You are on page 1of 418

0.

1
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FOREWORD
This document is intended to assist a TURBOMECA qualified instructor in
teaching basic information related to the operation and maintenance of the
ARRIUS 1 turboshaft engine.
It is a training aid and should only be used to support the training course to
which it refers and only by a person attending such training. It must not be used
in any other circumstances.
It will not be updated and should not be relied upon for maintenance or repair
of ARRIUS 1 engines. Only the approved and current TURBOMECA mainte-
nance technical publications should be used for such purposes.
The acquisition of this document does not constitute proof of official formal
training. Only completion of a course delivered by a TURBOMECA qualified
instructor can lead to the issuance of a TURBOMECA recognized training course
certificate, stating when applicable a successful result.
This document is the property of TURBOMECA and it may not be copied without the express authority of TURBOMECA.
FOREWORD
0.2
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SUMMARY
0 - Foreword
1 - Introduction
2 - Power plant
3 - Engine
4 - Oil system
5 - Air system
6 - Fuel system
7 - Control system
8 - Measurement and indicating
systems
9 - Starting
10 - Electrical system
11 - Engine installation
12 - Operating limitations and
procedures
13 - Various aspects of maintenance
14 - Maintenance procedures
15 - Trouble shooting
16 - Checking of knowledge
SUMMARY
0.3
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0 - FOREWORD
- Summary ............................................ 0.2
- Table of contents ................................ 0.3
- List of abbreviations .......................... 0.7
- Conversion table ................................ 0.10
1 - INTRODUCTION
- General information ........................... 1.2
- Training method ................................. 1.4
- Training aids ...................................... 1.6
- Training programme ......................... 1.8 to 1.14
2 - POWER PLANT
- Power plant ........................................ 2.2
General ........................................... 2.2
Description ..................................... 2.4
Operation ....................................... 2.6
- Principle of adaptation to the
helicopter ........................................... 2.10
- Main characteristics ........................... 2.12
- Design and development ................... 2.18 to 2.21
3 - ENGINE
- Engine ................................................ 3.2
- Air intake ........................................... 3.8
- Compressor ........................................ 3.10
- Combustion chamber ......................... 3.16
- Gas generator turbine ......................... 3.22
- Power turbine ..................................... 3.28
- Exhaust system .................................. 3.34
- Reduction gearbox ............................. 3.38
Reduction gear train ....................... 3.40
Accessory drive train...................... 3.46 to 3.51
4 - OIL SYSTEM
- Oil system ......................................... 4.2
- Oil reservoir ....................................... 4.8
- Oil pumps ........................................... 4.10
- Oil filter.............................................. 4.14
- Pre-blockage pressure switch............. 4.20
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0.4
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTINUED)
6 - FUEL SYSTEM
- Fuel system ....................................... 6.2
- Fuel pressure transmitter .................... 6.16
- LP fuel pump - Alternator unit ........... 6.18
- Fuel filter............................................ 6.24
- Pre-blockage pressure switch............. 6.30
- HP fuel pump and metering unit ........ 6.32
- Stop electro-valve .............................. 6.38
- Fuel valve assembly ........................... 6.42
- Start injectors ..................................... 6.48
- Main injectors .................................... 6.54
- Combustion chamber drain valve ...... 6.60
- Fuel pipes ........................................... 6.62 to 6.63
7 - CONTROL SYSTEM
- Control system ................................... 7.2
General ........................................... 7.2
Description ..................................... 7.4
Operation ........................................ 7.6
4 - OIL SYSTEM (CONTINUED)
- Cooling unit ....................................... 4.22
- Centrifugal breather ........................... 4.24
- Electrical magnetic plugs ................... 4.26
- Strainers ............................................. 4.28
- Low oil pressure switch ..................... 4.30
- Oil pressure transmitter ...................... 4.32
- Oil temperature probe ........................ 4.34
- Oil pipes ............................................. 4.36 to 4.37
5 - AIR SYSTEM
- Air system ......................................... 5.2
- Internal air system ............................. 5.4
- Air tappings........................................ 5.6
- Air tapping unions ............................. 5.8
- Air pressure sensor............................. 5.10
- Air temperature probe ........................ 5.12 to 13
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0.5
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTINUED)
7 - CONTROL SYSTEM (CONTINUED)
- Digital Control Unit .................................. 7.34
General .................................................... 7.34
Functional description ............................. 7.36 to 7.39
8 - MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEMS
- Measurement and indicating systems ....... 8.2
- Speed measurement and indicating
system ................................................ 8.4
N1 speed sensor....................................... 8.6
N2 speed sensors ..................................... 8.10
- Gas temperature measurement and
indicating system ...................................... 8.14
Thermocouple probes and t4.5
conformation box .................................... 8.16
- Torque measurement and indicating
system ....................................................... 8.20
Torque transmitter ................................... 8.24
- Miscellaneous indications ......................... 8.26
Indicators ................................................. 8.26
N1 measurement and indicating system...... 8.28
Display system ........................................ 8.30 to 8.33
9 - STARTING
- Starting system................................... 9.2
- Starter ................................................. 9.6
- Ignition system................................... 9.10
Ignition unit .................................... 9.12
Igniter plugs.................................... 9.14
Ignition cables ................................ 9.16 to 9.17
10 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
- Electrical system................................ 10.2
- Alternator ........................................... 10.4
- Electrical harnesses ............................ 10.6 to 10.7
11 - ENGINE INSTALLATION
- Engine compartment .......................... 11.2
- Engine mounting and lifting .............. 11.4
- Power drive ........................................ 11.6
- Air intake ........................................... 11.8
- Exhaust system .................................. 11.10
- Drain system ...................................... 11.12
- Fire protection .................................... 11.14 to 11.15
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0.6
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTINUED)
15 - TROUBLE SHOOTING
- General ............................................... 15.2
- Trouble shooting ................................ 15.4 to 15.23
16 - CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
- Introduction........................................ 16.2
- Questionnaire 1 ................................. 16.3
- Questionnaire 2 ................................. 16.6
- Questionnaire 3 ................................. 16.12
- Questionnaire 4 .................................. 16.15 to 16.17
OBSERVATIONS ..................................... Last page
These training notes are established to meet training
requirements and take into consideration, to a certain extent,
ATA 104 specifications.
This document has 397 pages. It was produced using a
desktop publishing system
12 - OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND
PROCEDURES
- Operating limitations ......................... 12.2
- Operating procedures ........................ 12.4 to 12.7
13 - VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
- Maintenance concept ......................... 13.2
- Life limitation .................................... 13.4
- Preventive maintenance ..................... 13.6
- "On-condition" monitoring ................ 13.8
- Corrective maintenance ..................... 13.10
- Technical publications ....................... 13.12 to 13.15
14 - MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
- General ............................................... 14.2
- 1st line (O level) ................................ 14.4
- 2nd line (I level) ................................. 14.8
- 3rd line (H level) ................................ 14.10
- 4th line (D level) ................................ 14.12 to 14.13
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0.7
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
EGT .............. Exhaust Gas Temperature
F .................... Frequency
FAA .............. Federal Aviation Agency
FADEC ......... Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FCU .............. Fuel Control Unit
ft .................... Feet
FLI ................ First Limit Indicator
FOD .............. Foreign Object Damage
FWD ............. Forward
G ................... Mass air flow
HE................. High Energy
HP ................. Horse Power
HP ................. High Pressure
hPa ................ Hecto Pascal
HUMS........... Health and Usage Monitoring System
Hz ................. Hertz
ID.................. Identification
ILS ................ Integrated Logistic Support
IRAN ............ Inspect and Repair as Necessary
A/C ............... Aircraft
AC................. Alternating Current
ACW............. Anti-clockwise
ADP .............. Aero Design Point
AEO.............. All Engines Operating
ATA.............. Air Transport Association
BITE ............. Built In Test Equipment
C ................... Torque
cc/h ............... Cubic centimetres per hour
CDS .............. Cockpit Display System
CFT............... Frequency/Voltage Converter
CH................. Fuel consumption
CW................ Clockwise
dB ................. Decibel
DC................. Direct Current
DGAC........... Direction Gnrale de l'Aviation Civile
DMC ............. Direct Maintenance Cost
Ec .................. Kinetic energy
EECU............ Engine Electronic Control Unit
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
The abbreviations / symbols shown below may be used during training:
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
0.8
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(CONTINUED)
ISA................ International Standard Atmosphere
kHz ............... Kilohertz
kPa ................ Kilopascal
kW ................ Kilowatt
lb ................... Pound
lb/hr ............... Pounds per hour
lb/sec. ............ Pounds per second
lb/HP.hr ........ Pounds per Horse Power per hour
LCD .............. Liquid Crystal Display
LP ................. Low Pressure
LRU .............. Line Replaceable Unit
LTT............... Learning Through Teaching
LVDT ........... Linear Voltage Differential Transducer
m................... Metre
mA ................ Milliampere
MAX............. Maximum
MCP.............. Max. Continuous Power
MCQ............. Multi Choice Questionnaire
MGB ............. Main gearbox
MHz .............. Mega Hertz
MIN .............. Minimum
mm................ Millimetre
MTBF ........... Mean Time Between Failure
MTBUR........ Mean Time Between Unscheduled Removal
mV ................ Millivolt
N ................... Rotation speed
N1 ................. Gas generator rotation speed
N2 ................. Power turbine rotation speed
NOVRAM .... Non Volatile Read Only Memory
NR................. Rotor rotation speed
O/S ................ Overspeed
OEI ............... One Engine Inoperative
P .................... Pressure
P3 .................. Compressor outlet pressure
PH................. Oil pressure
POS............... Position
PT ................. Power Turbine
Q ................... Fuel flow
RAM............. Random Access Memory
ROM............. Read Only Memory
RPM.............. Revolutions Per Minute
RTD .............. Resistive Temperature Device
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
0.9
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(CONTINUED)
SFC ............... Specific Fuel Consumption
PSI ................ Pounds per Square Inch
PSID ............. Pounds per Square Inch Differential
Shp ................ Shaft horse power
SI ................... International System
t ..................... Time
T/O................ Take-Off
TBO .............. Time Between Overhaul
TET............... Turbine Entry Temperature
t ................... Temperature
t4.5 ............. Gas temperature
tH................. Oil temperature
US G ............. US Gallon
VAC.............. Volt, Alternating Current
VDC.............. Volt, Direct Current
VEMD .......... Vehicle and Engine Multifunction Display
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
W .................. Power
Z.................... Altitude
Zp.................. Pressure altitude
C.................. Degrees Celsius
F .................. Degrees Fahrenheit
K.................. Degrees Kelvin
.................... Positive and negative for electrical circuits
.................... Approximately
................... Ohm
P.................. Micro-processor
.................... Difference
P ................. Pressure difference
%................... Percent
< .................... Is lower than
> .................... Is higher than
0.10
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
International System British or American Systems
1 mm = 0.039 inch
1 m = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yard
1 dm
3
= 1 litre = 0.26 US gallon
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
1 kW = 1.34 HP
C = (F-32). 5/9
K = [(F-32)5/9] + 273
1 kPa = 0.01 bar = 0.145 PSI
1 kg/s = 2.2 lbs/sec.
1 g/kW.h = 0.00164 lb/HP.hr
Length
Volume
Mass
Power
Temperature
Pressure
Flow (air, oil, fuel)
Specific Fuel Consumption
CONVERSION TABLE
UNITS
CONVERSION TABLE
1.1
INTRODUCTION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
1 - INTRODUCTION
- General information............................................... 1.2
- Training method ..................................................... 1.4
- Training aids ........................................................... 1.6
- Training programme ............................................. 1.8 to 1.14
1.2
INTRODUCTION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GENERAL INFORMATION
The power of knowledge
Adequate training is essential for obvious safety reasons,
but also to reduce additional maintenance costs incurred
by unjustified removals and excessive downtime.
"Greater knowledge leads to greater efficiency".
Objectives of training
The main objective is the acquisition of the knowledge
required for the tasks to be achieved (know and know
how).
Further information is also communicated to widen the
skill and the experience of the trainee.
Training approach
- Performance based training according to task
analysis, with classroom sessions, student involvement,
practical work and troubleshooting techniques
- Advanced training aids: training notes, Computer Aided
Presentation (or overhead projection), multimedia
courseware and demonstration mock-ups
- Experienced and formally trained instructors
- Courses are taught in English and French and, in
special circumstances, in German and Spanish.
Training Centre
The Training Centre is located in one of the buildings of
TURBOMECA's TARNOS factory.
TARNOS .. 5 kms north of the BAYONNE -
ANGLET - BIARRITZ district - Access
by train (BAYONNE station), by plane
(BIARRITZ-PARME airport), by road
(A63 highway, exit 7: ONDRES -
TARNOS).
Address .... TURBOMECA - 40220 TARNOS
FRANCE
Telephone (33) 5 59 74 40 07 or 05 59 74 40 07
Fax ............ (33) 5 59 74 45 16 or 05 59 74 45 16
E-mail ....... training.centre@turbomeca.fr
Web site ... www. t u r b o me c a - s u p p o r t . c o m
"T.O.O.L.S." (Turbomeca Operator On-
Line Support).
The training centre is organized in order to answer to
training demands (administration, training aids,
instructors).
Training sites
Training courses are also conducted in subsidiaries, in
approved training centres and on site:
- by a TURBOMECA qualified instructor, in certain
subsidiaries and approved training centres
- or by an instructor detached from TURBOMECA France,
in our subsidiaries and in the clients' premises.
1.3
INTRODUCTION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GENERAL INFORMATION
PARIS
TARNOS
BORDES
SPAIN
FRANCE
BAYONNE
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
TRAINING
OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
TRAINING APPROACH
The power of knowledge
Adequate training is essential for obvious safety
reasons, but also to reduce additional
maintenance costs incurred by unjustified
removals and excessive downtime.
"Greater knowledge leads to greater efficiency".
TRAINING SITES
Training courses are also
conducted in subsidiaries, in
approved training centres and on site.
TRAINING CENTRE,
TURBOMECA Tarnos
(FRANCE)
1.4
INTRODUCTION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TRAINING METHOD
Knowledge transmission process
The required knowledge is transmitted in such a manner
that the student may use it efficiently in various circum-
stances.
The training is conducted in accordance with a process
which considers:
- A phase of explanation for understanding
- A phase of assimilation leading to the complete acqui-
sition and long-term retention of the knowledge.
Continuous checking of knowledge helps to ensure the
information is assimilated. It is more a method of work
than a testing in the traditional sense (refer to chapter 16).
Training method
The training method is a carefully balanced combination
of:
- Lecture
- Exercises
- Discussions
- Practical work.
1.5
INTRODUCTION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TRAINING METHOD
1
4
3
2
KNOWLEDGE
TRANSMISSION PROCESS
TRAINING METHOD
1 - LECTURE
2 - EXERCISES
3 - DISCUSSIONS
4 - PRACTICAL WORK
INSTRUCTOR
MEDIA
STUDENT
EXPLANATION ASSIMILATION
KNOWLEDGE TRANSMISSION,
PHASES:
- Explanation
- Assimilation
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE:
- Continuous checking, treated in
chapter 16
1.6
INTRODUCTION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TRAINING AIDS
The acquisition of TURBOMECA training aids does not
constitute proof of official formal training.
Only completion of a course delivered by a TURBOMECA
qualified instructor can lead to the issuance of a
TURBOMECA recognized training course certificate, stat-
ing when applicable a successful result.
The information contained in the training aids is in-
tended for training purposes only. It is not a substitute
for the official TURBOMECA maintenance technical
publications.
Refer to the approved and current TURBOMECA
maintenance technical publications to carry out any
maintenance procedure.
Training notes
The training notes are the basic source of information.
They contain, in a teaching form, all required information
and explanations based on the layout specified in standard
ATA 104. Each subject is thus dealt with according to a
plan which allows the information to be adapted to differ-
ent levels of training:
- General (function, position, main characteristics, main
components)
- Description (general and detailed)
- Operation (phases, synthesis).
Other technical publications are also used during a course.
Computer Aided Presentation
Computer Aided Presentation consists of a file which
allows the illustrations contained in the training notes to
be projected via a computer.
The Computer Aided Presentation replaces the transpar-
encies which were used before to display these same
illustrations
Multimedia courseware
The multimedia courseware is Computer based Training
software following the training notes layout. It gives
information in a teaching and interactive manner.
This multimedia system uses text, photos, illustrations,
sounds, animation and video. Questionnaires are also used
for check-up of knowledge.
It forms the essential support of training courses and
ensures their uniformity.
This system with quick and easy access can be very useful
for maintaining knowledge levels.
Note: The multimedia courseware and the Computer
Aided Presentation are available on CD-ROM.
Demonstration mock-ups
Demonstration mock-ups are also used for component
identification and maintenance procedures.
1.7
INTRODUCTION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MULTIMEDIA
COURSEWARE
DEMONSTRATION
MOCK-UPS
COMPUTER AIDED
PRESENTATION
TRAINING
NOTES
TRAINING AIDS
The acquisition of TURBOMECA training aids does not constitute proof of official formal training.
Only completion of a course delivered by a TURBOMECA qualified instructor can lead to the issuance
of a TURBOMECA recognized training course certificate, stating when applicable a successful result.
The information contained in the training aids is intended for training purposes only. It is not a
substitute for the official TURBOMECA maintenance technical publications.
Refer to the approved and current TURBOMECA maintenance technical publications to carry out
any maintenance procedure.
1.8
INTRODUCTION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
Examples of programme:
The following pages provide examples of training pro-
gramme:
- Familiarization course
- 1
st
line maintenance (O level): preventive and corrective
maintenance
- 2
nd
line maintenance (I level): modules, SRU
- 3
rd
line maintenance (H level): deep maintenance
- Refresher
- Trouble shooting
- Fuel and control system
- Engine documentation.
TRAINING PROGRAMME
The course programme is established to meet training
requirements and takes into consideration ATA 104
specifications.
It should be noted that the "classroom sessions" alternate
with periods devoted to demonstrations, practical exercises
and visits.
1.9
INTRODUCTION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FAMILIARIZATION COURSE
Objective: At the end of this course, the student will be able to describe the engine, to explain its principle of operation
and to identify the main components of the engine and systems.
Programme:
- Engine systems (continued)
- Main aspects of maintenance
- Revision - Checking of knowledge
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
- Introduction
- General presentation of the engine
- Engine description
- Engine systems
1.10
INTRODUCTION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
1
st
LINE MAINTENANCE COURSE (O LEVEL): PREVENTIVE AND CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
Objective: At the end of this course, the student will be able to identify the engine components, to describe and to
explain the operation of the engine and its systems, to carry out maintenance procedures (engine installed
in the airframe) and trouble shooting.
Programme:
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
THIRD DAY
FOURTH DAY
FIFTH DAY
- Introduction - General
- Engine presentation - Engine description - Oil system - Air system
- Fuel system - Control system - Indication - Starting
- Electrical system
- Engine installation - Operating limitations and procedures
- Various aspects of maintenance - Pratical work
- Pratical work
- Trouble shooting
- Visits - Revision
- Examination - Course conclusion
1.11
INTRODUCTION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
- Introduction
- Revision (if this course is not conducted directly after the 1
st
line
course)
- Removal of modules
- Inspection and check of modules
- Installation of modules
- Inspection and checks after installation
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
2
nd
LINE MAINTENANCE COURSE (I LEVEL): MODULES, SRU
Objective: At the end of this course, the student will be able to identify the engine components, to carry out all the
maintenance procedures (engine removed from the airframe), mainly the removal/installation of modules
and shop replaceable units.
Programme: The programme mainly includes practical work. This programme can be carried out after the 1
st
line
maintenance programme.
1.12
INTRODUCTION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
3
rd
LINE MAINTENANCE COURSE (H LEVEL): DEEP MAINTENANCE
Objective: At the end of the course, the trainee will be able to carry out the intramodular maintenance procedures
(deep maintenance).
Programme: This course consists entirely of pratical work and the students must have certain qualifications. The
course documentation consists of Maintenance Technical Instructions and the Maintenance Manual.
The qualification awarded at the end of this course has certain limits and requires regular renewal.
- Introduction
- Definition of procedures
- Practical work
FROM 3 DAYS TO 3 WEEKS
1.13
INTRODUCTION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REFRESHER
Objective: At the end of this course, the trainee will have a greater understanding of the engine and its systems.
Programme:
Note: This course is recommended for technicians who have attended the first line maintenance course, after
about one year of experience on the engine type.
TROUBLE SHOOTING
Objective: At the end of this course, the trainee will be able to better identify and correct operating problems.
Programme:
Note: This course is recommended for technicians who have attended the first line maintenance course, after
about one year of experience on the engine type.
- Introduction
- Revision of the 1st line maintenance course
- Revision (continued)
- Fleet situation - Engine evolution - Course conclusion
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
- Introduction
- Revision of all engine systems
- Fault finding and rectification
- Fleet situation - Engine evolution - Course conclusion
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
1.14
INTRODUCTION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL AND CONTROL SYSTEM
Objective: At the end of this course, the trainee will have an in-depth understanding of the engine fuel and control
systems.
Programme:
Note: This course is recommended for technicians who have attended the first line maintenance course, after
about one year of experience on the engine type.
ENGINE DOCUMENTATION
Objective: At the end of this course, the trainee will be able to understand and use the engine documentation.
Programme:
Note: A general knowledge of engines is recommended.
- Introduction
- Fuel and control systems
- Measurement and indicating systems
- Engine evolution - Course conclusion
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
- Introduction
- Presentation of the engine documentation
- Exercises
- Course conclusion
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
2.1
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
2 - POWER PLANT
- Power plant ............................................................ 2.2
General ................................................................ 2.2
Description........................................................... 2.4
Operation ............................................................ 2.6
- Principle of adaptation to the helicopter ............. 2.10
- Main characteristics ............................................. 2.12
- Design and development ....................................... 2.18 to 2.21
2.2
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - GENERAL
Function
The power plant provides power by transforming the
energy contained in the air and fuel into shaft power.
Main characteristics
- Type: free turbine turboshaft engine with integral
reduction gearbox and front power drive
- Concept: modular
- Power: 350 kW class (470 Shp)
- Output shaft rotation speed: 6016 RPM (100% N2)
- Mass dry (with DCU and specific equipment): approx.
111.5 kg (246 lbs)
Note: Specific equipment: air inlet guard, exhaust pipe
and DCU.
Main components
- Turboshaft engine with specific equipment
- Digital Control Unit (DCU).
2.3
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - GENERAL
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(DCU)
AIR
AIR
GAS
Power:
350 kW class (470 Shp)
Output shaft rotation speed:
6016 RPM (at 100% N2)
POWER PLANT
Type:
Free turbine turboshaft engine
with integral reduction gearbox
and front power drive
Concept:
Modular
Mass dry:
111.5 kg (246 lbs)
with "specific equipment"
POWER
FUEL
2.4
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - ENGINE DESCRIPTION
This description considers the engine main functional
components.
Reduction gearbox
- Reduction gear train and main power drive
- Accessory drive train.
Gas generator
- Annular air intake
- Single stage centrifugal compressor
- Reverse flow annular combustion chamber
- Single stage axial turbine.
Power turbine
- Single stage axial turbine
- Co-axial transmission shaft, housed in the gas generator
shaft.
Exhaust pipe
- Exhaust pipe mounted on the turbine casing flange.
2.5
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - ENGINE DESCRIPTION
AIR
INTAKE
CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
TURBINE
REDUCTION GEARBOX
ACCESSORY
DRIVE TRAIN
REDUCTION
GEAR TRAIN
MAIN
POWER DRIVE
GAS GENERATOR
EXHAUST
PIPE
POWER TURBINE
2.6
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - OPERATION
This part deals with the basic operation of the engine.
Reduction gearbox
- The reduction gear train provides a reduced speed output
for the main power drive
- The accessory drive train drives the various engine
accessories.
Gas generator
- Admission of the air through the air intake
- Compression of the air in the centrifugal compressor
- Combustion of the fuel/air mixture in a reverse flow
annular combustion chamber
- Gas expansion in the single stage axial turbine to drive
the centrifugal compressor and the various engine
accessories.
Power turbine
- Gas expansion in the single stage power turbine to drive
the main power drive through the reduction gear train.
Digital Control Unit
- Control and monitoring of the engine operation.
2.7
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - OPERATION
AIR ADMISSION
GAS GENERATOR
COMPRESSION COMBUSTION EXPANSION
REDUCTION GEARBOX
ACCESSORY
DRIVE
POWER
DRIVE
EXPANSION
POWER TURBINE
FUEL
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT
(engine control and monitoring)
AIR
GAS
2.8
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - OPERATION -
ADAPTATION
This part deals with the parameters and the adaptation of
the gas generator and power turbine functional assemblies.
Component adaptation
For the engine operation, two functional assemblies can be
considered:
- The gas generator which provides kinetic energy
- The power turbine which transforms this kinetic energy
into mechanical power on a shaft.
The two assemblies have different rotation speeds.
Gas generator
The gas generator operation is defined by:
- The air mass flow G (air flow which enters the engine)
- The air pressure P3 and air temperature t3 at the
centrifugal compressor outlet
- The fuel flow Q injected into the combustion chamber
- The gas temperature TET at the turbine entry
- The rotation speed N1 of the gas generator
- The kinetic energy Ec supplied to the power turbine.
Power turbine
The power turbine operation is defined by the balance
between the power received from the gas generator and the
torque applied on the shaft; that is: the torque C and the
rotation speed N2.
Operation
The operation is represented by the diagram below which
shows the power W, the rotation speeds N1 and N2 and the
max. torque limit C imposed by the mechanical
transmission.
- The torque C is a function of the N2 rotation speed (the
torque is an inverse function of the speed)
- The power W is equal to the torque C multiplied by the
angular velocity .
- At constant N2 speed, the power is only a function of the
torque
- The engine parameters can be represented as a function
of a reference parameter; N1 for example.
2.9
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER PLANT - OPERATION - ADAPTATION
G
(air mass
flow)
N1
(rotation speed)
N2
(constant rotation speed)
C
(shaft torque)
Q
(fuel flow)
TET
(turbine entry
temperature)
P3, t3
(compressor outlet
pressure and temperature)
Ec
(kinetic
energy)
W
(shaft power)
GAS GENERATOR POWER TURBINE
ENGINE
PARAMETERS
Power W and speeds N1, N2
P3/P0: Compression ratio
CH: Hourly fuel consumption
SFC: Specific fuel consumption
Torque C as a function of N2
M
a
x
.

t
o
r
q
u
e
Isospeeds
N1
W
N2
C
N2 N1
G
P
3
/
P
0
W
C
H
T
E
T
SFC
W = C .
=
2 N
60
2.10
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PRINCIPLE OF ADAPTATION TO THE
HELICOPTER
Power transmission
The mechanical power supplied by the engine, is used to
drive the helicopter rotors through a mechanical
transmission.
This power drives:
- The main rotor (approximately 82%)
- The tail rotor (approximately 10%)
- The main gearbox (approximately 8%).
Power plant installation (twin-engine
configuration)
The engines are installed at the rear of the main gearbox.
The power turbines of the two engines are mechanically
connected to the main gearbox which drives the rotors
(main and tail rotors).
Installation requirements
The main functional requirements of the installation are:
- Constant rotation speed NR in all operating conditions
- Max. torque limit C (usually imposed by the mechanical
transmission)
- Complete engine protection (against N2 overspeed,
TET overtemperature, compressor surge, flame-out...)
- Good load sharing in twin-engine configuration.
Adaptation to requirements
To have a constant rotation speed of the power turbine N2,
the power supplied by the engine is automatically adapted
to the needs. This adaptation is ensured by the control
system which meters the fuel flow injected into the
combustion chamber so as to deliver the required power
(variation of the gas generator N1 rotation speed) while
keeping the engine within its operational limits.
2.11
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PRINCIPLE OF ADAPTATION TO THE HELICOPTER
N2
N2
N2
W
t
ADAPTATION TO REQUIREMENTS
MAIN GEARBOX 8%
MAIN ROTOR
82%
TAIL ROTOR
10%
POWER TRANSMISSION TWIN-ENGINE CONFIGURATION
MAIN ROTOR
TAIL
ROTOR
Power - W
INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
Max. torque
(C)
NR
N1, N2, TET...
Time
ENGINE
100%
ENGINE
ENGINE 2
ENGINE 1
MAIN
GEARBOX
2.12
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (1)
Engine ratings
The operational ratings correspond to given conditions of
helicopter operation. The ratings are generally defined
under determined speed and atmosphere conditions
(altitude and temperature).
The following operational ratings are considered:
- AEO ratings (All Engines Operating):
Max. Take-Off Power (MTOP): max. rating which
can be used during take-off. This rating has a limited
duration (5 minutes continuous)
Max. Continuous Power (MCP): rating which can be
used without time limitation (this does not imply that
it is used continuously)
- OEI ratings (One Engine Inoperative)
OEI 2 min. 30 sec. (Max. Contingency Power):
rating which can be used in the case of one engine
failure during take-off or landing. This rating is
usually limited to a period of continuous operation (2
minutes 30 seconds, 15 minutes max. cumulated)
OEI 30 min. (Intermediate Contingency Power):
rating which can be used in the case of one engine
failure in flight. This rating is usually limited to 30
minutes.
Note: The power indicated corresponds to the following
configuration: engine installed, max. torque in the
corresponding rating, ISA conditions at sea level.
2.13
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE RATINGS
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (1)
O.E.I. RATINGS
W
A.E.O. RATINGS
MTOP
5 min.
MCP
Continuous
OEI
2 min. 30 sec.
OEI
30 min.
2.14
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (2)
Operational performance
The values given are min. performance in determined
conditions:
- ISA condition, sea level
- No air bleed
- On test bench with no air intake and exhaust losses
- Under specified N1 speeds (those corresponding to the
ratings).
Power (W): power available on the engine output shaft
considering the corresponding torque limitation. It is
expressed in kilowatt (kW) or Shaft horse power (Shp).
Fuel consumption (CH): fuel quantity consumed in one
unit of time; expressed in kilogrammes per hour (kg/hr).
Specific fuel consumption (SFC): fuel quantity required to
produce one unit of power per unit of time: SFC = CH/W;
expressed in grammes per kilowatt per hour (g/kW.hr)
2.15
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (2)
For the 1M and 1E versions,
refer to the maintenance manual
Power
< 390 g/kW.h at 221 kW
(0.640 lb/HP.hr at 296 Shp)
Ratings
Specific fuel consumption SFC
Max. N1 rotation
speed in RPM
MTOP (5 min.) *
MCP
kW Shp
ARRIUS 1A: example of values
388
357
340
296
520
478
456
397
N1: 54117 RPM (100%).
N2: 45438 RPM (100%) 1M/1A/1E
*: The N1 speed of the Max. Take-Off Power (calculated as a function of the
ambient pressure and temperature) corresponds to the "0" of the N1 difference
indicator (N1 indicator).
The power indicated corresponds to the following configuration: ISA conditions, Z=0, on test bed or bench
56119
55307
54658
53305
103.7%
102.2%
101%
98.5%
OEI
2 min. 30 sec.
OEI
30 min.
2.16
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (3)
Engine operating envelope
The engine is designed to operate within a given climatic
envelope.
The envelope is defined by:
- The atmospheric temperature t0
- The pressure altitude Zp
- And lines of standard atmosphere.
Flight envelope
The flight envelope is illustrated by the t0/Zp diagram and
the lines of standard atmosphere, with the max. tropical
zone and the min. arctic zone.
Engine starting and relight envelope
The starting and relight envelope is defined in the same
way, but it is also affected by the specifications of oil and
fuel used, and sometimes by particular instructions.
Limitations
The engine operates within various limits: rotation speeds,
temperatures, pressures
Refer to corresponding chapters and official publications.
2.17
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE OPERATING ENVELOPE
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (3)
6100 m
(20000 ft)
+50C
(+122 F)
5000 m
(16400 ft)
+50C
(+122F)
-50C
(-89.6F)
-20C
(-4F)
-500 m
(-1640 ft)
-50C
(-89.6 F)
-500 m
(-1640 ft)
0 m (0 ft)
0 m (0 ft)
ALTITUDE Zp
TEMPERATURE
t0
M
A
X
.

T
R
O
P
I
C
A
L
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

A
T
M
O
S
P
H
E
R
E
A
R
T
I
C
NORMAL
ENVELOPE
ENVELOPE
ENLARGEMENT
WITH PARTICULAR
INSTRUCTIONS
FLIGHT ENVELOPE ENGINE STARTING AND
RELIGHT ENVELOPE
STARTING
LIMIT
ALTITUDE Zp
TEMPERATURE
t0
M
I
N
.
2.18
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (1)
Design principles
The engine is designed to meet the aircraft propulsion
requirements and particularly for the new generation of
helicopters.
The engine design is based on:
- An optimised thermodynamic cycle which allows high
performance
- Simple and reliable components giving a good
supportability, and a good maintainability to reduce the
costs.
Engine development
The ARRIUS 1 engine is based on the research and
experience of other engines:
- First generation engines: ASTAZOU, ARTOUSTE and
TURMO
- Second generation engines: ARRIEL, MAKILA
- New generation engines: ARRIUS, TM 333, MTR 390
and RTM322.
Development steps
The main steps of engine development are:
- September 1981: launch
- 1983: pre-qualification tests (50 h)
- May 1983: first flight
- December 1987: D.G.A.C. certification.
Engine designation
ARRIUS - According to Turbomeca tradition: name of a
Pyrenean lake.
- 1: Type
- A: Variant
- 1: Version
2.19
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (1)
1983
1st Flight
ARRIUS
450 Shp
TM 333
850 Shp
MTR 390
1200 Shp
RTM 322
2100 Shp
ARRIEL
650 - 700 Shp
MAKILA
1700 - 1800 Shp
ASTAZOU
500 - 1000 Shp
TURMO
1500 - 1600 Shp
ARTOUSTE
400 - 850 Shp
STEPS
TIME
1987
D.G.A.C.
certification
1981
Launching
DEVELOPMENT STEPS ENGINE DESIGNATION
ENGINE DEVELOPMENT
Optimised thermodynamic
cycle
Simple and reliable
components
Supportability
Maintainability
Cost reduction High performance
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
Engine design
Example: ARRIUS 1A1
ARRIUS: Pyrenean lake
1: Type
A: Variant
1: Version
ARRIUS lake
2.20
POWER PLANT
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (2)
Application
The ARRIUS 1 engine is designed for the following
applications:
- Twin engine AS 355 Ecureuil: ARRIUS 1A-E
- Twin engine AS 555 Fennec: ARRIUS 1M.
Maintenance concept
The ARRIUS 1 is designed to provide a high availability
rate with reduced maintenance costs.
The main aspects of the maintenance concept are the
following:
- Full modularity
- Good accessibility
- Reduced removal and installation times
- "On condition" monitoring
- High initial TBO
- Low cost of ownership:
Low production costs
Durability (defined and proven TBO and life limits)
High reliability
Low fuel consumption.
Engine fleet status
In ......, we can note:
- Number of engines produced: ...
- Operating hours: ...
2.21
POWER PLANT
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (2)
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
- Full modularity
- Good accessibility
- Reduced removal and installation times
- "On condition" monitoring
- High initial TBO
- Low cost of ownership:
Low production costs
Durability (defined and proven TBO
and life limits)
High reliability
Low fuel consumption.
FLEET STATUS
- Number of engines produced
- ARRIUS 1 operating hours
Twin engine AS 355 Squirrel Twin engine AS 555 Fennec
Arrius 1A - E Arrius 1M
3.1
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
3 - ENGINE
- Engine ..................................................................... 3.2
- Air intake (72-42-10 and 75-30-01) ..................... 3.8
- Compressor (72-42-20) ......................................... 3.10
- Combustion chamber (72-42-40) .......................... 3.16
- Gas generator turbine (72-42-30) ......................... 3.22
- Power turbine (72-42-50) ..................................... 3.28
- Exhaust system (78-10-01) .................................... 3.34
- Reduction gearbox (72-11-10) .............................. 3.38
Reduction gear train (72-11-10) ...................... 3.40
Accessory drive train (72-11-20) ..................... 3.46 to 3.51
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
3.2
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE - GENERAL
Function
The engine transforms the energy in the fuel and air into
mechanical power on a shaft.
Main characteristics
- Type: free turbine, integral reduction gearbox and front
power drive
- Gas generator rotation speed N1: 54117 RPM (100%)
Direction of rotation: anti-clockwise (ACW)
- Power turbine rotation speed N2: 45438 RPM (100%)
Direction of rotation: clockwise (CW)
- Power drive rotation speed: 6016 RPM (100% N2)
Direction of rotation: clockwise (CW).
Note: Direction of rotation given viewed from the rear.
Main components
- Reduction gearbox (reduction gear train and accessory
drive train)
- Gas generator (air intake, centrifugal compressor,
combustion chamber, turbine)
- Power turbine.
3.3
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE - GENERAL
Type
Free turbine, integral reduction
gearbox and front power drive
Gas generator (N1)
54117 RPM (100%) - ACW
Power turbine (N2)
45438 RPM (100%) - CW
Output shaft
6016 RPM (100% N2) - CW
POWER
TURBINE
TURBINE CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
REDUCTION
GEAR TRAIN
AIR
INTAKE
ACCESSORY
DRIVE TRAIN
3.4
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE - DESCRIPTION
Main functional components
- Reduction gearbox
Reduction gear train
Accessory drive train
- Gas generator
Annular air intake
Single stage centrifugal compressor
Annular, reverse flow combustion chamber
Single stage axial turbine
- Power turbine
Single stage axial turbine
Coaxial transmission shaft.
Modular layout
The engine comprises 2 modules:
- Module M01: Reduction gear train and accessory drive
train
- Module M02: Gas generator (air intake, centrifugal
compressor, combustion chamber and turbine) and power
turbine.
Note 1: A module is a sub-assembly which can be
replaced on-site (2nd line maintenance) without
complex tooling or adaptation work.
Each module has an identification plate. The
engine identification plate is fitted on the face of
the reduction gearbox casing.
Note 2: Some accessories are provided with each
module.
In these training notes, those components are
dealt with in the chapters corresponding to the
main systems.
3.5
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE - DESCRIPTION
M01 MODULE
REDUCTION GEARBOX
M02 MODULE
GAS GENERATOR AND POWER TURBINE
M01 module
identification
plate
Engine
identification
plate
M02 module
identification
plate
3.6
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE - OPERATION
The process comprises admission, compression,
combustion, expansion and power transmission.
Compression
The ambient air is compressed by a single stage centrifugal
compressor.
This phase is essentially characterised by the air flow
(1.6 kg/s; 3.5 lbs/sec.) and the compression ratio (approx.
8.5).
Combustion
The compressed air is admitted into the combustion
chamber, mixed with the fuel and burnt in a continuous
process.
The air is divided into two flows:
- A primary air flow for combustion
- A secondary air flow for the cooling of the gas.
This phase is essentially characterised by the temperature
rise (flame temperature approx. 2500C; 4530F) and a
pressure drop of about 4%.
Expansion
- In the gas generator turbine which extracts the energy
required to drive the compressor (N1 speed: 54117 RPM
at 100%, ACW).
During this phase, the gas pressure and temperature drop
whilst the velocity increases
- In the power turbine which extracts most of the remaining
energy to drive the power drive through the reduction
gearbox (N2 speed: 45438 RPM at 100%, CW).
After the expansion through the power turbine, the gas
are discharged overboard through an outlet diffuser and
a divergent exhaust pipe. The expansion phase goes on
and the gas are expelled overboard with a slight residual
forward thrust.
Note: The engine reference stations are:
1 - Ambient air
2 - Compressor inlet
3 - Compressor outlet
4 - Gas generator turbine inlet
4.5 - Gas generator turbine outlet
5 - Power turbine outlet.
3.7
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE - OPERATION
4.5 4 5
P kPa
(PSI)
TC
(F)
15
320
(59)
(608)
3 2 1
101.3
861
826.5
1000
230
(14.6)
(125)
(1832)
(120)
(33.3)
800
(1472)
100
(14.5)
Gas generator
54117 RPM (100%) - ACW
FUEL
AMBIENT AIR
1.6 kg/s
(3.5 lbs/sec.)
Power turbine
45438 RPM (100%) - CW
Residual thrust
ROTATION SPEED
EXHAUST
2500C (4532F)
Primary air
(combustion air)
Secondary air
(dilution air)
Gas
Values given for
information at a
given reference rating
ADMISSION
Compressor
Combustion
chamber Turbines
EXPANSION COMBUSTION COMPRESSION
Exhaust
3.8
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR INTAKE
Function
The air intake directs the ambient air into the centrifugal
compressor.
Position
- At the front of the centrifugal compressor.
Main characteristics
- Type: annular
- Air flow: 1.6 kg/s (3.5 lbs/sec.).
Description
The air intake includes the following components:
- Air intake casing. It is made of aluminium alloy. It is
annular with a parallel passage. It is secured by a ring of
bolts to the rear casing of the reduction gearbox at the
front and to the centrifugal compressor front cover and
the intermediate casing at the rear. The internal hub of
the air intake casing, which is supported by four struts,
houses the gas generator front bearing
- Air intake guard. It is made of two half screens. One of
them has an orifice for borescopic inspection. It is
secured around the air intake casing.
- Compressor washing device (optional). The washing
device comprises a supply union, an internal duct and a
jet to spray the washing product.
Operation
The ambient air is admitted through the aircraft air intake
duct, the plenum, the intake guard and the engine air
intake.
If the intake guard becomes obstructed the air can pass
through the inner part of the guard as a "by-pass".
3.9
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR INTAKE
Type
Annular
Air flow
1.6 kg/s (3.5 lbs/sec.)
NORMAL
SUPPLY
BY-PASS
SUPPLY
ENGINE AIR
INTAKE CASING
STREAMLINED
STRUT
FRONT
BEARING
AIR INTAKE
GUARD
MOUNTING FLANGE
(on air intake casing)
10 mm ORIFICE
(compressor washing -
borescopic inspection)
COMPRESSOR
WASHING DEVICE
(optional)
SUPPLY
UNION
AIR INTAKE
GUARD
3.10
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMPRESSOR - GENERAL
Function
The centrifugal compressor provides the compressed air
required for combustion.
Position
- At the rear of the air intake casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: centrifugal, single stage
- Overall compression ratio: approx. 8.5
- Rotation speed: N1; ACW.
Main components
- Rotating component (centrifugal wheel)
- Stationary components (diffuser assembly, front cover,
intermediate casing).
3.11
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMPRESSOR - GENERAL
Type
Centrifugal, single stage
Overall compression
ratio
approx. 8.5
Rotation speed
N1; ACW
CENTRIFUGAL
WHEEL
INTERMEDIATE
CASING
FRONT
COVER
DIFFUSER
ASSEMBLY
3.12
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMPRESSOR - DESCRIPTION
The centrifugal compressor assembly includes rotating
and stationary components.
Rotating components
The main rotating component is the centrifugal impeller.
The wheel has blades which are cut from the solid in a disc
of titanium alloy.
The rear part has a curvic-coupling for the connection to
the gas generator turbine.
The wheel is mounted on the gas generator shaft.
Stationary components
The stationary assembly includes the casings and the
diffuser assembly.
The compressor front cover houses the centrifugal
compressor and is provided with an abradable coating
which gives a reduced clearance. The cover fits into the air
intake casing. It is bolted to the intermediate casing by
means of a ring of bolts.
The diffuser assembly comprises the first stage diffuser
formed by radial stator vanes and the second stage diffuser
formed by axial stator vanes. The rear cover of the diffuser
assembly separates the compressor from the combustion
chamber. It is bolted to the intermediate casing by a ring of
bolts.
The intermediate casing ensures the mechanical
connection between the air intake casing and the external
casing.
3.13
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMPRESSOR - DESCRIPTION
AIR INTAKE
CASING
INTERMEDIATE
CASING
CENTRIFUGAL IMPELLER
(titanium impeller with
blades cut from the solid)
DIFFUSER
ASSEMBLY
CURVIC-COUPLING
FRONT COVER
(provided with an
abradable coating)
GAS GENERATOR
SHAFT
REAR
COVER
INTERMEDIATE
CASING
AIR INTAKE
CASING
FRONT
COVER
DIFFUSER
ASSEMBLY
CENTRIFUGAL
IMPELLER
3.14
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMPRESSOR - OPERATION
The compressor ensures the compression stage.
Compressor air flow
The air from the air intake flows into the centrifugal
compressor.
The air flows between the blades of the centrifugal
compressor. The air pressure increases due to the divergent
passage between the blades and the air velocity increases
due to the centrifugal flow.
The air leaves the tips of the blades at a very high velocity
and then flows through the first stage diffuser vanes where
the velocity reduces and the pressure increases.
The air then passes through an elbow and the flow becomes
axial. In the second stage diffuser, the velocity is again
reduced and the pressure increased. This air is then admitted
into the combustion chamber.
3.15
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMPRESSOR - OPERATION
AIR STRAIGHTENING
AND COMPRESSION
AIR ADMISSION
AIR ACCELERATION
AND COMPRESSION
AIR ADMITTED INTO
THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER
3.16
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - GENERAL
Function
The combustion chamber burns the fuel/air mixture and
delivers the gas thus generated to the turbine.
Position
- Central section of the gas generator.
Main characteristics
- Type: annular, reverse flow
- Overall fuel/air ratio: 1/45.
Main components
- Flame tube
- Inner and outer elbows
- External casing.
3.17
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - GENERAL
EXTERNAL
CASING
Type
Annular, reverse flow
Overall fuel/air ratio
1/45
OUTER
ELBOW
INNER
ELBOW
FLAME TUBE
3.18
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - DESCRIPTION
The combustion chamber assembly includes the external
casing, the flame tube, the external and internal elbows
and the fuel injection system.
External casing
This casing houses the combustion chamber. It has bosses
for the mounting of the main injectors, the start injectors,
the igniter plugs, the air tappings and the combustion
chamber purge valve.
There is also a borescope port for inspection.
The external casing is bolted at the front to the diffuser
assembly and to the intermediate casing.
Flame tube
The flame tube is made of special alloy. It forms an
enclosure in which the fuel/air mixture is burnt. It has
numerous calibrated orifices for the passage of air.
The flame tube fits in the outer and inner elbows by sliding
contacts. It is maintained inside the external casing and
centered by the igniter plug housings and two centering
pins.
Note: The calibrated orifices are drilled using the electron
beam process.
Outer elbow
The outer elbow directs the gas to the turbine nozzle guide
vane. It is attached to the diffuser holder plate and to the
nozzle guide vane of the gas generator turbine.
Inner elbow
The inner elbow is mounted on the turbine nozzle guide
vane.
Fuel injection system
- The start fuel injection is ensured by 4 simple injectors
located on the combustion chamber casing, 2 are close
to the igniter plugs
- The main fuel injection is ensured by nine main injectors
and a "preference" injector, all located on the rear face
of the combustion chamber casing. The injectors
penetrate into T-shaped tubes welded at the rear of the
flame tube.
Refer to chapter "FUEL SYSTEM" for more information
about the fuel injection system.
3.19
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - DESCRIPTION
MAIN
INJECTOR
FLAME
TUBE
START
INJECTOR
IGNITER
PLUG
VAPORISER
TUBE
VAPORISER
TUBE
EXTERNAL
CASING
INNER
ELBOW
OUTER
ELBOW
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANE
OUTER
ELBOW
INNER
ELBOW
(with nozzle
guide vane)
FLAME
TUBE
3.20
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - OPERATION
The combustion chamber forms an enclosure in which the
fuel/air mixture is burnt.
Flow in the combustion chamber
In the combustion chamber, the compressed air is divided
into two flows: a primary air flow mixed with the fuel for
combustion and a secondary air flow (or dilution air flow)
for cooling.
Primary air
The primary air flows through the calibrated orifices of the
flame tube and through the hollow vanes of the turbine
nozzle guide vane (cooling of the vanes).
In the flame tube, the primary air is mixed with the fuel
sprayed by the injectors. The combustion occurs inside the
flame tube. The flame temperature reaches approx. 2500C
(4530F).
Secondary air
The secondary air (or dilution air) flows through the
orifices of the flame tube. It is calibrated to obtain flame
stability, cooling of the gas and an even distribution of
temperature on the turbine.
Gas
The gas flow rearward through the combustion chamber
elbow and then through the turbine nozzle guide vane.
3.21
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - OPERATION
PRIMARY AIR
(combustion)
SECONDARY AIR
(dilution)
GAS
FUEL
INJECTION
GAS DIRECTED
TO THE TURBINE
COMPRESSED
AIR
COMBUSTION
2500C (4530F)
3.22
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - GENERAL
Function
The turbine extracts sufficient energy from the gas flow to
drive the centrifugal compressor and the engine accessories.
Position
- At the rear of the gas generator.
Main characteristics
- Type: axial, single stage turbine with uncooled inserted
blades
- Rotation speed: N1; ACW.
Main components
- Rotating components (wheel, shaft, bearing)
- Stationary components (nozzle guide vane, intermediate
diffuser, containment shield).
3.23
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - GENERAL
BEARING
SHAFT
CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANE
Type
Axial, single stage turbine
with uncooled inserted blades
Rotation speed
N1; ACW
WHEEL
INTERMEDIATE
DIFFUSER
3.24
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - DESCRIPTION
The gas generator turbine assembly includes rotating and
stationary components.
Rotating components
The main rotating component is the turbine wheel. The
wheel consists of a disc with fir-tree mounted single
crystal blades.
At the front, the wheel is coupled to the centrifugal
compressor shaft by a curvic-coupling.
The rear part of the gas generator is supported by a roller
bearing.
Rotating labyrinth seals ensure the sealing of the bearing.
A nut at the rear secures the turbine wheel labyrinth and
bearing to the gas generator shaft.
A balance piston is located on the front of the turbine
wheel.
Stationary components
The main stationary components are the turbine nozzle
guide vane, the containment shield and the intermediate
diffuser.
The turbine nozzle guide vane includes a row of hollow
vanes through which the cooling air flows. It is bolted to
the combustion chamber inner part and to the containment
shield.
The containment shield is located around the turbine wheel
to ensure its containment in case of blade failure.
The intermediate diffuser ensures the gas flow from the gas
generator to the power turbine. Its internal hub houses the
gas generator rear bearing. The diffuser also includes
struts which house the lubrication tubes for the rear bearings.
3.25
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - DESCRIPTION
TURBINE WHEEL
(inserted blades)
ROLLER
BEARING
CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
BALANCE
PISTON
CURVIC-COUPLING
(with compressor)
INTERMEDIATE
DIFFUSER
TURBINE NOZZLE
GUIDE VANE
(hollow vanes)
GAS GENERATOR
SHAFT
SECURING
NUT
TURBINE BLADE
(fir-tree root)
REAR BEARING
(roller)
NOZZLE
GUIDE VANE
GAS GENERATOR
SHAFT
LABYRINTH
SEAL
(rear)
BALANCE
PISTON
TURBINE
WHEEL
3.26
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - OPERATION
The gas generator turbine transforms the kinetic energy
contained in the gas into mechanical power required to
drive the compressor and the engine accessories.
Turbine gas flow
The gas from the combustion chamber first flows through
the nozzle guide vanes. The gas velocity increases due to
the convergent passage.
The flow over the turbine blades results in aerodynamic
forces whose resultant causes the rotation of the wheel and
drives the compressor and the engine accessories.
The gas, still containing energy, is directed to the power
turbine through the intermediate diffuser.
3.27
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - OPERATION
COMPRESSOR AND
ACCESSORY DRIVE
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANE
GAS FROM THE
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
TURBINE WHEEL
ROTATION
GAS DIRECTED TO
THE POWER TURBINE
Nozzle
guide vane
Turbine
wheel
Rotation
3.28
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER TURBINE - GENERAL
Function
The power turbine extracts the energy which remains in
the gas to drive the power drive through the reduction gear
train.
Position
- At the rear of the engine. It belongs to the M02 module.
Main characteristics
- Type: axial, single stage, one piece wheel (or disc and
fir-tree mounted blades after TU71) mounted on the
power turbine shaft
- Rotation speed: N2; CW.
Main components
- Rotating components (wheel, shaft, bearing)
- Stationary components (nozzle guide vane, containment
shield, casing, internal hub, bearing cage).
3.29
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER TURBINE - GENERAL
Type
Axial, single stage, one piece wheel
(or disc and fir-tree mounted blades after TU71)
mounted on the power turbine shaft
Rotation speed
N2; CW
WHEEL
POWER TURBINE
NOZZLE GUIDE VANE
SHAFT
BEARING
INTERNAL
HUB
BEARING
CAGE
POWER TURBINE
CASING
CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
3.30
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER TURBINE - DESCRIPTION
The power turbine assembly belongs to the M02 module.
It includes rotating components and stationary components.
Rotating components
The main rotating component is the turbine wheel. It is a
one piece wheel ( or disc and fir-tree mounted blades after
TU71) mounted on the power turbine shaft.
The power turbine shaft is supported by a ball bearing
(squeeze film bearing) housed in the intermediate diffuser
internal hub. Rotating labyrinth seals ensure the bearing
sealing.
The power turbine shaft passes through the hollow shaft of
the gas generator. At the front, it has splines for the
mounting of the reduction gear train drive gear.
Stationary components
The main stationary components are the nozzle guide
vane, the containment shield and the casing.
The nozzle guide vane forms a one piece assembly of
vanes located between external and internal rings.
The containment shield is located around the external
ring of the nozzle guide vane. It ensures the blade
containment in case of blade breaking.
The power turbine casing is bolted to the gas generator
external casing. It is formed by an outer case and an inner
case connected by four hollow struts. Two struts house the
oil tubes for the lubrication of the power turbine bearing
and the gas generator turbine bearing.
The internal hub supports the bearing cage. The lubrication
tubes are screwed into the internal hub. The internal hub is
secured at the rear to the power turbine casing.
The bearing cage supports the power turbine ball bearing
and the gas generator roller bearing.
3.31
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER TURBINE - DESCRIPTION
INTERNAL
HUB
INTERNAL
HUB
BALL
BEARING
POWER TURBINE
SHAFT
BEARING
CAGE
LABYRINTH
SEALS
SPLINES
(to drive the input gear
of the reduction gear train)
LUBRICATION
TUBE
POWER TURBINE
NOZZLE GUIDE VANE
CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
POWER TURBINE
CASING
POWER TURBINE
CASING
POWER
TURBINE
TURBINE
SHAFT
BEARING
CAGE
PHONIC
WHEEL
POWER TURBINE
BEARING
(ball bearing)
SECURING NUT
(to secure the bearing
on the shaft)
POWER TURBINE
WHEEL
3.32
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER TURBINE - OPERATION
The power turbine transforms the gas energy provided by
the gas generator into mechanical power to drive the
power drive through the reduction gear train.
Power turbine flow
The gas supplied by the gas generator flows first through
the nozzle guide vane in which the velocity increases due
to the convergent passage.
The gas is directed onto the turbine wheel and the resultant
of the aerodynamic forces on the blades causes the wheel
to rotate and drive the power drive through the reduction
gear train.
The gas is then expelled overboard through the exhaust
pipe.
3.33
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER TURBINE - OPERATION
Nozzle
guide vane
Turbine
wheel
Rotation
GAS FROM THE
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE
NOZZLE
GUIDE VANE
POWER TURBINE
WHEEL ROTATION
GAS EXPELLED
OVERBOARD
REDUCTION
GEAR TRAIN DRIVE
3.34
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
EXHAUST SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The exhaust system continues the expansion phase and
expels the gas overboard.
It also ensures the axial containment of the power turbine
wheel.
Position
- Behind the power turbine.
Main characteristics
- Type: axial, exhaust pipe with extension
- Replaceable non modular component.
Main components
- Exhaust pipe
- Extension
- Mounting clamp (M02 module)
- Heat shield
- Oil system vent pipe
- Central cone.
3.35
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
EXHAUST SYSTEM - GENERAL
EXHAUST
PIPE
EXHAUST
PIPE
OIL SYSTEM
VENT PIPE
MOUNTING
CLAMP
(M02 module)
EXTENSION
CENTRAL
CONE
HEAT SHIELD
Type
Axial, exhaust pipe
with extension
Replaceable non
modular component
3.36
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
EXHAUST SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION -
OPERATION
Description
The main components of the exhaust system are:
The exhaust pipe which is a sheet metal worked assembly.
It includes a central cone which improves the gas flow and
reduces the residual thrust. The exhaust pipe has bosses for
the drain unions and a boss for the oil system vent pipe.
The venturi extension which increases the cooling air
flow through the engine compartment by venturi effect.
The mounting clamp which secures the exhaust pipe to
the turbine casing rear part.
Note: The central cone is design to ensure the axial
containment of the power turbine wheel.
Operation
The gas are expelled overboard through the divergent
passage of the exhaust diffuser and exhaust pipe. They still
have a certain amount of energy causing a slight residual
thrust.
The exhaust system collects the oil system general air vent.
The gap between the exhaust pipe and the extension
improves the engine compartment ventilation.
3.37
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
EXHAUST SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Oil system
vent pipe
CLAMP
GAS EXHAUST
Engine compartment air suction
by Venturi effect
POWER
TURBINE
EXHAUST PIPE EXTENSION
CENTRAL
CONE
3.38
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEARBOX
General
Function
The reduction gearbox drives the main power drive and the
various accessories required for the engine operation.
Position
- At the front of the engine; it forms the M01 module.
Main characteristics
- Casings: light alloy
- Gears: steel
Reduction gear train: helical gears
Accessory drive train: spur gears
- Power drive:
Rotation speed: 6016 RPM (100% N2)
Direction of rotation: CW
Main components
- Front and rear casings
- Reduction gear train
- Accessory drive train
- Accessories installed on the reduction gearbox.
3.39
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEARBOX
POWER DRIVE
6016 RPM (100% N2) - CW
ACCESSORY
DRIVE TRAIN
REDUCTION
GEAR TRAIN
REAR
CASING
FRONT
CASING
Casings
Light alloy
Gears
Steel
MANUFACTURING
MATERIALS
3.40
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN - GENERAL
Function
The reduction gear train provides an output drive speed to
meet the drive requirements of the helicopter rotor.
Position
- In the lower part of the reduction gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type: 1 gear train with direct output parallel to the
engine axis
- Input gear:
Type: helical gear
Rotation speed: 45438 RPM (100%)
- Double intermediate gear:
Type: helical gears
- Output gear:
Type: helical gear
Rotation speed: 6016 RPM (100%).
Main components
- Input gear
- Double intermediate gear
- Output gear
- Casings.
3.41
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN - GENERAL
Type
1 gear train with output
parallel to the engine axis
Input gear rotation speed
45438 RPM (100% N2)
Output gear rotation speed
6016 RPM (100% N2)
CASINGS
INPUT GEAR
DOUBLE INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
OUTPUT
GEAR
POWER TURBINE
SHAFT
3.42
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN - DESCRIPTION
The reduction gear train includes three gears supported by
ball and roller bearings.
Input gear
The input gear is a simple helical gear directly mounted on
the power turbine shaft by splines. It is supported by two
roller bearings.
Double intermediate gear
The intermediate gear is a double gear. One gear is driven
by the input gear and the other gear drives the output gear.
The intermediate gear is supported by two roller bearings.
The double intermediaire gear houses a hydraulic
torquemeter.
Output gear
The output gear is a simple helical gear. The output shaft
is fitted with a triangular flange for the adaptation to the
helicopter transmission.
The output gear is supported by a roller bearing at the front
and a ball bearing at the rear.
A graphite seal ensures the sealing of the power drive.
3.43
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN - DESCRIPTION
GRAPHITE
SEAL
INPUT
GEAR
INPUT
GEAR
DOUBLE
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
OUTPUT
GEAR
POWER
DRIVE
HYDRAULIC
TORQUEMETER
3.44
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN - OPERATION
The reduction gear train provides a forward output drive at
a reduced speed to meet the drive requirements of the
helicopter.
It also houses an engine torque measuring system.
Operation of the reduction gear train
The drive gear is driven by the transmission shaft splines
at the power turbine rotation speed (of approx. 45438 RPM
at 100 %). It drives the intermediate gear.
The intermediate gear then drives the output gear which
provides the main power drive at a speed of 6016 RPM.
Operation of the torquemeter
The engine torque measuring system is a hydraulic
torquemeter housed in the double intermediate gear.
The system includes the hydraulic torquemeter, the
transmitter and the indicator.
Refer to chapter "MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEMS" for the description and operation of the engine
torque measuring system.
3.45
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN - OPERATION
INPUT
GEAR
DOUBLE
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
OUTPUT GEAR
6016 RPM - 100% N2
Front face of the reduction gearbox
POWER
TURBINE
INPUT GEAR
45438 RPM - 100% N2
3.46
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ACCESSORY DRIVE TRAIN - GENERAL
Function
Driven by the gas generator shaft, the accessory drive train
provides the mechanical power required to drive the engine
accessories.
Position
- In the upper part of the reduction gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type: spur gear train
- Drive gear rotation speed: 54117 RPM (100 % N1)
Main components
- Accessory drive train
- Casings.
3.47
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ACCESSORY DRIVE TRAIN - GENERAL
Type
Spur gear train
Drive gear rotation speed
54117 RPM (100% N1)
ACCESSORY
DRIVE TRAIN
CASINGS
3.48
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ACCESSORY DRIVE TRAIN - DESCRIPTION
The accessory drive train has 8 spur gears supported by
ball bearings.
Drive gear
The drive gear is mounted on the gas generator shaft.
- Rotation speed: 54117 RPM (100% N1).
LP fuel pump and alternator gear
It is a double gear.
Intermediate gear (1)
It is a double gear.
Oil pump gear
It is a single gear.
Intermediate gear (2)
It is a single gear.
Starter-generator gear
This gear also incorporates the centrifugal breather and the
N1 phonic wheels. It is provided with a magnetic seal.
Intermediate gear (3)
It is a double gear.
HP fuel pump gear
It is a single gear.
3.49
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ACCESSORY DRIVE TRAIN - DESCRIPTION
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (1)
OIL PUMP
GEAR
STARTER-GENERATOR GEAR
(centrifugal breather, phonic wheels)
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (3)
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (3)
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (2)
LP FUEL PUMP AND
ALTERNATOR GEAR
HP FUEL
PUMP GEAR
DRIVE
GEAR
DRIVE GEAR
(54117 RPM)
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (1)
MAGNETIC
SEAL
3.50
ENGINE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ACCESSORY DRIVE TRAIN - OPERATION
The accessory drive train drives the various accessories
required for the engine operation.
Operation engine running
The drive gear is directly driven by the gas generator shaft
at a speed of 54117 RPM (100% N1). It drives the double
intermediate gear which then drives:
- The oil pump gear through the intermediate gear (3)
- The starter-generator gear through the intermediate gears
(2) and (3)
- The HP fuel pump through the intermediate gear (1).
Operation during starting
During starting, the starter motor drives, through the
accessory gear train, the gas generator rotating assembly.
At self-sustaining speed (approximately 50% N1), the
electrical supply to the starter motor is automatically cut.
The starter is then driven and operates as an electrical
generator.
3.51
ENGINE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ACCESSORY DRIVE TRAIN - OPERATION
Front face of the reduction gearbox
STARTER-GENERATOR GEAR
(centrifugal breather, phonic wheels)
OIL PUMP
GEAR
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (3)
LP FUEL PUMP AND
ALTERNATOR GEAR
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (1)
HP FUEL
PUMP GEAR
DRIVE GEAR
54117 RPM
(100% N1)
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR (2)
STARTER-GENERATOR
GEAR
OIL PUMP
GEAR
LP FUEL PUMP AND
ALTERNATOR GEAR
HP FUEL
PUMP GEAR
GAS GENERATOR
SHAFT
4.1
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
4 - OIL SYSTEM
- Oil system (79-00-00) ............................................ 4.2
- Oil reservoir .......................................................... 4.8
- Oil pumps (79-20-01) ............................................ 4.10
- Oil filter (79-20-02) ............................................... 4.14
- Pre-blockage pressure switch (79-00-00) ............. 4.20
- Cooling unit ............................................................ 4.22
- Centrifugal breather.............................................. 4.24
- Electrical magnetic plugs (79-30-01) .................... 4.26
- Strainers (79-30-02) ............................................... 4.28
- Low oil pressure switch (79-30-03) ....................... 4.30
- Oil pressure transmitter (79-30-04)...................... 4.32
- Oil temperature probe........................................... 4.34
- Oil pipes (79-20-03) ................................................ 4.36 to 4.37
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
4.2
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The oil system ensures lubrication and cooling of the
engine. It is also used for the hydraulic torquemeter
operation.
Position
All the system components are fitted on the engine except
the cooling unit and the oil reservoir.
Main characteristics
- Type: variable pressure, full flow, dry sump system,
synthetic oil
- Max. oil temperature: 110C (230F)
- Max. oil consumption: 0.3 l/h (0.08 US G/hr)
- Oil pressure: 300 - 400 kPa (43.5 - 58 PSI)
- Low oil pressure warning: 170 kPa (24.6 PSI)
- Max. oil pressure: 1000 kPa (145 PSI)
- Total oil volume: approx. 4.8 litres (1.25 US G).
Lubrication requirements
Lubrication is required for the following components :
- Front bearing
- Rear bearings
- Gears and bearings of the reduction gear train and the
accessory drive train.
Sealing
The gas generator and power turbine bearings are sealed
by pressurised labyrinths, which are provided with
abradable deposits.
4.3
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL SYSTEM - GENERAL
Sealing:
the gas generator and power turbine bearings are
sealed by pressurised labyrinths, which are provided
with abradable deposits.
REAR
BEARINGS
FRONT
BEARING
GEARS AND BEARINGS
OF THE ACCESSORY
DRIVE TRAIN
GEARS AND BEARINGS OF
THE REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN
Type
Variable pressure, full flow,
dry sump, synthetic oil
Max. oil temperature
110C (230F)
Max. oil consumption
0.3 l/h (0.08 US G/hr)
Oil pressure
300 - 400 kPa (43.5 - 58 PSI)
Low oil pressure warning
170 kPa (24.6 PSI)
Max. oil pressure
1000 kPa (145 PSI)
Total oil volume
approx. 4.8 litres (1.25 US G)
OIL SYSTEM
ENGINE
LUBRICATION
TORQUEMETER
ENGINE
COOLING
4.4
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
The main components of the oil system are:
Oil reservoir
The oil reservoir contains the volume of oil required to
lubricate the engine.
It is installed in the aircraft and is supplied by the aircraft
manufacturer.
Oil pump assembly
The pump assembly includes one pressure pump and two
scavenge pumps which ensure the oil circulation in the
system.
The pumps are mechanically driven by the accessory drive
train.
The pressure pump is provided with a pressure relief valve.
The pumps are installed on the gearbox casing front face.
Oil filter
The filter retains any particles which may be contained in
the oil. The filter includes a by-pass valve and a pre-
blockage pressure switch.
It is located on the upper part of the gearbox casing.
Strainers
The strainers protect the scavenge pumps from debris in
the system.
Cooling unit
The unit cools the lubricating oil by air circulation through
an oil cooler. The oil cooler is provided with a by-pass
valve.
It is installed in the aircraft and it is supplied by the aircraft
manufacturer.
Centrifugal breather
The centrifugal breather separates the oil from the air-oil
mist and vents the system.
It is located in the accessory drive train, in the upper part
of the gearbox casing.
Indicating devices
- Filter pre-blockage pressure switch
- Low oil pressure switch
- Oil pressure transmitter
- Electrical magnetic plugs
- Level indicator, temperature probe and magnetic plug
(supplied by the aircraft manufacturer).
Note: The oil system also supplies the torque transmitter.
Refer to the "MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEMS" chapter for more details.
4.5
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
SCAVENGE
PUMPS
AIRCRAFT SYSTEM ENGINE SYSTEM
OIL PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
LOW OIL
PRESSURE SWITCH
COOLING UNIT
(cooler provided with
a by-pass valve)
PRESSURE PUMP
(with pressure relief valve)
ELECTRICAL
MAGNETIC PLUGS
MAGNETIC
PLUG
STRAINER
CENTRIFUGAL
BREATHER
TORQUE
TRANSMITTER
TEMPERATURE
PROBE
OIL
RESERVOIR
OIL
FILTER
STRAINER
4.6
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION
The main functions of the oil system are: supply, scavenge,
breathing and indicating.
Supply
The supply system provides oil under pressure to the
different engine sections which require lubrication.
The pressure pump draws the oil from the reservoir and
delivers it under pressure to the system. A pressure relief
valve limits maximum pressure by returning oil to the
pump inlet.
The oil is then delivered, through the filter and a restrictor,
to the engine sections which require lubrication:
- Gears and bearings of the accessory drive train and
reduction gear train
- Gas generator front bearing
- Gas generator rear bearing
- Power turbine front bearing
- Torquemeter.
Scavenge
After lubrication, the oil falls by gravity to the bottom of
the sumps. The oil is then immediately drawn away by the
scavenge pumps and returned to the reservoir through the
cooling unit (dry sump system).
Strainers protect the scavenge pumps against any particles
which may be held in the lubrication oil.
Breathing
The reservoir oil mist and the oil mist which results from
lubrication are returned to the reduction gearbox where the
oil is separated from the air by a centrifugal breather which
vents the oil system to the exhaust through an external
pipe.
Indication of the oil system operation
The indication is ensured by the following components:
- Low oil pressure switch
- Oil pressure transmitter
- Electrical magnetic plugs
- Oil filter pre-blockage pressure switch
- Aircraft components: level indicator, magnetic plug and
temperature probe.
4.7
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION
SUPPLY
SCAVENGE
BREATHING
AIR VENT
OIL SYSTEM INDICATING
Level, pressure, temperature,
magnetic particles, low pressure
and filter pre-blockage
4.8
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL RESERVOIR
Function
The reservoir contains the volume of oil required for
engine lubrication.
Position
- It is installed in the aircraft.
Main characteristics
- Aircraft manufacturer's supply
- Oil system capacity: 4.8 litres (1.25 US G
- Max. consumption: 0.3 l/h (0.08 US G/hr).
Main components
- Filler cap
- Oil level sight glass (x 2)
- Air vent union
- Oil return union
- Oil supply union
- Magnetic drain plug
- Temperature probe.
Note: Refer to manufacturer's documentation for
description and operation information.
4.9
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL RESERVOIR
BREATHING
(to centrifugal
breather)
OIL
RETURN
OIL
SUPPLY
INTERFACES
Aircraft/Engine
MAGNETIC DRAIN
PLUG
Aircraft manufacturer's supply
Oil system capacity
4,8 litres (1.25 US G)
Max. consumption
0,3 l/h (0.08 US G/hr)
FILLER
CAP
TEMPERATURE
PROBE
OIL LEVEL
SIGHT GLASS
OIL
RESERVOIR
Note: Refer to manufacturer's documentation for
description and operation information.
4.10
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PUMPS - GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
Function
The pumps ensure oil circulation in the system.
Position
- In the system: the pressure pump is located downstream
of the oil reservoir and the scavenge pumps upstream of
the cooling unit
- On the engine: the oil pump unit is installed on the
gearbox front face.
Main characteristics
- Type: spur gear type
- Pressure relief valve setting: 1500 kPa (217.5 PSI).
Description
They are driven at a speed proportional to N1.
The pump assembly includes:
- The pump drive shaft
- The driven shaft
- The spur gear type pumps:
Pressure pump
Front bearing scavenge pump
Rear bearing scavenge pump
- The pump bodies which comprise the oil inlet and outlet
unions
- The seal support plate
- The pressure relief valve.
O'ring seals ensure the sealing between the various pump
bodies.
Note: The accessory drive train is provided with a
coupling sleeve which is engaged on the oil pump
assembly.
4.11
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PUMPS - GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
Type
Spur gear type
Pressure relief valve setting
1500 kPa (217.5 PSI)
OIL PUMPS
PRESSURE
PUMP
SEAL SUPPORT
PLATE
DRIVEN
SHAFT
REAR BEARING
SCAVENGE PUMP
FRONT BEARING
SCAVENGE PUMP
PUMP DRIVE
SHAFT
4.12
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PUMPS - OPERATION
Principle of operation of a spur gear type pump
The pumps are spur gear type. One pump has two gears:
one drive gear, and one driven gear. The oil flows between
the pump gears and the casing; the oil is then delivered
under pressure to the system.
Pressure pump operation
The pressure pump draws the oil from the reservoir and
delivers it under pressure to the supply system.
The full pressure pump flow is used (full flow, oil pressure
as a function of the rotation speed and the oil viscosity).
Operation of the pressure relief valve
The pressure relief valve limits the pressure at the pressure
pump outlet.
The valve returns the excess oil to the pressure pump inlet
when the pressure is higher than the valve setting.
In normal operation, the pressure relief valve is closed.
Scavenge pump operation
Two scavenge pumps, one for the reduction gearbox and
front bearings, and one for the rear bearings, return the oil
to the reservoir.
The scavenge pump flow is higher than the pressure pump
flow (dry sump system).
4.13
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PUMPS - OPERATION
OIL OUTLET
(to filter)
OIL OUTLET
(to cooling unit)
SCAVENGE
(reduction gearbox
and front bearings)
SCAVENGE
(rear bearings)
OIL INLET
(from reservoir)
Oil inlet Oil outlet
DRIVE GEAR
DRIVEN GEAR
OPERATION OF THE
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
OF A SPUR GEAR TYPE PUMP
Normal operation
(valve closed)
Overpressure
(valve open)
4.14
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL FILTER - GENERAL
Function
The filter retains any particles that may be held in the oil.
Position
- In the system: downstream of the pressure pump
- On the engine: the oil filter is installed beside the fuel
filter inside the filter assembly which is mounted at the
upper part of the gearbox casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: metal cartridge (or fiberglass)
- Filtering ability: 20 microns
- Pre-blockage pressure switch setting: P 120 kPa
(18 PSID)
- By-pass valve setting: P 220 kPa (32 PSID).
Main components
- Pre-blockage pressure switch
- By-pass valve
- Filtering element
- Filter bowl
- Filter casing.
4.15
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL FILTER - GENERAL
PRE-BLOCKAGE
PRESSURE SWITCH
BY-PASS
VALVE
FILTERING
ELEMENT
FILTER
BOWL
FILTER
CASING
Type
Metal cartridge (or fiberglass)
Filtering ability
20 microns
Pre-blockage pressure switch
P 120 kPa (18 PSID)
By-pass valve
P 220 kPa (32 PSID)
4.16
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
The assembly comprises:
- The pre-blockage pressure switch
- The by-pass valve (valve, magnetic rod and spring)
- The filtering element
- The filter bowl
- The filter casing (base)
- The heat exchanger wall (oil cooling by fuel heating).
Refer to the chapter "FUEL SYSTEM"
- The filter drain valve.
Note: During filter removal, the drain valve lifts from its
support. The oil which remains in the filter then
flows to the gearbox sump through the drain orifice.
4.17
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
FILTERING
ELEMENT
Oil inlet
Oil outlet
DRAIN VALVE
FILTER DRAIN
To the reduction gearbox
PRE-BLOCKAGE
PRESSURE SWITCH
BY-PASS
VALVE
FILTER
BOWL
HEAT EXCHANGER
WALL
BASE
Fuel inlet
Fuel filter
4.18
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL FILTER - OPERATION
Normal operation
In normal operation, the oil delivered by the pressure
pump enters the filtering unit through an orifice located in
the filter base.
The oil flows between the fuel filter wall and the heat
exchanger wall (oil cooling by fuel heating).
The oil enters the oil filter through an orifice located
between the two chambers and then flows through the
filtering element. The filtered oil then flows to the different
engine sections which require lubrication.
Pre-blockage
When the filtering element becomes dirty, the pressure
difference on the by-pass valve increases. For a pressure
difference higher than the pre-blockage switch setting, the
by-pass valve moves slightly to release the switch which
provides indication in the cockpit.
The pre-blockage switch is automatically rearmed as the
pressure difference decreases (normally at engine shut-
down).
Blockage (by-pass operation)
When the pressure difference on the by-pass valve is
higher than by-pass valve setting, the valve opens and
allows the supply of unfiltered oil to the engine.
4.19
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL FILTER - OPERATION
PRE-BLOCKAGE
NORMAL OPERATION
BLOCKAGE
SLIGHT BLOCKAGE OF THE
FILTERING ELEMENT
BY-PASS VALVE
OPENING
FILTERING ELEMENT
OPERATION
(filter clean)
BLOCKAGE OF THE
FILTERING ELEMENT
PRE-BLOCKAGE
PRESSURE SWITCH
INDICATION INDICATION
PRE-BLOCKAGE
PRESSURE SWITCH
4.20
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PRE-BLOCKAGE PRESSURE SWITCH
Function
The pressure switch provides a cockpit indication of the oil
filter pre-blockage.
Position
- On the engine: located at the upper part of the oil filter.
Main characteristics
- Type: with plunger
- Setting: P 120 kPa (18 PSID)
- Cockpit indication.
Functional description
It has a valve fitted with a spring, and a magnetic rod. The
microswitch plunger faces the magnetic rod.
This plunger is inoperative at lower oil temperature due to
the thermal lock.
The switch thermal lock is released for an increasing
temperature of + 50C (122F) and actuated for a decreasing
temperature of + 30C (86F).
When the filtering element becomes dirty, the valve doesnt
open but moves down slightly and reduces the magnetic
field between the magnetic rod and the plunger. Then the
released plunger closes the electrical circuit and the
indication is given in the cockpit.
The indication is cancelled if the differential pressure
becomes lower than P 100 kPa (14.5 PSID) (automatic
reset).
4.21
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PRE-BLOCKAGE PRESSURE SWITCH
Type
With plunger
Setting
P 120 kPa (18 PSID)
Cockpit indication
PRE-BLOCKAGE
PRESSURE SWITCH
FILTERING
UNIT
Oil inlet
Oil outlet
MAGNETIC
ROD
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
MICROSWITCH PLUNGER
THERMAL LOCK
( +50C / 122F)
( +30C / 86F)
BY-PASS
VALVE
SPRING
FILTERING
ELEMENT
4.22
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COOLING UNIT
Function
The unit cools the oil which has lubricated the engine. The
cooling is ensured by air circulation through a cooler.
Position
- In the system: between the scavenge pumps and the oil
reservoir
- The cooling unit is installed in the aircraft.
Main characteristics
- Aircraft manufacturer's supply
- Type: air-oil cooler
- By-pass and thermostatic valve:
Fully open: < 96C (205F)
Fully closed: > 106C (223F).
Description
The unit mainly comprises a cooler and a fan. The oil is
cooled by circulation of air.
The unit is provided with a by-pass and thermostatic valve.
Note: Refer to aircraft manufacturer' s documentation
for further information.
4.23
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COOLING UNIT
From scavenge
pumps
To reservoir
AIR
OIL
COOLER
INTERFACES
Aircraft/Engine
COOLING
UNIT
Aircraft manufacturer's supply
Type
Air-oil cooler
By-pass and
thermostatic valve
Fully open: < 96C (205F)
Fully closed: > 106C (223F)
Cooling air
outlet
BY-PASS AND
THERMOSTATIC VALVE
OIL COOLER COOLING FAN
Note: Refer to manufacturer's documentation for
further information.
4.24
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER
General
Function
The centrifugal breather separates the oil from the air-oil
mist resulting from lubrication and vents the oil system.
Position
- On the engine: formed by the starter-generator drive
gear.
Main characteristics
- Type: centrifugal
- Air vent: through the rear part of the hollow shaft,
connected to the exhaust.
Description
The centrifugal breather is formed by the starter-generator
drive gear.
The gear is supported by two ball bearings. Graphite seals
ensure the sealing of the ball bearings.
Operation
The centrifugal breather is driven by the intermediate gear.
When the engine is running, the air-oil mist resulting from
lubrication passes through the breather:
- Centrifugal force throws the oil droplets out into the
reduction gearbox
- The de-oiled air is vented through an external pipe into
the exhaust pipe.
4.25
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER
AIR VENT
(to the exhaust pipe
through an external pipe)
AIR-OIL MIST
(from reservoir)
BREATHER
(starter-generator
drive gear)
GRAPHITE
SEAL
Type
Centrifugal
Air vent
Through the rear part
of the hollow shaft,
connected to the exhaust
OIL
DROPLETS
REDUCTION
GEARBOX
CASING
INTERMEDIATE GEAR
(accessory drive train)
DE-OILED
AIR
GRAPHITE
SEAL
4.26
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ELECTRICAL MAGNETIC PLUGS
Function
The magnetic plugs retain magnetic particles contained in
the oil and provide cockpit indication.
Position
- In the system: 2 electrical magnetic plugs upstream of
the scavenge pumps
- On the engine:
1 electrical magnetic plug at the front lower part of
the reduction gearbox
1 electrical magnetic plug underneath the combustion
chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: magnetic probe
- Quantity: 2 in parallel
- Cockpit indication.
Main components
- Magnetic plug body
- Magnetic probe
- Electrical connector (connection with the cockpit)
- Locking slot
- Mounting pins.
Note: A magnetic plug is located at the reservoir outlet
(supplied by the aircraft manufacturer).
Operation
The electrical magnetic plugs have magnetic probes which
attract magnetic particles in the scavenge return lines:
- Of the front part (reduction gearbox and gas generator
front bearing)
- Of the rear part (gas generator rear bearing and power
turbine bearings).
When particles bridge the gap between the magnetic poles,
it provides cockpit indication.
4.27
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ELECTRICAL MAGNETIC PLUGS
OPERATION WITH PARTICLES
+
INDICATION
BRIDGE OF
PARTICLES
INDICATION
LOCKING SLOT
MOUNTING
PIN
Type
Magnetic probe
Quantity
2 in parallel
Cockpit indication
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
(connection with the cockpit)
ELECTRICAL
MAGNETIC PLUG
STRAINER
MAGNETIC
PROBE
4.28
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STRAINERS
Function
The strainers protect the scavenge pumps against large
particles which might be in the oil.
Position
- In the system: 1 strainer upstream of each scavenge
pump
- On the engine: 1 strainer at the front lower part of the
reduction gearbox and 1 underneath the combustion
chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: wide mesh filter and electrical magnetic plug
receptacle
- Quantity: 2
Functional description
A strainer is a wide mesh filter which retains any large
particles which may be held in the oil, in order to protect
the scavenge pumps.
The strainers are also provided with receptacles for the
installation of the electrical magnetic plugs.
4.29
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STRAINERS
Type
Wide mesh filter and electrical
magnetic plug receptacle
Quantity
2
WIDE MESH
FILTER
STRAINER
ELECTRICAL MAGNETIC
PLUG RECEPTACLE
4.30
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
Function
The pressure switch detects low pressure in the oil supply
system and illuminates an indication in the cockpit.
Position
- In the system: downstream of the filter, in the oil supply
system
- On the engine: on a mounting pad located on the gearbox
casing front face.
Main characteristics
- Type: Diaphragm pressure switch
- Setting:
Decreasing pressure: 170 kPa (25 PSI)
Increasing pressure: 200 kPa (29 PSI)
- Cockpit indication.
Main components
- Pressure switch body
- Electrical connector (connection with the cockpit).
Operation
Normal operation
Increasing pressure: when the oil pressure is higher than
the low oil pressure switch setting, the diaphragm lifts the
plunger which acts on the microswitch and thus opens the
electrical circuit.
Low pressure operation
Decreasing pressure: when the oil pressure is lower than
the setting, the diaphragm drops, and the plunger releases
the microswitch and thus closes the electrical circuit and
provides the low oil pressure indication in the cockpit.
4.31
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
Type
Diaphragm pressure switch
Setting
Decreasing pressure
170 kPa (25 PSI)
Increasing pressure
200 kPa (29 PSI)
Cockpit indication
LOW OIL
PRESSURE SWITCH
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
(to the cockpit)
4.32
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
Function
This transmitter provides signals of oil pressure to the
cockpit.
Position
- In the system: downstream of the filter, in the oil supply
system
- On the engine: on a mounting pad located on the gearbox
casing front face.
Main characteristics
- Type: resistive
- Output signals: electrical voltage proportional to the oil
pressure
- Cockpit indication.
Main components
- Transmitter body
- Electrical connector (connection with the cockpit).
Operation
It has a resistor bridge printed on a flexible support.
This flexible support is subjected to the oil pressure and the
resistor bridge is supplied electrically from the indicating
system. Changes in oil pressure cause movement of the
flexible support which changes the resistance and thus the
output voltage.
4.33
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
Type
Resistive
Output signal
Electrical voltage
proportional to the oil pressure
Cockpit indication
OIL PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
OIL PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
(connection with the cockpit)
4.34
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL TEMPERATURE PROBE
General
Function
The oil temperature probe measures the oil temperature at
the oil reservoir outlet and provides indication to the
cockpit.
Position
- In the oil system: the probe is located downstream of the
oil reservoir.
Main characteristics
- Aircraft manufacturer's supply
- Type: nickel resistance
- Resistance value:
100 at 0C (32F)
165 at 100C (212F)
- Output signal: electrical voltage proportional to the oil
temperature
- Cockpit indication.
Functional description
The oil temperature sensor is a nickel resistor housed in a
steel probe; the resistance value varies according to the
temperature.
4.35
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL TEMPERATURE PROBE
INTERFACES
Aircraft/Engine
Aircraft manufacturer's supply
Type
Nickel resistor
Resistance value
100 at 0C (32F)
165 at 100C (212F)
Output signal
Electrical voltage proportional
to the oil temperature
Cockpit indication
OIL TEMPERATURE
PROBE
1
2
3
CONSTANT I
(mA)
NICKEL
RESISTOR
VARIABLE OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
CONTROL PANEL
(to oil temperature
indicator)
4.36
OIL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PIPES
This part deals with the external pipes and internal ducts of
the oil system.
External pipes
Supply
- From reservoir to pressure pump
- From air intake casing to rear bearings.
Scavenge
- From rear bearings to strainer support box
- From strainer support box to air intake casing
- From scavenge pumps to oil cooler
- From oil cooler to reservoir.
Breathing
- From reservoir to reduction gearbox
- From reduction gearbox to exhaust pipe.
Internal ducts
Supply
- From pressure pump to oil filter
- From oil filter:
To front bearings
To gears and bearings of the reduction gear train
To gears and bearings of the accessory drive train
To torquemeter
To air intake for the rear bearings.
Scavenge
- From reduction gearbox to scavenge pump.
4.37
OIL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OIL PIPES
AIR VENT
(from reduction gearbox
to exhaust pipe)
SUPPORT BOX
(strainer and electrical
magnetic plug)
SUPPLY
(rear bearings)
OIL INLET UNION
(from reservoir)
OIL OUTLET UNION
(to oil cooler) TOP VIEW
LEFT SIDE VIEW AIR VENT
(from reduction gearbox
to exhaust pipe)
AIR VENT UNION
(from reservoir)
SCAVENGE
(rear bearings)
5.1
AIR SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
5 - AIR SYSTEM
- Air system (75-00-00) ............................................ 5.2
- Internal air system................................................. 5.4
- Air tappings ............................................................ 5.6
- Air tapping unions (75-30-02) ............................... 5.8
- Air pressure sensor (77-30-03) .............................. 5.10
- Air temperature probe (77-30-04) ........................ 5.12 to 5.13
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
5.2
AIR SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR SYSTEM
Function
The engine air system includes:
- The internal air system which ensures:
The pressurisation of the labyrinth seals
The cooling of the engine internal parts
The balance of forces on the rotating assemblies
- Air tappings which ensure:
The start injector ventilation
The air pressure supply to the control system
The aircraft air system supply.
Note: Refer to the various systems for the position, main
characteristics, description and operation.
5.3
AIR SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR SYSTEM
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM
- Pressurisation of labyrinth seals
- Cooling of engine internal parts
- Balance of forces on the rotating assemblies
AIR TAPPINGS
- Start injector ventilation
- Air pressure supply to the control system
- Aircraft air system supply
5.4
AIR SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM
Function
The internal air system pressurises the labyrinth seals,
cools certain internal parts and provides a balancing of
forces.
Functional description
Pressurisation of labyrinth seals
- The air tapped from the compressor wheel passes through
the internal ducts of the air intake casing, to pressurise
the gas generator front bearing housing
- The air tapped from the tip of the compressor wheel,
flows behind the compressor through the curvic-coupling.
It then passes between the gas generator turbine shaft
and the turbine disc and goes out through holes in the
rear of the turbine disc to pressurise the rear bearing
labyrinths.
Cooling of internal parts
The air from the outlet of the compressor diffuser, cools
the following components:
- The combustion chamber walls
- The turbine nozzle guide vanes
- The front face of the gas generator turbine disc
- The blade roots of the gas generator turbine.
The air tapped from the outlet of the compressor wheel,
cools the following components:
- The rear face of the gas generator turbine disc
- The front face of the power turbine disc.
Balance of forces on rotating assemblies
Some of the diffuser outlet air applies a compensation
pressure on the balance piston located at the front of the gas
generator turbine through a labyrinth.
5.5
AIR SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM
P2.5 - AIR TAPPED FROM THE MIDDLE
OF THE COMPRESSOR WHEEL
AIR TAPPED FROM THE TIP
OF THE COMPRESSOR WHEEL
P3 - AIR TAPPED FROM THE OUTLET
OF THE COMPRESSOR DIFFUSER
LABYRINTH SEAL OF THE
GAS GENERATOR FRONT BEARING
GAS GENERATOR REAR BEARING
LABYRINTH SEAL
POWER TURBINE BEARING
LABYRINTH SEAL
AIR TAPPED FROM THE TIP
OF THE COMPRESSOR WHEEL
BALANCE
PISTON
5.6
AIR SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR TAPPINGS
Function
The air tappings are used for:
- Start injector ventilation
- The control system (pressure signal)
- Aircraft services.
Start injector ventilation
An air bleed (located on the engine right side) bleeds
compressor delivery pressure air. This air supplies, through
an external pipe, the start electro-valve for start injector
ventilation.
Ventilation of the start injectors purges fuel from them at
the end of starting and prevents carbonisation.
Air pressure signal for the control system
The air tapped from the combustion chamber casing (P3),
is also used as a pressure signal for the control system.
P3 air is tapped through a calibrated restrictor; and is taken
by an external pipe to a pressure sensor, to provide a P3
signal to the Digital Control Unit.
Note: The engine has also a temperature probe installed
on the plenum lower part (refer to following pages
for more details).
Aircraft services
The engine has an air bleed on each side of the combustion
chamber casing. The air, tapped from the compressor
outlet, can be used by the aircraft systems for various
purposes (refer to following pages for more details).
5.7
AIR SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR TAPPINGS
DIGITAL CONTROL
UNIT
START
INJECTORS
P3 PRESSURE
SIGNAL TO THE
CONTROL SYSTEM
AIRCRAFT
SERVICES
VENTILATION
OF START INJECTORS
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
AIR PRESSURE
SENSOR
P3 air
5.8
AIR SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR TAPPING UNIONS
Function
The air tapping unions allow air to be tapped from the
centrifugal compressor outlet.
Position
Aircraft air tappings
The aircraft air tappings are located on each side of the
combustion chamber casing.
Start injector ventilation tapping
The air tapping for the ventilation of the start injectors is
installed on the right upper part of the combustion chamber
casing.
Air pressure sensor tapping
The tapping for the pressure sensor is installed on the left
upper part of the combustion chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Quantity: 4
- Air pressure: 860 kPa (125 PSI)
- Air temperature: 320C (608F).
Functional description
The air tappings have unions which are provided with
restrictors to limit flow in order to prevent loss of engine
power in the event of a broken pipe.
The air tapping not in use is provided with a blank.
Note: The air tapping use is limited since it affects the
engine performance.
5.9
AIR SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR TAPPING UNIONS
RESTRICTOR
UNION
START INJECTOR
VENTILATION TAPPING
PRESSURE SENSOR
TAPPING
Quantity
4
Pressure
860 kPa (125 PSI)
Temperature
320C (608F)
AIRCRAFT AIR
TAPPING UNION
5.10
AIR SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR PRESSURE SENSOR
Function
The sensor measures the air pressure at the centrifugal
compressor outlet and provides a pressure signal to the
Digital Control Unit.
Position
- The sensor is secured on the upper part of the gearbox
casing. It is connected to an air tapping located on the left
side of the combustion chamber casing by means of an
external pipe.
Main characteristics
- Type: resistive
- Output signal: voltage proportional to the P3 air pressure.
Main components
- Air pressure sensor
- Pipe
- Air tapping.
Functional description
The air pressure sensor is of resistive type. It has a resistor
bridge printed on a flexible support subjected to P3 air
pressure.
The support deformations, according to the air pressure,
create an output voltage proportional to the pressure, for
a constant input voltage.
The output voltage is used by the Digital Control Unit.
5.11
AIR SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR PRESSURE SENSOR
Vs
3
2
4
5
1
-
-
+
+
Ve
Type
Resistive
Output signal
Voltage proportional
to the P3 air pressure
AIR PRESSURE
SENSOR
PIPE AIR
TAPPING
Ve: Constant input voltage (resistor bridge supply)
Vs: Variable output voltage (measurement)
PRESSURE
SENSOR
TO DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
5.12
AIR SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR TEMPERATURE PROBE
Function
The probe measures the ambient air temperature at the air
intake and provides the temperature indication to the
Digital Control Unit (fuel control).
Position
- The probe is secured on the lower part of the air intake
plenum.
Main characteristics
- Probe supplied by the engine manufacturer but installed
on the air intake volute which is supplied by the aircraft
manufacturer
- Type: platinum resistor
- Resistor value: 100 at 0C (32F)
- Output signal: voltage proportional to the ambient air
temperature.
Main components
- Electrical connector (connection with the DCU)
- Mounting flange
- Seal
- Probe.
Functional description
The temperature probe has a platinum resistor whose
resistance varies according to the temperature.
The Digital Control Unit supplies the resistor with a direct
current and measures the output voltage available at the
resistor terminals.
5.13
AIR SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR TEMPERATURE PROBE
Type
Platinum resistor
Resistor value
100 at 0C (32F)
Output signal
Voltage proportional to
the ambient air temperature
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
(to DCU)
MOUNTING
FLANGE
SEAL
PROBE
Voltage
Constant I
(mA)
Resistor
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
6.1
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
6 - FUEL SYSTEM
- Fuel system (73-00-00) .......................................... 6.2
- Fuel pressure transmitter (73-30-02) ................... 6.16
- LP fuel pump - Alternator unit (73-10-01) ......... 6.18
- Fuel filter (73-10-02) .............................................. 6.24
- Pre-blockage pressure switch (73-30-01) ............. 6.30
- HP fuel pump and metering unit (73-10-03)........ 6.32
- Stop electro-valve (73-10-04) ................................ 6.38
- Fuel valve assembly (73-10-05) ............................ 6.42
- Start injectors (73-10-06) ..................................... 6.48
- Main injectors (73-10-07) ...................................... 6.54
- Combustion chamber drain valve (73-10-08) ........ 6.60
- Fuel pipes (73-10-09)............................................. 6.62 to 6.63
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
6.2
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
Main components
- Low Pressure unit (pump and alternator)
- Fuel filter
- High Pressure unit (pump and metering unit)
- Valve assembly
- Injection system
- Sensors and input signals.
FUEL SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The fuel system ensures fuel supply, distribution, control,
metering and injection.
Position
The fuel reservoir and the supply system are installed on
the aircraft. The other fuel system components are installed
on the engine.
The Digital Control Unit is installed in the aircraft cargo
compartment.
Main characteristics
- Supply from the aircraft system and the engine pumps
- Main fuel injection (pre-vaporisation)
- Start injection by injectors
- Distribution by a valve assembly
- Fuel flow control by the DCU and the metering unit.
6.3
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - GENERAL
P3
Engine Aircraft
LOW PRESSURE
UNIT
(pump and alternator)
HIGH PRESSURE
UNIT
(pump and
metering unit)
FUEL
FILTER
MANUAL
CONTROL
INJECTION
SYTEM
FUEL RESERVOIR
FUEL VALVE
ASSEMBLY
SENSORS AND
INPUT SIGNALS
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
6.4
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
The fuel system includes the following components:
Booster pump (low pressure aircraft system).
Low pressure pump unit
This unit includes a centrifugal low pressure pump and an
alternator to electrically supply the Digital Control Unit.
Filtering unit
The filtering unit includes a filtering element, a pre-
blockage pressure switch, a by-pass valve and a filter
blockage indicator.
High pressure pump unit - Metering unit
This unit includes a gear type high pressure pump fitted
with a pressure relief valve.
It also has a metering unit which includes:
- A constant P valve
- A manual metering valve
- A fuel metering valve (controlled by the DCU)
- A bi-stable stop electro-valve.
Valve assembly
The assembly includes:
- A 3 way start electro-valve
- A pressurising valve
- A flow divider
- A manual purge device.
Start injectors: 4 injectors fitted around the
combustion chamber casing.
Main injectors: 10 pre-vaporising injectors installed at
the rear of the combustion chamber.
Fuel pressure transmitter
The fuel pressure transmitter is of resistive type. It is
mounted at the left upper part of the gearbox casing.
Fuel flow transmitter
This is optional on the 1A and 1E and is standard on the
1M. It is fitted in the delivery line between the metering
unit and the valve assembly.
6.5
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
Filtering
element
FILTERING
UNIT
High Pressure
pump
Manual
control
Metering
valve
Pressurising
valve
Flow
divider
MAIN
INJECTORS
Start
electro-valve
START
INJECTORS
Stop
electro-valve
BOOSTER PUMP
(aircraft system)
Constant P
valve
FUEL PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
Alternator
Low pressure
pump
LOW PRESSURE
PUMP UNIT
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP AND METERING UNIT
Pressure relief
valve
Manual purge
device
Flowmeter
(optional)
FUEL VALVE
ASSEMBLY
By-pass
valve
Pre-blockage
pressure switch
Blockage
indicator
6.6
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
This part deals with the following operating phases: pre-
start, starting, normal operation, manual control and shut-
down.
Pre-start
- The LP and HP pumps are not operating and there is no
pressure in the system
- The constant P valve is closed
- The stop electro-valve is in the "stop" position
- The start electro-valve is in the ventilation position
- The pressurising valve is closed
- The flow divider is closed
- The manual control valve is in the "neutral" position
- The metering valve can be in any position.
During the electrical power up, the metering valve is
initialised (refer to "CONTROL SYSTEM" chapter) and
the "stop" coil of the stop electro-valve is electrically
supplied.
6.7
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
PRE-START
HP PUMP
(stopped)
METERING
VALVE
(any position)
PRESSURISING
VALVE
(closed)
FLOW DIVIDER
(closed)
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
(in ventilation position)
STOP
ELECTRO-VALVE
(stop position)
CONSTANT
P VALVE
(closed)
LP PUMP
(stopped)
MANUAL CONTROL
(neutral position)
6.8
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
Starting
The engine start command causes the pump to rotate and
the fuel is first supplied to the start injectors and then to the
main injectors.
The constant P valve operates and the fuel flow is
metered by the metering unit controlled by the Digital
Control Unit according to given laws (refer to the
CONTROL SYSTEM chapter).
At the end of starting, the start components are de-energised
and the start injectors are ventilated. The speed is stabilised
at a controlled value.
6.9
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
STARTING
HP PUMP
(driven)
METERING
VALVE
(in control)
PRESSURISING
VALVE
(open)
FLOW
DIVIDER
(open)
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
(open)
STOP
ELECTRO-VALVE
(running position)
CONSTANT
P VALVE
(in control)
LP PUMP
(driven)
BOSTER PUMP
(in operation)
MAIN
INJECTORS
(supplied)
LP PRESSURE
HP PRESSURE
METERED FUEL
START
INJECTORS
(supplied)
6.10
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (3)
Normal running
The required fuel flow is metered by the metering unit. The
metering unit position is determined by the Digital Control
Unit (refer to the CONTROL SYSTEM chapter).
The high pressure pump (HP) always supplies more fuel
than the engine requires. The excess fuel returns to the HP
pump inlet through the constant P valve.
The start injectors are continuously ventilated by air
tapped from the combustion chamber casing.
6.11
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (3)
NORMAL RUNNING
HP PUMP
(driven)
METERING
VALVE
(in control)
PRESSURISING
VALVE
(open)
FLOW
DIVIDER
(open)
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
(in ventilation)
P3 air
CONSTANT
P VALVE
(in control)
LP PUMP
(driven)
MAIN
INJECTORS
(supplied)
START
INJECTORS
(ventilated)
6.12
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (4)
Manual control
In case of a fuel system failure, the fuel flow can be
manually controlled by actuating the manual metering
valve in the "+" range (flow increase) or "-" range (flow
decrease).
In the "+" range, the fuel by-passes the main valve and is
added to the main valve flow. In the "-" range, the flow is
directly limited by the manual metering valve.
6.13
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (4)
MANUAL CONTROL
Q 0 Q
Q
MANUAL +
N
NORMAL (N)
Q = 0
Q
N
MANUAL -
Q = 0
N
6.14
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (5)
Shut-down
The stop command opens the stop electro-valve which
reduces the fuel pressure downstream of the constant P
valve which opens fully.
The fuel then returns to the HP pump inlet; the flow to the
injectors is shut-off and the engine stops.
6.15
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (5)
SHUT-DOWN
CONSTANT
P VALVE
(open)
STOP
ELECTRO-VALVE
(stop position)
6.16
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
Function
The fuel pressure transmitter measures the fuel pressure at
the LP pump inlet.
Position
- In the system: upstream of the LP pump
- On the engine: secured by a clamp on a support located
on the upper left side of the gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type: resistive
- Output signals: electrical voltage proportional to the
fuel pressure
- Cockpit indication.
Main components
- Fuel pressure transmitter
- Support
- Fuel pipe
- Electrical harness.
Note: A optional fuel flow transmitter can be supplied as
optional equipment.
Functional description
The fuel pressure transmitter is of resistive type. It has a
resistor bridge printed on a flexible support.
This flexible support is subjected to the fuel pressure and
the resistor bridge is supplied electrically from the indicating
system. Changes in fuel pressure cause movement of the
flexible support which changes the resistance and thus the
output voltage.
The transmitter is subjected to the fuel pressure delivered
through a flexible pipe which is connected to the LP pump/
alternator union.
6.17
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
Vs
3
2
4
5
1
-
-
+
+
Ve
FUEL PIPE
FUEL PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
SUPPORT
ELECTRICAL
HARNESS
FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER
(optional)
Type
Resistive
Output signal
Electrical voltage
proportional to the fuel pressure
Cockpit indication
Ve: Constant input voltage (resistor bridge supply)
Vs: Variable output voltage (measurement)
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
CONTROL
PANEL
6.18
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LP FUEL PUMP - ALTERNATOR UNIT -
GENERAL
Function
The LP fuel pump - alternator unit supplies fuel under
pressure and electrically supplies the Digital Control Unit.
Position
- On the front of the gearbox casing.
Main characteristics
LP pump
- Type: centrifugal with ejector
- Rotation speed: 24052 RPM (100% N1).
Alternator
- Nominal power: 100 V.A.
- Operation: continuous
- Output voltage: 28 to 63 Volts.
Main components
- LP pump
- Alternator.
The following components can also be mentioned:
- Fuel inlet union (from aircraft system)
- Union and pipe of the pressure transmitter
- Drain union
- Alternator electrical connector.
6.19
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LP FUEL PUMP - ALTERNATOR UNIT - GENERAL
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PIPE
FUEL INLET
UNION
(from aircraft
low pressure system)
LP PUMP DRAIN
UNION
ALTERNATOR
CONNECTOR
(to Digital Control Unit)
ALTERNATOR
Return from
stop electro-valve
LP PUMP
Type
Centrifugal with ejector
Rotation speed
24052 RPM (100% N1)
ALTERNATOR
Nominal power
100 V.A.
Operation
Continuous
Output voltage
28 to 63 Volts
6.20
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LP FUEL PUMP - ALTERNATOR UNIT -
DESCRIPTION
LP pump unit
The LP pump includes the following components :
- The fuel inlet union and the return from the stop electro-
valve
- The ejector jet which improves the LP pump fuel flow by
venturi effect
- The LP pump rotor
- The pump and alternator drive shaft. The shaft is
supported by two ball bearings
- The fuel return from the constant P valve
- The fuel outlet to the filter through an internal duct
- Two seals on the drive shaft ensure that no fuel passes
into the gearbox. A drain between the seals drains any
leaks overboard.
Note: The accessory drive train is provided with a drive
shaft which is engaged on the LP fuel pump -
alternator.
Alternator
The alternator includes:
- A rotor mounted on the drive shaft of the LP fuel pump
- A stator housed in the alternator body and supported by
two ball bearings (lubricated by oil mist). Two delivery
and return orifices are located on the support
- The sealing between the different elements is ensured by
Oring seals.
6.21
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LP FUEL PUMP - ALTERNATOR UNIT - DECRIPTION
DRAIN
BALL
BEARING
ALTERNATOR
(rotor and stator)
BALL
BEARING
Fuel outlet
(to filter)
Fuel return
(from constant P valve)
LP PUMP
DRIVE SHAFT
EJECTOR
JET
Fuel inlet union
(and return from
stop electro-valve)
SEALING
RINGS
LP PUMP
ROTOR
6.22
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LP FUEL PUMP - ALTERNATOR UNIT -
OPERATION
LP pump unit
The fuel supplied by the aircraft system enters the helical
inducer which draws the fuel into the impeller. The impeller
pumps the fuel to the outlet.
A given quantity of fuel is returned to the ejector to
increase the inlet pressure of the LP pump.
An internal duct takes the fuel from the constant P valve
to the fuel outlet.
On engine shut-down, the fuel from the stop electro-valve
returns to the LP pump inlet.
6.23
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LP FUEL PUMP - ALTERNATOR UNIT - OPERATION
LP PUMP
From stop
electro-valve
BOOSTER
PUMP
ALTERNATOR
FUEL PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
To filter
Aircraft
6.24
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL FILTER - GENERAL
Function
The filter retains any particles that may be in the fuel in
order to protect the metering unit components.
Position
- In the system: at the LP pump outlet
- On the engine: it is installed beside the oil filter inside
the filter assembly located at the upper part of the
gearbox casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: metal cartridge (or fiberglass)
- Filtering ability: 20 microns
- Pre-blockage pressure switch: P 120 kPa (17.4 PSID)
- By-pass valve: P 220 kPa (32 PSID).
Main components
- Filtering element
- Pre-blockage pressure switch
- Blockage indicator (red visual indicator and transparent
cover)
- By-pass valve
- Drain valve and drain union
- Filter bowl
- Filter casing.
6.25
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL FILTER - GENERAL
Type
Metal cartridge (or fiberglass)
Filtering ability
20 microns
Pre-blockage pressure switch
P 120 kPa (17.4 PSID)
By-pass valve
P 220 kPa (32 PSID)
BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
BY-PASS
VALVE
FILTER
BOWL
FILTER
CASING
FILTERING
ELEMENT
DRAIN UNION
(fitted with a blank)
MOUNTING OF THE
PRE-BLOCKAGE SWITCH
6.26
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
The main components of the fuel filter are:
- A heat exchanger wall (oil cooling by fuel heating).
- A filtering element (20 microns filtering ability)
- An electrical pre-blockage pressure switch
- A blockage indicator (red visual indicator and transparent
cover)
- A by-pass valve
- A filter bowl
- A filter casing
- A drain valve and a drain union.
Note: During filter removal, the drain valve lifts from its
support.
The fuel which remains in the filter then flows
through the drain orifice.
6.27
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
Fuel inlet
Fuel outlet
DRAIN
VALVE
FILTER DRAIN
To drain system
BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
BY-PASS
VALVE
FILTERING
ELEMENT
FILTER
BOWL
FILTER
CASING
HEAT EXCHANGER
WALL
Oil inlet
Oil filter
6.28
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL FILTER - OPERATION
The operation is considered in normal operation, pre-
blockage and blockage.
Normal operation
In normal operation, the fuel delivered by the LP pump
enters the filtering unit through an orifice located in the
filter base.
The fuel flows inside the heat exchanger (oil cooling and
fuel heating).
The fuel enters the fuel filter and flows through the
filtering element. The filtering element retains particles
larger than 20 microns. The fuel then flows to the HP
pump.
Pre-blockage
When the filter becomes dirty, the pressure difference
across the filtering element increases. If the pressure
difference becomes higher than the pre-blockage pressure
switch setting, the electrical contact of the pressure switch
closes and gives a cockpit indication.
Blockage
When the pressure difference on the by-pass valve exceeds
the setting, the spring loaded mechanical indicator pops
out.
The fuel then by-passes the filtering element and flows to
the HP pump.
6.29
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL FILTER - OPERATION
NORMAL OPERATION
PRE-BLOCKAGE
BLOCKAGE
COCKPIT
INDICATOR
CLOGGED
FILTER
OPERATION OF THE
BLOCKAGE INDICATOR
PRE-BLOCKAGE
PRESSURE SWITCH
OPERATION
OPENING OF
BY-PASS VALVE
ONSET OF FILTER
BLOCKAGE
FILTERING ELEMENT
OPERATION
(20 microns)
6.30
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PRE-BLOCKAGE PRESSURE SWITCH
General
Function
The pressure switch provides a cockpit indication of fuel
filter pre-blockage.
Position
- On the engine: on the base of the filtering unit.
Main characteristics
- Type: with microswitch
- Pre-adjusted setting: P 120 kPa (17.4 PSID)
- Cockpit indication.
Functional descripion
Normal operation
The filtering element is clean. The pressure difference on
each side of the filter is lower than the pre-blockage
pressure switch setting: the electrical contact is open and
there is no indication in the cockpit.
Filter pre-blockage
When the filtering element becomes dirty, the pressure
difference on each side of the filter increases.
When the pressure difference exceeds the pressure switch
setting, the electrical switch closes and illuminates in the
cockpit.
The indication stops as soon as the differential pressure
becomes lower than P 60 kPa (8.7 PSID) (automatic
reset of the pre-blockage switch).
6.31
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PRE-BLOCKAGE PRESSURE SWITCH
Type
With microswitch
Pre-adjusted setting
P 120 kPa (17.4 PSID)
Cockpit indication
PRE-BLOCKAGE
PRESSURE SWITCH
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
FILTERING
UNIT
Microswitch
closed
COCKPIT
(indicator)
FILTER PRE-BLOCKAGE
6.32
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
HP FUEL PUMP AND METERING UNIT -
GENERAL
Function
The HP fuel pump and metering unit supplies fuel under
pressure to the fuel system and meters the fuel flow
according to the power required. A pressure relief valve
relieves the excess fuel pressure to the pump inlet.
Position
- In the system: downstream of the filtering unit.
- On the engine: the HP fuel pump and metering unit is
installed on the gearbox front face.
Main characteristics
HP fuel pump unit
- Type: gear type
- Pressure relief valve setting: 6000 kPa (870 PSI).
Metering unit
- Type: actuated by a stepper motor which is controlled by
the Digital Control Unit
- Position transmitter: resolver type.
Main components
The HP fuel pump and metering unit includes:
- An HP fuel pump unit and a pressure relief valve
- A metering unit (main metering valve, constant P
valve, manual metering lever).
6.33
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
HP FUEL PUMP AND METERING UNIT - GENERAL
MANUAL
METERING
LEVER
CONSTANT
P VALVE
FUEL METERING
UNIT
HP PUMP
HP FUEL PUMP UNIT
Type
Gear type
Pressure relief valve setting
6000 kPa (870 PSI)
METERING UNIT
Type
Actuated by a stepper motor which
is controlled by the Digital Control Unit
Position transmitter
Resolver type
6.34
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
Metering unit
Manual metering valve
The manual metering valve includes:
- A rotary plate valve actuated by a control lever. The
rotary plate valve has a fuel outlet orifice and a neutral
notch
- A fixed plate, with a fuel inlet orifice, a fuel outlet main
orifice, and a by-pass outlet orifice.
Main metering valve
Electrically, the unit includes a stepper motor (electrical
rotary actuator) to drive the metering unit and a resolver to
transmit the metering unit position to the Digital Control
Unit.
HP FUEL PUMP AND METERING UNIT -
DESCRIPTION
HP fuel pump unit
The HP fuel pump unit includes:
- A shaft which drives the drive gear
- A driven gear
- A pressure relief valve
- Two lip seals which ensure the drive shaft sealing
- A drain which evacuates any leaks overboard
- Two journal bearings which support the pump gears
- A drive sleeve.
6.35
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
HP FUEL PUMP AND METERING UNIT - DESCRIPTION
F
0
HP PUMP
UNIT
STOP
ELECTRO-VALVE
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
DRIVEN
GEAR
DRIVE
GEAR
DRAIN
DRIVE
SHAFT
LIP
SEALS
JOURNAL
BEARINGS
PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE
HP FUEL PUMP UNIT
STEPPER
MOTOR
RESOLVER
REDUCTION
GEAR
DRIVE
SHAFT
HIGH PRESSURE
PUMP
MANUAL
METERING VALVE
METERING
VALVE
To pressurising
valve
From
LP pump
PRESSURE RELIEF
VALVE
6.36
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
The manual metering valve increases or reduces the fuel
flow:
- To increase the power (above 0 position), the rotary
plate valve opens slightly the by-pass orifice and causes
the fuel to by-pass to the injectors
- To reduce the power (below 0 position), the rotary plate
valve closes slightly the main orifice of the fixed plate.
At the manual metering valve outlet, the fuel flows to the
metering unit. The flow depends on the cam position
controlled by the rotary actuator.
The fuel then flows through internal ducts and external
pipes to the start electro-valve, to the pressurising valve
and to the LP pump through the stop electro-valve.
Engine shut-down
- In normal operation or in case of power turbine
overspeed, the engine shut-down is caused by the opening
of the stop electro-valve which returns the fuel to the LP
pump inlet
- In manual operation, the engine shut-down is effected
by closing the main and by-pass orifices of the fixed
plate.
HP FUEL PUMP AND METERING UNIT -
OPERATION
Engine normal operation
The fuel delivered by the LP pump enters the HP pump
after filtering. The fuel is then delivered by the HP pump
through the internal ducts. A pressure relief valve returns
the excess pressure to the HP pump inlet.
The fuel then enters the metering unit and flows to:
- The constant P valve which maintains a constant
difference of pressure on both sides of the metering unit
by returning the excess fuel to the LP pump outlet
through the P return duct
- The manual metering valve which operates as follows:
In normal operation, the manual metering valve is in
the neutral position (0 on the graduated scale): the
main orifice of the fixed plate faces the orifice of the
plate valve and allows fuel flow to the metering unit
In manual operation, the metering unit is "frozen" in
the position at the time of failure or of manual
selection.
6.37
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
HP FUEL PUMP AND METERING UNIT - OPERATION
HIGH PRESSURE
PUMP
MANUAL
METERING VALVE
METERING
VALVE
STOP
ELECTRO-VALVE
To start
electro-valve
To pressurising
valve
To LP pump
inlet
To HP pump
inlet
From LP pump
CONSTANT
P VALVE
PRESSURE RELIEF
VALVE
ROTARY PLATE
VALVE
MANUAL METERING VALVE
(neutral position)
FIXED
PLATE
Main
orifice
By-pass
orifice
+
-
6.38
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STOP ELECTRO-VALVE - GENERAL -
DESCRIPTION
Function
The stop electro-valve is used to shut-down the engine in
normal operation or in case of power turbine overspeed.
Position
- In the system: between the fuel metering valve outlet
and the LP pump
- On the engine: at the lower part of the HP pump unit.
Main characteristics
- Type: bistable, ball type.
Description
The stop electro-valve includes:
- An electrical connector
- An opening control coil A
- A closing control coil B
- A ball valve installed on a bistable reversible spring
plate
- A fuel outlet orifice (to LP pump inlet)
- A fuel inlet orifice (from the metering unit and constant
P valve spring chamber)
- A mounting flange.
6.39
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STOP ELECTRO-VALVE - GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
F
0
HP PUMP
UNIT
STOP
ELECTRO-VALVE
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
Fuel inlet
(from fuel metering unit
and constant P valve)
Fuel outlet
(to LP pump)
BALL
VALVE
MOUNTING
FLANGE
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
OPENING
COIL A
CLOSING
COIL B
SPRING
PLATE
Type
Bistable, ball type
6.40
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STOP ELECTRO-VALVE - OPERATION
Engine operation
The stop electro-valve is selected closed when start is
initiated, and when the starter - generator and the starting
system are electrically supplied.
The supply of the B coil displaces the core to the
corresponding seat. The ball valve is in contact on its seat
and closes the fuel return to pump inlet.
Note: The closing of the valve permits the fuel to flow to
the injectors.
Engine shut-down
The electrical supply of the A coil by the Digital Control
Unit displaces the core in oposite direction. The ball valve
lifts from its seat and allows the fuel to return to the pump
inlet.
The stop electro-valve opening causes the fuel injection
pressure to drop, which closes the pressurising valve and
cuts the injection manifold supply.
6.41
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STOP ELECTRO-VALVE - OPERATION
VALVE CLOSED
ENGINE OPERATION
VALVE OPEN
ENGINE SHUT-DOWN
Fuel inlet
(from constant
P valve)
Fuel outlet
(to LP pump)
CORE
OPENING
COIL A
CLOSING
COIL B
CORE
6.42
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL VALVE ASSEMBLY - GENERAL
Function
The valve assembly ensures fuel distribution under certain
conditions:
- To supply in priority the start injectors
- To protect the start injectors from the risk of blockage
due to carbonisation
- To give supply preference to one main injector at low
fuel flow
- To allow the manual purge of the system.
Position
- In the system: between the metering unit and the injection
system
- On the engine: on a support secured at the upper part of
the combustion chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: 1 electro-valve and 2 spring-loaded valves
- Pressurising valve setting: 500 kPa (72.5 PSI)
- Flow divider setting: 150 kPa (22 PSI).
Main components
- Start electro-valve (3 way)
- Pressurising valve
- Flow divider
- Purge screw.
6.43
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL VALVE ASSEMBLY - GENERAL
Type
1 electro-valve
2 spring loaded valves
Pressurising valve setting
500 kPa (72.5 PSI)
Flow divider setting
150 kPa (22 PSI)
PURGE
SCREW
Main
injector supply
P3 air
Fuel inlet
(from metering unit)
PRESSURISING
VALVE
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
FLOW
DIVIDER
Preference
injector supply
Start injector
supply
6.44
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL VALVE ASSEMBLY - DESCRIPTION
The valve assembly includes the start electro-valve, the
pressurising valve, the flow divider and the purge screw.
Start electro-valve
The start electro-valve distributes fuel to the start injectors.
It is a 3-way, mono-stable valve. The 3 ways are: the fuel
inlet, the fuel outlet to the start injectors and the P3 air inlet
for the start injector ventilation.
The start electro-valve mainly includes:
- Two opposed ball valves integral with a shaft and
subjected to spring action in one direction and to the
electro-valve winding in the other direction
- Two filters
- An electrical connector.
Pressurising valve
The pressurising valve ensures fuel supply priority to the
start injectors during starting.
The pressurising valve includes a valve which is spring
loaded closed.
Flow divider
In case of low fuel flow, the flow divider closes and the fuel
flows only to the preference injector. This is done in order
to preserve at least one injection point in the combustion
chamber with an acceptable spraying quality-flow .
The flow divider includes:
- One valve, with leak rate, spring loaded closed (supply
of 9 of the main injectors)
- One restrictor, screwed into the flow divider body (supply
of the preference injector).
Purge screw
The valve assembly includes a purge screw which allows
the manual purge of the fuel system (refer to
"MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES" chapter).
6.45
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL VALVE ASSEMBLY - DESCRIPTION
PRESSURISING
VALVE
FLOW
DIVIDER
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
P3 air
Fuel outlet
(to start injectors)
Fuel outlet
(to preference injector)
Fuel outlet
(to main injectors)
Fuel inlet
(from
metering unit)
PURGE
SCREW
VALVE
ASSEMBLY
6.46
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL VALVE ASSEMBLY - OPERATION
Six operating phases are considered: engine stopped,
initial phase of starting, starting, normal running, rapid
fuel flow decrease and engine shut-down.
Engine stopped
There is no pressure in the system and no electrical supply
to the accessories. The pressurising valve and the flow
divider are closed, the start electro-valve is in the ventilation
position.
Initial phase of starting (N1 < 10%)
When start is selected, the start electro-valve coil is
electrically supplied. The start electro-valve opens and
allows the fuel supply to the start injectors.
Starting (N1 > 10%)
It opens as soon as the fuel pressure is sufficient (about
500 kPa / 72.5 PSI which is obtained for an N1 speed of
about 10%).
When the fuel pressure is sufficient, the pressurising valve
opens and supplies the main injection with fuel.
The fuel first flows to the preference injector.
The flow divider includes an internal jet (leak rate) which
supplies the main injector manifold before the effective
opening of the valve.
When the flow is sufficient, the flow divider opens and
supplies the main injectors with fuel.
Normal running (N1 > self-sustaining speed)
When the engine reaches self-sustaining speed
(approx. 50 % of N1), the electrical supply to the start
electro-valve is cut. The start electro-valve closes the fuel
supply to the start injectors and allows their ventilation by
P3 air in order to prevent carbonisation.
Rapid fuel flow decrease
When the fuel flow decreases rapidly, the flow divider
closes and reduces the fuel supply to the main injectors.
However, the flow is maintained to the preference injector
to avoid engine flame-out.
Shut-down
When shut-down is selected, the closing coil of the stop
electro-valve is electrically supplied and opens the the
valve. The pressurising valve closes and the fuel supply to
the injection system stops. The engine shuts-down.
6.47
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL VALVE ASSEMBLY - OPERATION
P3 P3
ENGINE STOPPED
SHUT-DOWN
INITIAL PHASE OF STARTING (N1 < 10%)
RAPID FUEL FLOW DECREASE
STARTING (N1 > 10%)
NORMAL RUNNING
(N1 > self-sustaining speed)
6.48
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START INJECTORS - GENERAL
Function
The start injectors spray fuel into the flame tube during
engine starting.
Position
- On the engine: around the combustion chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Quantity: 4
- Ventilation: by P3 air flow.
Main components
There are four start injectors. Two of them are installed
beside the igniter plugs.
The injectors are connected two by two to the half manifolds.
6.49
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START INJECTORS - GENERAL
Quantity
4
Ventilation
By P3 air flow
START
INJECTOR
(with igniter plug)
START
INJECTOR
FUEL SUPPLY
HALF MANIFOLD
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
INJECTOR INJECTOR AND
IGNITER PLUG
INJECTOR AND
IGNITER PLUG
INJECTOR
6.50
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START INJECTORS - DESCRIPTION
A start injector comprises:
- A mounting flange (secured by 2 screws)
- A circlip
- A filter
- A spring with a thrust washer
- A jet holder which swirls the fuel to the orifice plate by
means of inclined and displaced planes
- An orifice plate provided in its centre with an orifice.
The two injectors located close to the igniter plugs are
mounted on inclined bosses with a sleeve to secure the
combustion chamber. The two other injectors are mounted
on flat bosses.
6.51
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START INJECTORS - DESCRIPTION
INJECTOR INJECTOR AND
IGNITER PLUG
INJECTOR AND
IGNITER PLUG
INJECTOR
IGNITER
PLUG
INJECTOR
(on inclined boss)
CIRCLIP
ORIFICE
PLATE
JET
HOLDER
SPRING
FILTER
MOUNTING
FLANGE
SLEEVE INJECTOR
(on flat boss)
6.52
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START INJECTORS - OPERATION
Starting
During starting, the start electro-valve permits the supply
of fuel to the start injectors.
The igniter plugs ignite the fuel sprayed by the injectors
into the combustion chamber.
As soon as the pressurising valve opens the fuel flows to
the main injectors. The fuel sprayed by the injectors is
ignited and the combustion goes on.
Normal running
At the end of starting, the start electro-valve cuts off the
start injector fuel supply and allows their ventilation with
P3 air in order to prevent their carbonisation.
The start injectors are continuously ventilated during the
engine operation.
6.53
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START INJECTORS - OPERATION
NORMAL RUNNING STARTING
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
(open)
MAIN INJECTOR
SUPPLY
START INJECTOR
SUPPLY
START
ELECTRO-VALVE
(in ventilation position)
P3 air
IGNITER
PLUG
START INJECTOR
VENTILATION
6.54
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN INJECTORS - GENERAL
Function
The main injection system sprays fuel into the combustion
chamber in order to give stable and efficient combustion.
Position
- On the engine: around the rear part of the combustion
chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: pre-vaporising injector
- Quantity: 10 injectors with 1 "preference" injector
- Fuel supply: through two half-manifolds and a pipe for
the "preference" injector.
Main components
There are ten main injectors. They are arranged as follows:
- 5 injectors connected by a half-manifold, on the left side
- 4 injectors connected by a half-manifold, on the right
side
- 1 injector connected by a pipe to the valve assembly.
This is the "preference injector".
6.55
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN INJECTORS - GENERAL
Type
Pre-vaporising injector
Quantity
10 injectors
with 1 "preference" injector
Supply
Through 2 half-manifolds and
a pipe for the "preference" injector
MAIN
INJECTORS
HALF-MANIFOLD
SUPPLY
(from valve assembly)
"PREFERENCE"
INJECTOR
FUEL SUPPLY
RIGHT
HALF-MANIFOLD
LEFT
HALF-MANIFOLD
6.56
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN INJECTORS - DESCRIPTION
A main injector comprises:
- A mounting flange
- A circlip
- A filter
- A brazed jet
- The injector end is drilled with two calibrated holes,
diametrically opposed. The two holes form the spraying
jet.
The injectors penetrate into the pre-vaporising tubes which
are welded on the flame tube.
6.57
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN INJECTORS - DESCRIPTION
EXTERNAL
CASING FLANGE AIR
PRE-VAPORISING
TUBE
VAPORISED
FUEL
INJECTOR
MOUNTING FLANGE
FUEL
PRE-VAPORISING SYSTEM
MOUNTING FLANGE
(welded on the flame tube)
MOUNTING
FLANGE
FILTER
JET
SPRAYING
JET
BODY END ARM
CIRCLIP
Fuel
inlet
6.58
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN INJECTORS - OPERATION
Normal operation
When the fuel pressure exceeds a given value, the
pressurising valve and the flow divider open and supply
fuel to the 10 main injectors through 2 half-manifolds and
an external pipe (preference injector).
The fuel supplied by the main injectors is vaporised due to
the temperature and the mixture with combustion air.
The air-fuel mixture is sprayed into the flame-tube through
the pre-vaporising tubes located in front of each main
injector and is continuously burnt.
Rapid fuel flow decrease
During rapid fuel flow decrease (rapid load decrease
transient phase), the pressure drop causes the flow divider
to close. The fuel supply to the main injectors is then cut.
However, the fuel flow to the "preference" injector is
maintained to avoid engine flame-out.
6.59
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN INJECTORS - OPERATION
NORMAL OPERATION RAPID FUEL FLOW DECREASE
(transient phase of rapid load decrease)
MAIN INJECTOR
FUEL SUPPLY
FLOW DIVIDER OPEN
PREFERENCE INJECTOR
FUEL SUPPLY
FLOW DIVIDER CLOSED
(pressure drop at the metering valve outlet)
PREFERENCE INJECTOR
FUEL SUPPLY
6.60
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER DRAIN VALVE
Function
This valve drains overboard any unburnt fuel remaining in
the combustion chamber.
Position
- On the engine: at the bottom of the combustion chamber
casing lower part.
Main characteristics
- Type: diaphragm
- Closing pressure: between 35 kPa (5 PSI) and 40 kPa
(5.8 PSI) for a N1 speed of approx. 50%.
Functional description
The drain valve includes:
- A union (screwed into the lower part of the combustion
chamber casing)
- A valve actuated by the pressure in the combustion
chamber. It opens at engine shut-down to drain fuel. It
closes during starting when the air pressure becomes
higher than the setting
- A diaphragm which opens the valve when the pressure
decreases in the combustion chamber
- A guiding sleeve which supports the diaphragm
- An outlet union (to drain collector).
6.61
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
COMBUSTION CHAMBER DRAIN VALVE
GUIDING
SLEEVE
DIAPHRAGM
Type
Diaphragm
Closing pressure
35 - 40 kPa (5 - 5.8 PSI)
for N1 approx. 50%
VALVE
OPEN
OUTLET
UNION
FUEL
FUEL
(to drain collector)
AIR PRESSURE
(from combustion
chamber)
VALVE
CLOSED
UNION
ENGINE SHUT-DOWN ENGINE RUNNING
6.62
FUEL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL PIPES
Left front view
- Pipe from valve assembly to main manifolds
- Start injection manifold
- Main injection manifold
- Pipe from HP pump unit to valve assembly
- Drain union
- LP pump drain
- Drain of the HP pump and metering unit
- Fuel inlet union
- Pipe from stop electro-valve to HP pump
- Pressure transmitter pipe.
Right rear view
- Start injection manifold
- Air pipe for the ventilation of start injectors
- Combustion chamber drain valve
- Main injection manifolds.
6.63
FUEL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FUEL PIPES
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER PIPE
PIPE FROM
STOP ELECTRO-VALVE
TO LP PUMP
FUEL INLET
UNION
DRAIN
UNION
HP PUMP PIPE TO
VALVE ASSEMBLY
DRAIN OF THE HP PUMP
AND METERING UNIT
LP PUMP
DRAIN
FWD
MAIN INJECTION
MANIFOLD
AIR PIPE FOR THE
VENTILATION OF
THE INJECTORS
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
DRAIN VALVE
START
INJECTION/VENTILATION
MANIFOLD
PIPE FROM VALVE
ASSEMBLY TO
MAIN INJECTORS
FWD
7.1
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
7 - CONTROL SYSTEM
- Control system ....................................................... 7.2
General .............................................................. 7.2
Description........................................................ 7.4
Operation .......................................................... 7.6
- Digital Control Unit (77-30-01)............................. 7.34
General .............................................................. 7.34
Functional description ..................................... 7.36 to 7.39
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
7.2
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - GENERAL
Functions
The control system is designed to automatically adapt the
engine to the aircraft power requirements whilst remaining
within defined limits.
The main functions of the control system are the following:
- Start control
- Speed control and miscellaneous limitations
- Manual control
- Overspeed protection
- Fault monitoring and processing.
Position
The control system components are located on the engine
and on the aircraft.
The DCU is supplied by the engine manufacturer but
installed in the aircraft.
Main characteristics
- DCU type: single channel digital electronic
- Manual control type: mechanical
- Electrical supply: redundant.
Main components
- Digital Control Unit (DCU)
- Engine (engine and systems)
- Aircraft: various systems (control, indication, supply).
7.3
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - GENERAL
AIRCRAFT
(various systems)
ENGINE
(engine and systems)
MAIN FUNCTIONS
- Start control
- Speed control and miscellaneous
limitations
- Manual control
- Overspeed protection
- Fault monitoring and processing
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT
(DCU)
7.4
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
This part briefly describes the whole control system : the
DCU inputs and outputs, the Digital Control Unit, the
aircraft and engine systems.
DCU inputs and outputs
Inputs from the aircraft
- Logic inputs
- Analog inputs.
Inputs from the engine
- Sensors (N1 and N2 rotation speeds, P3 air pressure,
thermocouples, fuel metering unit resolver).
Outputs to the aircraft
- Logic outputs (indicating lights, relays)
- Serial data link.
Outputs to the engine
- Accessories (electro-valve, fuel metering unit).
Digital Control Unit (DCU)
The DCU is a single channel, digital controller.
It is installed in the aircraft cargo compartment.
The DCU is of modular design and includes a control
digital part and a power turbine overspeed protection part
of analog technology.
The DCU is electrically supplied from the 28 V aircraft
supply circuit and from the engine driven alternator.
Aircraft and engine systems
Various aircraft and engine systems are connected to the
control system.
These systems are dealt with in corresponding chapters.
7.5
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
CONTROL
SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE
OVERSPEED
PROTECTION
(analog)
ALTERNATOR
SUPPLY
LOGIC INPUTS
AIRCRAFT ENGINE
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
ENGINE ACCESSORIES
(electro-valve, fuel
metering unit, sensors ...)
LOGIC OUTPUTS
(indicating lights, relays)
28V AIRCRAFT
SUPPLY CIRCUIT
SENSORS
(rotation speed, air pressure,
thermocouples ...)
SERIAL DATA LINK
ANALOG INPUTS
(T1 probe, collective pitch,
rudder control bar, trims)
7.6
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
This part is an introduction to the operation of the control
system.
Prior to dealing with the various functions, it is worth
remembering the engine configuration and the installation
requirements.
Engine configuration
The engine includes a gas generator which provides
mechanical power to a power turbine which is connected
to a receiver.
The gas generator (compressor, combustion chamber,
turbine) has its operating point defined by the air flow, the
fuel flow, the rotation speed and the turbine entry
temperature. The only available physical parameter for
control purposes is the fuel flow injected into the
combustion chamber.
The power turbine has its operating point defined by the
balance between the power provided by the gas generator
and the power required to drive the helicopter rotor; that is
to say the rotation speed and the torque.
Installation requirements
We can consider the receiver requirements (helicopter)
and the engine requirements.
The helicopter requirements are the following:
- A rotor rotation speed (NR) adapted (i.e.: almost constant
in all operating conditions and whatever the load applied)
- A max. torque (C) of the power shaft (max. limit imposed
by the mechanical transmission and mainly by the main
gearbox of the helicopter).
The engine requirements are the following:
- A power turbine rotation speed (N2) maintained within
given limits (in fact, almost constant because it is
connected to the helicopter rotor). An overspeed
protection is also required in case of failure of the
transmission shaft for example
- The gas generator rotation speeds (N1)
Max. limit imposed by the rotating assembly strength.
Min. speed imposed by critical speeds.
- Turbine entry max. temperature (max. limit imposed by
the hot section strength and particularly by the turbine
blades)
- Fuel flow (Q)
Max. limit which corresponds to a power stop
Min. limit to avoid flame-out
Variation limit in time (Q/T) to avoid compressor
surge.
7.7
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
Air flow G Gas
N1 speed
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
N2 speed
Torque C
Main
gearbox
FUEL
CONTROL UNIT
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
Fuel
flow Q
Turbine entry
temperature TET
COMPRESSOR
GAS GENERATOR POWER TURBINE RECEIVER
REQUIREMENTS
- NR N2
- Max. C
- N1 Limits
- TET
- Q
INPUT SIGNALS
OTHER FUNCTIONS (code display, N1,
indicating lights, accessory control ...)
Compressor outlet
pressure P3
TURBINE
NR
7.8
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM
This part describes in a general way the miscellaneous
functions of the control system: start control, speed control,
manual control, twin-engine configuration, overspeed
protection, monitoring and fault processing.
Start control
The start control function is to obtain a safe start of the
engine in all operating conditions.
It includes:
- The fuel flow control during starting
- The idle speed control
- The acceleration up to the nominal speed.
Speed control
Its main function is to maintain the power turbine rotation
speed constant by metering the fuel flow.
The control loop ensures in fact the power turbine rotation
speed control and various limitations:
- Speed limitation of the gas generator
- Acceleration and deceleration control
- Overtorque limitation in transient conditions
- Fuel flow limitation.
Manual control
This function ensures a manual control in case of a control
system failure.
The control is ensured by a fuel valve actuated by the
cockpit throttle lever.
Twin-engine configuration
The control system takes into account the twin-engine
configuration (synchronization) and the case of one engine
failure.
Overspeed protection
The power turbine overspeed protection system
automatically shuts down the engine when the overspeed
threshold is reached.
Monitoring and fault processing
The control system also ensures engine monitoring and
fault processing.
7.9
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
CONTROL
SYSTEM
Q
- N2 speed
- N1 speed
- Acceleration / deceleration
- Fuel flow
MONITORING AND
FAULT PROCESSING
MANUAL CONTROL
TWIN-ENGINE CONFIGURATION
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
STARTING
- Fuel flow
- Idle speed
- Acceleration
SPEED
METERING
VALVE
7.10
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (3)
START CONTROL
The start control includes: the fuel flow control during
starting control, the N1 idle control and the acceleration
control.
Starting control
This flow control ensures rapid starting (N1 acceleration
up to 68%) without overheat in all operating conditions.
The fuel flow Q injected into the combustion chamber is
equal to (Q1+Q2)-Q
Thus, the fuel flow Q* datum is controlled as a function of
determined laws:
- Q1 basic flow law. Flow determined to obtain ignition
as a function of:
the t1 air temperature
the t4.5 residual temperature
- Q2 start flow law. Flow determined to obtain the
acceleration as a function of:
the N1 rotation speed
a k factor which varies as a function of the atmospheric
pressure P0
- Q flow correction law. Fuel flow correction as a
function of:
the t4.5
the t4.5* datum which varies according to the N1
rotation speed
- Flow limitation law. Corrected fuel flow limited by a
min. and a max. flow value.
7.11
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START CONTROL
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (3)
t4.5*
648
472
0 55 76
N1
t4.5
N1
t4.5
t1
P0
N1 (%)
68
0
=
t4.5*
t4.5*
=
Q1
+
Q2
0 160 670
255
65
Q
t4.5
Q
0 68
N1
Q2
30
15 61.5
N1
P0
k
1
0 1023
Q1
39
30
-60 -50 0 +60
t1
t4.5 < 50C
t4.5 > 50C t4.5 > 50C
FUEL
FLOW Q*
FLOW LIMITATION LAW
Q2 START
FLOW LAW
Q1 BASIC
FLOW LAW
t4.5 DATUM (limit)
AS A FUNCTION OF N1
Q FLOW
CORRECTION LAW
Q
N1 idle
Time
7.12
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (4)
START CONTROL (CONTINUED)
N1 idle control
To start the engine a 3-position selector is moved to either
Training or Flight.
Starting in the Training position, the engine will start and
accelerate to N2 idle (90% N2), with N1 approx. 75%.
Starting in the Flight position, the engine will start and
accelerate to 100% N2, with N1 approx. 80%.
1 - If for any reason (eg. rotor brake applied), the N2 speed
does not accelerate sufficiently, the system will maintain
the engine at 68% N1 to avoid overtorque.
Acceleration control
2 - Acceleration up to N2 idle ensured by the speed
control loop as a function of determined laws:
N2 speed control law: the N2 controller provides a
variable N1* datum. The N1* datum varies according to
the actual acceleration of the power turbine (law N1/
N2; to avoid overtorque).
N1 speed control law: it determines the Q* flow datum
so that the actual N1 is equal to the N1* datum provided
by the control law N2.
3 - N2 idle: at the end of the acceleration, the N2 is
stabilised at a controlled speed as function of determined
laws:
N2 speed control law: the actual N2 speed is compared
with the N2* idle datum (approx. 90%). The N2 controller
provides an N1* datum
N1 speed control law: the actual N1 speed is compared
with the N1* datum to elaborate the Q* flow datum.
4 - Acceleration up to the N2 nominal speed: The
acceleration is commanded when the mode selector is set
to the "Flight" position: the two engines have the same
acceleration rate.
5 - The system stabilises the engine at 100% N2
6 - Training mode control: if the selector is moved from
Flight to Training, the engine will decelerate to 90% N2.
7 - If the other engine stops the control unit will maintain
a minimun N2 of 85% (if the pilot increases the collective
pitch).
7.13
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
START CONTROL (CONTINUED)
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (4)
85
1
N1 (%)
96
70
90
N2 (%)
N1 (%)
time
N2 = 100%
N2 = 90%
N1
N1* = 68% if N2 < threshold
N2
Q
Q
N2*
N1*
2
3
4
5
6
7
N1
Q*
Flight
80
N2 idle
75
N1 idle
68
0
1 N1 IDLE
N1 Control
unit
2
ENGINE ACCELERATION: RAMPS OF N1* ACCORDING TO
ACTUAL N2
3 N2 IDLE: N2* DATUM (N2 approx. 90%)
4 ACCELERATION: N2* RAMP
5 N2 NOMINAL: N2* DATUM (N2 = 100%)
6
DECELERATION: N2* RAMP WHEN PASSING
FROM FLIGHT TO TRAINING
7 TRAINING MODE CONTROL
N1 Control
unit
Fuel metering
unit
Fuel metering
unit
N2 Control
unit
N1 CONTROL
N2 CONTROL
7.14
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (5)
SPEED CONTROL - GENERAL
The speed control loop mainly includes:
- An N2 power turbine speed control unit
- An N1 gas generator speed control unit
- A fuel flow metering unit (Q).
The power turbine control unit measures the actual speed
(N2) and a datum provided by the collective pitch. It
determines a speed datum (N1*) according to the measured
difference.
The gas generator control unit measures the speed datum
(N1*) and the actual speed (N1) and determines a flow
datum in order to adapt the gas generator to the operating
conditions.
The fuel metering unit receives the flow datum (Q*) and
calculates the actual flow (Q).
N1/N2 relation (control unit static droop)
In this type of control system, the N1 speed is made
inversely proportional to N2. The N1/N2 relation illustrates
this proportionality and the N2 variation is called "static
droop" (St).
The static droop ensures the system stability, but it is not
acceptable because the helicopter rotor requires a constant
speed.
As the largest load variations come from the collective
pitch, a link between the control unit and the collective
pitch compensates the static droop. Furthermore, the
detection phase is advanced (this explains the name
"anticipator") to reduce the response time.
Static droop compensation
The "static droop compensation" curve illustrates the
static droop lines for different collective pitch positions
(angles).
In operation, points 1, 2 and 3 are obtained and the static
droop is then compensated; this means: constant power
turbine speed (and therefore rotor speed) in all operating
conditions.
In transient operation, the power turbine speed varies, but
the control unit operates quickly to return the speed to its
nominal value, within the value of the static droop.
7.15
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED CONTROL - GENERAL
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (5)
N2 Speed
COLLECTIVE PITCH
N1
N1
N1
N2
N2
N2
N1
N2
1
3
2
Static droop
N1 / N2 RELATION CURVE
(control unit static droop)
STATIC DROOP COMPENSATION CURVE
h
i
g
h

p
i
t
c
h
m
e
d
i
u
m

p
i
t
c
h
l
o
w

p
i
t
c
h
Fuel metering
unit
Flow Q
Gas generator
control unit
Q* flow
datum
N1 Speed
N2* speed datum
SPEED CONTROL LOOP
N1* speed
datum
Power turbine
control unit
COLLECTIVE PITCH
7.16
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (6)
SPEED CONTROL - CONTROL LOOP
We can distinguish the following functional assemblies:
- The N2 control unit (speed control unit, acceleration and
deceleration limiter, torque limiter, N1 min. and max.
stops)
- The N1 control unit (speed control unit, flow limiter)
- The fuel metering unit.
N2 control unit
- Determines an N2* datum as a function of the rotor
collective pitch and of the tail rotor pitch 0, of the
"trims" 1 and of an N2
0
datum speed
- Compares this datum to the actual N2 and calculates the
difference
- Processes this difference with a proportional control
- Provides an N1* datum
- Controls the acceleration and deceleration, limits the
torque (the min. selector selects the lowest signal) and
ensures the N1 max. and min. stops.
Anticipator
A signal proportional to the collective pitch angle, called
XCP, is added to the N1* datum.
N1 control unit
- Compares the N1* datum to the actual speed N1
- Determines a Q* flow datum limited by the max. and
min. flow conditions.
Fuel metering unit
- Ensures the Q* flow signal conversion
- Outputs the signal to the stepper motor of the fuel
metering valve.
Speed control - Example of transient condition
When the collective pitch increases the XCP signal gives
an initial increase of the N1* datum. The N2 speed drops.
The N2 control unit detects the drop and calculates a new
N1* datum. The N1 control unit processes this datum
according to certain limitations (acceleration, torque,
flow) and determines a Q* flow datum which is
transmitted to the metering unit. The flow increases, the
N1 speed increases, the N2 speed returns to its nominal
value.
7.17
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED CONTROL - CONTROL LOOP
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (6)
N1
XCP
N1*
N2
0
P
N2
N2*
N2
1
0
N1*
N1*
N1*
Q*
Q*
Q
FUEL METERING
UNIT Q
N1 CONTROL UNIT
N2 CONTROL UNIT
Control unit
P
I
: Proportional
: Integral
Max. N1
Min. N1
Metering
unit
Minimum selector
Acceleration /
Deceleration
Torque
Max. Q
Min. Q
time
Power turbine
speed N2
Fuel flow Q
Load C
Gas generator
speed N1
Signals
0: Rotor collective pitch
and rudder control bar
1: Balancing and rotor trims
*: Datum
N2
0
: N2 reference = 100%
XCP: Collective pitch
time
time
time
7.18
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (7)
SPEED CONTROL - MISCELLANEOUS LIMITS
Beyond the speed control, the N2 speed control unit
ensures some limitations. It acts on the N1* datum transfer:
- Acceleration and deceleration limitations
- Transient overtorque limitation
- N1 speed limitation.
Acceleration and deceleration limitations
These limitations ensure a protection against:
- Compressor surge in case of rapid acceleration (collective
pitch increase)
- Flame out in case of rapid deceleration (collective pitch
decrease).
The system limits the variation rate of the N1* datum as a
function of the time t (dN1*/dt).
The max. rating is comprised between + 13%/s in
acceleration and - 25%/s in deceleration and depends on
the P0 atmospheric pressure. It decreases when the pressure
decreases (slower acceleration and deceleration).
Overtorque limitation
This limitation avoids torque overshoot due to the dynamics
of the control loop during transient load increase.
The overtorque limitation limits the variation rate of N1*
datum as follows:
From the input signals (N2* - N2 difference) and N1*
delivered by the control unit, the overtorque limitation unit
analyses the direction of the N2* - N2 variation:
- If the change is negative: no effect
- If the change is positive: a dN1*/dt datum is calculated
as a function of dN2/dt.
7.19
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED CONTROL - MISCELLANEOUS LIMITS
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (7)
N1*
N1*
t1
P0
N1* N1*
(dN2 / dt) N1* N1* P0
N1* N1*
N2
dN2 / dt < 0 dN2 / dt > 0
N1*
A B
ACCELERATION / DECELERATION CONTROL
AND OVERTORQUE LIMITATION
Minimum
selector
N1 limitation
(max. N1, min. N1)
Controls
Overtorque
limitation
Acceleration and
deceleration
limitation
Acceleration rate
time
High P0
Deceleration rate
time
Low P0
OVERTORQUE LIMITATION
A: - N2 speed drop
- N1* increase without
overtorque control and under
acceleration control
(acceleration rate law applies here)
B: - Return to N2 nominal speed
- N1* acceleration with
overtorque control
- Transient phase without
overtorque control
time
time
Low P0
High P0
7.20
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (8)
SPEED CONTROL - MISCELLANEOUS LIMITS
(CONTINUED)
N1 speed limitation
The N1 speed limitation system provides the max. rating
while protecting the engine. The ratings are selected by the
pilot (i.e.: OEI 2 min. 30 sec. rating, training 2 min. 30 sec.
rating control). Limitation also depends on the
atmospheric conditions (P0 pressure, t1 temperature).
max. N1*: N1 (t1) - N1 (P0)
The min. N1 speed is also limited to avoid operation at
critical ratings.
A push button on collective pitch lever selects between
OEI 2 min. 30 sec. rating and OEI 30 min. rating.
A training-normal selector allows one engine to be selected
to training. The engine selected to training is reduced to
idle (90% N2), and the other engine has its max. power
limited to take-off power.
Flow limitation
The control ensures two fuel flow limitations:
- Max. fuel flow. This limitation is calculated as a function
of the compressor outlet pressure (P3). It is a max. power
stop.
There are in fact two stops: a max. flow stop in normal
operation and a max. flow stop in training mode
- Min. fuel flow. This limitation is calculated as a function
of the P0 atmospheric pressure in order to avoid flame
out especially during rapid load decrease.
7.21
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED CONTROL - MISCELLANEOUS LIMITS (CONTINUED)
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (8)
t1 (C)
103
102
101
100
99
N1 (%)
-50 0 15 +50
1,3
0
500 1013
N1 (%)
N1*
Q*
t1
P0
N1* N1*
(dN2 / dt) N1* N1* P0
Q*
Q*
0
0
P3
P0
P3
P0
P0
OEI 2 min. 30 sec.
OEI 30 min.
T/O
MCP
t1 (C)
N1 SPEED LIMITATION
Max. N1* = N1(t1) - N1(P0)
Minimum
selector
N1 limitation
(max. N1, min. N1)
Controls
Overtorque
limitation
Acceleration and
deceleration
limitation
NORMAL
TRAINING
MAX. FLOW
MIN. FLOW
FLOW LIMITATION
Max. Q
Min. Q
Normal
configuration
7.22
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (9)
MANUAL CONTROL
This system ensures a manual control of the fuel flow. It
is used in case of a failure of the automatic control system.
In most cases, a control system failure locks the metering
valve in its position at time of failure.
The manual control acts on a valve of the hydromechanical
control unit located between the fuel pump and the metering
unit. This valve will either cause a reduction of flow
through the main valve or allow an increased flow in by-
pass of the main valve.
Control positions of the manual metering valve
- "Normal" position. Neutral position, the flow is
controlled by the metering unit
- "Flow decrease" range. The manual metering valve
reduces the section of the direct passage and thus the fuel
flow
- "Flow increase" range. The fuel flow by-passes the
metering unit, and thus allows the fuel flow increase
whilst limiting the flow to the "frozen" metering unit.
Flow range of the manual control
- Manual valve effect with the main metering valve fully
open:
All the fuel flow range is open between the zero flow (-45)
and the max. flow (5)
- Manual valve effect with the main metering valve fully
closed:
All the fuel flow range is open between the zero flow (5)
and the max. flow (45)
- Manual valve effect with the main metering valve locked
at any flow, at the neutral notch:
All the fuel flow range is open between the fully closed
flow (-45) and the fully open flow (45)
- Reduction notch:
The reduction notch ensures a min. flow to avoid flame out
in all conditions.
Note: An auto-manual selector is used for automatic
control failure training. When selected to manual,
the stepper motor is frozen and the engine has to be
controlled manually.
7.23
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MANUAL CONTROL
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (9)
Q 0
Q = 0
N
Q
Q
N
Q = 0
Q
N
M
a
n
u
a
l

v
a
l
v
e

e
f
f
e
c
t

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

m
a
i
n

m
e
t
e
r
i
n
g

v
a
l
v
e

f
u
l
l
y

c
l
o
s
e
d
Fuel flow
Q2
(min. flow at the
reduction notch)
Q1
(no flow)
M
a
n
u
a
l

v
a
l
v
e

e
f
f
e
c
t

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

m
a
i
n

m
e
t
e
r
i
n
g

v
a
l
v
e

f
u
l
l
y

o
p
e
n
M
a
n
u
a
l
v
a
l
v
e
e
f
f
e
c
t
w
i
t
h
t
h
e
m
a
i
n
meteri n
g
v
a
l
v
e
l
o
c
k
e
d
a
t
a
n
y
f
l
o
w
a
t
t
h
e
n
e
u
t
r
a
l
n
o
t
c
h
Q3
(controlled
max. flow)
X
(any flow)
Neutral notch range
with no effect
(5)
Valve stop
open
(+45)
Valve
position ()
CONTROL POSITIONS OF THE
MANUAL METERING VALVE
FLOW RANGE OF THE MANUAL CONTROL
MANUAL DECREASE
MANUAL INCREASE
NORMAL (N)
Valve stop
closed
(-45)
7.24
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (10)
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
The protection against power turbine overspeed
automatically stops the engine when an overspeed threshold
is reached.
The protection system includes:
- The overspeed module of the Digital Control Unit
(analog processing)
- The power turbine speed sensors
- Some control and monitoring components (aircraft
overspeed test unit)
- The stop electro-valve (to shut-off the injector fuel
supply when electrically supplied).
Operation
During starting, the system is tested at approximately 25%
N2.
In normal operation, the power turbine speed is stabilised
at around 100% by the control unit (nominal speed).
In the event of an overspeed (112 +3%), the system
operates as follows:
- Overspeed detection
- Electrical supply to the stop electro-valve (shut-down
order)
- Overspeed indication.
After the overspeed operation a specific procedure allows
the rearming of the system.
A cross monitoring system between the two DCUs inhibits
the operation of the overspeed protection system of the
engine remaining in operation.
7.25
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (10)
112 3
25
N2 (%)
t 0
100
N2 PHONIC
WHEEL
POWER
TURBINE
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
OVERSPEED
TEST UNIT
Aircraft
SENSOR
PRINCIPLE OF THE POWER TURBINE
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
OVERSPEED MODULE OF THE
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT
28V aircraft
supply
N2
signals
Rearming
and test signals
Stop electro-valve
Cross
monitoring
OVERSPEED MODULE DIAGRAM
SPEED THRESHOLD DIAGRAM
SYSTEM TEST
OVERSPEED
NOMINAL SPEED
Indication
Q
STOP
ELECTRO-VALVE
7.26
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (11)
SPEED UNIT - OVERSPEED DETECTION SYSTEM
Function
The overspeed detection system stops the engine when the
power turbine rotation speed (N2) reaches a given value.
Position
The overspeed detection system is part of the speed unit.
Main characteristics
- Analog system
- System electrically independent from the DCU
- Response time: very short.
Main components of the system (per engine)
- Two speed sensors measuring the speed of power turbine
shaft
- A speed printed circuit board connected to the other
engine DCU. This printed circuit board includes a
monostable relay V, a bistable relay S-S', 25% and
112% detection modules and a 112% N2 oscillator
- A stop electro-valve (ECA)
- One overspeed test box for the two engines, which
includes the TEST and REARMING push buttons and
OVERSPEED (OVSP + indicating light) and ARMING
(S + indicating light) indications.
Operation
Power-up
When N2 25%, the push button and the arming indicating
light "S" are electricaly supplied.Rearming is possible.
Overspeed test
An OVERSPEED TEST push button allows the checking
of the detection system operation.
When the TEST push button is depressed, the oscillator
operates and simulates a 112% power turbine overspeed.
The test is inhibited at power turbine rotation speeds
higher than 25%.
At each starting, when N2 > 25%, the push button and the
arming indicating light "S" shut-off.
Note: The OVERSPEED and ARMING indicating lights
and the push buttons are located in the luggage
compartment.
Overspeed
The overspeed detection system monitors the N2 speed
through two different channels.
If the signals reach the given thresholds (112 3% N2), the
system opens the stop electro-valve and provides the
overspeed signal. The engine stops.
The overspeed detection system also controls the mutual
lock of both engine protection loops. This lock prevents an
engine being shut-down through the N2 overspeed
protection loop if the other engine has already suffered an
overspeed shut-down.
7.27
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED UNIT - OVERSPEED DETECTION SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (11)
S
V
112%
112%
25%
25%
S'
N2
N2
"S" +
- Supply of the arming signal "S"
+ indicating light (up to 25% of N2)
- Rearming (if necessary)
SYSTEM POWER ON
(N2 25%)
- Oscillator supply 112%*
- Oscillator inhibited for N2 > 25%
OVERSPEED TEST
- V monostable relay supply
- S bistable relay supply
- Stop electro-valve supply
- Overspeed signal "OVSP" supply
+ indicating light
- 2nd engine system inhibition
OVERSPEED
(N2 = 112 3%)
Oscillator
Engine
shut-down
Stop electro-valve
"OVSP" +
2nd engine inhibition
Test
Rearming
Circuits which are inhibited if N2>0%
7.28
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (12)
TWIN-ENGINE CONFIGURATION
Configuration description
The helicopter rotor is driven by the two engines through
the main gearbox and the free wheels.
Each engine has its own control unit which includes:
- A power turbine N2 speed control unit (calculation of
the N1* datum in relation to various parameters)
- A gas generator N1 speed control unit (metering of the
fuel flow Q to keep the N1 speed constant and equal to
the N1* speed datum).
The N2 control units of the two engines receive signals
from the same collective pitch control ("anticipator" link).
Load sharing principle
In normal conditions, the helicopter rotor is driven by the
two power turbines; thus:
NR = kN2 eng 1 = kN2 eng 2
The speed signals received by the two control units are the
same, so are the collective pitch signals. The control units
then determine identical datums which are kept constant
by the fuel metering devices.
As the power is linked to the N1 speed and as the power
turbine efficiency varies very little from one turbine to
another, a good load sharing is obtained.
The N1* datums can be modified if a difference appears;
in this case, the datums can be modified by the manual trim
control.
Operation on a single engine
In this case, the operating engine provides the power and
the other is disengaged through the free wheel. The engine
speed limit is represented by the gas generator speed; OEI
2 min. 30 sec. rating.
7.29
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TWIN-ENGINE CONFIGURATION
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (12)
Q
N2 N1
N1*
N1
N2
HELICOPTER ROTOR
Main
gearbox
POWER
TURBINE
N1 CONTROL UNIT N2 CONTROL UNIT N2 CONTROL UNIT
FREE WHEEL
COLLECTIVE
PITCH
CONTROL PRINCIPLE
Max.
Min.
OPERATING POINT
ON ONE ENGINE
(same power supplied
by a single engine)
OPERATING POINT
ON TWO ENGINES
CONTROL DIAGRAM
GAS
GENERATOR
7.30
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (13)
TRAINING MODE
This system is designed to simulate an engine failure.
During flight, the failure of one engine is simulated by
switching the "STOP/TRAINING/FLIGHT" selector of
the chosen engine to the "TRAINING" position. Then, the
engine is controlled in training idle mode (90% N2). Thus,
the power turbine is disengaged from the helicopter main
gearbox. The other engine operates in the "TRAINING
FLIGHT" (Training OEI) mode.
The "TRAINING FLIGHT" mode is identical to the
"FLIGHT MODE" but uses derated N1 stops in order to
avoid the use of the OEI ratings.The working rating is then
the MTOP.
However, the engine operating in the training idle mode is
able to deliver the required power in the event of a real
failure of the other engine. The speed is controlled at a
training speed of 90% N2 and the anticipator function is
cancelled.
7.31
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TRAINING MODE
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (13)
DCU
ENGINE 1
ENGINE 1
REDUCE TO
90% N2
ENGINE 2
LIMITED TO
MAX. TAKE-OFF POWER
"TRAINING"
indication
DCU
ENGINE 2
FLIGHT
TRAINING
STOP
FLIGHT
TRAINING
STOP
7.32
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (14)
MONITORING AND FAILURE PROCESSING
The control system ensures a continuous monitoring (built
in test equipment) of various parameters: circuit continuity,
signal validity, tests before starting, supply monitoring.
There are three predetermined levels of failure: major
failure, minor failure and loss of redundancy.
Major failure
In case of a major failure, the stepper motor is "frozen" and
the manual control valve can be used (e.g.: metering unit
failure, loss of two N1 or N2 signals, loss of two power
supplies, DCU failure).
Minor failure
In case of a minor failure, the stepper motor operates
normally and the control system operates from a recovery
law (e.g.: loss of one sensor without redundancy).
Loss of redundancy
In the event of loss of redundancy, the system continues in
normal control and maintenance action is necessary after
flight (e.g.: loss of one N1 or N2 sensor, loss of one power
supply).
Recovery laws
In case of defective operation or hardware failures, the
Digital Control Unit can continue to operate, but only from
recovery values.
The Digital Control Unit uses recovery laws for the
following failures:
- P0 failure
- T1 failure
- t4.5 failure
- P3 failure
- Collective pitch failure
- Trim failure.
7.33
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MONITORING AND FAILURE PROCESSING
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (14)
- P0 failure
- T1 failure
- t4.5 failure
- P3 failure
- Collective pitch failure
- Trim failure
RECOVERY LAWS (minor failures)
SUPPLY
INTERNAL
CHECKS
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT
EXTERNAL
CHECKS
- Content of memories
- Calculations
- Internal supply
- ...
- Continuity
- Sensor insulation
- Lack or evidence of signals
-
- Major failure
- Minor failure
- Loss of redundancy
OPERATION PRINCIPLE
WARNINGS
7.34
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT - GENERAL
Function
The Digital Control Unit controls and monitors the engine
operation.
Position
It is installed in the helicopter baggage compartment.
Main characteristics
- DCU type: single channel, digital electronic
- Design: modular
- Electrical supply: redundant.
Main components
The Digital Control Unit includes the following main
units :
- Interconnection unit
- Power supply unit
- Speed unit
- Output unit
- Processor unit
- Input unit
- Connectors
- Anti-vibration mountings
- Earth braid mounting flange.
The 6 units are attached by means of tie bolts and pins.
Identification
There is an identification plate located on the front face of
the interconnection unit.
7.35
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT - GENERAL
CONNECTORS TIE BOLT PIN
MOUNTING
(with anti vibration device)
SPEED
UNIT
OUTPUT
UNIT
PROCESSOR
UNIT
INPUT
UNIT
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(helicopter baggage compartment)
DCU type
Single channel
digital electronic
Design
Modular
Electrical supply
Redundant
IDENTIFICATION
PLATE
INTERCONNECTION
UNIT
POWER SUPPLY
UNIT
EARTH BRAID
MOUNTING FLANGE
7.36
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT - FUNCTIONAL
DESCRIPTION (1)
DCU inputs
From the aircraft
- Overspeed TEST and REARM selector
- FLIGHT - TRAINING - STOP selector
- OEI 2 min. 30 sec. - OEI 30 min. selector
- AUTO - MANUAL selector
- Collective pitch and tail rotor pitch 0
- Trims (balance and rotor) 1
- Cross monitoring (overspeed)
- Serial data link.
From the engine
- T1 temperature probe
- N1 speed sensors
- N2 speed sensors
- P3 air pressure sensor
- t4.5 thermocouples
- Fuel metering unit resolver.
Power supply
- 28 V Aircraft supply circuit
- Engine alternator.
7.37
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DCU INPUTS
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT - FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (1)
- SERIAL DATA LINK
- N1 SPEED SENSORS
- T1 TEMPERATURE PROBE
- FUEL METERING UNIT RESOLVER
- t4.5 THERMOCOUPLES
- P3 AIR PRESSURE SENSOR
ENGINE
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(ENGINE 1)
- OVERSPEED TEST
SUPPLY
ALTERNATOR
- OVERSPEED REARMING
- FLIGHT - TRAINING - STOP SELECTOR
- OEI 2 min. 30 sec. - OEI 30 min. SELECTOR
- AUTO - MANUAL SELECTOR
- TRIMS 1
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(ENGINE 2)
- N2 SPEED SENSORS
AIRCRAFT
28V AIRCRAFT
SUPPLY CIRCUIT
- COLLECTIVE PITCH AND
TAIL-ROTOR PITCH 0
7.38
CONTROL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT - FUNCTIONAL
DESCRIPTION (2)
DCU outputs
To the aircraft
- N1 indicator
- Indicating lights
Overspeed
Overspeed armed
Contingency power
Minor / redundancy failures (amber GOV)
Major failure (red GOV)
Training.
- Start control relay
- Serial data link
- Cross monitoring.
To the engine
- Stop electro-valve
- Fuel metering unit
- P3 air pressure sensor
- T1 probe.
7.39
CONTROL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DCU OUTPUTS
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT - FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (2)
ENGINE
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(ENGINE 1)
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(ENGINE 2)
AIRCRAFT
STOP ELECTRO-VALVE
- FUEL METERING UNIT
- P3 AIR PRESSURE SENSOR
- T1 PROBE
- N1 INDICATOR
- OVERSPEED INDICATING LIGHT
- OVERSPEED ARMED INDICATING LIGHT
- CONTINGENCY POWER INDICATING LIGHT
- MINOR/REDUNDANCY FAILURES
INDICATING LIGHT (amber GOV)
- MAJOR FAILURE
INDICATING LIGHT (red GOV)
- TRAINING INDICATING LIGHT
- START CONTROL RELAY
- SERIAL DATA LINK
8.1
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
8 - MEASUREMENT AND
INDICATING SYSTEMS
- Measurement and indicating systems ........................................ 8.2
- Speed measurement and indicating system............................... 8.4
N1 speed sensor (77-10-01)........................................................ 8.6
N2 speed sensors (77-10-02) ...................................................... 8.10
- Gas temperature measurement and indicating
system (77-20-01) .......................................................................... 8.14
Thermocouple probes and t4.5 conformation box (77-10-03) .. 8.16
- Torque measurement and indicating system............................. 8.20
Torque transmitter (77-10-03) ........................................................ 8.24
- Miscellaneous indications ............................................................ 8.26
Indicators.................................................................................... 8.26
N1 measurement and indicating system................................ 8.28
Display system............................................................................ 8.30 to 8.33
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
8.2
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
Functions
The measurement and indicating system provides the
following functions:
- It allows to check that the engine is operating within
determined limits
- It signals faults or abnormal changes of parameters
- It permits the checking of certain operating phases.
Miscellaneous indications
- Electrical measurement system directly connected to
indicators or through the engine electronic control unit
- We can distinguish:
The operating parameters (N1, N1 and torque)
The monitoring parameters (N2, t4.5, oil pressure
and temperature, miscellaneous indications).
Miscellaneous measurement and indicating
systems
- N1 gas generator rotation speed
- N2 power turbine rotation speed
- t4.5 gas temperature
- Engine torque
- Lubricating system (refer to chapter "OIL SYSTEM")
- Miscellaneous (indicating lights and monitoring).
8.3
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
FUNCTIONS
- To ensure that the engine
operates within determined limits
- To signal a fault or an abnormal
change of parameters
- To check certain operating
phases
MISCELLANEOUS
(indicating lights
and monitoring)
N1
SPEED
t4.5 GAS
TEMPERATURE
N2
SPEED
LUBRICATING
SYSTEM
ENGINE
TORQUE
8.4
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEM
Function
This system measures the rotation speeds of the gas
generator (N1) and the power turbine (N2).
Main characteristics
- Type: phonic wheels and electromagnetic sensors
- Sensor signals: frequency proportional to the rotation
speed
- Indication: digital in percentage.
Main components
- N1 speed sensor
- N2 speed sensors
- Connections with the DCU
- Connections with the indicators.
Description
Refer to sensors and to aircraft publications.
General operation
The gas generator rotation speed (N1) signal is used for:
- Engine control (starting, speed control loop)
- Indication (N1 and N1).
The N1 speed is an operating parameter as it reflects the
engine power and serves to determine the limit ratings.
The power turbine rotation speed (N2) signal is used for:
- Engine control (speed control loop and overspeed
protection)
- Indication (associated with the NR rotation speed
indication).
8.5
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
CONTROL
STARTING
SPEED
CONTROL LOOP
OVERSPEED
PROTECTION
N1
gas generator
rotation speed
N2 power turbine
rotation speed
+
NR rotor
rotation speed
N1
indicator
N1 SENSOR, Y2
Firewall
ENGINE
N1 SENSOR, Y1
N1 SENSOR, Y3
NR signal
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT COCKPIT
N2 SENSOR, X1
N2 SENSOR, X2
N2 SENSOR, X3
N2 SENSOR, Y1
N2 SENSOR, Y3
8.6
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEM
N1 SPEED SENSOR - GENERAL
Function
The N1 speed sensor measures the rotation speed of the gas
generator rotating assembly.
Position
- Upper part of the reduction gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type: electromagnetic
- Quantity: 1 triple sensor (signals: Y1, Y2 and Y3)
- Phonic wheel:
Quantity: 1 triple
2 wheels with 41 teeth
1 wheel with 37 teeth
On the starter drive gear
- Signals at 100% N1:
Y2 and Y3: 7844 Hz for 11479 RPM
Y1: 7078.7 Hz for 11479 RPM.
Main components
- Starter drive gear
- Triple phonic wheel
- Triple electromagnetic sensor
- Electrical connector (connections with the DCU and the
N1 indicator).
8.7
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
N1 SPEED SENSOR - GENERAL
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
Type
Electromagnetic
Quantity
1 triple sensor
(Y1, Y2 and Y3)
Phonic wheel
- Quantity: 1 triple
2 wheels with 41 teeth
1 wheel with 37 teeth
- Starter drive gear
Signals (100% N1)
Y2 and Y3: 7844 Hz for 11479 RPM
Y1: 7078.7 Hz for 11479 RPM
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
- Connection with the DCU for Y1 and Y3
- Connection with the indicator for Y2
N1 SENSOR
TRIPLE
PHONIC WHEEL
TRIPLE N1
SENSOR
STARTER DRIVE
GEAR
8.8
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEM
N1 SPEED SENSOR - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The measurement and indicating system includes:
- A triple phonic wheel (two wheels with 41 teeth and one
with 37 teeth)
- A triple electromagnetic sensor which includes three
magnetic cores and coils.
The gap between the phonic wheel and the sensor is
0.5 mm (0.018 inch). The gap is adjustable with a laminated
shim.
The three sensors are located in a single casing. The
electrical connection is made through a 12 pin connector.
Operation
The phonic wheel rotates in front of the sensor and
produces a pseudo sinusoidal alternating voltage.
The alternating voltage frequency is proportional to the
gas generator rotation speed and to the number of phonic
wheel teeth.
Phonic wheel Gas generator
F (Hz) =
teeth number (d)
x
rotation speed
60
The Y1 and Y3 sensors are connected to the Digital
Control Unit for the control system operation and the split
indication.
The Y2 sensor is connected to the speed indicator installed
in the cockpit.
8.9
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
N1 SPEED SENSOR - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
Y1 & Y3
Y2
12 PIN
CONNECTOR
ELECTROMAGNETIC
SENSOR
PHONIC WHEEL
PRINCIPLE OF SPEED MEASUREMENT
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
DESCRIPTION
(F)
Gap
Magnetic
core
Coil
N
F =
N x d
60
Gap = 0.5 mm (0.018 inch)
PHONIC
WHEEL (d)
Y3 Y2 Y1
COCKPIT
STARTER
DRIVE GEAR
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(control system)
N1
INDICATOR
8.10
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
Main components
- Power turbine shaft
- Triple phonic wheel
- Triple electromagnetic sensors
- Electrical connectors (connections with the DCU and
the N2 indicator).
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEM
N2 SPEED SENSORS - GENERAL
Function
The N2 speed sensors measure the rotation speed of the
power turbine rotating assembly.
Position
- Front face of the reduction gearbox casing, around the
front part of the power turbine shaft.
Main characteristics
- Type: electromagnetic sensor
- Quantity: 2 triple sensors (signals: X1, X2 and X3; Y1,
Y2 and Y3)
- Phonic wheel:
Quantity: 1 triple
2 wheels with 16 teeth
1 wheel with 13 teeth
Fitted at the end of the power turbine shaft
- Signals at 100% N2:
X1, X2, Y1 and Y2: 12116.8 Hz for 45438 RPM
X3 and Y3: 9844.9 Hz for 45438 RPM.
8.11
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
N2 SPEED SENSORS - GENERAL
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
Type
Electromagnetic
Quantity
2 triple sensors
(X1, X2 and X3 ; Y1, Y2 and Y3)
Phonic wheel
- Quantity: 1 triple
2 wheels with 16 teeth, 1 wheel with 13 teeth
- Fitted at the end of the power turbine shaft
Signals (100% N2)
X1, X2, Y1 and Y2: 12116.8 Hz for 45438 RPM
X3 and Y3: 9844.9 Hz for 45438 RPM
N2
SENSORS
REDUCTION GEARBOX
CASING
TRIPLE N2
SENSORS
TRIPLE
PHONIC WHEEL
POWER TURBINE
SHAFT
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTORS
- Connection with the DCU
- Connection with the N2 indicator
8.12
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING
SYSTEM
N2 SPEED SENSORS - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The measurement and indicating system includes:
- A triple phonic wheel (two wheels with 16 teeth and one
with 13 teeth)
- Two triple electromagnetic sensors which include, each,
three magnetic cores and coils.
The gap between the phonic wheel and the sensor is
0.5 mm (0.018 inch). The gap is adjustable with laminated
shims.
The six sensors are housed in a single casing. The electrical
connection is made through two 12 pin connectors.
Operation
The phonic wheel rotates in front of the sensor and
produces a pseudo sinusoidal alternating voltage.
The alternating voltage frequency is proportional to the
power turbine rotation speed and to the number of the
phonic wheel teeth.
Phonic wheel Gas generator
F (Hz) =
teeth number (d)
x
rotation speed
60
The X1 and Y3 sensors are connected to the Digital
Control Unit for the control system operation.
The X3 and Y1 sensors are connected to the power turbine
overspeed protection circuit.
The X2 sensor is connected to the speed indicator located
in the cockpit.
The Y2 sensor is not used.
Note: In a twin-engine configuration, the same indicator
can display the rotor speed and the two power
turbine speeds.
8.13
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
N2 SPEED SENSORS - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
SPEED MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
(F)
N
F =
N x d
60
X2
X1-X3
Y1-Y3
Y3 Y2 Y1
X3 X2 X1
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
(control system and
overspeed protection)
N2 SPEED
INDICATOR
PRINCIPLE OF SPEED MEASUREMENT
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
DESCRIPTION
Magnetic
core
PHONIC
WHEEL (d)
COCKPIT
12 PIN
CONNECTORS
ELECTROMAGNETIC
SENSORS
PHONIC
WHEEL
Gap = 0.5 mm (0.018 inch)
Gap
8.14
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND
INDICATING SYSTEM
Function
This system monitors the gas temperature particularly
during engine starting.
As it is difficult to measure the gas temperature at the
turbine inlet, the measurement is carried out at the gas
generator outlet.
Position
- All the system components are located on the engine
except the DCU and the t4.5 indicator.
Main characteristics
- Type: thermocouple probes
- Indication: degrees Celsius.
Main components
- Thermocouple probes
- t4.5 conformation box
- Digital Control Unit
- t4.5 indicator (aircraft manufacturer's supply).
Description
Refer to following pages.
General operation
The t4.5 gas temperature is an operating parameter,
particularly during engine starting.
The signal from the thermocouples is used for:
- Engine control (start fuel flow control)
- Indication (in degrees Celsius).
8.15
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
t4.5 THERMOCOUPLE
PROBE LOCATION
CONFORMATION
BOX
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
t4.5 INDICATOR
(cockpit)
FUEL METERING
VALVE
8.16
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND
INDICATING SYSTEM
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES - t4.5 CONFORMATION
BOX - GENERAL
Function
The thermocouple probes measure the gas temperature
(t4.5) at the gas generator outlet.
Position
- The thermocouple probes are installed on the power
turbine diffuser casing. The tip of the probes is set in the
gas flow before the power turbine nozzle guide vanes.
- The t4.5 conformation box is secured by three bolts on
a support located above the gas generator.
Main characteristics
- Type: Chromel-Alumel
- Quantity: 4 double probes
- Connection: to the conformation box, in parallel.
Main components
- 4 double thermocouple probes
- t4.5 conformation box.
8.17
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES AND t4.5 CONFORMATION BOX - GENERAL
GAS TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
CONFORMATION
BOX
DOUBLE
THERMOCOUPLE
PROBES
Thermocouple type
Chromel - Alumel
Quantity
4 double probes
Connection
To the conformation box,
in parallel
8.18
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GAS TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND
INDICATING SYSTEM
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES - t4.5 CONFORMATION
BOX - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
Each double thermocouple sensor includes:
- A cold junction subjected to the indicator temperature
- A chromel conductor
- An alumel conductor
- A hot junction subjected to the gas temperature.
The conformation box includes:
- Some resistors to produce a uniform gas temperature
indication for a given turbine inlet temperature
- A shorting link support (not used).
Operation
A thermocouple probe produces an electromotive force
proportional to the temperature difference between the hot
junction (gas temperature) and the cold junction (indicator
temperature).
This electromotive force is then provided through the
conformation box:
- To the Digital Control Unit for the starting control
system
- To the gas temperature indicator (millivoltmeter) located
in the cockpit.
8.19
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES AND t4.5 CONFORMATION BOX - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
GAS TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
COCKPIT
CONFORMATION
BOX
SHORTING LINK
SUPPORT
(not used)
THERMOCOUPLES
t
Chromel wire
Alumel wire
ELECTROMOTIVE
FORCE
RECEIVER
COLD JUNCTION
(indicator temperature)
HOT JUNCTION
(gas temperature)
THERMOCOUPLE PROBE
CONFORMATION BOX
RESISTORS
SHORTING LINK
SUPPORT
(not used)
THERMOCOUPLE
CONNECTOR
CONDUCTOR
CONNECTORS (Cr-Al)
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
(Digital Control
Unit and indicator)
RESISTORS
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
TEMPERATURE
INDICATOR
8.20
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TORQUE MEASUREMENT AND
INDICATING SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The system provides an indication of engine torque
measured on the intermediate gear of the reduction gear
train.
Position
- The hydraulic torquemeter is located in the double
intermediate gear of the reduction gear train.
- The torque transmitter is secured on the front face of the
reduction gearbox casing.
Main characteristics
- Torquemeter
Type: hydraulic
- Transmitter
Type: resistive.
Main components
- Hydraulic torquemeter
- Torque transmitter
- Torque indicator.
8.21
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GENERAL
TORQUE MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
TORQUE LIMIT
WARNING LIGHT
TORQUE
INDICATOR
TORQUE
TRANSMITTER
INTERMEDIATE GEAR OF THE
REDUCTION GEAR TRAIN
COCKPIT
HYDRAULIC
TORQUEMETER
- Hydraulic torquemeter located in the double
intermediate gear of the reduction gear train
- Resistive type torque transmitter
TORQUE MEASUREMENT
8.22
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TORQUE MEASUREMENT AND
INDICATING SYSTEM -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The hydraulic torquemeter includes:
- A restrictor which controls the torquemeter oil inlet
(lubricating oil pump pressure)
- A stop
- A piston linked to the intermediate gear through a ball
bearing and a securing nut
- An orifice which supplies the torque transmitter with
modulated pressure (pressure which represents the
torque).
The torque transmitter includes:
- A resistive system which measures the modulated
pressure provided by the torquemeter
- An electrical connector which connects the transmitter
to the torque indicator in the cockpit.
Operation
In normal operation, the lubricating oil pump supplies the
restrictor, which controls the torquemeter inlet pressure.
This inlet pressure acts on the front face of the piston and
balances the axial force F of the intermediate gear which
has helical teeth (reaction changing with the load).
The piston is fixed on the intermediate gear. Any gear axial
movement determines a new balanced position of the
piston by modifying the oil flow between the modulated
pressure chamber and the piston chamber.
The torque transmitter measures the modulated pressure
and delivers an electrical signal to the torque indicator
located in the cockpit.
8.23
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
TORQUE MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
F
TORQUE
TRANSMITTER
TORQUE
INDICATOR
From lubrication
pump
Modulated pressure
(measured by the
torque transmitter)
Modulated flow
according
to torque C
PISTON
STOP
OIL INLET
RESTRICTOR
TORQUEMETER
PISTON
Axial force
on the piston
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
8.24
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TORQUE MEASUREMENT AND
INDICATING SYSTEM
TORQUE TRANSMITTER
Function
The transmitter transforms a modulated pressure into an
electrical signal.
Position
- In the system: downstream of the filter, after the torque
pressure restrictor
- On the engine: on the front face of the reduction gearbox
casing.
Main characteristics
- Type: resistive
- Output signal: electrical voltage proportional to the
torquemeter oil pressure
- Output pressure (100% torque): 740 kPa (107.3 PSI)
- Output voltage (100% torque): 370 mV.
Functional description
The transmitter contains a resistor bridge mounted on a
deformable support. The pressure causes the variation of
one of the resistor.
The indicator supplies the reference input voltage (Ve).
This voltage is fixed. The bridge provides an output
voltage (Vs) of a few millivolts proportional to the oil
pressure.
8.25
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TORQUE TRANSMITTER
TORQUE MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
TORQUE
TRANSMITTER
Type
Resistive
Output signal
Electrical voltage
proportional to the
torquemeter oil pressure
Output pressure
torque 100%
740 kPa (107.3 PSI)
Output voltage
torque 100%
370 mV
Ve : Constant input voltage
(resistor bridge supply)
Vs : Variable output voltage (measurement)
Vs
3
2
4
5
1
-
-
+
+
Ve
COCKPIT
(to torque indicator)
Modulated
pressure
TORQUE %
100
740 kPa
8.26
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
INDICATORS
Indicator lights
Some indicator lights provide indications of the engine
operation.
The control panel includes the following indicating lights:
- Chips
- Min. oil pressure
- Fire
- Redundancy or min.or failure (amber GOV)
- Training
- Major failure (red GOV).
The torque indicator includes the max. power warning
light (torque higher than 80%; N1 > "0" twin-engine,
rotor load factor).
The speed indicator includes the OEI 2 min. 30 sec.
warning light (permanently switched off since power on,
except if OEI 30 min. is selected).
Alphanumeric display
The alphanumeric display is connected to the DCU.
It displays some information in real or delayed time (refer
to the following pages for more details).
8.27
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
INDICATORS
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
0
1
2
CONTROL PANEL
ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY
TORQUE INDICATOR N1 INDICATOR
MAX. POWER
WARNING LIGHT
(torque, N1,
load factor)
OEI 30 min.
WARNING LIGHT
FIRE 1 AND 2
GOVERNOR MIN. OIL
PRESSURE
TRAINING
GOVERNOR CHIPS 1 AND 2
8.28
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
N1 MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
Function
The N1 indicator displays the margin available in relation
to the max. take-off power.
It thus avoids permanent evaluation of the limit which
must be respected.
Position
- Aircraft cockpit.
Main characteristics
- Indicator graduated in percent
- Signal supplied by the DCU.
Main components
- Engine sensors
- Digital Control Unit
- Indicator.
Operation
The DCU supplies the margin value between the actual
power and the max. take-off power. The limit parameter is
continuously calculated and corresponds to the zero value
of the indicator.
The double indicator is graduated in percent. The margin
between the indicator needle and the limit value represents
the reserve or the exceeding in relation to the limit value.
The display is achieved on an expanded scale (-8 to +4%).
The DCU carries out continuously the following
comparisons:
- Real N1-limit N1 (T/O N1), that is to say N1.
- Real CH fuel flow-limit CH (T/O CH), that is to say
CH. The CH is converted to N1.
The DCU compares the two N1 and sends to the indicator
the nearest N1 from the T/O limit or the one which
exceeds this limit ("0" of the indicator).
Note: During power-up of the DCU, the indicator needle
makes a partial sweep of the graduated scale.
8.29
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
N1 MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEM
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
0 (T/O)
-8
(OEI 2'30")
(MCP)
N1 INDICATOR
(OEI 30')
+4
N1 SIGNAL
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT
T/O N1 (fP0, T1)
REAL N1
T/O CH
REAL CH
CH TO N1
CONVERSION
N1
SIGNAL
N1 CH
N1
ENGINE 1 AND 2
NEEDLES
DIGITAL
CONTROL
UNIT
8.30
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
DISPLAY SYSTEM - GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
General
Function
The system displays parameters, operating status and
failures.
Main components
Main components of the system:
- Display unit
- Control module
- Digital Contol Unit
- Engine sensors.
Description
Display unit
It is an alphanumeric display with 5 digits, located in the
cockpit.
In a twin-engine configuration, the display units of the two
engines are located one above the other.
Control module
It includes the following components:
- Mode selector
N1 mode
Failure mode
Memory mode
Parameter mode.
- Test selector
Test mode
Scroll mode.
- Trim controls.
Digital Control Unit
RS 232 serial link.
Engine sensors
Refer to the corresponding chapters.
8.31
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DISPLAY SYSTEM - GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
Memory
Parameters
Failure
TEST
N1
N1 TRIM
NR ADJ
ENGINE 2
DCU
ENGINE 1
DCU
SCROLL
CONTROL
MODULE
ALPHANUMERIC
DISPLAY
ENGINE 1
ENGINE 2
ENGINE 2
SENSORS
ENGINE 1
SENSORS
SERIAL DATA
LINKS
8.32
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
DISPLAY SYSTEM - OPERATION
The display unit has four operating modes: Ng, failure,
memory, parameter.
"N1" mode
It is the normal mode in flight.
The four digits, located on the right, display the gas
generator speed (N1 or Ng) in tenths of one percent.
The digit located on the left displays the letter "S" for
overspeed arming. At power up, the letter "S" must
extinguish at a speed of approx. 25% N2.
"Failure" mode
It displays engine and control system failure codes.
In case of several failures, the failure display is sequential :
each failure is displayed for 3 seconds.
"Memory" mode
This mode can be used after flight, engine stopped.
The system sends the failure code that is in the NOVRAM
type memory of the control module.
Note: "Memory" mode is not available in flight (N1>20%)
"Parameter" mode
This mode helps in fault finding.
This mode can be used on ground, engine stopped or
running and during a test flight.
This mode displays the failure codes, the logic output and
input status, the trim and sensor status in real time.
Note: Refer to the maintenance manual for more
information.
8.33
MEASUREMENT AND INDICATING SYSTEMS
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DISPLAY SYSTEM - OPERATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS
3 - Ng speed (N1)
"N1" MODE "FAILURE" MODE "MEMORY" MODE "PARAMETER" MODE
3 2 1
1 - Overspeed armed
(switched off above 25% N2)
2 - BUS condition
CARB
T1
P0
P COL
TRIM
P2
T4
ALIM
Ng
Np
OVSP
OIL F
E BUS
Major failure
Minor failures
Redundancy failures
Overspeed
not armed
Overspeed
Oil filter
Serial data link
A
B
C
OIL F
DI T1
DI P0
E BUS
Last flight stored
failures
Failures
D
E
F
G
H
J
L
M
N
P
Logic outputs
Logic inputs
0%
1%
T1C
P0 mb
MODE TABLE
Refer to the
maintenance manual for
more information.
9.1
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
9 - STARTING
- Starting system....................................................... 9.2
- Starter ..................................................................... 9.6
- Ignition system (74-00(00) ..................................... 9.10
Ignition unit (74-10-01)....................................... 9.12
Igniter plugs (74-20-01) ...................................... 9.14
Ignition cables (74-20-01) ................................... 9.16 to 9.17
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
9.2
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTING SYSTEM - GENERAL -
DESCRIPTION
Function
The starting system ensures starting (on the ground and in
flight) and ventilation of the engine. It includes the following
functions: cranking, fuel supply, ignition, sequential control
and indicating.
Position
All the starting accessories are installed on the engine
except the Digital Control Unit which is installed in the
aircraft.
Indicating and control components, except the DCU, are
supplied by the aircraft manufacturer.
Main characteristics
- Starting envelope: refer to flight manual
- Start duration: approx. 30 sec.
- Dry crank time: approx. 20 sec. max.
- Stabilisation time before shut-down: 60 seconds
- Max. gas temperature during starting: refer to flight
manual.
Description
The system includes the following components:
- In the cockpit:
Fuses
Stop-Training-Flight selector
Dry crank push-button
Rotor brake microswitch
- In the aircraft:
Starter contactor
Accessory relay
DCU
- On the engine:
Starter
Ignition system
Start electro-valve
Stop electro-valve.
9.3
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTING SYSTEM - GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
TRAINING
FLIGHT
STOP
ROTOR BRAKE
MICROSWITCH
Starting envelope:
Refer to Flight Manual
Start duration:
Approx. 30 sec.
Dry crank time:
Approx. 20 sec. max.
Stabilisation time
before shut-down:
60 seconds
Max. gas temperature
during starting:
Refer to flight manual
COCKPIT COMPONENTS ENGINE COMPONENTS
STARTER
IGNITION SYSTEM
START ELECTRO-VALVE
STOP ELECTRO-VALVE
FUSES
STOP-TRAINING-FLIGHT
SELECTOR
DRY CRANK
PUSH-BUTTON
28V BUS BAR
0V LOGIC
BUS BAR
ACCESSORY
RELAY
DCU
STARTER
CONTACTOR
9.4
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTING SYSTEM - OPERATION
This section deals with operating sequences associated
with the starting system: starting, shut-down and dry
crank.
Starting cycle
The starting cycle is characterised by the evolution of the
engine parameters and particularly the rotation speed and
gas temperature.
The main points of the starting cycle are:
- Start selection
- Self-sustaining speed (the starter and ignition system
are turned off)
- End of starting (stabilisation at idle speed).
Shut-down cycle
The typical phases of this cycle are the following:
- Stabilisation at idle speed
- Stop selection
- Run-down until the complete engine stop.
Dry crank cycle
A dry crank consists of cranking the rotating assembly
without supplying fuel or ignition (dry ventilation). It is
used for cooling the engine or for maintenance procedures.
The dry crank cycle comprises the following phases:
- Dry crank selection
- Cranking of the rotating assembly
- End of dry crank and run-down.
9.5
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTING SYSTEM - OPERATION
N2 100%
DCU
ACCESSORY
RELAY
STARTER
CONTACTOR
Starting
accessories
Starter
START
SELECTION
DRY CRANK SELECTION
+
+
Time
N1
Time
N1
Flight
N2 92%
Training
Self-sustaining
speed
Selection
t4.5 gas
temperature
Stop selection
Run-down
SHUT-DOWN CYCLE
N1
Dry crank cancel
STARTING CYCLE DRY CRANK CYCLE
Selection
Stabilisation
at idle speed
Time (20 sec. max.)
9.6
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTER - GENERAL
Function
The starter drives the gas generator rotating assembly
within given conditions of torque and acceleration.
At the end of starting and when the rotation speed is
sufficient, the starter operates as a generator.
Position
The starter is located on the front face of the gearbox
casing.
Main characteristics
- Aircraft manufacturer's supply
- Type: starter generator
- Power supply: direct current on high intensity line.
Main components
The main components of the starter are:
- The starter (starter and generator)
- The mounting flange
- The supply terminals.
Interfaces
- Electrical supply of the starter from the batteries through
the starter contactor
- Direct current supply to the aircraft circuit from the
generator when the starting phase is completed
- Drive of the gas generator rotating assembly through the
accessory drive train.
9.7
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTER - GENERAL
STARTER
CONTACTOR
SUPPLY
BUS BAR
+VDC
STARTER
ELECTRICAL INTERFACE
Direct
current
Aircraft
electrical system
MECHANICAL INTERFACE
STARTER ACCESSORY
DRIVE TRAIN
DRIVE OF THE
GAS GENERATOR
ROTATING ASSEMBLY
Aircraft manufacturer's
supply
Type
Starter generator
Power supply
Direct current
on high intensity line
9.8
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTER - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
The starter includes the following components:
- Supply terminals
Excitation
Generator
Negative terminal (-)
Starter
Balancing.
- Casing (starter frame)
- Mounting flange on gearbox casing
- Brushes
- Windings (stator and rotor)
- Fan
- Splined shaft
- Commutator.
Operation
The starter ensures:
- The engine cranking during starting
- The electrical supply to the aircraft electrical system at
the end of the starting phase.
Engine cranking
When the start is selected (in the cockpit), the starter
contactor closes and allows the direct current supply of the
starter through the aircraft supply bus bar.
The electrical motor of the starter then provides the torque
required to crank the gas generator.
The cranking torque is inversely proportional to the gas
generator rotation speed. The torque increases when the
atmospheric temperature decreases.
The gas generator rotation speed increases up to a self
sustaining speed (50% N1). At a speed of 50%, the torque
becomes negative and the electrical supply to the starter
motor is cut (opening of the starter contactor).
Electrical generator
When starting is completed (N1 > 50%), the electrical
supply to the starter motor is cut, but the starter is
mechanically driven by the gas generator through the
accessory drive train. The starter then operates as an
electrical DC generator and supplies the aircraft electrical
system.
9.9
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
STARTER - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
WINDINGS
(stator and rotor)
CASING MOUNTING FLANGE
(on reduction gearbox
casing)
BRUSHES
SPLINED SHAFT
COOLING FAN
SUPPLY TERMINALS
COMMUTATOR
Balancing (Eq)
COOLING AIR
Generator (+G) Starter (+D)
Negative
terminal
Excitation (Ex)
STARTING
TORQUE
SELF-SUSTAINING SPEED
DECREASING ATMOSPHERIC
TEMPERATURE
GENERATOR STARTER
ELECTRICAL CURRENT GENERATION
AIRCRAFT SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY
+D
-
+G
Eq
Ex
+
+ VDC
50%
N1
0
9.10
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITION SYSTEM
Function
This system ensures the ignition of the fuel sprayed by the
start injectors into the combustion chamber.
Position
- All the ignition system components are installed on the
engine except the electrical supply circuit.
Main characteristics
- Type: High Energy (HE)
- Electrical power supply: 10 to 32 VDC.
Main components
- Ignition unit
- Ignition cables
- Igniter plugs.
Note: Refer to the following pages for the description
and the operation of the ignition system
components.
9.11
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITION SYSTEM
Type
High Energy (HE)
Electrical power supply
10 to 32 VDC
M
PP21 bus
PP8 bus
High Energy
ignition unit
Igniter
plugs
Ignition
cables
Starter
contactor
M control
relay
Starter
9.12
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITION SYSTEM
IGNITION UNIT
Function
The ignition unit transforms the DC voltage provided by
the aircraft circuit into high energy voltage required to
operate the igniter plugs.
Position
The unit is installed on the upper right part of the air intake
plenum (aircraft).
Main characteristics
- Type: High Energy, sealed case.
Main components
The main components of the ignition unit are:
- The High Energy ignition unit
- The DC electrical connector
- The HE electrical connectors
- The cables which connect the ignition unit to the igniter
plugs.
Operation
The ignition unit operation is characterised by an
accumulation phase of the electrical loads and a quick
discharge phase.
The ignition unit is supplied with 28 V, it changes this to
a high energy voltage (3 kVolts).
9.13
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITION UNIT
IGNITION SYSTEM
Type
High Energy, sealed case
INPUT ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
(direct current)
HIGH ENERGY
IGNITION UNIT
OUTPUT ELECTRICAL
CONNECTORS
(High Energy current)
CABLES
(to igniter plugs)
9.14
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITION SYSTEM
IGNITER PLUGS
Function
The two igniter plugs ignite the fuel/air mixture sprayed by
the start injectors during starting. Two cables connect the
igniter plugs to the ignition unit.
Position
- The igniter plugs are installed beside two start injectors.
They are located at the rear of the combustion chamber
on each side of the engine (at 11 o'clock and 5 o'clock).
Main characteristics
- Type: High Energy, surface discharge (semi-conductor
surface coating)
- Quantity: 2.
Description
An igniter plug includes:
- An external body connected to the negative terminal
- An insulator
- A central electrode connected to the positive terminal
- A semi-conductor.
Operation
When the high energy current produced by the ignition
unit is discharged to the igniter plug, the voltage applied
between the central electrode and the external body
produces a powerful spark.
This spark ignites the fuel/air mixture sprayed into the
combustion chamber by the two start injectors.
9.15
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITER PLUGS
IGNITION SYSTEM
IGNITER
PLUG
Engine rear face
IGNITER
PLUG
Spark
EXTERNAL
BODY
(-)
CENTRAL
ELECTRODE
(+)
SEMI-
CONDUCTOR
INSULATOR
SLEEVE
MOUNTING
FLANGE
SEALS
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
(to ignition unit)
Type
High Energy
Semi-conductor
Quantity
2
9.16
STARTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITION SYSTEM
IGNITION CABLES
Function
The ignition cables supply the high energy current
(produced by the ignition unit) to the igniter plugs.
Position
- Between the ignition unit and the igniter plugs.
Main characteristics
- Type: multi-core nickel-plated copper wire
- Quantity: 2 identical independent cables
- Shielding: triple braided.
Description
One ignition cable includes:
- A nickel-plated copper multicore
- An outer shielding (stainless steel braid)
- Two inner shields (silver-plated copper braid)
- Two stainless steel rigid end fittings
- Two electrical connectors
One igniter plug connector (ceramic insulator, spring
and nut)
One ignition unit connector (teflon insulator, silicone
joint, spring and nut).
9.17
STARTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
IGNITION CABLES
IGNITION SYSTEM
Type
Multi-core nickel-plated
copper wire
Quantity
2 identical and
independent cables
Shielding
Triple braided
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
(connection with the ignition unit)
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
(connection with the igniter plug)
IGNITION CABLE
(wire and shield)
10.1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
10 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
- Electrical system ................................................ 10.2
- Alternator ........................................................... 10.4
- Electrical harnesses (77-30-02) .......................... 10.6 to 10.7
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
10.2
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Function
The system contributes to the various indicating and control
functions of the engine:
- Control
- Control system
- Safety system
- Maintenance aid.
Main characteristics
- Direct current: 28 VDC from aircraft electrical system
- Dedicated alternator electrical power: 100 VA.
Main components
- Engine electrical components (control components and
sensors)
- Control and indicating components
- Digital Control Unit (installed in the airframe)
- Electrical harnesses.
10.3
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
CONTROL
AND INDICATING
COMPONENTS
DIGITAL
CONTROL UNIT
ACCESSORIES
AND SENSORS
ELECTRICAL
HARNESSES
Direct current:
28 VDC from aircraft
electrical system
Dedicated alternator
electrical power:
100 VA
10.4
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ALTERNATOR
Function
The altenator is dedicated to the Digital Control Unit
electrical supply.
Position
- On the engine: on the front face of the reduction gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type: Three-phase, continuous operation
- Power: 100 VA
- Output voltage: 28 to 63 Volts.
Main components
- Drive shaft
- Body
- Rotor
- Electrical connector (to the DCU).
Note: The rotor is mounted on the drive shaft.
The LP fuel pump and the alternator are driven by
the same shaft.
Operation
The three-phase voltage produced by the alternator is sent
to the Digital Control Unit
An electrical connector connects the alternator to the
Digital Control Unit and is protected by a fuse.
DCU power supply
The DCU is electrically supplied either from the 28 V
aircraft supply (J2 connector) or from the engine alternator
(J1 connector) as follows.
- The 28 V aircraft supply is used alone:
During starting
In case of an alternator failure during flight.
- The alternator is used during flight (normal operation)
- The alternator is used alone in case of 28 V aircraft
supply failure during flight.
10.5
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ALTERNATOR
U
+
STATOR
DIGITAL CONTROL UNIT
SUPPLY PRINCIPLE
Normal operation
28V network aircraft failure
Alternator failure
Aircraft supply
Aircraft supply
Alternator
Alternator
Aircraft supply
N1
0% 100% 50%
LP PUMP
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
(to DCU)
ALTERNATOR
FUSE
(in the alternator
connector)
INSIDE
THE DCU
Type
Three-phase,
continuous operation
Power
100 VA
Output voltage
28 to 63 Volts
10.6
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ELECTRICAL HARNESSES
Function
The harnesses connect the electrical accessories to the
DCU and the aircraft circuit.
Main characteristics
- Cable type: plaited, shielded or overshielded
- Connector type: screw-in connectors.
Main components
The main electrical harnesses connect:
- The engine to the aircraft controls, indicators and
indicating lights
- The engine accessories and sensors to the DCU J1 plug
- The engine accessories and sensors to the DCU J5 plug
- The battery to the DCU
- The DCU to the aircraft indicating lights
- The 1st engine DCU to the 2nd engine DCU (twin-
engine configuration).
Functional description
The engine electrical harness connects the engine to the
aircraft systems.
Two electrical plugs connect the engine accessories to the
DCU J1 and J5 plugs through the P1 and P5 connectors.
The third plug connects the engine to the aircraft controls,
indicators and indicating lights.
10.7
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ELECTRICAL HARNESSES
AIRCRAFT/ENGINE
CONNECTION
P5 CONNECTOR P1 CONNECTOR AIR TEMPERATURE
PROBE
DCU / ENGINE
CONNECTION
11.1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
11 - ENGINE INSTALLATION
- Engine compartment .......................................... 11.2
- Engine mounting and lifting (71-20-01) ............ 11.4
- Power drive.......................................................... 11.6
- Air intake ............................................................. 11.8
- Exhaust system (78-10-01).................................. 11.10
- Drain system........................................................ 11.12
- Fire protection (26-10-01)................................... 11.14 to 11.15
(XX-XX-XX): Page references which deal with the subject in the maintenance documentation.
11.2
ENGINE INSTALLATION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE COMPARTMENT
Function
The helicopter engine compartment houses the engines
and ensures their ventilation.
Position
- At the rear of the helicopter main gearbox.
Description
Each engine compartment includes:
- Three fire walls which ensure sealing and protection in
case of fire:
One firewall is located in front of the engine (between
the helicopter main gearbox and the engine)
One firewall is located at the rear of the engine
One firewall separates the two engine compartments.
- A removable cowling, located above the engine
compartment, which mainly includes:
The engine air intake
An oil cooler air outlet
Compartment ventilation scoops
- Removable cowlings which allow access to the engines
- A support platform fitted with engine support fittings.
Engine compartment ventilation
The engine compartment is ventilated by atmospheric air
in order to limit the temperature in different engine areas.
The atmospheric air circulation through the compartment
is ensured by ventilation scoops located on each side of the
removable cowling. The air is accelerated by the venturi
extension of the exhaust system.
11.3
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE COMPARTMENT
FRONT
FIREWALL
SUPPORT PLATFORM
(fitted with the engine
support fittings)
REAR
FIREWALL
ENGINE
COMPARTMENTS
ENGINE
ENGINE
FIREWALL
(separation of the
engine compartments)
REMOVABLE
COWLING
REMOVABLE COWLING
- Engine air intake
- Oil cooler air outlet
- Compartment ventilation scoops
11.4
ENGINE INSTALLATION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE MOUNTING AND LIFTING
Engine mounting
Function
The engine mountings attach the engine to the airframe.
Description
- Front support: circular flange fitted with nine studs
- Rear support: bracket fitted on the underside of the
gearbox casing.
Engine lifting
Function
The lifting rings permit engine lifting.
Description
- At the front: one ring fitted on the gearbox casing flange
- At the rear: two rings fitted on the compressor casing
flange.
Engine removal and installation
Turbomeca provides an engine lifting sling which attaches
to the lifting rings on the engine.
This permits the removal and installation of the engine in
the airframe.
The removal/installation procedure is described in the
airframe maintenance manual and must only be carried out
in accordance with this procedure, using the appropriate
tool.
11.5
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
ENGINE MOUNTING AND LIFTING
LIFTING
SLING
REAR LIFTING
RINGS
FRONT LIFTING
RING
REAR
ATTACHMENT
ENGINE
STAND
ENGINE SUPPORT
BRACKETS
(on engine stand)
REAR
ATTACHMENT
FRONT
ATTACHMENT
TRANSPORT
ATTACHMENT
11.6
ENGINE INSTALLATION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER DRIVE
Function
The engine power drive provides the mechanical power
required to drive the helicopter main gearbox.
Position
- The power drive is located at the front lower part of the
gearbox casing.
Main characteristics
- Mechanical power: 350 kW (470 HP)
- Rotation speed: 6016 RPM (100% N2); CW.
Description
The power drive includes a triangular flange which is
splined onto the output gear and secured by a nut. The
triangular flange has three bolt holes.
Power drive sealing is ensured by a graphite seal installed
around a ring which is fitted on the output shaft.
The power drive casing also has a drain which expels any
oil leaks.
Helicopter main gearbox - engine transmission
The link to the helicopter main gearbox is ensured by:
- A flexible coupling installed on the triangular flange
- A transmission shaft
- A helicopter coupling which links the transmission shaft
to the helicopter main gearbox.
Note: The transmission system is supplied by the aircraft
manufacturer.
11.7
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
POWER DRIVE
GRAPHITE
SEAL
RING
ROLLER
BEARING
POWER DRIVE
(triangular flange)
REDUCTION GEAR
OUTPUT SHAFT
TRANSMISSION
SHAFT
HELICOPTER
MAIN GEARBOX
HELICOPTER
COUPLING
POWER
DRIVE
(triangular flange)
SECURING
NUT
DRAIN
FLEXIBLE
COUPLING
REDUCTION GEAR
OUTPUT GEAR
11.8
ENGINE INSTALLATION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR INTAKE
Function
The air intake system collects and guides the ambient air
into the engine.
Position
- On each side of the helicopter, at the rear of the main
gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Lateral air intake on aircraft and annular air supply for
each engine (plenum chamber).
Functional description
The air intake system includes the following components :
- Air intake duct. Supplied by the aircraft manufacturer, it
comprises filtering and protecting elements
- Air intake plenum. Supplied by the aircraft manufacturer,
it ensures a good air supply to the engine
- Air intake volute and engine air intake casing (refer to
chapter "ENGINE"). A compressor cleaning connection
can be installed on the intake and a vibration sensor
support is installed permanently.
11.9
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
AIR INTAKE
AIR INTAKE
DUCT
AIR INTAKE
PLENUM
AIR INTAKE
GUARD
ENGINE AIR
INTAKE CASING
11.10
ENGINE INSTALLATION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Function
The exhaust system discharges the exhaust gas overboard.
Position
- At the rear of the engine.
Main characteristics
- Type: axial, exhaust pipe with extension
- Replaceable non modular component.
Main components
- Engine exhaust pipe
- Exhaust extension.
Functional description
The gases pass from the engine exhaust to the extension
which directs the gases overboard through the cowling
passage.
Air is drawn from the engine compartment by the venturi
effect between the extension and the exhaust pipe thus
ensuring compartment ventilation.
The oil system vent pipe is connected to a mounting on top
of the exhaust pipe.
11.11
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Oil system
vent line
POWER
TURBINE
EXHAUST
PIPE
EXTENSION
GAS EXHAUST
Engine compartment air suction
by venturi effect
11.12
ENGINE INSTALLATION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DRAIN SYSTEM
Function
The drain system collects the various drains and any leaks
from the engine.
Engine drains
LP fuel pump drive drain
It is a dry drain which will collect any leaks between the
two seals of the alternator/LP pump drive shaft
HP fuel pump unit drain
It is a dry drain which will collect:
- Any fuel which leaks between the two seals installed on
the HP pump drive shaft
- Any fuel which leaks from the fuel metering unit.
Combustion chamber drain
The combustion drain valve drains the residual fuel during
engine shut-down and during starting.
Power drive drain
This drain will collect any leaks from the power drive.
There are in fact two orifices, one on each side of the
support.
Fuel valve assembly support drain
The fuel valve assembly is mounted on a dished steel plate
which is equipped with a drain pipe at each side at the rear.
Any fuel leaks from the fuel valve will be discharged
overboard via these drain pipes.
11.13
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
DRAIN SYSTEM
HP FUEL PUMP UNIT
AND METERING UNIT DRAIN
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER DRAIN
POWER DRIVE
DRAIN
FUEL VALVE
ASSEMBLY DRAIN
LP FUEL PUMP
DRIVE DRAIN
11.14
ENGINE INSTALLATION
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FIRE PROTECTION
Fire detection
Function
The fire detection system detects overtemperature in the
engine compartment and gives a cockpit indication.
Position
- In the system: connected to the cockpit
- On the engine:
"Cold" zone: one detector located on the upper part
of the gearbox mounting flange and one detector
located on the LP fuel pump/alternator assembly,
"Hot" zone: one detector located on the lower part of
the rear bearing casing and one detector located
above the oil inlet union of the rear bearing.
Main characteristics
- "Cold" zone:
Detector setting: nominal value: 200C (392F),
Quantity: 2
- "Hot" zone:
Detector setting: nominal value: 400C (752F),
Quantity: 2
Description
The system includes:
- On the engine: detectors and electrical wiring
- In the aircraft: indicating lights, fire detection unit, test
selector and extinguishing system (aircraft
manufacturer's supply).
Fire detectors
Each fire detector includes a bi-metallic strip which opens
the electrical circuit in case of overheat. It is fitted with a
resistance in parallel which enables the system to
differentiate between the normal opening of a detector and
a wiring defect.
Extinguishing system
The fire extinguishing system includes an extinguisher
bottle and spraying jets. The extinguishing system can be
operated from the cockpit (system supplied by the aircraft
manufacturer).
Note: Refer to the aircraft manual for more information
on the extinguishing system.
11.15
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
FIRE PROTECTION
+
+
+
FIRE
DETECTOR
"COLD" ZONE
Detector setting:
Nominal value:
200C (392F)
Quantity:
2
"HOT" ZONE:
Detector setting:
Nominal value:
400C (752F)
Quantity:
2
Note: Refer to the aircraft manual for more
information on the extinguishing system.
Detection
logic
Extinguishing
button
Test button
Alarm
Aircraft Engine
Cold zone Hot zone
INSULATED
BI-METALLIC STRIP
UNINSULATED
BI-METALLIC STRIP
MOUNTING
FLANGE
MECHANICAL
STOP
12.1
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
12 - OPERATING LIMITATIONS
AND PROCEDURES
- Operating limitations ......................................... 12.2
- Operating procedures ........................................ 12.4 to 12.7
12.2
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
All operating limitations are defined in the official
documents:
- Flight manual
- Maintenance manual(s).
The main engine limitations are:
- Flight envelope
- Gas generator rotation speed
- Power turbine rotation speed
- Turbine entry gas temperature
- Torque
- Miscellaneous (load factors, vibration ...).
The systems general limitations are:
- Pressure, flow, volume, voltage, ...
12.3
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
M
A
IN
T
E
N
A
N
C
E
M
A
N
U
A
L
F
L
I
G
H
T

M
A
N
U
A
L
ENGINE AND SYSTEM
LIMITATIONS
- Flight envelope
- Gas generator rotation speed
- Power turbine rotation speed
- Turbine entry gas temperature
- Torque
- Miscellaneous
(load factors, vibration...)
- Pressure, flow, volume,
voltage...
12.4
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
OPERATING PROCEDURES (1)
The operating procedures are considered for training
purposes only. It is mandatory to refer to the aircraft
manual.
Preparation before starting
- Inspection, checks
Starting
Start procedures:
- Electrical system power on
- Booster pump on
- Actuate the STOP-TRAINING-FLIGHT selector switch
(direct selection of the FLIGHT position is possible)
- Set the selector switch to the FLIGHT position to
accelerate the engine
- Check the indicating lights, the engine parameters:
N1
N2 and NR
Gas temperature
Oil pressure and temperature
The idle control operation
The acceleration and the control system operation at
the normal NR.
Note: To start a cold engine with a low ambient
temperature, the oil temperature must increase
before any load is applied.
In flight engine control
- Normal automatic procedure: before the engine power-
up, check the oil temperature
- The control unit adapts the engine to the flight conditions
(control): check the indicating lights and monitor the
engine parameters (N1, N2, gas temperature, torque, oil
pressure and temperature)
- "Trim" action if necessary: check the effect on NR (rotor
speed) or engine matching.
Engine shut-down
- Stabilisation: minimum collective pitch (stabilisation of
60 seconds at least)
- FLIGHT-TRAINING-STOP selector on STOP position:
check the parameters and the rundown time.
12.5
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
NORMAL PROCEDURES
OPERATING PROCEDURES (1)
STARTING
PRE-START CHECKS
- Inspections, checks
ENGINE SHUT-DOWN
The operating
procedures are considered
for training purposes only. It is
mandatory to refer to the
aircraft manual.
- Electrical system power on
- Booster pump on
- Selector actuation
(direct selection of the "Flight" position
possible)
- Checks
- Minimum collective pitch
- Stabilisation (approx. 60 sec.)
- Selector on "Stop" position
- Check
IN FLIGHT ENGINE CONTROL
- Normal automatic procedure
- Engine adaptation to the flight
conditions
(control system)
- "Trim" action if necessary
12.6
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
Manual control in flight
- Manual control of the metering valve (after a failure or
controlled "freezing")
- Move the lever in the + or - range to alter the fuel flow
- Check the engine parameters.
Caution
Do not move the lever down below the reduction
notch in order to prevent flame out.
Special procedures (flame out, fire, failures)
Refer to flight manual.
Note: The operating procedures are considered for
training purposes only. It is mandatory to refer to
the aircraft manual.
OPERATING PROCEDURES (2)
Particular procedures.
Relight
The relight procedure is the same as the ground start
procedure. However, the N1 rotation speed must be lower
than 17% (automatic interlock).
Engine ventilation
- FLIGHT-TRAINING-STOP selector on STOP position
- Depress the Dry crank push-button
- Check the N1 speed.
Note: No more than 20 seconds.
Training procedures
- Automatic training operating procedure: only with a
reduced load helicopter; the operating engine limitations
are derated and the other engine is set to the idle rating
(N2)
- Manual mode: the main metering valve is "frozen".
Allows training for a major failure or manual control.
Return to automatic is possible without restriction.
12.7
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PARTICULAR PROCEDURES
OPERATING PROCEDURES (2)
TRAINING PROCEDURES
- Automatic training operating
procedure
- Manual mode: allows training
for a major failure
DRY CRANK
The operating
procedures are considered
for training purposes only. It is
mandatory to refer to the
aircraft manual.
MANUAL CONTROL IN FLIGHT
- Metering valve manual control
- Move the lever in the + or - range
- Check the engine parameters
- Selector on "Stop" position
- Dry crank push-button actuated
- Check the N1 speed
Note: 20 sec. max.
RELIGHT
- Same procedure as for
the ground start procedure
- Wait for N1 < 17%
13.1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
13 - VARIOUS ASPECTS OF
MAINTENANCE
- Maintenance concept .................................................... 13.2
- Life limitation ................................................................ 13.4
- Preventive maintenance ................................................ 13.6
- "On-condition" monitoring.......................................... 13.8
- Corrective maintenance ................................................ 13.10
- Technical publications .................................................. 13.12 to 13.15
13.2
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
Introduction
The engine is designed to have a high availability rate with
reduced maintenance.
The main aspects of the maintenance concept are the
following:
- Effective modularity
- Good accessibility
- Reduced removal and installation times
- On-condition facility
- Quick repair.
Maintenance levels
Four maintenance levels can be considered:
First line maintenance: engine installed on the aircraft
(O level).
- Scheduled and preventive maintenance:
Checks and inspections
Life limit or completed TBO removal
- Corrective maintenance:
Fault detection
Component replacement (LRU)
Check
Second line maintenance: engine maintenance in shop
(I level).
- Corrective maintenance: SRU and module removal and
installation.
Third line maintenance: deep maintenance which
involves module repairs (H level).
- Corrective maintenance: component replacement.
Fourth line maintenance: overhaul and repair in specific
shop (D level).
- Maintenance scheduled when the TBO is completed or
when the life limit of a component is reached
- Corrective maintenance.
Other aspects of maintenance
Refer to the following pages.
Note 1: LRU - Line Replaceable Unit
SRU - Shop Replaceable Unit.
Note 2: The maintenance steps are determined by the
operator taking into account the difficulties, the
personnel and logistic considerations.
As far as the engine manufacturer is concerned,
the current maintenance procedures (1
st
, 2
nd
line) are defined and described in the
maintenance manual. Deep maintenance (3
rd
line) and general overhaul (4
th
line) are
described in other documents and are subject to
particular license agreements.
13.3
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
2
nd
LINE MAINTENANCE
(I level)
(engine removed)
- Corrective maintenance
(modules, SRU)
Maintenance Manual Maintenance Technical
Instruction
Overhaul Manual
MAINTENANCE LEVELS
3
rd
LINE MAINTENANCE
(H level)
(engine removed)
- Deep maintenance
1
st
LINE MAINTENANCE
(O level)
(engine installed on aircraft)
- Scheduled or preventive
maintenance
- Corrective maintenance
4
th
LINE MAINTENANCE
(D level)
(engine removed in specific shop)
- Scheduled maintenance
(overhaul, repair)
- Corrective maintenance
13.4
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LIFE LIMITATION
TBOs
TBOs (Time Between Overhauls) are defined for the
engine, the modules and some accessories. These TBOs,
determined by tests and experience, are subject to an
extension programme.
The TBO is expressed in operating hours.
Life-limited parts
Certain components (mainly rotating parts such as
compressor, turbines, ) have a life limit which requires
the part to be scrapped when the limit is reached. This limit
is calculated in hours and/or cycles.
A cycle is a clearly defined operating sequence.
The first limit achieved necessitates their replacement by
a deep maintenance procedure or by a TURBOMECA
agreed repair centre.
A list of these parts is given in Chapter 5 of the Engine
Maintenance Manual, and in Section D of the engine log
book.
Counting of hours and cycles
Cycle counting is effected either manually or automatically.
The method of counting cycles and the various limits are
described in Chapter 5 of the maintenance manual.
A counting check (comparison between automatic counting
and manual counting) is a procedure planned in the periodic
maintenance.
A simple check can be carried out by comparing the two
engine readings for a given period of operation.
Calendar limits
The calendar limit is the time (expressed in years) after
which the complete engine, modules or parts subjected to
calendar limit has to be returned to the factory or an
approved repair center.
The count starts at the engine first installation in the
aircraft (since new, overhaul or repair).
"On-condition"
Some components have no TBO, no life limit, no calendar
limits. They are generally considered as "on-condition".
Use-limited parts
These parts have a maximum usage defined in hours; this
includes parts such as bearings, casings and shafts. Their
limits are greater than the normal TBO of the engine, thus
permitting them to be used for two or more TBOs, which
reduce engine overhaul costs for the customer.
These parts and their corresponding limits are listed in
section D of the engine log book.
13.5
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
LIFE LIMITATION
- Manual counting
- Automatic counting
- Counting check
CALENDAR LIMITS
Time limits (since new, overhaul
or repair):
- Engine
- Modules
- Parts
First limit reached:
- Operating hours and/or
- Operating cycles
Cycles for:
- Compressors
- Turbines
- ...
COUNTING OF HOURS
AND CYCLES
Some components have no TBO,
no life limit, no calendar limits.
They are generally
considered as "on-condition".
"ON-CONDITION"
Maximum usage:
- Defined in hours
- Greater than the normal TBO
Usable for two or more TBOs,
which reduce engine overhaul
costs
USE-LIMITED PARTS
AUTOMATIC COUNTING
Display in
the cockpit
Electronic Control
Unit
TBOs
- Engine
- Modules
- Accessories
LIFE-LIMITED PARTS
13.6
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Preventive maintenance includes the procedures which
must be systematically carried out and the procedures
which are recommended.
Refer to maintenance manual (chapter 05).
Servicing inspections
- Inspection before the "first flight of the day"
- Inspection after the "last flight of the day"
- Inspection... (according to engine type).
Periodic inspections
- These procedures can be "blocked" (at fixed intervals
for all the procedures) or "staggered" (the procedures are
distributed over a period of time to reduce the turnaround
time while still respecting the intervals)
- Visits are scheduled as a function of flight hours (ex:
every 500 hours) or calendar (ex: 2 years)
- Special inspections:
Particular inspections
Inspections according to airworthiness.
The procedures are also qualified as follows:
- Mandatory maintenance tasks.
These are actions that must be performed in order to
comply with airworthiness objectives. They are listed,
along with their associated frequencies, in the table of
mandatory maintenance tasks.
These mandatory maintenance tasks and/or their
associated frequencies can only be modified with the
prior approval of the EASA (European Aviation Safety
Agency) and TURBOMECA.
- Obligatory maintenance tasks.
TURBOMECA considers that obligatory maintenance
tasks must be performed at the frequencies specified.
These obligatory maintenance tasks and/or their
associated frequencies can be adapted with the prior
approval of TURBOMECA and the Regulatory
Authorities.
- Optional maintenance tasks.
Turbomeca advises that optional maintenance tasks be
performed at the frequencies specified in order to improve
reliability and operational availability, and in order to
reduce engine operating costs.
These optional maintenance tasks and/or their associated
frequencies can be adapted with the prior approval of
TURBOMECA, subject to compliance with the
regulations of the local Regulatory Authorities.
Mandatory maintenance tasks are listed in the
"Airworthiness Limitations" section of the Maintenance
Manuals. Obligatory and optional maintenance tasks are
listed outside the "Airworthiness Limitations" section.
Main inspection points (preventive maintenance)
- Visual inspections
- Run-down time check
- Magnetic plug and filter inspection
- Oil sampling for analysis
- Oil level checks
- Compressor cleaning (according to operating conditions)
- Operating checks and ground run test
- Electronic control unit data operation.
13.7
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
MAIN INSPECTION POINTS
- Visual checks
- Run-down time check
- Inspection of filters
- Inspection of magnetic plugs
- Oil sampling (for analysis)
- Oil level (and replenishment if required)
- Compressor cleaning (depending on operating conditions)
- Ground run test
- Electronic control unit data operation
REFER TO THE
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Chapter 05
PERIODIC INSPECTIONS
- Procedures "blocked" or "staggered"
(flight hours or calendar schedule)
- Special inspections
SERVICING INSPECTIONS
- Inspection "before the first flight of the day"
- Inspection "after the last flight of the day"
- Inspection... (according to engine type)
- Mandatory
- Obligatory
- Optional
13.8
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
"ON-CONDITION" MONITORING
When applying on-condition maintenance, the maintenance
procedures are carried out according to the condition of
engine components. It requires a monitoring which includes
appropriate procedures studied during the engine design.
Objectives of on-condition monitoring
The objective is to increase safety and to reduce
maintenance costs.
This is obtained as the monitoring ensures an early diagnosis
of anomalies which could have serious consequences; on
the other hand, monitoring avoids unnecessary maintenance
tasks.
On-condition monitoring resources
On-condition monitoring implies an appropriate design of
the engine which allows the use of monitoring tools.
The following procedures are available:
- Borescopic inspection: this permits inspection of internal
parts which are not accessible without disassembly:
compressor, combustion chamber and turbine. A special
tool is used to allow direct visual inspection of the parts
- Lubrication oil check: various methods are used to check
for the contamination of the oil (magnetic plugs, strainers
sampling). Samples of oil are taken at regular intervals
and the samples are analysed to measure the
contamination and anticipate incipient failures (analysis
by magnetoscopy, ferrography, spectrometric oil
analysis)
- Vibration level check: the vibration level of the rotating
assemblies gives an indication of the engine condition.
Sensors installed at given points are used to measure the
vibration level. This type of check is carried out during
periodic inspections or according to engine condition
- Power check: the monitoring is ensured by means of the
Electronic Control Unit (refer to "CONTROL SYSTEM"
chapter and Flight Manual)
- Visual inspection: conventional visual inspections are
also considered for on-condition monitoring (air intake
inspection, exhaust pipe inspection, exhaust and engine
external inspections).
13.9
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
"ON-CONDITION" MONITORING
- To increase safety
- To reduce maintenance costs
OBJECTIVES OF
ON-CONDITION MONITORING
POWER CHECK
BORESCOPIC INSPECTION VIBRATION CHECK VISUAL INSPECTION
LUBRICATION OIL CHECK
13.10
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
Objective of corrective maintenance
The objective is to put the engine back into normal service
as soon as possible. Corrective maintenance includes all
procedures which must be carried out when required
(failure, fault). It implies general and particular activities.
Corrective maintenance main tasks
- Fault finding (refer to Maintenance Manual or Trouble
Shooting Manual: chapter 71)
- Functional checks
- Condition checks
- Removal and installation: removal and installation of
the complete power plant, of the accessories and of the
modules and of some engine components as required.
Note: Assembly and disassembly of the engine is dealt
with in general overhaul and repair.
- Adjustments
- Miscellaneous procedures: cleaning, storage
- Repair or replacement
- Particular instructions: for example, procedures in the
event of oil contamination, surge, heavy landing, handling
accident, lightning...
13.11
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
OBJECTIVE OF CORRECTIVE
MAINTENANCE
- To put the engine back into normal
service as soon as possible
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
MAIN TASKS
- Fault finding
- Functional and condition checks
- Removal and installation
- Adjustments
- Miscellaneous procedures (cleaning, storage ...)
- Repair (or replacement)
- Particular instructions
13.12
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - GENERAL
This part deals with the engine technical documentation.
Operation documents
The operation documents are:
- The control documents (e.g.: flight manual)
- The management documents:
Engine log book (records and provides information
on the engine status).
Maintenance documents
- The current maintenance documents are the following (1
st
and 2
nd
lines):
Maintenance manual (describes the engine and its
systems and all the maintenance procedures)
Service bulletins (approved by the authorities, and
issued to inform the operators of a modification or an
instruction which affects the operational aspects)
Service letters (letter sent to inform the operator of
certain instructions related to the operation of the
engine)
Modification index
- The deep maintenance instructions (3
rd
line):
Maintenance technical instructions
- The general overhaul and repair documents (4
th
line):
Overhaul manual
Standard practices manual
Work specification.
Identification documents
The identification documents are:
- The current maintenance documents:
Spare parts catalogue (list and reference of all the
spare parts)
Special tool catalogue (tool designations and
references)
- Overhaul and repair documents:
Illustrated Parts Catalogue (illustrates in detail all the
engine and accessory parts; only used for general
overhaul)
Descriptive list and drawings.
Note: Before all maintenance procedures:
- It is mandatory to refer to official documentation
- Use the documentation "in a rational way"
- Make sure that documentation is up-to-date.
13.13
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - GENERAL
OPERATION
OVERHAUL
REPAIR
CURRENT
MAINTENANCE
MANAGEMENT CONTROL
DOCUMENTS
MAINTENANCE IDENTIFICATION
CURRENT MAINTENANCE
(1st and 2nd lines)
DEEP
MAINTENANCE
(3rd line)
GENERAL OVERHAUL
REPAIR
(4th line)
Example:
Engine log book
Example:
Flight manual
- Spare parts catalogue
- Special tool catalogue
- IPC
- Descriptive list
and drawings
- Maintenance manual
- Service bulletins and letters
- Modification index
Maintenance technical
instructions
- Overhaul manual
- Standard practices manual
- Work specification
13.14
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - ADVISORY
NOTICES
Three types of advisory notice are used in the technical
publications:
- WARNING
- CAUTION
- NOTE.
Interpretation
WARNING: warns the reader of the possibility of physical
harm (e.g.: wounding, intoxication, electrocution).
CAUTION: warns the reader of the possibility of damaging
the engine or tooling.
NOTE: gives the reader advice on how best to carry out a
task.
Examples
WARNING: do not breath the oil fumes. Do not leave oil
in contact with the skin.
CAUTION: if the flush is being carried out because of
metal particles in the oil system, change the filter and
thoroughly clean the tank.
NOTE: take the oil sample before carrying out any
replenishment.
13.15
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - ADVISORY NOTICES
Examples:
- Oil analysis
- Cycle counting
- Installation of O'ring seals
- Engine storage
- Insulation measurements
- Procedural change with modification
-
NOTE
(advice)
Examples:
- Titanium part cleaning
- Scrapping of O'ring seals
- Use of the correct cleaning products
- Engine cooling
- Engine cleaning after use of
extinguishing product
- Orifice protection during removal
- Borescope fragility
- Tightening torque
-
CAUTION
(possibility of damage)
Examples:
- Toxicity of engine oil and vapours
- Toxicity of cleaning products
- Toxicity of extinguishing products
- Eye protection
- Fire risk
- Electrical discharge from ignition units:
- electrocution
- risks with use in an inflammable
atmosphere
-
WARNING
(physical harm)
14.1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
14 - MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
- General ................................................................... 14.2
- 1st line (O level )..................................................... 14.4
- 2nd line (I level )..................................................... 14.8
- 3rd line (H level ).................................................... 14.10
- 4th line (D level ) .................................................... 14.12 to 14.13
It is mandatory to
refer to the approved and
current TURBOMECA
maintenance technical publications
to carry out any maintenance
procedure.
14.2
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES - GENERAL
This part is an introduction to the different maintenance
procedures, which are described in the following pages for
training purposes only.
These procedures are dealt with in discussion and practical
work during a training course.
Procedures
- Definition
- Instructions and operating modes
List of procedures
- Standard practices
- Cautions
- Washing
- Miscellaneous checks
- Miscellaneous procedures
- Removal, installation
- Repair
- Adjustments
- ...
- Engine removal and installation
- Removal and installation of the accessories
- Module removal and installation
- Repair, general overhaul.
Note: It is mandatory to refer to refer to the approved and
current TURBOMECA maintenance technical
publications to carry out any maintenance
procedure.
14.3
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES - GENERAL
It is mandatory to
refer to the approved and
current TURBOMECA
maintenance technical publications
to carry out any maintenance
procedure.
- Standard practices
- Cautions
- Washing
- Miscellaneous checks
- Miscellaneous procedures
- Removal, installation
- Repair
- Adjustments
-
- Definition
- Instructions and operating modes
PROCEDURES
LIST OF PROCEDURES
14.4
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
1ST LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
(O LEVEL)
The 1st line maintenance procedures are described in the
Maintenance Manual and can be carried out on the engine
installed, in the airframe.
They include:
- Preventive maintenance procedures
- Corrective or unscheduled maintenance procedures
(engine installed).
These 1st line procedures are listed in the following pages
in two groups:
- Check and servicing procedures
- LRU removal and installation procedures.
Consumable or repairable components
The accessories are considered as either consumable or
repairable.
Some accessories which are considered as consumable:
fire detectors, start injector, igniter plug, ignition unit,
speed sensors, filters, strainers, magnetic plug
Note 1: LRU - Line Replaceable Unit.
Note 2: The accessories either have a TBO or are on-
condition.
Note 3: It is mandatory to refer to refer to the approved
and current TURBOMECA maintenance
technical publications to carry out any
maintenance procedure.
14.5
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
3 screws on the support
3 screws on the casing
4 screws
4 screws on the casing
2 screws on the flange
3 screws
2 screws on the support
2 screws
2 screws
2 screws
Screwed onto the turbine casing
3 screws on the filter support
secured by a clamp
3 screws on the support
2 screws on the casing
Screwed to the unit
2 screws on the gearbox casing
6 screws on the gearbox casing
Screwed on the gearbox casing
3 screws on the support
2 screws on the casing
Clamps - screws
Installed on the airframe
Half-clamps and 2 screws
2 screws on the plenum
Clamp
4 parts secured by locking wire
4 screws on the casing
Screwed and bayonet
Screwed on the gearbox casing
Screwed on the gearbox casing
Fire detectors
Alternator - LP pump
Oil-Fuel filter unit
HP pump - Metering valve
Stop electro-valve
Valve assembly
Start electro-valve
Flow divider
Start injectors
Main injectors
Drain valve
Fuel preblockage switch
Fuel pressure transmitter
Ignition unit
Igniter plug
Ignition cableN1 sensor
N2 sensor
Torquemeter transmitter
Conformation box
Thermocouples
Electrical harness
Digital Control Unit
P3 sensor
T1 probe
Exhaust pipe
Heat protection
Oil pump
Strainers - Electrical magnetic plugs
Min. oil pressure switch
Oil pressure transmitter
IDENTIFICATION ATTACHMENT
Polarity + or -
Do not remove the sleeves
Warning
Warning
Warning
Possible adjustment
Possible adjustment
Colour code
Colour code
Removal-installation when the unit is turned-off
From the higher diameter,
observe the tightening torque
Observe the tightening torque
Coupling sleeve
REMARKS
It is mandatory to
refer to the approved and
current TURBOMECA
maintenance technical publications
to carry out any maintenance
procedure.
1ST LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES (O LEVEL)
14.6
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
1ST LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
(O LEVEL)
PRESERVATION AND STORAGE
General
When an engine is not used for a long time, it must be
protected against corrosive agents.
The most efficient preservation consists of:
- Washing and protecting the air path by spraying a
specific product
- Housing the engine in a waterproof container with
dessicant bags.
If there is no container, the engine can be housed in a water
and vapour proof cover with dessicant bags.
Type of storage
"Short term" storage
Procedure which protects the engine for a duration of less
than three months if the engine is not installed in the
helicopter.
"Long term" storage
Procedure which protects the engine for a duration of
more than three months if the engine is not installed in
the helicopter. The engine is then inhibited in the package
(in a wooden case or in metal container).
Engine installed in the aircraft
If the engine is installed in the aircraft:
When the engine is not used for less than 7 days,
install the air intake and exhaust blanking devices
and close the cowlings
When the engine is not used between 7 days and 6
months, drain and replace the oil, do a 5 minute
ground run every 7 days
When the engine is not used for more than 6 months,
remove the engine and do the "long term" storage
procedure.
Storage inspection
Once the engine has been put into storage, it must be
periodically checked to ensure that it is in good condition.
In the event of an anomaly, the preservation and storage
procedures must be renewed.
The max. duration of storage and inspection to be carried
out vary with the type of container used.
Note: Refer to maintenance manual for preservation and
storage procedures and periodicity.
14.7
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
PRESERVATION AND STORAGE
1ST LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES (O LEVEL)
Refer to
maintenance manual
for preservation and
storage procedures and
periodicity
GENERAL
- Protection against corrosive
agents
- Cleaning, internal and
external protection
TYPE OF STORAGE
- "Short term": duration less than 3 months
(protection covers)
- "Long term": duration more than 3 months
(storage in a wooden case or in a metal container)
- Engine installed in the aircraft
STORAGE INSPECTION
- To be carried out periodically
- Renewal of preservation and storage
if necessary
- Max. duration of storage and
inspection to be carried out depend
on the type of container used
PROCEDURES
- For engine installed in aircraft (less than
7 days or between 7 days and 6 months)
- For uninstalled engines (3 months
and more than 3 months)
- Internal and external protection
- System protection
- Inhibiting products
- Blanking devices
- ...
14.8
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
2ND LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
(I LEVEL)
Modular design
The engine is of modular construction. This concept
avoids the return of the complete engine to a specialized
workshop and thus provides a higher operational
availability and a reduction of maintenance costs.
Modular replacement
Each module is a unit which can be replaced without
balancing or adaptation work.
However, some precautions must be taken when replacing
a module. This page mentions the main points related to
this question:
- Reasons for module removal
Inspection (access to some components)
Replacement
- Module identification
Identification plate on module
Compatibility table
Engine log book
- Removal and installation conditions
Engine installed (or not) on the aircraft
Installation on working stand
Particular position (horizontal or vertical)
- Tools
Standard tools
Special tools
- Inspection after replacement
Ground run check
Condition checks
Functional checks
Performance checks
- Module follow-up
Engine log book
- Interfaces
Intermodular parts
Equipment
Mounting.
Note: Refer to Maintenance Manual.
Module M01 and M02 removal and installation
The procedure is carried out with a special tool with the
engine in the vertical position and placed on module M02.
Power turbine module removal and installation
(only 1M version)
The procedure is carried out with a special tool with the
engine in the vertical position and placed on module M02.
Note 1: In a training course, these procedures are dealt
with in video and practical sessions.
Note 2: It is mandatory to refer to refer to the approved
and current TURBOMECA maintenance
technical publications to carry out any
maintenance procedure.
14.9
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
2ND LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES (I LEVEL)
It is mandatory to
refer to the approved and
current TURBOMECA
maintenance technical publications
to carry out any maintenance
procedure.
MODULE M01 AND M02
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
POWER TURBINE MODULE
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (1M version)
14.10
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
3RD LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
(H LEVEL)
Definition
The 3rd line (or deep) maintenance procedures are carried
out on removed major parts (e.g. modules) in a workshop.
They consist of replacement or reconditioning of
subassemblies without repair or adjustment (e.g. injection
wheel replacement).
Procedure
3rd Line Maintenance may be carried out on site by
operators, provided that the operator has been formally
trained, is in possession of the official updated
documentation (maintenance technical instruction) and
has received the corresponding TURBOMECA approval
(periodically renewable).
14.11
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
3RD LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES (H LEVEL)
3rd line maintenance may be
carried out on site by operators,
provided that the operator has been formally
trained, is in possession of the official updated
documentation (maintenance technical instruction)
and has received the corresponding
TURBOMECA approval (periodically
renewable).
3rd LINE MAINTENANCE (H Level)
(engine removed)
- Deep maintenance
14.12
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
4TH LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
(D LEVEL)
REPAIR AND OVERHAUL
Overhaul
Overhaul is a major maintenance operation that must be
carried out in a specific workshop when the engine (or
module) has reached the end of its TBO or cyclic life.
The overhauled engine (or module) is then put back into
service with zero hours for a new TBO.
Repair
Repair is a maintenance operation that must be carried out
in a specific workshop when the engine (or module) is
unserviceable or damaged.
After a repair, the engine (or module) is returned to service
with a TBO according to the work carried out and the
engine standard.
Note: TBO: Time Between Overhaul.
Main steps of 4th line maintenance
- Engine reception
- Disassembly
- Cleaning
- Inspection
- Investigation
- Repair
- Installation (of engine and accessories)
- Tests
- Delivery.
14.13
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
REPAIR AND OVERHAUL
4TH LINE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES (D LEVEL)
DISASSEMBLY - REPAIR
ACCESSORY ASSEMBLY
INSPECTION CLEANING
ENGINE OR MODULE
AT THE END OF TBO
OR FOR REPAIR
ENGINE OR MODULE DELIVERY
AFTER OVERHAUL WITH
FULL TBO, OR REPAIRED
DELIVERY
DISASSEMBLY
INVESTIGATION
ENGINE
ASSEMBLY
4TH LINE
MAINTENANCE
WORKSHOP
TESTS
ENGINE
RECEPTION
REPAIR
15.1
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
15 - TROUBLE SHOOTING
- General ................................................................... 15.2
- Trouble shooting ................................................... 15.4 to 15.23
15.2
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GENERAL
Introduction
Trouble shooting is a very important aspect of the
maintenance.
Efficient diagnosis reduces the extra maintenance costs
due to unjustified removals and additional diagnosis time.
In fact, even with a very high reliability product, failure is
inevitable and required actions should be taken efficiently.
After the fault analysis which consists of finding the effect
of a given failure, this section considers the case in reverse;
i.e.: finding the probable cause of a fault.
Repair procedure
The repair procedure should be guided by two main
considerations:
- A minimum downtime
- A justified removal of components.
The procedure to be applied depends on the case but, in
general, a good knowledge of the product and a methodic
research would permit a safe diagnosis and a quick
corrective action.
In a general way, the procedure includes the failure
identification, its analysis, the isolation of the defective
component, and the repair choice.
15.3
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
GENERAL
Symptoms (and other additional indications)
All factors should be taken into consideration
as well as the interactions.
Analysis of the fault
Identification of the faulty component
Additional
checks
Deduction Substitution
Remedy
(adjustment, replacement, cleaning, repair...)
Or other
perception
Fault
(single, double,
dormant)
Inevitable Random
Trouble shooting
- Diagnosis
- Remedy
- Repair
- Check
- Adequate means and
procedures
- Training of personnel
MTTR
(Mean Time To Repair)
Total time required
for repairing
15.4
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - STARTING FAULTS (1)
Or fuel supply
anomaly
No effect after selecting start
N doesn't increase
Is ventilation
possible?
- Circuit breaker, selector
switch, relay
- Digital Control Unit
- Starter contactor
- Supply
- Starter
Note
Note: Further tests (failure code, engaging noise of the
contactor) help locate the failure.
Yes No
On selection of start, N increases, but no increase in t4.5
The ignition
system operates
(noise of HE components)
- Start electro-valve
- Injectors
- HE ignition units
- Igniters
Yes No
Note: Refer to the test
procedure in order
to discriminate
Possible start on
1 injector (or 1 igniter)
Note: It is also possible to check
the fuel flow through the
combustion chamber drain.
Fuel flow
Ignition system
- Start electro-valve
- Fuel supply
Yes No
15.5
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - STARTING FAULTS (2)
Abnormal t4.5
t4.5 200C
Other possibility: N and t4.5 increase, but no start
t4.5 > 200C
but not sufficient
t4.5 too high
Increase due to the
injectors, but the
main system is not
supplied
- Digital Control Unit
- Sensors
- Drain valve of the
combustion chamber
- Digital Control Unit,
sensors, metering
valve.
- Fuel supply
(LP circuit, filters...)
- Pressurising valve
- Digital Control
Unit
Note: In any case, check the electrical
supply (battery voltage).
Failure of the accessory drive shaft
Anomaly during starting acceleration
Too quick or too slow
N1 increase
The starter is not
cut-out at
self-sustaining speed
Abnormal
idle speed
- Digital Control
Unit
- Fuel system
- Digital Control Unit
- Starter contactor
- Abnormal t4.5
- Starter system
- Fuel system
Anomaly during acceleration
from idle to nominal N
Acceleration with
surge
Acceleration
(too slow
or no acceleration)
No control
Control:
- Electronic part
- Hydromechanical
part
Digital Control Unit or
hydromechanical part
Digital
Control Unit
15.6
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULTS DURING SHUT-DOWN
Deceleration selected by moving the flight
selector switch to the idle position
N1
deceleration
Yes
Note: A crank with the power turbine fixed (rotor
break allows) discrimination between the gas
generator and the power turbine.
N1 stabilisation
Yes No
Select stop position
No
Yes
Correct
rundown time
No
Abnormal rubbing of the rotating assembly
The engine shut-down can then be
affected by the manual fuel valve
of the LP system. Further checking
required.
No
Normal
shut-down
Yes
Fuel system
The engine stops
N1 , t4.5
- Selector
- Stop electro-valve
- Selector
- Digital Control Unit
15.7
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULT DURING DRY CRANK
Dry crank selection
(press and hold)
N1 Indication
Yes
Gas generator rotates
No
Accessory drive
train
Normal
dry crank
Note: 20 sec. max. limit to avoid
starter overheat
No Yes
The starter turns
No Yes
N1 indication
Is starting
possible?
No Yes
- Starter
- Starter
contactor
- 24V supply
Dry crank
control
15.8
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - LUBRICATION FAULTS (1)
Abnormal oil pressure indication
Variation No pressure Low High pressure
- Oil condition
- Seal
- Blockage inside
the system
- Filter blockage
indication
- Pump valve
- Measuring
system
- Blockage of
a jet
Low pressure
indicator
Yes No
- Failure of the pump shaft
- Pressure relief valve
- Blockage inside the system
- Large internal or external leak
Pressure indicating system:
- Transmitter or
- Indicator light
15.9
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - LUBRICATION FAULTS (2)
Abnormal temperature indication
High Low
Yes No
- Measuring system
- Insufficient cooling
- Lubrication local anomaly,
blockage of a jet
Measuring system
Abnormal oil consumption
Visible leak
External leak Internal leak
Pipe or accessory
seal on casing
Contamination of the
aircraft air tapping
Smoke and oil evidence
in the exhaust pipe
Oil contamination
Corrective action Detection
According to the amount,
origin and rate of
contamination
Magnetic plug
Analysis
Color, aspect
- Leak from the hot section
- Rear bearing housing,
or defective pressurisation
of the labyrinth seal.
- Leak from the cold
section of the labyrinth
seal
- Rear bearing housing or
pressurisation of the
labyrinth seal.
15.10
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAILURE LEADING TO ENGINE SHUT-DOWN IN FLIGHT
Unexpected shut-down
Yes
Actual
overspeed
No
Safety system:
- Loss of signal
- Electronic box
No Yes
Engine internal
anomaly
N2, N1, C, t4.5, and oil pressure decrease
Operation of the
power turbine overspeed
safety
Fuel supply:
- Pump shaft
failure
- Pipe rupture
- Water in fuel
- Digital control
unit
Water or ice
ingestion
- Failure of the power
transmission shaft
- Control unit
Doubt
Rearming and
corrective actions
Note: In a twin engine configuration, the engine which remains in operation supplies the required power up to a certain limit.
Note: Unlikely
15.11
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (1)
- Blockage of the injection system
- Fuel supply (pumps, filters...)
- Digital Control Unit
- Mode selector switch
- T1 temperature probe
Yes
Max. N1 reached
No
Loss of power
- Torque and gas temperature indication
- Engine: compressor fouling, turbine
creep, ...
Note: Particular attention: check of the max. N1.
Abnormal gas temperature indication
Dirty compressor Engine internal problem Measuring system
Compressor surge
Abnormally low Fluctuation Abnormally high
During start In operation
Engine problem
(air intake, compressor...)
Digital Control Unit
15.12
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (2)
Gas generator speed - N1
Note: The total stabilisation of one engine, while the second engine is in normal operation,
indicates a major failure ("fixed" metering valve).
Incorrect
response time
- P3 supply to the
Digital Control Unit
- Gas generator
Overspeed
Digital Control Unit
Variations
Unexpected
deceleration
Unexpected
acceleration
- Anticipator
- Wrong P3 and T1
signals to the
Digital Control Unit
- Digital Control Unit
- Wrong P3 and T1 signals
to the Digital Control Unit
- Mode selector switch
- Fuel supply
- Digital Control Unit
- Abnormal operation of one of the
fuel system accessories
(refer to the chapter "fuel system")
- Air in the fuel system
- Dirt in the fuel system
- Constant P valve
- Blockage of several
main injectors
- Digital Control Unit
15.13
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (3)
Power turbine speed - N2
Overspeed
- Failure of the
transmission shaft
- Control system
Incorrect speed
- N2 sensors
- Indicators
- Setting of the anticipator
- Digital Control Unit
- Abnormal operation of
the gas generator
Vibration
Rotating assembly
of the gas generator
or the power turbine
Engine attachment
Power transmission
shaft
Engine - aircraft
alignment
15.14
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (4)
Instruments
Note: Failures which result in abnormal indication.
- Inaccurate indication (transmitter / receiver)
- Systems associated with the engine
Refer to other cases
Fire "failure"
Unexpected illumination Open circuit
No illumination in test mode Test system
Fire warning
Unexpected illumination Bi-metallic strip broken
No illumination in test mode Test system
Indicator lights
Justified illumination
No illumination in the event of overheat
Overheat or fire
Reverse terminals + or -
Chip detection Unexpected illumination Sensor "sensibility"
No illumination despite the deposits Detectors
Justified illumination Particles on plug
Min. lubrication oil pressure
Min. fuel pressure
Unexpected illumination Pressure switch
No illumination despite the pressure drop Pressure switch
Justified illumination Pressure drop
Oil filter pre-blockage
Unexpected illumination Pressure switch
No illumination despite the
differencial pressure increase
Pressure switch
Justified illumination Blockage
Fuel filter pre-blockage
15.15
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (5)
Note: Failures which result in abnormal indication
Overspeed rearming
Unexpected illumination N2 sensors
No illumination Overspeed system not rearmed
Air bleed prohibiting
(if installed)
Unexpected illumination DCU, interfaces
No illumination DCU, interfaces
Justified illumination Exceeded OEI 30 min. rating
Fixed metering valve
(or major failure)
Illumination not justified:
use the manual control
DCU
No illumination in case of a major failure:
use the manual control
DCU
Justified illumination:
use the manual control
DCU, sensors ...
Overspeed operation
Justified illumination Overspeed
Unexpected illumination
(at power on)
Overspeed system not rearmed
Minor failure
Illumination not justified DCU
Justified illumination Sensor, Digital Control Unit
or serial data link
(refer to the alphadigital code)
Loss of redundancy
Illumination not justified DCU
Justified illumination N1, N2 sensors; DCU supply
(refer to the alphadigital code)
15.16
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULT FINDING
Introduction
We should note that a failure identification is easier when
an integrated system is used (Digital Control Unit and
alphanumeric display; refer to chapter "CONTROL AND
INDICATION").
But a good knowledge of the engine and systems and a
methodic research still remain necessary.
Procedure
An anomaly detected by the Digital Control Unit, is
indicated by the amber or red GOV warning light.
To identify the failure, it is necessary to use the
alphanumeric display. It is possible to choose the Memory
mode for the faults occured during the last flight; Failure
or Parameter modes for the faults in real time.
The problems are displayed with three codes: A xxxx, B
xxxx, C xxxx to which correspond three tables provided by
the flight manual and maintenance manual.
Another table provided by the maintenance manual
supplies the procedure to follow (see next page).
15.17
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULT FINDING
Selectors lane
+ Res.
TRIM lane +
Selectors lane
+ Res.
TRIM lane +
Selectors lane
+ Res. + Res.
TRIM lane
TRIM lane + Res.
TRIM lane + Res.
TRIM lane + Res.
+ Res.
TRIM lane +
Selectors lane
TRIM lane +
Selectors lane
+ Res.
No failure
Res.
Res.
Selectors lane
Selectors lane
+ Res.
Res. + Res.
Selectors lane
+ Res. + Res.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
P3 lane +
PITCH lane +
T1 lane
No failure
PITCH lane
T4.5 lane
PITCH lane +
T4.5 lane
T1 lane
PITCH lane +
T1 lane
T4.5 lane +
T1 lane
P3 lane +
PITCH lane +
T4.5 lane +
T1 lane
P3 lane
P3 lane + PITCH lane
P3 lane + T4.5 lane
PITCH lane +
T4.5 lane +
T1 lane
P3 lane +
PITCH lane +
T4.5 lane
P3 lane + T1 lane
P3 lane + T4.5 lane
+ T1 lane
0 No failure
1 Input mod.
2 Internal F.
Input mod. +
internal F.
3
4 External F.
Input mod. +
external F.
5
internal F. +
external F.
6
Input mod. +
Internal F. +
external F.
7
8 Nil
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
0 No failure
1 Power mod.
2 Output mod.
Power mod. +
output mod.
3
4 Airspeed mod.
Power mod. +
speed mod.
5
output mod. +
speed mod.
6
Power mod. +
output mod. +
speed mod.
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
Memory
Parameter
Failure
TEST
Ng
Ng TRIM
NR ADJ
SCROLL
ENGINE 2
DCU
ENGINE 1
DCU
ALPHANUMERIC
DISPLAY
ENGINE 1
ENGINE 2
ENGINE 2
SENSORS
ENGINE 1
SENSORS
INTEGRATED SYSTEM
15.18
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULT FINDING
(CONTINUED)
Procedure (continued)
Example: A 4040 code or external failure (T1 probe
channel).
A failure external to the DCU requires a check of the
corresponding harness and accessory (by means of an
appropriate test box).
The DCU can be incriminated because the failure can
come from an external failure to the digital processing
channel (e.g.: interconnection unit).
15.19
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
15 D TABLE
DCU FAILURE PROCESSING
The DCU maintenance principle is as follows:
1) Carefully look at the A-xxxx code; it will indicate in the column located after A- if the failure is internal or external:
- if it is an internal failure, replace the incriminated DCU,
- if it is an external failure, the two last values ease fault finding.
2) The B-00xx code must be read after the A-xxxx code and ease maintenance (refer to associated procedures),
3) The C-00xx code must be read after the A-xxxx code and ease maintenance (refer to associated procedures),
Split within tolerances indicated by the fault
display unit; resulting from a P0 difference
between the 2 "Digital Control Units"
Inner fault on the outlet module
Light "on" without fault display
Without fault indication, there is no more
dialog with the Control Unit
Lights "on" without fault indication
Fault code without light GOV; AMBER or
RED
Particular case
Internal(s)
Internal(s)
Internal(s)
External(s)
Internal(s) or External(s)
Internal(s) or External(s)
Internal(s) or External(s)
Internal(s)
According to A-xxx code; internal or external
A-3000
X-xxxx
A-4000
B-0001
B-0002
A-1xxx
A-2xxx
A-3xxx
A-4040
A-5xxx
A-6xxx
A-7xxx
B-00x0
B-000x
The removed Digital Control Unit can be
kept to check with another one having a
similar P0 difference
Minor fault light "on"
Minor fault light "on"
Minor fault light "on"
Test box ref. 8815800000
Test box ref. 8815800000
Test box ref. 8815800000
FAILURES ACTIONS OBSERVATIONS LIGHTS INDICATIONS
DIPO
EBUS
FUEL
and
or
Compare P0 and QFE and change the Control
Unit with the greatest P0 difference
Standard exchange of the Control Unit
concerned by A-3000
Standard exchange of the Control Unit
Standard exchange of the Control Unit or fault
display unit
Standard exchange of the Control Unit
Standard exchange of the fault display unit
Standard exchange of the pump-metering valve
unit and if the fault occurs again replace the
Digital Control Unit
Standard exchange of the Control Unit
Standard exchange of the Control Unit
Standard exchange of the Control Unit
Check the harness and the sensor concerned
taking into account the tenth digit which can
help in finding the channel anomaly (e.g. :
A-4040 = T1 probe channel)
Apply the procedure for external faults A-4xxx
then if no result, replace the Digital Control Unit
Standard exchange of the Control Unit
AMBER GOV
RED GOV
AMBER & RED
GOV
RED GOV
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULT FINDING (CONTINUED)
Example
of codes for instruction
purposes only.
In all cases, refer to
the maintenance
manual.
15.20
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - DOCUMENTATION
Chapter 71.00.09 of the Maintenance Manual, which is
dedicated to trouble shooting includes:
- A list of faults observed in operation
- A list of faults observed during maintenance
- A list of faults codes and their interpretation
- A list of trouble shooting tasks.
15.21
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - DOCUMENTATION
ARRIUS 1
CHAP. 71.00.09
TROUBLE
SHOOTING
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
Trouble shooting
tasks
Fault
codes
Maintenance
faults
Operating
faults
15.22
TROUBLE SHOOTING
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
ARRIUS 1
Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
TROUBLE SHOOTING - CONCLUSION
Despite the high reliability of the product, failures remain
inevitable and happen at random. But their rate and effects
can be reduced if the "enemies" of the engine are taken into
consideration.
When the failure occurs, you have to be in a position to
correct it.
"Enemies" of the engine
The traditional adverse conditions for this type of engine
are:
- Supply (oil, air, fuel, electricity):
Oil - Not in conformity with spec., contamination
Air - Sand, salt, pollution
Fuel - Not in conformity with spec., contamination
Electricity - Low voltage, connectors
- Operation ("non respect" of instructions and procedures)
- Maintenance ("non respect" of inspection frequencies,
and of the strict application of the procedures).
15.23
TROUBLE SHOOTING
ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA Edition: May 2006
Training Notes
"ENEMIES" OF THE ENGINE
TROUBLE SHOOTING - CONCLUSION
- Not in conformity
with specifications
- Contamination
- Too low voltage
during starting
- Interference
MAINTENANCE
AIR
FUEL
- Not in conformity with
specifications
- Water in fuel
- Sulphur + salt in the air =
sulfidation
OPERATION
- "Non respect" of instructions
and procedures
- Severe operating conditions
- "Non respect" of inspection
frequencies
- Various mistakes
- Wrong logistic
- Sand
- Salt
- Pollution
OIL
ELECTRICITY
16.1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
16 - CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
- Introduction ........................................................... 16.2
- Questionnaire 1 ..................................................... 16.3
- Questionnaire 2 ..................................................... 16.6
- Questionnaire 3 ..................................................... 16.12
- Questionnaire 4 ...................................................... 16.15 to 16.17
16.2
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
INTRODUCTION
Method
Continuous checking helps to ensure the information is
assimilated. It is more a method of work than a testing in
the traditional sense.
Objectives of the questionnaires
The questionnaires permit a progressive assimilation and
a long term retention. The questionnaires are a subject for
discussion (effects of group dynamics). They also permit
students to consider important subjects several times under
different aspects.
Integration into the training programme
- First hour every day for revision of the subjects previously
studied
- After each chapter (or module) of the course
- At the end of the training course.
Types of questionnaires
Several types of questionnaire can be employed during a
course:
- Traditional written questionnaire
- "Short answer" questionnaire
- Multi Choice Questionnaire (MCQ)
- Oral questionnaire
- Learning Through Teaching (LTT; the student has to
explain a given subject).
Examination
The final examination at the end of the course consists of
three tests: written, oral and practical. A certificate and an
approval card are given to the student if the results are
satisfactory.
16.3
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
QUESTIONNAIRE 1
This traditional questionnaire is established according to
the same plan as the Training Notes in which the answers
can be found.
Turboshaft engine
1 - List the main functional components of the power
plant.
2 - Explain the thermodynamic operation of the engine
3 - State the following characteristics (at take-off, in
standard atmosphere):
Power on the shaft
Specific fuel consumption
Compression ratio
Gas generator turbine entry temperature
Gas generator 100% rotation speed
Nominal power turbine rotation speed
Output shaft rotation speed
Mass of the engine with specific equipment.
4 - Explain the principle of engine adaptation to helicopter
power requirements.
5 - Give a definition of the operating ratings.
6 - How do temperature and altitude affect the engine
performance.
Engine
1 - List the main components of the gas generator.
2 - Describe the power turbine assembly.
3 - Describe the fuel injection system.
4 - List the engine driven accessories.
5 - List the bearings which support the gas generator.
6 - Describe the system used for the bearing sealing.
7 - Describe the reduction gear assembly.
8 - Describe the engine air intake.
9 - Describe how the modules are connected together.
10 - List the manufacturing materials of the engine main
components.
16.4
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
QUESTIONNAIRE 1 (continued)
Oil system
1 - What type of system is it?
2 - At what pressure does the pressure warning light come
on?
3 - Describe the oil filter assembly.
4 - State the location of strainers and magnetic plugs.
5 - What is the max. oil consumption?
Air system
1 - List the functions ensured by the internal air system
(secondary system).
2 - List the function of the various air bleeds.
3 - Why are the starting injectors ventilated?
4 - Explain the effect of air bleeds on engine performance.
Fuel system
1 - Type of main fuel injection?
2 - Describe the low pressure fuel pump assembly.
3 - Function of the relief valve of the high pressure pump.
4 - Describe the fuel filter assembly.
5 - Explain the principle of fuel injection (main and starting
injection).
6 - What is the purpose of the constant P valve.
7 - Give the operating procedure for manual fuel flow
control.
8 - Explain the operation of the system during starting.
Control system
1 - List the main functions of the control system.
2 - Explain the basic principle of the control system.
3 - Explain the operating principle of the speed control.
4 - List the logic input signals of the DCU.
5 - List the analog input signals of the DCU.
6 - Describe and explain the operation of the overspeed
safety systems of the power turbine.
7 - Describe the Digital Control Unit.
Measurement and indicating systems
1 - List the indicating systems of the power plant.
2 - Describe the rotation speed indicating system of the
power turbine.
3 - Explain the principle of the torquemeter system.
4 - Describe the t4.5 gas temperature indicating system.
16.5
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
QUESTIONNAIRE 1 (continued)
Starting
1 - Describe the cranking function of the engine.
2 - Describe the ignition system (ignition unit and igniter
plugs).
3 - List the main phases of the starting cycle.
4 - Describe the starting control electrical system.
Electrical system
1 - List the electrical control components.
2 - Indicate the alternator location.
3 - Describe the electrical harness and connectors.
Engine installation
1 - Describe the attachment of the engine to the aircraft.
2 - Describe the engine power drive and the power
transmission.
3 - List the various engine / aircraft connections.
4 - Describe the fire protection system of the engine.
Maintenance
1 - List the main operating limitations of the engine (explain
the reason for each limit).
2 - Describe the engine starting procedure.
3 - List the main practices of a preventive periodic
inspection.
4 - List the means used for "on condition monitoring".
5 - Describe the procedure for engine removal.
6 - List the technical publications used for engine
maintenance.
7 - Do the "fault analysis" exercises.
8 - Do the "fault finding" exercises.
16.6
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
9 - Limit temperatures of the flight
envelope?
10 - Max. starting altitude?
11 - Engine mass?
12 - Max. gas temperature at the gas
generator turbine entry?
13 - Air pressure at the compressor
outlet?
14 - Air temperature at the compressor
outlet?
15 - Gas generator 100% rotation speed?
16 - Type of compressor?
17 - Type of mounting of the power
turbine blades?
18 - Number of bearings which support
the power turbine shaft?
19 - Number of bearings which support
the output shaft?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2
The following questions require short and accurate answers.
The student can answer orally or in the space provided for
the answers.
Questions Answers
Questions Answers
1 - Location of the Digital Control
Unit?
2 - Direction of rotation of the power
turbine?
3 - Engine air flow?
4 - Power turbine nominal rotation
speed?
5 - Direction of rotation of the gas
generator?
6 - Power on the shaft at take off rating?
7 - MTOP rating max. use duration?
8 - OEI 2 min. 30 sec. rating max. use
duration?
16.7
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
30 - Setting of the oil filter by-pass
valve?
31 - Type of oil pressure transmitter?
32 - Location of the low oil pressure
switch?
33 - Oil pressure illuminating the
indicator light?
34 - How many oil pumps?
35 - Location of the oil temperature
probe?
36 - Filtering ability of the oil filter?
37 - Type of oil pumps?
38 - Setting of the oil filter pre-blockage
switch?
39 - Max. oil consumption?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers Questions Answers
20 - Location of the centrifugal
breather?
21 - Number of power turbine bearings?
22 - Type of seal on the power shaft?
23 - Manufacturing material for the
compressor?
24 - Number of stages of the gas
generator turbine?
25 - Number of accessory drives?
26 - Number of bearings which support
the gas generator?
27 - Overall compression ratio?
28 - Type of combustion chamber?
29 - Is the oil pressure adjustable?
16.8
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
50 - Start injector flow?
51 - Number of main injectors?
52 - Position of the fuel pump pressure
relief valve in normal operation?
53 - Location of the alternator?
54 - Number of gas generator rotation
speed sensors?
55 - Number of thermocouple probes?
56 - Number of power turbine rotation
speed sensors?
57 - Location of the torquemeter?
58 - Torquemeter average pressure at
100%?
59 - Type of connection of the
thermocouples.
40 - Air bleed for the power turbine
bearing pressurisation?
41 - Air bleed characteristics?
42 - Number of start injectors?
43 - Position of the combustion chamber
drain valve engine stopped?
44 - Setting of the combustion chamber
drain valve?
45 - Fuel specific consumption (at
cruise rating)?
46 - Type of main fuel injection?
47 - Position of the stop electro-valve at
engine shut-down?
48 - Position of the main metering valve
in case of an electronic failure?
49 - Type of LP fuel pump?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers Questions Answers
16.9
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
60 - Overspeed safety setting of the
power turbine?
61 - Type of ignition?
62 - Max. duration of a ventilation?
63 - Gas generator speed at starter cut-
off?
64 - Max. and min. temperatures of the
starting envelope?
65 - Min. electrical voltage at starting?
66 - Number of engine electrical
harnesses?
67 - Number of fire sensors?
68 - Is borescope inspection of the
combustion chamber possible?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers
69 - Procedure to be carried out if the
engine is not expected to operate for
more than 7 days?
70 - Rundown check during engine
shut-down:
- Time?
- Noises?
71 - Tolerance to apply to periodic
inspections?
72 - Method to record the engine hours?
from to
73 - Is the removal-installation of the
power shaft seal possible in current
maintenance?
74 - Document stating the basic and
individual TBO's?
75 - Definition of a complete engine cycle?
76 - Definition of a partial cycle?
Questions Answers
16.10
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
84 - Is it necessary to remove the
centering sleeve when replacing a
start injector?
85 - Procedure for cleaning the air
tapping union restrictors?
77 - Stabilisation time before engine
shut-down?
78 - Is a vibration check to be carried out
with only one engine in operation ?
79 - Procedure to be applied in the case
of chip indicator "on" followed by a
drop of engine power?
80 - What are the parameters affecting
the oil pressure?
81 - Setting of the combustion chamber
drain valve (expressed in N1)?
82 - How is the N1 speed sensor gap
adjusted?
83 - Is the fuel filter pre-blockage
pressure switch an LRU?
Questions Answers Questions Answers
16.11
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
QUESTIONNAIRE 3
This multi-choice questionnaire is used to review, in a
relatively short time, certain important points and to test
the acquired knowledge.
Answers to the questions are to be found at the end of the
questionnaire.
1 - The ARRIUS 1 engine is:
a) a free turbine turboshaft engine
b) a turbo-jet engine
c) a fixed turbine turboshaft engine.
2 - Section of passage of the compressor diffusers:
a) regular
b) divergent
c) convergent.
3 - Type of combustion chamber:
a) annular with centrifugal injection
b) annular, reverse flow
c) annular, indirect flow.
4 - The power turbine shaft belongs:
a) to the reduction gearbox
b) to the power turbine
c) to the gas generator.
5 - Type of exhaust pipe attachment:
a) bolts
b) mounting pads
c) clamp.
6 - Number of bearings which hold the gas generator:
a) 4
b) 2
c) 3
7 - The output shaft belongs to:
a) gas generator
b) power turbine
c) reduction gearbox.
8 - Type of oil system:
a) dry sump
b) constant pressure
c) lubrication by splashing.
9 - Setting of the oil filter pre-blockage switch:
a) lower than the by-pass valve
b) higher than the by-pass valve
c) the same as the pump valve.
10 - The oil strainers are located:
a) at the outlet of the pumps
b) on the suction side of the scavenge pumps
c) at the inlet of the lubricated components.
11 - Is there a max. oil temperature:
a) yes, 60C
b) no
c) yes, 110C max.
16.12
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
QUESTIONNAIRE 3 (continued)
12 - The air bled from the outlet of the centrifugal
compressor wheel is used for the pressurisation of:
a) some labyrinth seals
b) the tank
c) the pumps.
13 - The balance piston is balanced by:
a) air bled from the middle of the centrifugal
compressor
b) air bled from the outlet of the compressor wheel
c) air bled from the outlet of the centrifugal compressor
diffuser.
14 - Type of ambient air temperature probe?
a) platinum probe
b) nickel probe
c) thermocouple.
15 - Ventilation of starting injectors:
a) does not exist
b) is made with air from the compressor
c) is made with atmospheric pressure air.
16 - The manual metering valve:
a) does not control the metering unit
b) controls the metering unit mechanically
c) controls the metering unit electrically.
17 - The maximum rotation speed of the gas generator:
a) is set by the control system
b) is set by a mechanical stop
c) there is no maximum speed.
18 - The signature box is part of:
a) the torque indicating system
b) the temperature indicating system
c) does not exist.
19 - With the anticipator, the static droop is:
a) compensated
b) cancelled
c) overcompensated.
20 - Type of Digital Control Unit:
a) hydraulic
b) analog
c) digital electronic.
21 - The thermocouples are installed:
a) in series
b) in parallel
c) on the turbine casing.
22 - The conformation box is used for:
a) the synchronisation
b) the torquemeter operation
c) the gas temperature measurement.
16.13
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
QUESTIONNAIRE 3 (continued)
23 - Number of thermocouples?
a) 2 x 4
b) 2 x 5
c) 2 x 3
24 - Number of N2 signals?
a) 2
b) 6
c) 3
25 - Number of N1 signals?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 6
26 - The starter cut-out is made:
a) automatically
b) manually
c) with air pressure.
27 - Starting is possible with one igniter:
a) yes
b) no
c) yes, in emergency.
28 - HE ignition means:
a) Hot Electrode
b) High Energy
c) High Emission.
29 - Borescopic inspection is used to check:
a) the external parts condition
b) the internal parts condition which are not accessible
without removal
c) the reduction gearbox condition.
30 - The reliability of the engine is:
a) good
b) fairly good
c) extremely good.
1 - a
6 - b
1 1 - c
1 6 - a
2 1 - b
2 6 - a
A n s w e r s
2 - b
7 - c
1 2 - a
1 7 - a
2 2 - c
2 7 - a
3 - b
8 - a
1 3 - c
1 8 - c
2 3 - a
2 8 - b
4 - b
9 - a
1 4 - a
1 9 - a
2 4 - b
2 9 - b
5 - c
1 0 - b
1 5 - b
2 0 - c
2 5 - a
3 0 - a b c ?
16.14
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
QUESTIONNAIRE 4
This questionnaire is a sort of drill which is also used to test
and perfect the knowledge acquired.
1- List the reference stations (numbers) on the illustration
below:
2- Complete this table (with values):
3- Engine description - List the components on the diagram:
1 - ................................ 3 - ................................
2 - ................................ 4 - ................................
Ratings shp N1 N2 kW
2 min. 30
sec.
5 min.
30 min.
1 2 3 4
16.15
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
4- Oil system - Name the components on the diagram:
1- .......................... 2- .......................... 3- ......................... 4- ..........................
5- .......................... 6- .......................... 7- ......................... 8- ..........................
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8
16.16
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
5 - Air system - Indicate (with different colours) the
following air circuits:
a) pressurisation of turbine bearing seals
b) pressurisation of the segments
c) pressurisation of the balance piston
d) cooling of turbine NGV.
6- Fuel system - Name the components:
1 - .................................................................................
2 - .................................................................................
3 - .................................................................................
4 - .................................................................................
5 - .................................................................................
6 - .................................................................................
5
6
1
2
3
4
16.17
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE Edition: May 2006
Training Notes ARRIUS 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
7- Fuel system - Name the components of the metering
unit assembly:
1 - ................................................................................
2 - ................................................................................
3 - ................................................................................
2
1
3
END
but not t he END of your t r ai ni ng
whi ch must be cont i nued ( agai n and agai n)
har moni zi ng knowl edge and exper i ence.
THANK YOU f or your ki nd at t ent i on.
of these training notes and (maybe also) of the course
Au r evoi r
Good bye
Adi s
Auf Wi eder sehen
Adeus
Ar r i veder ci
Far vel
Tot zi ens
Adj
Nkemi i n
Ant i o
Ma sal aam
Sel amat Jal an
TURBOMECA Training Centre
REMARKS CONCERNING THE TRAINING AIDS
REMARKS CONCERNING THE TRAINING COURSE
Name ....................................................................................................................................... .
Address .................................................................................................................................... .
Course .............................................................. from............................ to............................. .
REMARKS
Remarks (appreciations, criticisms, suggestions...) should be forwarded to:
TURBOMECA
CENTRE D'INSTRUCTION
40220 TARNOS - FRANCE