbitrary )etention4 torture4 e5ecutions an) "rison cam"s

56. *)e +o"i,e and se,& it' -o ,es o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea s'stemati,a""' em+"o' 4io"en,e and +&nis)ments t)at amo&nt to g oss )&man ig)ts 4io"ations in o de to , eate a ,"imate o- -ea t)at + e-em+ts an' ,)a""enge to t)e ,& ent s'stem o- go4e nment and to t)e ideo"og' &nde +inning it. *)e instit&tions and o--i,ia"s in4o"4ed a e not )e"d a,,o&nta%"e. 6m+&nit' eigns. 5#. G oss )&man ig)ts 4io"ations in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea in4o"4ing detention5 e3e,&tions and disa++ea an,es a e ,)a a,te iEed %' a )ig) deg ee o,ent a"iEed ,oo dination %et;een di--e ent +a ts o- t)e e3tensi4e se,& it' a++a at&s. *)e ?tate ?e,& it' De+a tment5 t)e 8inist ' o- /eo+"e0s ?e,& it' and t)e 1o ean /eo+"e0s
+2

A/HRC/25/ !

A m' 8i"ita ' ?e,& it' Command eg&"a "' s&%De,t +e sons a,,&sed o- +o"iti,a" , imes to a %it a ' a est and s&%se.&ent in,omm&ni,ado detention -o + o"onged +e iods o- time. *)ei -ami"ies a e not in-o med o- t)ei -ate o ;)e ea%o&ts. /e sons a,,&sed o- +o"iti,a" , imes t)e e-o e %e,ome 4i,tims o- en-o ,ed disa++ea an,e. 8a<ing t)e s&s+e,t disa++ea is a de"i%e ate -eat& e o- t)e s'stem t)at se 4es to insti" -ea in t)e +o+&"ation. 58. *)e &se o- to t& e is an esta%"is)ed -eat& e o- t)e inte ogation + o,ess in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 es+e,ia""' in ,ases in4o"4ing +o"iti,a" , imes. ?ta 4ation and ot)e in)&mane ,onditions o- detention a e de"i%e ate"' im+osed on s&s+e,ts to in, ease t)e + ess& e on t)em to ,on-ess and to in, iminate ot)e +e sons. 59. /e sons ;)o a e -o&nd to )a4e engaged in maDo +o"iti,a" , imes a e Gdisa++ea edH5 ;it)o&t t ia" o D&di,ia" o de 5 to +o"iti,a" + ison ,am+s B kwanlisoC. *)e e5 t)e' a e in,a ,e ated and )e"d in,omm&ni,ado. *)ei -ami"ies a e not e4en in-o med o- t)ei -ate it)e' die. 6n t)e +ast5 it ;as ,ommon t)at t)e a&t)o ities sent enti e -ami"ies to +o"iti,a" + ison ,am+s -o +o"iti,a" , imes ,ommitted %' ,"ose e"ati4es Bin,"&ding -o e%ea s5 to t)e t)i d gene ationC on t)e %asis o- t)e + in,i+"e o- g&i"t %' asso,iation. ?&,) ,ases sti"" o,,& 5 %&t a++ea to %e "ess - e.&ent no; t)an in +ast de,ades. 60. 6n t)e +o"iti,a" + ison ,am+s o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 t)e inmate +o+&"ation )as %een g ad&a""' e"iminated t) o&g) de"i%e ate sta 4ation5 -o ,ed "a%o& 5 e3e,&tions5 to t& e5 a+e and t)e denia" o- e+ od&,ti4e ig)ts en-o ,ed t) o&g) +&nis)ment5 -o ,ed a%o tion and in-anti,ide. *)e ,ommission estimates t)at )&nd eds ot)o&sands o- +o"iti,a" + isone s )a4e +e is)ed in t)ese ,am+s o4e t)e +ast -i4e de,ades. *)e &ns+ea<a%"e at o,ities t)at a e %eing ,ommitted against inmates o- t)e kwanliso +o"iti,a" + ison ,am+s esem%"e t)e )o o s o- ,am+s t)at tota"ita ian ?tates esta%"is)ed d& ing t)e t;entiet) ,ent& '. 61. A"t)o&g) t)e a&t)o ities in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea den' t)e e3isten,e o- t)e ,am+s5 t)is ,"aim ;as s)o;n to %e -a"se %' t)e testimonies o- -o me g&a ds5 inmates and neig)%o& s. ?ate""ite image ' + o4es t)at t)e ,am+ s'stem ,ontin&es to %e in o+e ation. @)i"e t)e n&m%e o- +o"iti,a" + ison ,am+s and inmates )as de, eased o;ing to deat)s and some e"eases5 it is estimated t)at %et;een 805000 and 1205000 +o"iti,a" + isone s a e ,& ent"' detained in -o& "a ge +o"iti,a" + ison ,am+s. 62. G oss 4io"ations a e a"so %eing ,ommitted in t)e o dina ' + ison s'stem5 ;)i,) ,onsists o- o dina ' + ison ,am+s BkyohwasoC and 4a io&s t'+es o- s)o t-te m -o ,ed "a%o& detention -a,i"ities. *)e 4ast maDo it' o- inmates a e 4i,tims o- a %it a ' detention5 sin,e t)e' a e im+ isoned ;it)o&t t ia" o on t)e %asis o- a t ia" t)at -ai"s to es+e,t t)e d&e + o,ess and -ai t ia" g&a antees set o&t in inte nationa" "a;. $& t)e mo e5 man' o dina ' + isone s a e5 in -a,t5 +o"iti,a" + isone s5 ;)o a e detained ;it)o&t a s&%stanti4e eason ,om+ati%"e ;it) inte nationa" "a;. / isone s in t)e o dina ' + ison s'stem a e s'stemati,a""' s&%De,ted to de"i%e ate sta 4ation and i""ega" -o ,ed "a%o& . *o t& e5 a+e and ot)e a %it a ' , &e"ties at t)e )ands o- g&a ds and -e""o; + isone s a e ;ides+ ead and ,ommitted ;it) im+&nit'. 63. As a matte o- ?tate +o"i,'5 t)e a&t)o ities ,a ' o&t e3e,&tions5 ;it) o ;it)o&t t ia"5 +&%"i,"' o se, et"'5 in es+onse to +o"iti,a" and ot)e , imes t)at a e o-ten not among t)e most se io&s , imes. *)e +o"i,' o- eg&"a "' ,a 'ing o&t +&%"i, e3e,&tions se 4es to insti" -ea in t)e gene a" +o+&"ation. /&%"i, e3e,&tions ;e e most ,ommon in t)e 1990s. Ho;e4e 5 t)e' ,ontin&e to %e ,a ied o&t toda'. 6n "ate 20135 t)e e a++ea ed to %e a s+i<e in t)e n&m%e o- +o"iti,a""' moti4ated +&%"i, e3e,&tions.

+!

A/HRC/25/ !

:(

Ab)uctions an) enforce) )isa""earances from other countries

64. ?in,e 19505 t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea )as engaged in t)e s'stemati, a%d&,tion5 denia" o- e+at iation and s&%se.&ent en-o ,ed disa++ea an,e o+e sons - om ot)e ,o&nt ies on a "a ge s,a"e and as a matte o- ?tate +o"i,'. @e"" o4e 2005000 +e sons5 in,"&ding ,)i"d en5 ;)o ;e e % o&g)t - om ot)e ,o&nt ies to t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea ma' )a4e %e,ome 4i,tims o- en-o ,ed disa++ea an,e5 as de-ined in t)e De,"a ation on t)e / ote,tion o- A"" /e sons - om En-o ,ed Disa++ea an,e. 8o e in-o mation ;o&"d )a4e to eme ge - om t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea to + o4ide a mo e + e,ise estimate o- t)e n&m%e o- 4i,tims. 65. $o a nation ?tate t)at see<s to "i4e a"ongside ot)e s5 t)e a%o4e-mentioned a,tions5 in de-ian,e o- t)e so4e eignt' o- ot)e ?tates and t)e ig)ts o- -o eign nationa"s g&a anteed &nde inte nationa" "a;5 a e e3,e+tiona". 66. *)e 4ast maDo it' o- a%d&,tions and en-o ,ed disa++ea an,es a e "in<ed to t)e 1o ean @a and t)e o ganiEed mo4ement o- et)ni, 1o eans - om Aa+an t)at sta ted in 1959. Ho;e4e 5 )&nd eds o- nationa"s o- t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 Aa+an and ot)e ?tates ;e e a"so a%d&,ted and disa++ea ed %et;een t)e 1960s and 1980s. 6n mo e e,ent 'ea s5 t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea a%d&,ted a n&m%e o- its o;n nationa"s and nationa"s o- t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea - om C)ina. 6#. *)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea &sed its "and5 na4a" and inte""igen,e -o ,es to ,ond&,t a%d&,tions and a ests. (+e ations ;e e a++ o4ed at t)e "e4e" o- t)e ?&+ eme =eade . *)e 4ast maDo it' o- 4i,tims ;e e -o ,i%"' disa++ea ed to gain "a%o& and ot)e s<i""s -o t)e ?tate. ?ome 4i,tims ;e e &sed to -& t)e es+ionage and te o ist a,ti4ities. @omen a%d&,ted - om E& o+e5 t)e 8idd"e East and Asia ;e e s&%De,ted to -o ,ed ma iages ;it) men - om ot)e ,o&nt ies to + e4ent "iaisons on t)ei +a t ;it) et)ni, 1o ean ;omen t)at ,o&"d es&"t in inte a,ia" ,)i"d en. ?ome o- t)e a%d&,ted ;omen )a4e a"so %een s&%De,t to se3&a" e3+"oitation. 68. A n&m%e o- t)e -o ,i%"' disa++ea ed t a4e""ed to t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea 4o"&nta i"'. (t)e s ;e e a%d&,ted t) o&g) +)'si,a" -o ,e o - a&d&"ent +e s&asion. ?&%se.&ent"'5 t)e' ;e e a"" denied t)e ig)t to "ea4e t)e ,o&nt '. *)e' )a4e a"so %een s&%De,t to se4e e de+ i4ation o- t)ei "i%e t' and - eedom o- mo4ement ;it)in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 denied t)e ig)t to e,ognition as a +e son %e-o e t)e "a;5 and t)e ig)t not to %e s&%De,ted to to t& e and ot)e , &e"5 in)&man o deg ading t eatment. A"" o- t)e -o ,i%"' disa++ea ed )a4e %een +"a,ed &nde st i,t s& 4ei""an,e. *)e' )a4e %een denied ed&,ation and em+"o'ment o++o t&nities. 69. Et)ni, 1o eans - om t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea and Aa+an5 -o ,i%"' disa++ea ed %' t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 )a4e %een dis, iminated against -o t)ei o igins and %a,<g o&nd. *)e' ;e e ,atego iEed as G)osti"eH and -o ,ed to ;o < in mines and -a ms in emote ma gina"iEed a eas o- t)e ,o&nt '. 8an' o- t)em ;e e "i<e"' to )a4e %een t)e -i st 4i,tims o- t)e -amine in t)e 1990s %e,a&se o- t)ei "o;e so,ia" stat&s. #0. Non-1o ean a%d&,tees ;e e not a%"e to integ ate into so,ia" and e,onomi, "i-e in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea as t)e' ;e e detained in tig)t"' ,ont o""ed ,om+o&nds. *)e' ;e e denied t)e ig)t to ;o <5 to "ea4e t)ei +"a,e o- esiden,e o to mo4e - ee"' in so,iet'5 and t)e' ;e e &na%"e to ,)oose ed&,ationa" o++o t&nities -o t)emse"4es and t)ei ,)i"d en. #1. $ami"' mem%e s a% oad and -o eign ?tates ;is)ing to e3e ,ise t)ei ig)t to + o4ide di+"omati, + ote,tion )a4e %een ,onsistent"' denied in-o mation ne,essa ' to esta%"is) t)e -ate and ;)e ea%o&ts o- t)e 4i,tims. $ami"' mem%e s o- t)e disa++ea ed )a4e %een s&%De,ted to to t& e and ot)e , &e"5 in)&man o deg ading t eatment. *)e' )a4e %een

+,

A/HRC/25/ !

denied t)e ig)t to e--e,ti4e emedies -o )&man ig)ts 4io"ations5 in,"&ding t)e ig)t to t)e t &t). /a ents and disa++ea ed ,)i"d en )a4e %een denied t)e ig)t to -ami"' "i-e. #2. Des+ite admitting to t)e a%d&,tion o- 13 Aa+anese nationa"s %' agents o- t)e ?tate5 t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea )as ne4e ade.&ate"' disa4o;ed t)e + a,ti,e ointe nationa" a%d&,tions. ?in,e t)e 1990s5 its agents )a4e a%d&,ted a n&m%e o- +e sons - om C)inese te ito '5 in,"&ding nationa"s o- C)ina5 t)e Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea and5 in at "east one ,ase5 a -o me Aa+anese nationa". #3. *)e ,ommission -inds t)at a"most a"" o- t)e -o egoing 4i,tims emain disa++ea ed. H&man ig)ts 4io"ations ,ontin&e against t)em and t)ei -ami"ies. *)e s)o,< and +ain ,a&sed %' s&,) a,tions is indes, i%a%"e.

'3( Crimes against humanity
#4. 6n a,,o dan,e ;it) H&man Rig)ts Co&n,i" eso"&tion 22/135 t)e ,ommission ,a ied o&t its in.&i ' ;it) a 4ie; to ens& ing -&"" a,,o&nta%i"it'5 in +a ti,&"a ;)e e t)ese 4io"ations ma' amo&nt to , imes against )&manit'. *)e ,ommission is neit)e a D&di,ia" %od' no a + ose,&to . 6t ,annot ma<e -ina" dete minations o- indi4id&a" , imina" es+onsi%i"it'. 6t ,an5 )o;e4e 5 dete mine ;)et)e its -indings ,onstit&te easona%"e g o&nds esta%"is)ing t)at , imes against )&manit' )a4e %een ,ommitted so as to me it a , imina" in4estigation %' a ,om+etent nationa" o inte nationa" o gan o- D&sti,e. #5. A,,o ding to t)at standa d5 t)e ,ommission -inds t)at t)e %od' o- testimon' and ot)e in-o mation it e,ei4ed esta%"is)es t)at , imes against )&manit' )a4e %een ,ommitted in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea5 +& s&ant to +o"i,ies esta%"is)ed at t)e )ig)est "e4e" o- t)e ?tate. #6. *)ese , imes against )&manit' entai" e3te mination5 m& de 5 ens"a4ement5 to t& e5 im+ isonment5 a+e5 -o ,ed a%o tions and ot)e se3&a" 4io"en,e5 +e se,&tion on +o"iti,a"5 e"igio&s5 a,ia" and gende g o&nds5 t)e -o ,i%"e t ans-e o- +o+&"ations5 t)e en-o ,ed disa++ea an,e o- +e sons and t)e in)&mane a,t o- <no;ing"' ,a&sing + o"onged sta 4ation. *)e ,ommission -& t)e -inds t)at , imes against )&manit' a e ongoing in t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea %e,a&se t)e +o"i,ies5 instit&tions and +atte ns o- im+&nit' t)at "ie at t)ei )ea t emain in +"a,e. ##. /e sons detained in +o"iti,a" and ot)e + ison ,am+s5 t)ose ;)o t ' to -"ee t)e ?tate5 C) istians and ot)e s ,onside ed to int od&,e s&%4e si4e in-"&en,es a e t)e + ima ' ta gets o- a s'stemati, and ;ides+ ead atta,< against a"" +o+&"ations t)at a e ,onside ed to +ose a t) eat to t)e +o"iti,a" s'stem and "eade s)i+ o- t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea. *)is atta,< is em%edded in t)e "a ge +atte ns o- +o"iti,a""' moti4ated )&man ig)ts 4io"ations e3+e ien,ed %' t)e gene a" +o+&"ation5 in,"&ding t)e dis, iminato ' s'stem o,"assi-i,ation o- +e sons %ased on songbun. #8. 6n addition5 t)e ,ommission -inds t)at , imes against )&manit' )a4e %een ,ommitted against sta 4ing +o+&"ations5 +a ti,&"a "' d& ing t)e 1990s. *)ese , imes a ose - om de,isions and +o"i,ies 4io"ating t)e ig)t to -ood5 ;)i,) ;e e a++"ied -o t)e +& +oses os&staining t)e + esent +o"iti,a" s'stem5 in -&"" a;a eness t)at s&,) de,isions ;o&"d e3a,e %ate sta 4ation and e"ated deat)s o- m&,) o- t)e +o+&"ation. #9. =ast"'5 t)e ,ommission -inds t)at , imes against )&manit' a e %eing ,ommitted against +e sons - om ot)e ,o&nt ies ;)o ;e e s'stemati,a""' a%d&,ted o denied e+at iation5 in o de to gain "a%o& and ot)e s<i""s -o t)e Demo, ati, /eo+"e0s Re+&%"i, o- 1o ea.
6

?ee a"so A/HRC/25/CR/.15 se,t. >. +5

A/HRC/25/ !

3(

Conclusions an) recommen)ations

80. ;ystematic4 wi)es"rea) an) gross human rights 1iolations ha1e been an) are being committe) by the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 its institutions an) officials( 'n many instances4 the 1iolations of human rights foun) by the commission constitute crimes against humanity( These are not mere e5cesses of the ;tate< they are essential com"onents of a "olitical system that has mo1e) far from the i)eals on which it claims to be foun)e)( The gra1ity4 scale an) nature of these 1iolations re1eal a ;tate that )oes not ha1e any "arallel in the contem"orary worl)( $olitical scientists of the twentieth century characteri=e) this ty"e of "olitical organi=ation as a totalitarian ;tate> a ;tate that )oes not content itself with ensuring the authoritarian rule of a small grou" of "eo"le4 but see/s to )ominate e1ery as"ect of its citi=ens’ li1es an) terrori=es them from within( 81. The #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea )is"lays many attributes of a totalitarian ;tate> the rule of a single "arty4 le) by a single "erson4 is base) on an elaborate gui)ing i)eology that its current ;u"reme 0ea)er refers to as ?%imilsungism-%im@ongilismA( The ;tate see/s to ensure that its citi=ens internali=e this gui)ing i)eology by in)octrinating citi=ens from chil)hoo)4 su""ressing all "olitical an) religious e5"ression that questions the official i)eology4 an) tightly controlling citi=ens’ "hysical mo1ement an) their means of communication with each other an) with those in other countries( #iscrimination on the basis of gen)er an) songbun is use) to maintain a rigi) social structure that is less li/ely to "ro)uce challenges to the "olitical system( 82. The ;tate’s mono"oli=ation of access to foo) has been use) as an im"ortant means to enforce "olitical loyalty( The )istribution of foo) has "rioriti=e) those who are useful to the sur1i1al of the current "olitical system at the e5"ense of those )eeme) to be e5"en)able( Citi=ens’ com"lete )e"en)ence on the ;tate le) to one of the worst cases of famine in recent history( The authorities ha1e only recently come to tolerate the fact that mar/ets can no longer be fully su""resse)( 'nstea) of fully embracing reforms to reali=e the right to foo)4 howe1er4 the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea maintains a system of inefficient economic "ro)uction an) )iscriminatory resource allocation that ine1itably "ro)uces more unnecessary star1ation among its citi=ens( 83. The /ey to the "olitical system is the 1ast "olitical an) security a""aratus that strategically uses sur1eillance4 coercion4 fear an) "unishment to "reclu)e the e5"ression of any )issent( $ublic e5ecutions an) enforce) )isa""earance to "olitical "rison cam"s ser1e as the ultimate means to terrori=e the "o"ulation into submission( The ;tate’s 1iolence has been e5ternali=e) through ;tate-s"onsore) ab)uctions an) enforce) )isa""earances of "eo"le from other nations( These international enforce) )isa""earances are unique in their intensity4 scale an) nature( 84. To)ay4 the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea fin)s itself surroun)e) by a worl) that is changing ra"i)ly in "olitical4 economic an) technological terms( These changes offer o""ortunities for incremental social change within the ;tate( 'n res"onse4 the authorities engage in gross human rights 1iolations so as to crac/ )own on ?sub1ersi1eA influences from abroa)( These influences are symboli=e) by films an) soa" o"eras from the Re"ublic of %orea an) other countries4 short-wa1e ra)io broa)casts an) foreign mobile tele"hones( :or the same reason4 the ;tate systematically uses 1iolence an) "unishment to )eter its citi=ens from e5ercising their human right to lea1e the country( $ersons who are forcibly re"atriate) from China are commonly sub@ecte) to torture4 arbitrary )etention4 summary e5ecution4 force) abortion an) other forms of se5ual 1iolence(
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85. A number of long-stan)ing an) ongoing "atterns of systematic an) wi)es"rea) 1iolations4 which were )ocumente) by the commission4 meet the high threshol) require) for "roof of crimes against humanity in international law( The "er"etrators en@oy im"unity( The #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea is unwilling to im"lement its international obligation to "rosecute an) bring the "er"etrators to @ustice4 because those "er"etrators act in accor)ance with ;tate "olicy( 86. The fact that the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 as a ;tate *ember of the Bnite) -ations4 has for )eca)es "ursue) "olicies in1ol1ing crimes that shoc/ the conscience of humanity raises questions about the ina)equacy of the res"onse of the international community( The international community must acce"t its res"onsibility to "rotect the "eo"le of the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea from crimes against humanity4 because the Go1ernment of the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea has manifestly faile) to )o so( 'n "articular4 this res"onsibility must be acce"te) in the light of the role "laye) by the international community Can) by the great "owers in "articularD in the )i1ision of the %orean "eninsula an) because of the unresol1e) legacy of the %orean Ear( These unfortunate legacies hel" not only to e5"lain the intractability of the human rights situation but also why an effecti1e res"onse is now im"erati1e( 8#. The Bnite) -ations must ensure that those most res"onsible for the crimes against humanity committe) in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea are hel) accountable( F"tions to achie1e this en) inclu)e a ;ecurity Council referral of the situation to the 'nternational Criminal Court or the establishment of an a) hoc tribunal by the Bnite) -ations( Brgent accountability measures shoul) be combine) with a reinforce) human rights )ialogue4 the "romotion of incremental change through more "eo"le-to-"eo"le contact an) an inter-%orean agen)a for reconciliation( 88. Fn the basis of its fin)ings an) conclusions4 the Commission ma/es the recommen)ations below( 89. The commission of inquiry recommen)s that the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea> CaD Bn)erta/e "rofoun) "olitical an) institutional reforms without )elay to intro)uce genuine chec/s an) balances u"on the "owers of the ;u"reme 0ea)er an) the Eor/ers’ $arty of %orea< such changes shoul) inclu)e an in)e"en)ent an) im"artial @u)iciary4 a multi"arty "olitical system an) electe) "eo"le’s assemblies at the local an) central le1els that emerge from genuinely free an) fair elections< reform the security sector by 1etting the entire officers’ cor"s for in1ol1ement in human rights 1iolations an) by limiting the functions of the %orean $eo"le’s Army to )efen)ing the nation against e5ternal threats< an) )ismantle the ;tate ;ecurity #e"artment an) "lace the *inistry of $ublic ;ecurity un)er trans"arent )emocratic o1ersight( An in)e"en)ent constitutional an) institutional reform commission4 consisting of res"ecte) members of society in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 shoul) be constitute) to gui)e this "rocess an) shoul) be assiste) by a""ro"riate international e5"erts< CbD Ac/nowle)ge the e5istence of human rights 1iolations4 inclu)ing the "olitical "rison cam"s )escribe) by the commission in the "resent re"ort< "ro1i)e international humanitarian organi=ations an) human rights monitors with imme)iate access to the cam"s an) their sur1i1ing 1ictims< )ismantle all "olitical "rison cam"s an) release all "olitical "risoners< an) clarify with full )etail the fate of any )isa""eare) "ersons who cannot be rea)ily trace)< CcD Reform the Criminal Co)e an) Co)e of Criminal $roce)ure to abolish 1aguely wor)e) ?anti-;tateA an) ?anti-$eo"leA crimes an) to fully enshrine the right
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to a fair trial an) )ue "rocess guarantees articulate) in the 'nternational Co1enant on Ci1il an) $olitical Rights< enforce e5isting "ro1isions in the Criminal Co)e an) the Co)e of Criminal $roce)ure that "rohibit an) criminali=e the use of torture an) other inhuman means of interrogation that are illegal un)er international law< reform the or)inary "rison system so as to ensure humane con)itions of )etention for all inmates )e"ri1e) of liberty< en) re"risals against "ersons on the basis of guilt by association< an) abolish imme)iately the "ractice of forcibly resettling the families of con1icte) criminals< C)D #eclare an) im"lement an imme)iate moratorium on the im"osition an) e5ecution of the )eath "enalty4 followe) without un)ue )elay by the abolition of the )eath "enalty both in law an) in "ractice< CeD Allow the establishment of in)e"en)ent news"a"ers an) other me)ia< allow citi=ens to freely access the 'nternet4 social me)ia4 international communications4 foreign broa)casts an) "ublications4 inclu)ing the "o"ular culture of other countries< an) abolish com"ulsory "artici"ation in mass organi=ations an) in)octrination sessions< CfD 'ntro)uce e)ucation to ensure res"ect for human rights an) fun)amental free)oms< an) abolish any "ro"agan)a or e)ucational acti1ities that es"ouse national4 racial or "olitical hatre) or war "ro"agan)a< CgD Allow Christians an) other religious belie1ers to e5ercise their religion in)e"en)ently an) "ublicly4 without fear of "unishment4 re"risal or sur1eillance< ChD 9n) )iscrimination against citi=ens on the basis of their "ercei1e) "olitical loyalty or the socio"olitical bac/groun) of their families4 inclu)ing in matters of access to e)ucation an) em"loyment< )ismantle the neighbourhoo) watch CinminbanD4 the secret resi)ent registration file system4 an) all sur1eillance of "ersons an) their communications that ser1e "ur"oses of "olitical o""ression an)/or are not sub@ect to effecti1e @u)icial an) )emocratic control< an) "ublicly ac/nowle)ge the e5tent of sur1eillance "ractices carrie) out in the "ast an) "ro1i)e citi=ens with access to their resi)ent registration file< CiD Ta/e imme)iate measures to ensure gen)er equality in "ractice4 such as by "ro1i)ing equal access for women in "ublic life an) em"loyment< era)icate )iscriminatory laws4 regulations an) "ractices affecting women< ta/e measures to a))ress all forms of 1iolence against women4 inclu)ing )omestic 1iolence4 se5ual an) gen)er-base) 1iolence by ;tate agents an)/or within ;tate institutions< an) res"on) imme)iately an) effecti1ely to traffic/ing in women4 an) a))ress the structural causes that ma/e women 1ulnerable to such 1iolations< C@D 9nsure that citi=ens can en@oy the right to foo) an) other economic an) social rights without )iscrimination< "ay "articular attention to the nee)s of women an) 1ulnerable grou"s4 such as street chil)ren4 the el)erly an) "ersons with )isabilities< "romote agricultural4 economic an) financial "olicies base) on )emocratic "artici"ation4 goo) go1ernance an) non-)iscrimination< an) legali=e an) su""ort free mar/et acti1ities4 internal an) e5ternal tra)e an) other in)e"en)ent economic con)uct that "ro1i)e citi=ens with a li1elihoo)< C/D 'n the light of the "ast e5"en)itures by the lea)ershi"4 the military an) security a""aratus4 realign "riorities an) )e)icate the resources ma)e a1ailable to ensure4 as necessary4 free)om from hunger an) other essential minimum stan)ar)s for citi=ens4 inclu)ing those citi=ens ser1ing in the arme) forces< ClD Ehere necessary to ensure the right to foo)4 see/ international humanitarian assistance without )elay< "ro1i)e international humanitarian
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organi=ations with free an) unim"e)e) access to all "o"ulations in nee)4 inclu)ing for the "ur"oses of effecti1e monitoring< an) hol) accountable ;tate officials who illegally )i1ert humanitarian ai) for im"ro"er "ur"oses< CmD Abolish the )e facto "rohibition on foreign tra1el im"ose) on or)inary citi=ens< )ecriminali=e illegal bor)er crossings an) intro)uce bor)er controls that conform to international stan)ar)s< renounce or)ers to shoot an) /ill at the bor)er< cease to regar) citi=ens re"atriate) from China as "olitical criminals or to sub@ect them to im"risonment4 e5ecution4 torture4 arbitrary )etention4 )eliberate star1ation4 illegal ca1ity searches4 force) abortions an) other se5ual 1iolence< an) abolish the ;tate’s com"ulsory )esignation of "laces of resi)ence an) em"loyment4 as well as the requirement to obtain a "ermit for )omestic tra1el outsi)e a "erson’s )esignate) "ro1ince< CnD $ro1i)e the families an) nations of origin of all "ersons who ha1e been ab)ucte)4 or otherwise forcibly )isa""eare)4 with full information on their fate an) whereabouts4 if they ha1e sur1i1e)< allow those who remain ali1e4 an) their )escen)ants4 to return imme)iately to their countries of origin< an)4 in close coo"eration with their families an) nations of origin4 i)entify an) re"atriate the "hysical remains of those who ha1e )ie)< CoD Allow se"arate) families to unite4 inclu)ing by allowing citi=ens to tra1el or emigrate where they choose< an) imme)iately "ro1i)e such "ersons with facilities for unmonitore) communications by way of mail4 tele"hone4 email an) any other means of communication< C"D $rosecute an) bring to @ustice those "ersons most res"onsible for allege) crimes against humanity< a""oint a s"ecial "rosecutor to su"er1ise this "rocess< ensure that 1ictims an) their families are "ro1i)e) with a)equate4 "rom"t an) effecti1e re"aration an) reme)ies4 inclu)ing by /nowing the truth about the 1iolations that ha1e been suffere)< launch a "eo"le-)ri1en "rocess to establish the truth about the 1iolations< "ro1i)e a)ults an) chil)ren with com"rehensi1e e)ucation on national an) international law an) "ractice on human rights an) )emocratic go1ernance< an) see/ international a)1ice an) su""ort for transitional @ustice measures< CqD Ta/e imme)iate ste"s to en) all other human rights 1iolations an) to a))ress the human rights concerns raise) by the commission in the "resent re"ort4 as well as in successi1e resolutions of the General Assembly an) the Human Rights Council4 in the "roce)ures of uni1ersal "erio)ic re1iew an) in the re"orts of s"ecial "roce)ures man)ate hol)ers an) the treaty bo)ies< CrD Ratify without )elay the 'nternational Con1ention for the $rotection of All $ersons from 9nforce) #isa""earance4 the Con1ention on the Rights of $ersons with #isabilities4 the Rome ;tatute of the 'nternational Criminal Court an) the fun)amental con1entions of the 'nternational 0abour Frgani=ation< CsD Acce"t imme)iately a fiel)-base) "resence an) technical assistance from the Fffice of the Bnite) -ations High Commissioner for Human Rights an) other rele1ant Bnite) -ations entities to hel" to im"lement the abo1e-mentione) recommen)ations( 90. The commission of inquiry recommen)s that China an) other ;tates> CaD Res"ect the "rinci"le of non-refoulement an)4 accor)ingly4 abstain from forcibly re"atriating any "ersons to the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 unless the treatment there4 as 1erifie) by international human rights monitors4 mar/e)ly im"ro1es< e5ten) asylum an) other means of )urable "rotection to "ersons fleeing the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea who nee) international "rotection<
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ensure that such "ersons are fully integrate) an) )uly "rotecte) from )iscrimination< sto" "ro1i)ing information on acti1ities an) contacts of "ersons from the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea li1ing in China to the ;tate ;ecurity #e"artment an) other security agencies in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea< an) allow "ersons from the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea free access to )i"lomatic an) consular re"resentations of any ;tate that may be willing to e5ten) nationality or other forms of "rotection to them< CbD $ro1i)e the Fffice of the Bnite) -ations High Commissioner for Refugees4 an) rele1ant humanitarian organi=ations4 full an) unim"e)e) access to all "ersons from the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea see/ing such contact< CcD Request technical assistance from the Bnite) -ations to hel" to meet the obligations im"ose) un)er international refugee law4 an) ensure the effecti1e "rotection of "ersons from traffic/ing< C)D A)o"t a 1ictim-centric an) human rights-base) a""roach to traffic/ing in "ersons4 inclu)ing by "ro1i)ing 1ictims with the right to stay in the country an) access to legal "rotection an) basic ser1ices4 such as me)ical treatment4 e)ucation an) em"loyment o""ortunities equi1alent to those affor)e) to their own citi=ens< CeD Regulari=e the status of women an) men from the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea who marry or ha1e a chil) with a Chinese citi=en< an) ensure that all such chil)ren may reali=e their rights to birth registration an) Chinese nationality where a""licable4 an) ha1e access to e)ucation an) health care without )iscrimination< CfD Ta/e imme)iate measures to "re1ent agents of the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea from carrying out further ab)uctions from Chinese territory< "rosecute an) a)equately "unish a""rehen)e) "er"etrators of ab)uction an) )eman) the e5tra)ition of those gi1ing such or)ers so that they may be trie) in accor)ance with law( China shoul) raise with the ;u"reme 0ea)er of the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea an) other high-le1el authorities the issues of ab)uctions4 the infantici)e of chil)ren entitle) to Chinese nationality4 force) abortions im"ose) on re"atriate) women an) other human rights 1iolations that target "ersons re"atriate) from China( 91. The commission of inquiry recommen)s that the %orean "eo"le foster inter%orean )ialogue in a "hase) a""roach lea)ing to an agen)a for reconciliation( 'nter%orean )ialogue coul) be furthere) through such initiati1es as frien)ly s"orting e1ents< aca)emic an) business interactions< scholarshi"s an) a""renticeshi"s for young "eo"le from the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea< stu)ent e5changes< e5changes between ci1il society organi=ations4 inclu)ing national Re) Cross ;ocieties< contacts between "rofessional organi=ations an) women’s grou"s< an) the )e1elo"ment of ?sister cityA relationshi"s an)4 e1entually4 the re-establishment of trans"ort an) communication lin/s( 92. The commission of inquiry recommen)s that ;tates an) ci1il society organi=ations foster o""ortunities for "eo"le-to-"eo"le )ialogue an) contact in such areas as culture4 science4 s"orts4 goo) go1ernance an) economic )e1elo"ment that "ro1i)e citi=ens of the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea with o""ortunities to e5change information an) be e5"ose) to e5"eriences outsi)e their home country( The #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea an) other ;tates shoul) remo1e a""licable obstacles to "eo"le-to-"eo"le contact4 inclu)ing measures that criminali=e tra1el an) contact to the e5tent that these are not in accor)ance with rele1ant obligations un)er international human rights law(

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93. The commission also recommen)s that ;tates4 foun)ations an) engage) business enter"rises "ro1i)e more su""ort for the wor/ of ci1il society organi=ations to im"ro1e the situation of human rights in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 inclu)ing efforts to )ocument human rights 1iolations an) to broa)cast accessible information into each country( 91entually4 an) once con)itions are )eeme) to be a""ro"riate4 such foun)ations an) enter"rises shoul) @oin forces with the Go1ernments concerne) to coor)inate efforts to a)o"t a coherent "lan for the )e1elo"ment of the country4 creation of li1elihoo)s for the "o"ulation an) the a)1ancement of the situation of human rights( 94. Eith regar) to the international community an) the Bnite) -ations4 the commission ma/es the following recommen)ations> CaD The ;ecurity Council shoul) refer the situation in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea to the 'nternational Criminal Court for action in accor)ance with that court’s @uris)iction( The ;ecurity Council shoul) also a)o"t targete) sanctions against those who a""ear to be most res"onsible for crimes against humanity( 'n the light of the )ire social an) economic situation of the general "o"ulation4 the commission )oes not su""ort sanctions im"ose) by the ;ecurity Council or intro)uce) bilaterally that are targete) against the "o"ulation or the economy as a whole< CbD The General Assembly an) the Human Rights Council shoul) e5ten) the country-s"ecific human rights monitoring an) re"orting mechanisms on the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea that "re)ate the establishment of the commission< these inclu)e the "erio)ic re"orts of the ;ecretary-General an) the Bnite) -ations High Commissioner for Human Rights4 as well as the man)ate of the ;"ecial Ra""orteur on the situation of human rights in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea( ;uch mechanisms shoul) be man)ate) to focus on ensuring accountability4 in "articular for crimes against humanity4 an) shoul) re"ort on the im"lementation of the commission’s recommen)ations< CcD The Bnite) -ations High Commissioner for Human Rights4 with full su""ort from the Human Rights Council an) the General Assembly4 shoul) establish a structure to hel" to ensure accountability for human rights 1iolations in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 in "articular where such 1iolations amount to crimes against humanity( The structure shoul) buil) on the collection of e1i)ence an) )ocumentation wor/ of the commission4 an) further e5"an) its )atabase( 't shoul) be fiel)-base)4 su""orte) by a)equate "ersonnel )e"loye) to the region so as to en@oy sustaine) access to 1ictims an) witnesses( 'n a))ition to informing the wor/ of human rights re"orting mechanisms an) ser1ing as a secure archi1e for information "ro1i)e) by rele1ant sta/ehol)ers4 the wor/ of such a structure shoul) facilitate Bnite) -ations efforts to "rosecute4 or otherwise ren)er accountable4 those most res"onsible for crimes against humanity< C)D The High Commissioner shoul) continue the engagement of FHCHR with the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 offering technical assistance an) enhancing a)1ocacy initiati1es( The High Commissioner shoul) facilitate the im"lementation of a strategy le) by the ;"ecial Ra""orteur an) in1ol1ing all concerne) human rights mechanisms of the Bnite) -ations system to a))ress4 coherently an) without )elay4 the s"ecial issue of international ab)uctions an) enforce) )isa""earances an) relate) matters )escribe) in the "resent re"ort( *ember ;tates shoul) affor) full coo"eration to ensure the im"lementation of such a strategy<

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CeD The High Commissioner shoul) "erio)ically re"ort to the Human Rights Council an) other a""ro"riate Bnite) -ations organs on the im"lementation of the recommen)ations containe) in the "resent re"ort< CfD The Human Rights Council shoul) ensure that the conclusions an) recommen)ations of the commission )o not "ass from the acti1e attention of the international community( Ehere so much suffering has occurre)4 an) is still occurring4 action is the share) res"onsibility of the entire international community< CgD The Bnite) -ations ;ecretariat an) agencies shoul) urgently a)o"t an) im"lement a common ?Rights u" :rontA strategy to ensure that all engagement with the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea effecti1ely ta/es into account4 an) a))resses4 human rights concerns4 inclu)ing those collecte) in the "resent re"ort( The Bnite) -ations shoul) imme)iately a""ly this strategy to hel" to "re1ent the recurrence or continuation of crimes against humanity in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea( The strategy shoul) contem"late the "ossibility of the ;ecretaryGeneral referring the situation to the ;ecurity Council< ChD ;tates that ha1e historically frien)ly ties with the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea4 ma@or )onors an) "otential )onors4 as well as those ;tates alrea)y engage) with the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea in the framewor/ of the si5"arty tal/s4 shoul) form a human rights contact grou" to raise concerns about the situation of human rights in the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea an) to "ro1i)e su""ort for initiati1es to im"ro1e it< CiD ;tates shoul) not use the "ro1ision of foo) an) other essential humanitarian assistance to im"ose economic or "olitical "ressure on the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea( Humanitarian assistance shoul) be "ro1i)e) in accor)ance with humanitarian an) human rights "rinci"les4 inclu)ing the "rinci"le of non-)iscrimination( Ai) shoul) only be curbe) to the e5tent that unim"e)e) international humanitarian access an) relate) monitoring is not a)equately guarantee)( .ilateral an) multilateral "ro1i)ers of assistance shoul) coor)inate their efforts to ensure that a)equate con)itions of humanitarian access an) relate) monitoring are "ro1i)e) by the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea< C@D Eithout "re@u)ice to all the obligations un)er international law that the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea must imme)iately im"lement4 the Bnite) -ations an) the ;tates that were "arties to the %orean Ear shoul) ta/e ste"s to con1ene a high-le1el "olitical conference( $artici"ants in that conference shoul) consi)er an)4 if agree)4 ratify a final "eaceful settlement of the war that commits all "arties to the "rinci"les of the Charter of the Bnite) -ations4 inclu)ing res"ect for human rights an) fun)amental free)oms( ;tates of the region shoul) intensify their coo"eration an) consi)er following such e5am"les as the Helsin/i $rocess(

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Anne5 '
[English only]

Corres"on)ence with the ;u"reme 0ea)er of the #emocratic $eo"le’s Re"ublic of %orea an) :irst ;ecretary of the Eor/ers’ $arty of %orea4 %im Gong-un

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Anne5 ''
[English only]

Corres"on)ence with China

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