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Imhotep in hieroglyphs
Imhotep Jj m ḥtp He who comes in peace
Jj m ḥtp
Jj m ḥtp Greek Manethovariants: Africanus: Imouthes Eusebius: missing Eusebius, AV: missing
Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre
 though two other physicians. The consensus is that it is hidden somewhere at Saqqara. As an instigator of .Imhotep (sometimes spelled Immutef. Egyptologists ascribe to him the design of the Pyramid of Djoser (the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara in Egypt in 2630 – 2611 BC. was anEgyptian polymath. He may have been responsible for the first known use of columns to support a building. who served under the Third Dynasty king Djoser as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra (or Re) at Heliopolis. called Imuthes (Ἰμούθης) by the Greeks). despite efforts to find it. is with peace"). and Maker of Vases in Chief. The latter inscription suggests that Imhotep outlived Djoser by a few years and went on to serve in the construction of king Sekhemkhet's pyramid. fl. Imhotep's historicity is confirmed by two contemporary inscriptions made during his lifetime on the base or pedestal of one of Djoser's statues (Cairo JE 49889) and also by a graffitoon the enclosure wall surrounding Sekhemkhet's unfinished step-pyramid. His sayings were famously referenced in poems: "I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hordedef with whose discourses men speak so much. He is considered by some to be the earliest known architect and engineer and physician in early history. Builder. He was one of only a few commoners ever to be accorded divine status after death. Administrator of the Great Palace. Chief Carpenter. The full list of his titles is: Chancellor of the King of Egypt. or Ii-em-Hotep. The center of his cult was Memphis. Attribution of achievements and inventions Architecture and engineering[ Pyramid of Djoser Imhotep was one of the chief officials of the Pharaoh Djoser. First in line after the King of Upper Egypt. Hereditary nobleman. lived around the same time." The location of Imhotep's self-constructed tomb was well hidden from the beginning and it remains unknown. From the First Intermediate Period onward Imhotep was also revered as a poet and philosopher. Doctor. High Priest of Heliopolis. Im-hotep. which was abandoned due to this ruler's reign. 27th century BC (circa 2650–2600 BC) (Egyptian ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥātap meaning "the one who comes in peace. Hesy-Ra and Merit-Ptah. Chief Sculptor.
and jambs had appeared sporadically during the Archaic Period. The 48 cases contained within the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus concern: 27 head injuries (cases #1-27) 6 throat and neck injuries (cases #28-33) 2 injuries to the clavicle (collarbone) (cases #34-35) 3 injuries to the arm (cases #36-38) 8 injuries to the sternum (breastbone) and ribs (cases #39-44) 1 tumour and 1 abscess of the breast (cases #45-46) 1 injury to the shoulder (case #47) 1 injury to the spine (case #48)  Descriptions of Imhotep by James Henry Breasted et al. seated and holding a papyrus roll. The Egyptian historian Manetho credited him with inventing the method of a stone-dressed building during Djoser's reign. to whom they regularly poured out a libation from the water-jug of their writing outfit before beginning their work. : "In priestly wisdom. in medicine and architecture. very little has survived though numerous statues and statuettes of him have been found. lintels. standing.Egyptian culture. Later. in magic. in the formulation of wise proverbs. and cures. New York City. the so-called Edwin Smith papyrus containing anatomical observations. Imhotep's idealized image lasted well into the Ptolemaic period. Medicine Imhotep was an important figure in Ancient Egyptian medicine.' 'Imhotep was portrayed as a priest with a shaven head. though he was not the first to actually build with stone. Before Djoser. Others show him as a sage who is seated on a chair with a roll of papyrus on his knees or under his arm. and carrying the ankh and a scepter.' 'Of the details of his life. though it is true that a building of the Step Pyramid's size and made entirely out of stone had never before been constructed. He was the patron spirit of the later scribes. Some show him as an ordinary man who is dressed in plain attire. Today the Papyrus is on show at the Brooklyn Children's Museum. ailments. this remarkable figure of Zoser's reign left so notable a reputation that his name was never forgotten. Stone walling. his statuettes show him with a god like beard. pharaohs were buried in mastaba tombs. He was the author of a medical treatise remarkable for being devoid ofmagical thinking. this attribution of authorship is speculative. flooring. However.' ." ' 'Imhotep extracted medicine from plants. Occasionally he was shown clothed in the archaic costume of a priest. The surviving papyrus was probably written around 1700 BC but may be a copy of texts written a thousand years earlier.
the god of architecture. says Sir William Osler. who then had a dream in which the Nile god spoke to him. One of his priests explained the connection between the god Khnum and the rise of the Nile to the king. his father was also an architect and was named Kanofer. The Life of Imhotep: an ancient story about Djoser and Imhotep . "the first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from the mists of antiquity. Imhotep is credited with having been instrumental in ending it.' Deification Two thousand years after his death. mathematics. bears an inscription containing a legend about a famine of seven years during the reign of Djoser. since Imhotep was known as the "Son of Ptah. he was thus associated withAmenhotep son of Hapu. Also according to myths. promising to end the drought.'He is represented seated with a papyrus scroll across his knees. We can interpret the papyrus as suggesting the sources of knowledge kept by scribes in the "House of Life". His prestige increased with the lapse of centuries and his temples in Greek times were the centers of medical teachings."  Imhotep's dreams The Upper Egyptian Famine Stela. who was the real "Father of Medicine". Legacy According to the Encyclopædia Britannica. "The evidence afforded by Egyptian and Greek texts support the view that Imhotep's reputation was very respected in early times . having Imhotep's cult merging with that of his former tutelary god. Imhotep was also linked toAsklepios by the Greeks. He was identified or confused with Thoth. Imhotep's mother was a mortal named Kheredu-ankh. dating from the Ptolemaic period. Birth myths According to myth. a concept that led to another syncretic belief. Taking this into consideration."  It is Imhotep. the patron of Upper Egypt whose consort was Ptah. and his priestly linen garment symbolizes his religious purity. medicine and patron of the scribes. The headgear identifies Imhotep with Ptah... who was another deified architect. in the region of Thebes where they were worshipped as "brothers" in temples dedicated to Thoth and later in Hermopolisfollowing the syncretist concept of HermesThot. Imhotep's status was raised to that of a deity of medicine and healing. Conversely. that of Hermes Trismegistus and hermeticism." his mother was sometimes claimed to be Sekhmet. elevated later to semi-divine status by claims that she was the daughter of Banebdjedet. wearing a skullcap and a long linen kilt.
E. and in Alain Chabat's Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra (2002) (also a French comedy). Imhotep features in the British comedy television series Look Around You. imhotep is used in an indiscriminate manner to mean all kinds of things. At one point Djoser desires the young Renpetnefereret. the title character of the 1932 film The Mummy and its 1999 remake along with a sequel. In 2010 Marvel Comics series S.L. dating to the 2nd century AD. He is depicted as an invisible Moai. and Imhotep disguises himself and tries to rescue her. his mother Khereduankh. Nest of Spies. . King Djoser plays a prominent role in the story. In popular culture In modern times.. his father the god Ptah. In the 2006 French spy comedy OSS 117: Cairo. preserves a long story in the demotic script about Imhotep.A papyrus from the ancient Egyptian temple of Tebtunis. which also mentions Imhotep's family. Imhotep is a 1985 video game about building pyramids. In the television series Stargate SG-1 "The Warrior". and his little-sister Renpetneferet.D. the historical figure lent his name to Imhotep. The text also refers to the royal tomb of Djoser by which the Step Pyramid must be meant. An anachronistic detail is a battle between the Egyptian and Assyrian armies where Imhotep fights an Assyrian sorceress in a duel of magic. Imhotep was the man who formed the very first version of the titular intelligence organisation. a Goa'uld character named Imhotep appears.H.I.
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