Johns Hopkins Mathematics Tournament

April 8, 2006

Team Solutions
1. Evaluate S . S=√ Solution:
2 √ 10000 −1 100002 −19999

100002 − 1 . 100002 − 19999 =
9999 √ ·10001 99992

=

(10000−1)(10000+1) √ 100002 −2·10000+1

= 10001 .

2. Starting on a triangular face of a right triangular prism and allowing moves to only adjacent faces, how many ways can you pass through each of the other four faces and return to the first face in five moves? Solution: Each of the other four faces can be traversed in any order, since they are each adjacent to one another. However, the paths that have the other triangular face either first or last have to be thrown out, since the triangular faces are not adjacent. = 12 paths. Thus there are 4! 2 3. Given that (a + b) + (b + c) + (c + a) = 18, 1 1 1 5 + + = , a+b b+c c+a 9 determine c a b + + . a+b b+c c+a

Solution: We have a + b + c = 9. Multiplying that with the second equation gives b+c b+c c a b b+c b+c b+c a+b+c + a+ + a+ = 5, so a+ + b+ + c+ = ( a+ − 1) + ( a+ − 1) + ( a+ − 1) = a+b b+c c+ a b c a a+b b+c c+ a 2. 4. Find all primes p such that 2p+1 + p3 − p2 − p is prime. Solution: Since p = 2 gives an even number, we’ll concentrate on odd p. Looking at the expression mod 3, we find that 2p+1 ≡ 1 mod 3 for odd p and p2 ≡ 1 mod 3 for p not divisible by 3. Since p3 − p = (p + 1) · p · (p − 1), a product of three consecutive integers, it is always divisible by three. Thus 2p+1 − p2 + (p3 − p) ≡ 1 − 1 + 0 ≡ 0 mod 3 for p not divisible by 3. Therefore the only candidate for p is 3 , and 23+1 + 33 − 32 − 3 = 31 is indeed prime. 5. In right triangle ABC with the right angle at A, AF is the median, AH is the altitude, and AE is the angle bisector. If EAF = 30o , find BAH in degrees. Solution: Taking AC > AB , we have F as the circumcenter of the triangle, so AF = F C and BAH = 90o − ABC = ACB = CAF = CAE − EAF = 15o . Taking AC < AB yields the complement angle of 75o , so the accepted answers were 15o or 75o . 1

then make her first shot. is P · (1 − P ) · P · P . Continuing on. and G is the intersection of DE and AF . is P · P . note that by the triangle inequality OG + BG ≥ OB . note that if a = 1. so that b = and a = =1 . . so right triangles DAE and ABF are congruent. the discriminant is always positive for integral a. b 2 so both squares must equal zero. while Susan has probability P of making any shot. As E varies along side AB . 7. then make her second shot. F is chosen on BC so that AE = BF . the equation becomes (a − 1)x2 − (a2 + a − 1)x + a2 − a = 0. The probability that Susan gets to take. Equating this with 1 yields P 2 + P − 1 = 0. giving AGD = 90o . 2 2 2 9. The discriminant of this is a4 − 2a3 + 7a2 − 6a + 1 = (a2 − a + 3)2 − 8. Thus point G traces out part of the circle with diameter AD. which equals 1−(PP . Sam and Susan are taking turns shooting a basketball. what is the minimum length of BG? Solution: We have AD = AB and AE = BF . Solution: The equation factors as b a− 2 1 2 is ( 3 . 2 2 1 = 0. the equation is no longer quadratic. 3) . Point E is on side AB of the unit square ABCD. we see that the sum is a geometric series with starting term P 2 and 2 ratio P (1 − P ). Now. for the equation not to have two distinct real roots means the discriminant is non-positive. Thus the only answer 3 8. Expanded. b). Sam goes first and has probability P of missing any shot.6. so that ADE = BAF = 90o − DAG. so BG ≥ OB − OG = √ √ 2 5− 1 2− 1 = AO2 + AB 2 − OG = 1 + 1 . so that is one possible answer. Thus the only value of a is 1 . (1−P )) 2 √ and solving and discarding the extraneous solution gives P = 2 5− 1 2 . 3 + 3 2 b− 4 3 2 3 = 0. Given that a2 + b2 − ab − b + solve for all (a. For which integers a does the equation (1 − a)(a − x)(x − 1) = ax not have two distinct real roots of x? Solution: First. What must P be such that Susan has a 50% chance of making the first shot? Solution: The probability that Susan gets to take. Since a2 − a is only negative for a between 0 and 1 exclusive. Letting the midpoint of AD be O.

Solution: Let the intersection of the angle bisectors of BCD and ABC be E . AD = 13. and CDE are congruent. and ABC = 2 CDA. E lies on AD. the three congruent angles of AEB. ABE. Thus.10. BEC . so 2 BE + EC = ED + AE = AD = 13. Since AB = BC = CD. and BCE = ECD. Also. CBE . Find its area. BCD = 2 DAB. Quadrilateral ABCD has AB = BC = CD = 7. so BEC = 60o . [ABCD] = 3[BCE ] = 3 · 1 sin 60o · 8 · 5 = 30 3 . Since CDA = 1 ABC = CBE = CDE. ABE = EBC . which has a solution BEC gives BE 2 + (13 − BE )2 − 2 √ of BE = 8 or 5. Applying the Law of Cosines to triangle 1 cos 60o · BE (13 − BE ) = 72 . 2 3 . and CED sum to 180o .

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