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IAKOB GOGEBASHVILI TELAVI STATE UNIVERSITY

Tamar Mikeladze
IMPLEMENTING EXTENSIVE READING IN
GEORGIAN UNIVERSITIES
Dissertatio
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirement
for !demi! de"ree of the Do!tor of Edu!tion
E!lis" la!#a!e tea$"i! met"odolo!%
S!ientifi! Su#er$i%or& &ro'( Dr( Maaa Gari)as"*ili

Tela*i
i
+,--
T"e #dersi!ed "a*e e.amied t"e resear$" /ro0e$t etitled 1Im/lemeti! e.tesi*e readi! i
Geor!ia #i*ersities2 /reseted )% Tamar Mikeladze3 a $adidate 'or t"e Ed(D( o' E!lis"
la!#a!e tea$"i! met"odolo!%3 ad "ere)% $erti'% t"at it is 4ort"% o' a$$e/ta$e(
O##onent%&
&ro'( Dr( Natela Do!"oadze 555555555555555555
&ro'( Dr( Ira Daelia ((((((((((((((555555555555555555
ii
Tble of 'ontent%
Ta)le o' 6otets ((555555555555((555555555555555 iii
A))re*iatios ad A$ro%ms Used i t"e Dissertatio55555555555555(( i.

(((((((((((((((((
-
RESEAR6H SUMMARY 555555((555555555555555555( -7
INTRODU6TION 555555555555((55555555555555(((( 8-
6HA&TER I( LITERATURE REVIE9 5555555555555555555 8:
-(-( Readi! i L- ad L+ 5555555555555555555555 8:
-(+( Good ad /oor readers 5555555555555555555555 8;
-(8( Readi! a//roa$"es 55555555555555555555555 <+
-(<( T"e de'iitio o' e.tesi*e readi! 55555555555555555 <<
-(:( H%/ot"esis ad i/#t models s#//orti! e.tesi*e readi! 5555555(( <:
-(=( T"e $"ara$teristi$s o' e.tesi*e readi! 555555555555555 <;
-(>( T"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi!555555555555555555 :,
-(;( E.tesi*e readi! i Geor!ia ad R#ssia 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i!
met"odolo!%5555555555555555555555555(
:+
-(7( 6otri)#tio to t"e resear$" area 5555555555555((((((((((((((((((( :<
-(-,( T"e o)0e$ti*es o' t"e st#d% 5555555555555555555(( :=
6HA&TER II( READING DEVELO&MENT &ROGRAMS AT GEORGIAN
UNIVERISTIES
+(-( A STUDY O? THE READING DEVELO&MENT &ROGRAMS AT
GEORGIAN UNIVERSITIES 555555555555555555 :;
+(-(-( Met"od 555555555555555555555(((((((((((((( :;
+(-(+( &arti$i/ats 55555555555555555555555 :;
+(-(8( &ro$ed#re 55555555555555555555555((( :7
+(-(<( Res#lts 555555555555555555555((((((((((((((( =+
+(-(:( Dis$#ssio 55555555555555555555555(( =<
+(+( THE SURVEY O? THE GRADUATES O? THE READING
DEVELO&MENT &ROGRAM
+(+(-( Met"od 555555555555555555555(((((((((((((( ==
+(+(+( &arti$i/ats 55555555555555555555555( ==
+(+(8( &ro$ed#re 55555555555555555555((((((((((((((( =>
+(+(<( Res#lts 5555555555555555555555555 =>
+(+(:( Dis$#ssio 55555555555555555555555(( >-
+(8( 6o$l#sios 555555555555((5555555555555( >8
6HA&TER III( E@TENSIVE READING TEA6HING METHODOLOGY ?OR
?OREIGN LANGUAGE DE&ARTMENTS O? GEORGIAN
UNIVERSITIES

8(-( E.tesi*e readi! met"odolo!% 555555555555555555( >:
iii
8(+( T"e tea$"i! /ri$i/les o' t"e /ro!ram 555555555555555(( >:
8(8( T"e $"ara$teristi$s o' t"e /ro!ram 5555555555555555((( >=
8(<( A tea$"i! model 555555555555((55555555555( >>
8(:( T"e role o' moti*atio 555555555555((555555555(( ;,
8(=( Readi! reA#iremets3 a$ti*ities ad testi! i a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram (( ;+
8(>( Sele$ti! readi! material 555555555555((55555555 ;:
8(;( 6o$l#sio 555555555555((55555555555555 ;>
6HA&TER IV( RESEAR6H DESIGNBANALYSIS
<(-( Resear$" desi! 555555555555((555555555555 ;;
<(-(-( &arti$i/ats CAD( ?orei! la!#a!e de/artmet st#dets 555555 ;;
<(-(+( &ro$ed#re 555555555555(55555555555((( 7,
<(-(8( Readi! materials 'or t"e e./erimetal !ro#/s 555555555( 7-
<(-(<( Testi! i e./erimetal tea$"i! 55555555555555((( 7+
<(-(:( Res#lts o' t"e data 55555555555555555555(( 78
<(-(=( Res#lts o' t"e e*al#ati*e 'orm 5555555555555555 77
<(+(-( &arti$i/ats CBD( ?orei! la!#a!e de/artmet st#dets 555555 -,
,
<(+(+( &ro$ed#re 555555555555((55555555555(( -,
-
<(+(8( T"e A#estioaires ad test 'orms 55555555555555(( -,
+
<(+(<( Res#lts o' t"e data 555555555555((55555555 -,
<
<(8(-( &arti$i/ats C6D( ?orei! la!#a!e $eter st#dets55555555 --
;
<(8(+( &ro$ed#re 555555555555((55555555555( --
7
<(8(8( Res#lts o' t"e data 555555555555((55555555 -+
,
<(<( Dis$#ssio 555555555555((55555555555555 -+
8
6ON6LUSION AND IM&LI6ATIONS ?OR TEA6HING
O)sta$les i im/lemetatio o' e.tesi*e readi! ad limitatios o' t"e st#d% 5555 -+
;
6o$l#sios ad '#t#re im/li$atios555555555555555555555 -8
,
RE?EREN6ES 5555555555555555555555555555(((
-8
+
A&&ENDI6ES 55555555555555555555555555((55(( -8
7
A//edi. -( E#estioaire 'orms 'or tea$"ers o' t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams i
Geor!ia #i*ersities 55555555555555555555555555((
-8
7
A//edi. +( E#estioaire 'or t"e !rad#ates 5555555555555555((((( -<
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A//edi. 8( &ost readi! 4orks"eet 'or idi*id#al 4ork C&R9D 555555555((
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A//edi. <( E#estioaire 'or t"e st#dets i e./erimetal tea$"i! 5555555((( -<
8
A//edi. :( Readi! /ro!ram e*al#atio A#estioaire 5555555555555
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A//edi. =. ngsur enaze kTxvs mmarT studentTa damokdebuebs
gamosaven kTxvar 55555555555555(
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A//edi. >( kTxvs programs Sefasebs kTxvar 555555555(
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-
A//edi. ;( 6loze test #sed i t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! 555555555555(
-:
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A//edi. 7( 6Btest sam/le #sed i t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! 5555555555((
-:
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Li%t of Tble%
Ta)le(-(-( T"e st#dies i e.tesi*e readi! sorted )% Gra)e 5555555555555( --
Ta)le(+(-( T"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia
Ui*ersities +,-,555555555555((555555555555(((
Ta)le <(-( St#dets e./erie$e i readi! ....
;7
Ta)le <(+( T"e readi! /#r/ose 'or t"e st#dets ..
7,
Ta)le <(8( Di''ere$es )et4ee e./erimetal ad traditioal istr#$tios .....
7-
Ta)le <(<( T"e res#lts o' t"e 6Btest ad Grammar i t"e $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s .
7<
Ta)le <(:( T"e des$ri/ti*e statisti$s 'or t"e /retests( ......
7:
Ta)le <(=( T"e des$ri/ti*e statisti$s 'or t"e /osttests( 55555((55555555((55 7:
*
Ta)le <(>( &aired Di''ere$es 'or t"e /retest i !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e( ....
7>
Ta)le <(;( &aired Di''ere$es 'or t"e /retest i !rammar( ....
7>
Ta)le <(7( &aired Di''ere$es 'or t"e /osttest i !rammar( ......
7>
Ta)le <(-,( &aired Di''ere$es i !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e i /osttest( ....
7;
Ta)le <(--( Di''ere$es )et4ee $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/sF istr#$tios C/arti$i/ats BD(((
-,+
Ta)le <(-+( T"e $otrol !ro#/Fs res/oses )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio( ....
-,<
Ta)le <(-8( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/Fs res/oses )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio( ..
-,;
Ta)le <(-8(-. T"e as4ers o' t"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s a'ter treatmet)))))))
--8
Ta)le <(-<( Di''ere$e i e./erimetal ad $otrol !ro#/sF istr#$tios C/arti$i/ats 6D ..
-+,
Ta)le <(-:( E./erimetal ad $otrol !ro#/s ra4 s$ores( ....
-+-
Ta)le <(-=( Gro#/sF res#lts i 6BTest /retest( .....
-++
Ta)le <(->( Gro#/sF res#lts i 6BTest /osttest( ......
-++
Ta)le <(-;( Gro#/sF res#lts i !rammar /retest( ....
-++
Ta)le <(-7( Gro#/sF res#lts i !rammar /osttest( 55555((55555555((555(
-+8
Li%t of *i"ure%
?i!( -(-( T"e *i$io#s $%$le o' t"e 4eak reader 555555555555555555
?i!( -(+( T"e *irt#o#s $ir$le o' t"e !ood reader 55555555555555555((
?i!( -(8( A se$od la!#a!e tea$"i! /ro!ram )% Kras"e 5555555555555
?i!( +(-( T"e $"a!es i d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram 'rom -77; to +,,7 555555555((
?i!( +(+( Amo#t o' readi! assi!mets re!#larl% !i*e to st#dets 'rom -77; to +,,7
555555555555555555555555(((((
?i!( +(8( Emotios e./erie$ed )% t"e !rad#ates i t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram
.
?i!( +(<( T"e /ro)lems ad s"ort$omi!s o' t"e /ro!ram idi$ated )% !rad#ates 5555(((
?i!( +(:( Grad#atesF attit#des to4ard readi! i E!lis" a'ter $om/leti! t"e readi!
de*elo/met /ro!ram ....
?i!( <(-( T"e di''ere$e )et4ee t"e meas o' t"e $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s i t"e
/retest o' !eeral la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$%555555555555555555555
........
?i!( <(+( T"e di''ere$e )et4ee t"e meas o' t"e $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s i t"e
/osttest o' !eeral la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$% ..
*i
Ab%tr!t
Re$et st#dies o' e.tesi*e readi! i di''eret ed#$atioal istit#tios 4orld4ide "a*e
s#!!ested t"at t"e i$or/oratio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i!
$#rri$#la $otri)#tes to a 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio( T"e im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities $osists o' se*eral /"asesG 'irst o'
all3 it is im/ortat to e./lore )asis 'or im/lemeti! e.tesi*e readi! )% $are'#ll% s$r#tiizi! t"e
e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets( It is essetial to des$ri)e
t"eir $"ara$teristi$s ad $o'rot t"em 4it" t"ose o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ramH se$od3 de*elo/
e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% 4"i$" meets t"e eeds o' 'orei! la!#a!e learers ad
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersitiesH t"ird3 im/lemet e./erimetal tea$"i! o'
e.tesi*e readi!H 'iall%3 aal%ze t"e res#lts o' t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!(
M% dissertatio '#l'ills all 'o#r /"ases o' im/lemetatio o' e.tesi*e readi!( I t"e 'irst
/"ase t4o s#r*e%s 4ere desi!ed ad $od#$ted i +,,7 B +,-,( T"e !oals o' t"ese s#r*e%s 4ere to
!at"er t"e i'ormatio a)o#t /ro!ram /ro'iles3 tea$"ersF attit#des3 !rad#atesF o/iiosH des$ri)e t"e
tea$"i! met"odolo!% o' t"ese /ro!ramsH re*eal similarities ad di''ere$es )et4ee t"ese /ro!rams
ad a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"e 'irst s#r*e% 4as $od#$ted amo! t"e istr#$tors o' t"ese
/ro!rams at Geor!ia #i*ersities( T"e se$od s#r*e% 4as $arried o#t amo! t"e !rad#ates o'
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets 4"o $om/leted t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams i -77;B+,,7(
Bot" s#r*e%s s"o4ed a ra!e o' di''ere$es )et4ee e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ad a
e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"ese dis$re/a$ies im/lied t"e $"a!es t"at s"o#ld "a*e )ee doe i
order to im/ro*e ad alter t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ito a s#$$ess'#l e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram( I t"e se$od ad t"ird /"ases a ad "o$ e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% 'or
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities 4as desi!ed ad t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!
o' t"e readi! /ro!rams 4as i$or/orated( I t"e last /"ase t"e res#lts o' t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!
4ere aal%sed 4it" /ositi*e 'idi!s o' e.tesi*e readi!(
*ii
A!+no,led"ement%
I 4is" to e./ress m% earest !ratit#de to m% s#/er*isor Maaa Gari)as"*ili i Geor!ia( S"e
)roadeed m% /er$e/tio as a resear$"er 4it" $om/etet re$ommedatios ad $ommets( Her
s#//ort ad e$o#ra!emet !a*e me t"e stre!t" to a$$om/lis" t"is 4ork(
I 4o#ld like to t"ak m% s#/er*isor i Gree$e B Dr( Aa Maria Hatzit"eodoro#3 4"o 4as a
!#ide i m% t"esis 4riti!3 4"o !a*e me $o'ide$e3 raised "i!" morale ad "el/ed me to 'orm t"e
isi!"t o' a resear$"er(
Ma% t"aks !o to Erasm#s M#d#s st#detsF e.$"a!e /ro!ram( T"e /ro!ram !rated me a
!reat o//ort#it% to !o to Gree$e ad $oti#e m% resear$" #der t"e !#ida$e o' a A#ali'ied
s#/er*isor ad #se t"e reso#r$es o' t"e li)raries o' ATEI ad Aristotle Ui*ersit%( T"ese reso#r$es
4ere *al#a)le i t"e /ro$ess o' 4riti! m% dissertatio(
I 4o#ld like to a$ko4led!e t"e assista$e o' m% $ollea!#es at #i*ersities i Geor!ia 4"o
/arti$i/ated i t"e s#r*e% ad t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!( 9it"o#t t"eir "el/ it 4o#ld )e im/ossi)le
to /ro/ose t"e im/ro*emet o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o'
Geor!ia #i*ersities(
*iii
Abbre$ition% nd A!ron-m% U%ed in the Di%%erttion
ER . E.tesi*e readi!
ETAG B &ro'essioal Asso$iatio o' E!lis" Tea$"ers i Geor!ia
GL' . Geeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e
L/ . A 'irst la!#a!e I ati*e la!#a!e I mot"er to!#e
L0 . Se$od La!#a!e CA% la!#a!e leared a'ter t"e 'irst la!#a!eD
PR1 . &ost Readi! 9orks"eet Cde*elo/ed )% t"e a#t"orD
DEAR B Dro/ E*er%t"i! Ad Read
SSR B S#staied Silet Readi!
USSR B Uiterr#/ted S#staied Silet Readi!
*VR B ?ree Vol#tar% Readi!
df B De!rees o' 'reedom
Std B Stadard De*iatio
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RESEAR6H SUMMARY
Re$et st#dies o' e.tesi*e readi! i di''eret ed#$atioal istit#tios 4orld4ide "a*e
s#!!ested t"at t"e i$or/oratio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i!
$#rri$#la $otri)#tes to a 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio( T"e im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities $osists o' se*eral /"ases( ?irst o'
all3 it is im/ortat to e./lore )asis 'or im/lemeti! e.tesi*e readi! )% $are'#ll% s$r#tiizi! t"e
e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets( It is essetial to des$ri)e
t"eir $"ara$teristi$s ad $o'rot t"em 4it" t"ose o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( Se$od3 de*elo/
e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% 4"i$" meets t"e eeds o' 'orei! la!#a!e learers ad
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities( T"ird3 im/lemet e./erimetal tea$"i! o'
e.tesi*e readi!( ?iall%3 aal%ze t"e res#lts o' t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!(
T"e ob2e!t o' t"is st#d% is t"e e''i$iet readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams(I t"e /ro$ess o'
tea$"i! 'orei! la!#a!es3 readi! is )ot" a tea$"i! meas ad a tea$"i! !oal( Readi! i a
-=
'orei! la!#a!e as a so#r$e o' i'ormatio is oe o' t"e mai !oals o' tea$"i! a 'orei! la!#a!e
i !eeral( T"ere'ore t"e !oals o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams s"o#ld )e de*elo/i! readi! skill3
/romoti! readi! as a li'elo! a$ti*it%3 ad /ro*idi! 4it" a e0o%a)le readi! e./erie$e( T"ese
readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams #der!o $"a!es to ser*e t"e !oals )etter( I t"e e/o$" 4"e E!lis"
"as )e$ome !lo)al $omm#it% la!#a!e3 i t"e de*elo/i! $o#tries s#$" as Geor!ia3 oe o' t"e
most im/ortat iss#es remais tea$"i! E!lis" e''i$ietl%( T"e resear$" A#estios are ur"ent as
t"e% 'o$#s o im/ro*emet o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams i E!lis" la!#a!e tea$"i!
met"odolo!% )% i$or/orati! moder !ais ad /ra$ti$al im/li$atios ito t"e Geor!ia
ed#$atioal area(
T"e %i"nifi!n!e o' t"is resear$" is t"at itG !i*es t"e des$ri/tio o' t"e readi! de*elo/met
/ro!ramsH s"a/es t"eir tea$"i! met"odolo!iesH re*eals t"eir /ro)lems ad stro! /oitsH de*elo/s
e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% ado/ted o t"e )asis o' t"e res#lts o' t"e readi!
de*elo/met /ro!ram s#r*e%sH /resets ste/s 'or /ra$ti$al im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram i Geor!ia #i*ersitiesH ad dis$#sses o)sta$les ad /ro)lems t"ro#!" t"is /ro$ess(
T"e im o' t"is /a/er is to e./lore t"e /ro)lem o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at
#i*ersit% le*el i Geor!iaH to aal%ze t"eir tea$"i! met"odolo!% ad 0#.ta/ose 4it" a e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ramH to de*elo/ e.tesi*e readi! met"odolo!% 4"i$" 4ill "a*e dee/er isi!"t i
tea$"i! model o' e.tesi*e readi!3 moti*atioal 'rame4ork3 et$( t"a ot"er $otem/orar% st#dies(
T"e resear$" $riti$all% addresses a #m)er o' t"e #roblem% s#$" as a tea$"erFs domiat
role i a readi! /ro!ram3 i$o!r#e$e o' t"e !oal ad $otet 4it" t"e d#ratio o' t"e readi!
/ro!ram3 iadeA#ate readi! materials ad less e''i$iet a$ti*ities(
9it" /er#se o' e.tesi*e readi! t"ro#!" t"e am/le literat#re ad resear$"3 t"e 'ollo4i!
que%tion% 4ere s"a/edG
-( 9"at readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams are t"ere at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia
#i*ersitiesL
+( 9"at are t"e di''ere$es )et4ee t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ta#!"t at Geor!ia
#i*ersities ad a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ramL
8( Ho4 t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams $a )e $"a!ed ito a s#$$ess'#l e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ramL
->
<( 9"at met"odolo!% $a )e t"e )asis 'or t"e im/latatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram at
Geor!ia #i*ersitiesL
:( 9"at 4ill )e t"e o#t$omes o' e./erimetal tea$"i! o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i
$om/ariso 4it" t"e e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!ramsL
9e ela)orated t"e as4ers to t"ese A#estios ito a h-#othe%i%G
B T"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets re'le$t t"e i'l#e$e
o' "ome readi! /ro!ram desi!ed )% R#ssia met"odolo!ists( T"e readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams do ot $orres/od to a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ramH t"#s3 t"ese readi!
de*elo/met /ro!rams reA#ire s/e$ial im/ro*emets as 4ell as alteratios i order to )e
de*elo/ed ito s#$$ess'#l e.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams(
B T"e tea$"i! model o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram is a#toomo#s leari!( De'ii!
moti*atioal 'o$i ad ela)orati! t"eir 'rame4orks 4it"i t"is /ro!ram 4ill i$rease
learersF moti*atio i readi!(
B Im/lemeti! a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i Geor!ia #i*ersities o t"e )asis o'
a#toomo#s leari! 4ill /romote learersF )etter /er'orma$e( I t"e e./erimetal
tea$"i! at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet3 e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 4ill $otri)#te to
)etter res#lts i de*elo/i! !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad !rammar more t"a ot"er
readi! de*elo/met /ro!ramsH it 4ill e$o#ra!e Geor!ia learersM /ositi*e attit#de
to4ard readi!3 i$rease t"eir moti*atio ad 'orm li'elo! readi! "a)it(
B I t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! at 'orei! la!#a!e $eter t"e !ro#/ t"at e.tesi*el% read
)ooks 4it"o#t dire$t istr#$tio ad 'ollo4B#/ a$ti*ities 4ill $otri)#te to di''eret res#lts
i de*elo/i! !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad !rammar 'rom t"e !ro#/ t"at did ot read
s#//lemet material(
?or de$ades Geor!ia met"odolo!% o' tea$"i! 'orei! la!#a!es 4as i'l#e$ed )% t"e
t"eoreti$al 'rame4ork o' R#ssia met"odolo!ists( Later3 'rom t"e -77,s Geor!ia met"odolo!ists
itrod#$ed t"e e./erie$e ad !ais o' t"e 4ester resear$"ers( No4ada%s i t"e 'orei! la!#a!e
tea$"i! met"odolo!% )% Geor!ia a#t"ors t"e de'iitio o' e.tesi*e readi! is ado/ted i !eeral(
Ne*ert"eless3 t"ere is a !a/H t"e% do ot deal 4it" 4"ere3 "o4 ad 4"% to #se e.tesi*e readi!L
T"is area "as ot )ee st#died %et ad t"ere is e*e o $lear /i$t#re "o4 to itrod#$e e.tesi*e
readi! as a /ro!ram at Geor!ia #i*ersities( T"e no$elt- o' m% resear$" is t"at it e./lores t"e
-;
readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams3 /ro/oses im/ro*emets ad $"a!es3 ad !i*es am/le !ro#ds 'or
im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia
#i*ersities(
T"e st#d% 4ill "a*e a $ertai #r!ti!l $lue )e$a#se it deals lar!el% 4it" t"e tea$"i! o'
'orei! la!#a!e 4"i$" is t"e $etral /oit i Geor!ia $omm#it%( It o''ers /ra$ti$al
re$ommedatios to im/ro*e tea$"i! o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams3 i /arti$#lar3 a e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ram(
T"e method%3##ro!he% o' t"e resear$" B literat#re ad resear$" re*ie4H I "a*e ado/ted
A#a(t'tat'8& a//roa$" to /rod#$e $o$l#sios( T"e met"od o' s#r*e%sN A#estioaires B 4ere #sed to
o)tai i'ormatio 'rom t"e sam/le( It !a*e me a o//ort#it% to !eeralize t"e s#r*e% res#lts i
order to $om/are3 to relate oe $"ara$teristi$ to aot"er ad to /reset e*ide$e 'or m% "%/ot"esis(
T"e i'ormatio 4as !at"ered )% meas o' A#estioaires admiistered )% me( Tests 4ere #sed to
meas#re t"e o#t$omes i e./erimetal tea$"i! o' e.tesi*e readi!(
T"e dissertatio str#$t#reG
T"e dissertatio $osists o' t"e 'ollo4i! /artsG S#mmaries o Geor!ia ad E!lis"
la!#a!es3 itrod#$tio3 'o#r $"a/ters3 $o$#siosIre$ommedatios3 ad )i)lio!ra/"%(
All A#estioaire 'orms ad tests3 #sed i t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!3 are i$l#ded i t"e
A//edi$es(
E4ten%i$e redin"
T"e 'irst $"a/ter /resets di''eret *ie4 o readi!3 $"ara$teristi$s o' !ood ad /oor readers3
ad de'ies e.tesi*e readi! 4it" its $"ara$teristi$s CS(Kras"e3 R( Da%3 O( Bam'ord3 9( Gra)e3 6(
N#ttall3 ?( Smit"D( T"e se/arate se$tios are de*oted to t"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi! ad t"e
re*ie4 o' Geor!ia ad R#ssia met"odolo!%(
Kras"e C-7;+D ar!#es t"at la!#a!e a$A#isitio is more $etral t"a la!#a!e leari! i
se$od la!#a!e /er'orma$e( T"ere'ore3 t"e most im/ortat /art o' t"e etire /ro!ram is t"e
1itake2 ode #der t"e Pa$A#isitioP ode( T"e s#)set o' li!#isti$ i/#t t"at "el/s t"e learer
a$A#ire la!#a!e is $osidered to )e 1itake2( La!#a!e a$A#isitio $omes 'rom 1itake2( E.tesi*e
readi! is t"e /art o' t"is 1itake2 #der t"e 1a$A#isitio2( Kras"e 'orm#lates t"e ma0or '#$tio o'
-7
t"e se$od la!#a!e $lassroom as /ro*idi! itake 'or a$A#isitio( A$$ordi! to "im3 'ree *ol#tar%
Caot"er ame 'or e.tesi*e readi!D readi! /ro*ides t"e messa!e i a lo4Ba.iet% sit#atio( T"is
is t"e )ase o' "is aot"er "%/ot"esis $alled the pleasure hypothesis( Kras"e C+,,=D states 1I' a
a$ti*it% is !ood 'or la!#a!e ad litera$% de*elo/met3 t"e t"e a$ti*it% is /leas#ra)le(2 Kras"e
$o$l#des t"at t"e time s/et i 'ree readi! s#r/asses t"e time s/et i traditioal istr#$tio i
terms o' la!#a!e de*elo/met 4it" its e''i$ie$%(
I 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i! t4o a//roa$"es o' readi! is re$o!izedG inten%i$e readi! ad
e4ten%i$e readi!( Itesi*e readi! a//roa$" deals 4it" s"ort te.ts #der a tea$"erFs !#ida$e 'or
detailed #derstadi!( T"e Itesi*e readi! te$"iA#e is readi! 'or a "i!" de!ree o'
$om/re"esio ad retetio o*er a lo! /eriod o' time( E.tesi*e readi! deals 4it" relati*el% lo!
te.ts( &leas#re3 i'ormatio ad !eeral #derstadi! are a /#r/ose o' e.tesi*e readi!( E.tesi*e
readi! is 'or !eeral #derstadi! 4"i$" meas $om/re"esio o' t"e readi! material less t"a
-,,Q( 6om/re"esi)le i/#t s"o#ld "a//e at t"e i 1 model( i' a learer is at RiF li!#isti$
$om/ete$e t"e t"e a$A#isitio "a//es R- 1( T"e -1 re/resets i$l#des *o$a)#lar% ad s%ta$ti$
str#$t#res o' t"e readersF le*el o' la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad some elemets t"at t"e reader "as ot
a$A#ired %et( T"e readi! s/eed i e.tesi*e readi! is relati*el% 'ast3 )#t it s"o#ld )e $om'orta)le
'or a reader( E.tesi*e readi! im/lies readi! o' a lar!e amo#t o' readi!3 'or e.am/le3 a )ook(
T"e readi! material is idi*id#al 'or ea$" st#det( T"e mai assi!met 4"i$" is !i*e to st#dets
is readi!( T"e tea$"er s#//orts t"e st#dets ad !i*es a role model 'or readi!(
E.tesi*e readi! "as /ositi*e o#t$omes( It $otri)#tes to de*elo/met o' di''eret li!#isti$
as/e$ts( T"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi!3 s#$" as !ais i *o$a)#lar%3 4riti!3 s/elli!3 ad
/ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi!3 are des$ri)ed )% Da% ad Bam'ord C+,,<D3 Bell C+,,-D( N#ttall
C+,,,3 /( -+;D 'orm#lates t"e role o' e.tesi*e readi! i 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio i a
/ers#asi*e slo!a Rt"e )est 4a% to im/ro*e %o#r ko4led!e o' a 'orei! la!#a!e is to !o ad to
li*e amo! its s/eakers( T"e e.t )est 4a% is to read e.tesi*el% i it(2
I Geor!ia 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i! met"odolo!% readi! is /rimaril% $osidered to )e t"e
so#r$e o' i'ormatio ad at t"e same time t"e meas o' la!#a!e leari! i(e( readi! is t"e !oal o'
la!#a!e leari! as 4ell as meas( Kra*eis"*ili C+,,+D des$ri)es readi! a//roa$"es ad metios
e.tesi*e readi! as a a//roa$" t"at 'o$#ses o t"e lar!e A#atit% o' readi! material 4"i$"
/resets t"e !oal o' tea$"i! readi!H t"e readerFs attetio is tar!eted at t"e meai! o' t"e 4ritte
'orm( I aot"er met"odolo!i$al /#)li$atio CTsitsis"*ili3 R(3 Ni0aradze3 N(3 Dar$"ia3 M(3 Te*zia3
+,
M(3 J Tka*as"*ili3 E(3 +,,=D e.tesi*e readi! is de'ied similarl%( Be'ore im/lemeti! e.stesi*e
readi! at Geor!ia #i*ersities it is im/ortat to i*esti!ateG 4"at readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams
are at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersitiesH 4"at di''ere$es ad similarities are
)et4ee t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ta#!"t at Geor!ia #i*ersities ad a e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ram3 as 4ell as t"e 4a%s o' t"eir im/ro*emet(
A Stud- of Redin" De$elo#met Pro"rm%
T"e se$od $"a/ter des$ri)es t4o im/ortat s#r*e%s 4"i$" 4ere aimed at re*eali! readi!
de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmes at Geor!ia #i*ersities3 ad t"eir 4eak ad
stro! 'eat#res( To as4er t"e resear$" A#estios I $"ose A#atitati*e met"od N s#r*e%i!( T"e 'irst
s#r*e% 4as $od#$ted i se*e ma0or #i*ersities o' Geor!ia CI T)ilisi N 8 #i*ersities3 Bat#mi B -3
Gori B-3 Tela*i B -3 K#taisi B -D i +,-,( T"e as4er s"eets 4ere 'illed )% t"e ; istr#$tors o' t"e
readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams( T"e tea$"ersF as4ers res#lted i t"e o*er*ie4 o' /ro!ram /ro'iles3
t"eir met"odolo!% ad )ee'its( It 4as $o$l#ded t"at t"e titles o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams
are di''eret ad t"e% do ot re'le$t t"e at#re o' e.tesi*e readi!( T"e role o' t"e tea$"er is
domiat i t"ese /ro!rams( T"e tea$"ers $"oose t"e readi! materials ad t"e a$ti*ities( ?or t"e
st#dets o' itermediate le*el it is di''i$#lt to read3 traslate ad aal%ze >B-: /a!es o' t"ese
a#t"eti$ materials 'or ea$" assi!met( T"e e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams are similar to
itesi*e readi!(
T"e se$od s#r*e% 4as $arried o#t amo! 'ort% !rad#ates o' 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o'
se*e ma0or Geor!ia #i*ersities CT)ilisi3 Bat#mi3 K#taisi3 Tela*iD i +,-,( Bot" s#r*e%s s"o4ed a
ra!e o' di''ere$es )et4ee e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ad a e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram( T"ese dis$re/a$ies im/l% t"e $"a!es t"at s"o#ld )e made i order to im/ro*e ad
$"a!e t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ito e.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams(
E4ten%i$e redin" te!hin" methodolo"-
I t"e t"ird $"a/ter e.tesi*e readi! met"odolo!% is /reseted( T"e ER tea$"i!
met"odolo!% de*elo/ed i t"e dissertatio i$l#des t+& tea$"i! /ri$i/lesG $osiste$%3
a$$essi)ilit%3 /ra!matism( It o#tlies t"e /ra$ti$al /ri$i/les o' e.tesi*e readi!:
-D T"e material s"o#ld )e eas%(
+D St#dets sele$t readi! materials I )ooks t"emsel*es(
+-
8D St#dets s"o#ld )e s#//orted to read a lot(
<D T"e $om/re"esio o' t"e readi! material it a)sol#tel% st#detFs e./erie$e(
:D Readi! is its o4 re4ard(
=D Readi! is idi*id#al ad silet(
>D Tea$"ers oriet ad !#ide t"eir st#dets(
;D T"e tea$"er is a role model o' a reader(
Aot"er im/ortat 'a$tor i e.tesi*e readi! is o #se o' di$tioaries( St#dets $"oose
readi! materials3 4"i$" $orres/od 4it" t"eir 'orei! la!#a!e le*el3 so t"at t"e #m)er o' e4
le.i$al #its is limited( Besides t"e% s"o#ld lear to /ra$ti$e s#$" strate!ies as !#essi! or i!ori!
#ko4 4ords or /assa!es3 ad !oi! 'or t"e !eeral #derstadi!(
T"e se/arate se$tios dis$#ss a tea$"i! model Clearer a#toom%D ad moti*atio i
e.tesi*e readi!( I a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram t4o moti*atio 'o$#ses $a )e de'iedG
Moti*atio istr#$tio ad tea$"er moti*atio( T"e met"odolo!% /resets tea$"i! e.tesi*e
readi! i more /ra$ti$al terms3 s#$" as3 t"e amo#t o' readi!3 t%/es o' ati*ities ad "o4 to #se
t"em to iitiate dis$#ssios3 sele$ti! readi! materials3 ad testi!( 9e ela)orated a A#estioaire
'or a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"e A#estios i /ostBreadi! 4orks"eets C&R9D are t"e
'ollo4i!G A#t"orH title o' t"e )ookH t"e amo#t o' /a!es i t"e )ookH "o#rs s/et o readi!H
i'ormatio a)o#t t"e $"ara$ters i t"e )ookH 4"at t"e% "a*e leart 'rom t"e )ookH e4 4ords ad
4ord $om)iatiosH t"e s#mmar% o' t"e )ookH t"e di''i$#lt% o' t"e readi! material3 ad t"e rati! o'
t"e )ook(
E4#erimentl te!hin"
T"e 'o#rt" $"a/ter dis$#sses e./erimetal tea$"i!( It des$ri)es /ra$ti$al a//li$atio o'
e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% 4it" t4o di''eret sam/le !ro#/sG st#dets o' 'orei!
la!#a!e de/artmet ad 'orei! la!#a!e $eter at Tela*i State Ui*ersit%( T"e /ro$ed#res3 res#lts,
a(d aal%ses are /reseted i t"is $"a/ter( A se/arate se$tio is de*oted to t"e o)sta$les ad
/ro)lems o' t"e im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"e limitatios o' t"e st#d% ad
im/li$atios are dis$#ssed at t"e ed(
E./erimetal im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram "as )ee started at t"e 'orei!
la!#a!e de/artmet at Tela*i State Ui*ersit% si$e +,,7( T"e met"odolo!% #der4et t"e -:B
4eekBlo! /ilot tea$"i!( T"e /ilot st#d% ea)led to o)ser*e some iss#es i t"e e./erimetal
++
tea$"i! t"at reA#ired '#rt"er $"a!es( I #sed A#atitati*e met"odsG s#r*e% ad testi!( S#r*e%3 as a
A#atitati*e met"od3 4as #sed to $olle$t data o !eeral )a$k!ro#d ad e*al#ati*e 'orm o' t"e
istr#$tio( &reBtest ad /ostBtest 4ere #sed to meas#re ad $om/are t"e s$ores o' t"e st#dets( T"e
resear$"ed sam/le 4as $"ose 'rom t4o tar!et !ro#/s at Tela*i State Ui*ersit%G <= st#dets at t"e
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet C!ro#/s A ad BD ad :: st#dets at t"e 'orei! la!#a!e $eter C!ro#/
6D( I ea$" !ro#/ t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! lasted a)o#t -: 4eeks( 9it"i t"e e./erimetal
tea$"i! t"e st#dets at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets "ad t4o a$ademi$ "o#rs i a 4eek( T"e
st#dets at 'orei! la!#a!e $eter "ad t"ree a$ademi$ "o#rs o' E!lis" i a 4eek(
I all A3 B3 6 !ro#/s t"e st#dets 4ere di*ided ito $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s( I t"e
$otrol !ro#/s CA3 BD traditional teaching 4as a//lied( T"e tea$"er sele$ted a a#t"eti$ readi!
)ook( S( Ma#!"amFs 1T"e moo ad t"e si. /e$e2 4as $"ose 'or t"is /ro!ram( I ea$" lesso t"e
tea$"er !a*e learers 'orm < to : $"a/ters at "ome to read ad to lear t"em i order to retell i t"e
'ollo4i! lesso( St#dets "ad to look #/ #ko4 4ords i t"e di$tioar%3 4rite t"em do4 i
t"eir *o$a)#lar%3 ad memorize t"em( T"e tea$"er tested e4l% a$A#ired *o$a)#lar% i t"e
'ollo4i! lesso( O$e a mot"3 t"e tea$"er !a*e a 4ritte assi!met to t"e st#dets(
I e./erimetal !ro#/s CA3 BD - e.tesi*e readi! /ri$i/les 4ere /ra$tised( St#dets
sele$ted t"eir readi! materials t"emsel*es( T"e% read idi*id#all%( T"e% $"ose )ooks a$$ordi! to
t"eir la!#a!e le*els( T"e #m)er o' t"e e4 4ords s"o#ld "a*e )ee limited to 8B: 4ords o a
/a!e( St#dets 4ere e$o#ra!ed to read 'rom :, to ;, /a!es i a 4eek( T"e aim o' readi! 4as
!eeral #derstadi! ad /leas#re( T"e tea$"er did ot re$ommed t"e o*er#se o' di$tioaries( T"e
tea$"er e./laied to t"e st#dets t"at t"e readi! s/eed s"o#ld "a*e )ee $om'orta)le 'or t"em(
T"ese readi! )ooks 4ere !raded readers( T"e% are !raded readers i t"e sese t"at t"e% are
i'ormed )% !rammar ad *o$a)#lar% !#idelies 'or s/e$i'i$ le*els o' di''i$#lt% C= le*els alto!et"erG
'rom Starter to Ad*a$edD( St#dets /reseted t"eir )ooks #si! t"e re$ords i t"eir 4orks"eets
C&R9B dis$#ssed i t"e se$od $"a/terD ad t"e% $"ose o/tioal a$ti*ities( Dis$#ssio 4as a 'orm o'
t"e tea$"er ad st#detsF itera$tio(
T"e di''ere$es )et4ee t"e istr#$tios i $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s are /reseted i
t"e ta)leG
Gro#/s 6otrol !ro#/ N Home readi! E./erimetal !ro#/ N E.tesi*e
readi!
9"o sele$ted readi! materials A tea$"er sele$ted readi! material St#dets sele$ted )ooks
Readi! material T"e readi! material 4as a
#a)rid!ed )ook
Books #s#all% $orres/oded 4it"
st#detsF la!#a!e le*el(
+8
A$ti*ities Retelli! t"e s#mmar% o' t"e $"a/ters3
4orki! o #ko4 4ords
&resetatio o' t"e )ooks3 &R93
o/tioal a$ti*ities
ReA#ired amo#t o' readi! <B: $"a/ters o' t"e assi!ed )ook
Ca//ro.imatel% -,B-: /a!esD
:,B;, /a!es o' sel'Bsele$ted readi!
materials
Our target foci in experimental and control A groups 4ere t"e 'ollo4i!G to o)ser*e /ositi*e
attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis"3 de*elo/met o' !rammar ad !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e
4it"i t"ese readi! /ro!rams( S#r*e% 4as #sed as a meas to dis$lose /ositi*e attit#de to4ard
readi!( To meas#re ad $om/are t"e s$ores i !rammar ad !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e /reBtest
ad /ostBtest 4ere #sed i )ot" !ro#/s( T"e test i$l#ded t4o se$tiosG a !rammar se$tio o' 8,
m#lti/le $"oi$e tasks3 t"e 6Btest se$tio3 a s"ort te.t o' a itermediate le*el3 4"ere t"e se$od "al'
o' e*er% se$od 4ord 4as deleted( T"e st#dets "ad to $om/lete $orre$tl%( 6Btest '#$tios 4ell as a
ro#!" meas#re o' o*erall a)ilit%G readi!3 4riti!3 s/elli!3 !rammar ad *o$a)#lar%(
T"e 'ollo4i! statisti$al te$"iA#es 4ere #sed 'or data aal%sisG t"e mea CMD3 or arit"meti$
a*era!e3 t"e stadard de*iatio CStd De*iatioD3 I'eretial Statisti$s3 ad &arametri$ Statisti$s( I
/aired tBtest o' !rammar /osttest s"o4ed t"at t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ e.$eeded t"e $otrol !ro#/3
alt"o#!" t"is di''ere$e 4as ot si!i'i$at(
I e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed )etter res#lts t"a t"e $otrol !ro#/
i !rammar ad !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e3 alt"o#!" t"e di''ere$e i !eeral la!#a!e
$om/te$e 4as statisti$all% si!i'i$at C$'( 'i!(-D
A$$ordi! to t"e data o)taied 'rom t"e /ro!ram e*al#ati*e 'orm t"e 'ollo4i! T"e ER
/ro!ram 4as a//ro*ed )% t"e st#dets( T"e st#detsF a//ro*al o' ER $a )e e./laied )% t"e
/ri$i/les o' ER a//lied d#ri! t"e istr#$tio( T"e st#dets 4ere im/ressed )% t"e 'ollo4i!
/ri$i/lesG t"e readi! material s"o#ld )e eas%H st#dets sele$t readi! materialsH readi! s"o#ld )e
e0o%a)le( D#ri! t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ read +:,B-,:,
/a!es( I t"e $otrol !ro#/ t"e st#dets read t"e )ook sele$ted )% t"e tea$"er ad t"e% 'o#d it
)ori!3 ad t"e% $osidered it as a /ro)lem i t"e /ro!ram( T"e st#dets also re/orted t"at t"ere
4ere too ma% e4 4ords i t"e readi! material3 4"i$" made readi! $#m)ersome(
Our target foci in experimental and control B groups 4ere t"e 'ollo4i!G to o)ser*e
moti*atio3 /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi!3 de*elo/met !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e 4it"i
t"ese readi! /ro!rams( S#r*e% 4as #sed as a meas to dis$lose /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi! ad
moti*atio( To meas#re ad $om/are t"e s$ores i !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e a test C$loze testD
re$ommeded )% Maso J &eder!ast C-778D 4as #sed i )ot" !ro#/s( A te.t 4as $"ose Co' a)o#t
+<
-:,, 4ordsD o' t"e t%/e o' di''i$#lt% t"at t"e st#dets to )e a)le to read at t"e ed o' t"e %ear( T"e
'irst /ara!ra/" 4as le't ita$t3 ad t"e e*er% tet" o' t"e rest o' t"e te.t( T"e% o''er a "olisti$ meas
o' e*al#ati! itermediate ad ad*a$ed st#detsF *o$a)#lar%3 !rammar3 ad !eeral readi! a)ilit%(
T"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s 4ere tested t4i$e3 i t"e )e!ii! ad i t"e ed o' t"e semester(
9')2r& 1. T"e di''ere$e )et4ee t"e meas o' t"e $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s i t"e /retest ad /osttest o'
!eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e(
D#ri! t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ read 'rom 8;,
/a!es to ;7, /a!es( I t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e 'ollo4i! $"a!es "a*e )ee o)ser*ed( T"e
/osttest i t"e !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e s"o4ed a striki! di''ere$e )et4ee t"e $otrol ad
t"e e./erimetal !ro#/s( T"e $otrol !ro#/Fs /er'orma$e i /osttest i$reased )% >:Q ad t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/Fs o*erall la!#a!e $om/ete$e )oosted )% -<>Q3 almost t4i$e as m#$" as t"e
$otrol !ro#/Fs( T"is "#!e dis$re/a$% )et4ee t"e /osttest /er'orma$es $a )e e./laied )% t"e
'ollo4i! as/e$ts o' e.tesi*e readi!G 'irstl%3 t"e tea$"er istr#$ted t"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s o
'illi! t"is t%/e o' tests )et4ee /retest ad /osttestH se$odl%3 t"e st#dets i t"e ER /ro!ram 4ere
a$ti*el% i*ol*ed i readi!H 'iall%3 t"e st#dets re!#larl% 'illed i &R9 ad /reseted orall% 4"at
t"e% read( T"e $om/ariso o' t"e /ro!ramsF /e$#liarities $o'irm t"at ER as a a//roa$" o' 'orei!
la!#a!e readi! istr#$tio is s#/erior( T"e A#estioaires re*ealed t"at t"e e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram altered st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ ito a$ti*e readersH it i*ol*ed t"em ito t"e
+:
.o(tro3
:;4&r'm&(ta3
6&a( - )&(&ra3 3a()2a)& 5om4&t&(5& t&%t r&%23t%. <( t+& 5+art t+& %5or&% o% %t2d&(t% ar& )'8&( at t+&
=&)'(('() a(d at t+& &(d of t+& &;4&r'm&(ta3 t&a5+'().
readi! 'or '# ad $otri)#ted to t"e de*elo/met o' t"e strate!% o' s#mmarizatio amo! t"e
st#dets(
Our target foci in experimental and control C groups 4ere !rammar ad !eeral la!#a!e
$om/ete$e( T"e e./erimetal tea$"i! 4as desi!ed to e$o#ra!e st#det to read more at "ome(
T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4as istr#$ted to read more additioall% )esides t"e la!#a!e leari!
material !i*e i t"e s%lla)#s( T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ri$i/les 4ere itrod#$ed i t"e e./erimetal
!ro#/( T"e tea$"er !a*e a &R9 to t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/( T"e% 4ere asked to 'ill i
4"at t"e% read( T"e tea$"er did ot do a% 'ollo4B#/ a$ti*ities( Itermittetl% s"e $"e$ked 4"at t"e
st#dets read ad led )rie' dis$#ssios( T"e $otrol !ro#/ 'ollo4ed t"e s%lla)#s ad t"e tea$"er did
ot !i*e a% additioal readi! assi!mets at "ome or i t"e $lassroom( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/
s"o4ed )etter res#lts )#t t"e di''ere$e )et4ee t"e !ro#/sF meas 4ere ot si!i'i$at( T"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed )etter res#lts i t"e 6Btest t"a i !rammar(
T"e di''ere$e i istr#$tios o' e.tesi*e readi! )et4ee /arti$i/ats A3 B ad /arti$i/ats
6 emer!ed ito t"e di''eret res#lts( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ o' t"e /arti$i/at 6 did ot /rod#$e
si!i'i$at i$rease( T"ese res#lts o' /arti$i/at 6 led to t"e 'ollo4i! $o$l#sio t"at
im/lemetatio o' ER reA#ires /ro/er istr#$tio 'rom t"e tea$"er( ER $a ot )e e''i$iet i'
learers are asked to do additioal readi! at "ome 4it"o#t '#rt"er istr#$tio ad dis$#ssios(
'on!lu%ion%3Re!ommendtion%
T"e o#t/#ts o' m% resear$" !a*e me eo#!" data to s#!!est t"at e.tesi*e readi! is )etter
t"a "ome readi!( T"e e.tesi*e readi! is a e''e$ti*e ad /leas#ra)le 4a% 'or st#dets to lear to
read E!lis" as a 'orei! la!#a!e as a alterati*e to ot"er la!#a!e leari! /ro!rams i 4"i$"
st#dets are ot 'ree to $"oose readi! material t"at iterests t"em( E.tesi*e readi! raised
st#detsF moti*atio to read more ad e0o% t"eir "ome4ork3 de*elo/ed $o'ide$e i st#dets
4it"i readi!H also it /romoted 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio(
E./erimetal tea$"i! o' e.tesi*e readi! e./aded tea$"ersF a4areess a)o#t t"e e4
a//roa$" ad e$o#ra!ed t"em to ste/ aside 'rom t"e traditioal 4a%s o' tea$"i! readi!(
E.tesi*e readi! !a*e a i$eti*e to Geor!ia tea$"ers to read more 4"i$" is $r#$ial 'or tea$"ers
too( T"e im/li$atios o' t"is st#d% areG
+=
K E.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams s"o#ld )e im/lemeted as t"e e''i$iet readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams i Geor!ia #i*ersities( A e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 4ill raise st#detsF ed#$atio
le*el(
K 9it"i t"is /ro!ram st#dets 4ill )e$ome a4are o' di''eret $#lt#res3 $o#tries3 4riters3
otios3 )ooks3 /eo/le ad /eo/leFs li'est%les( T"is readi! /ro!ram 4ill i$rease t"eir
a$ti*eess o' st#dets ad readers(
K E.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% is adeA#atel% desi!ed to 'it t"e reA#iremets o'
a$ademi$ /ro!rams(
K It 4ill $otri)#te to t"e 'ollo4i! im/ro*emets ad )ee'its amo! t"e st#dets o' t"e
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmetG /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi!3 !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e3
ad moti*atio( A e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 4ill i$#l$ate amo! st#dets t"e lo*e o' readi!3
ad it 4ill i$rease iterest to4ard 'orei! la!#a!e st#d%(
K E.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams 4ill /o/#larize $om/arati*el% lessB/ra$ti$ed tea$"i! model i
Geor!ia B learer a#toom%( T"e relatios"i/ o' a tea$"er ad a st#det )ased o learer
a#toom%3 i e.tesi*e readi!3 4ill $reate a )ee'i$ial )a$k!ro#d 'or a st#det to take
res/osi)ilit% 'or o4 leari!3 ad to e./erie$e real li'e readi!Ileari!( O t"e ot"er "ad3 a
tea$"er 4ill res/e$t st#detsF e''ort3 s"o4 dee/ iterest i ea$" st#detFs s#$$ess( Testi! ad
!radi! 4ill take se$odar% /art i t"is e*iromet(
K E.tesi*e readi! 4ill em/"asize meai!'#l itera$tio )et4ee st#dets( T"is
$omm#i$atio 4ill take 'ollo4i! 'ormsG li*el% dis$#ssios3 aal%ses3 ad readi!
re$ommedatios(
It is essetial to $oti#e '#rt"er resear$" to dis$#ss e.tesi*e readi! i terms o' )ook
sele$tio3 $o#rse admiistratio3 /eda!o!i$ /ro$ed#re3 et$( 9e $osider t"at t"ese areas o' e.tesi*e
readi! s"o#ld )e st#died t"oro#!"l%(
+>
INTRODU'TION
I t"e /ro$ess o' tea$"i! 'orei! la!#a!es readi! is )ot" a tea$"i! meas ad a tea$"i!
!oal( Readi! i a 'orei! la!#a!e as a so#r$e o' i'ormatio is oe o' t"e mai !oals o' tea$"i! a
'orei! la!#a!e i !eeral( Readi! skill "ad )ee em/"asized i tea$"i! 'orei! la!#a!es
t"ro#!" GrammarBTraslatio met"od 'or $et#ries( Leari! a 'orei! la!#a!e )% readi! t"e
tar!et la!#a!e literat#re 4as *ie4ed as t"e ol% 4a% to lear t"e a)o#t t"e tar!et la!#a!e $#lt#re(
I t"e +-st $et#r% readi! i a 'orei! la!#a!e3 es/e$iall% i E!lis" is t"e most demadi! skill
as it "as )e$ome !lo)al $omm#it% la!#a!e( Also E!lis" is t"e most a*aila)le o4ada%s t"ro#!"
t"e am/le iteret reso#r$es ad li)raries( T"ere'ore t"e !oals o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams
s"o#ld )e de*elo/i! readi! skill3 /romoti! readi! as a li'elo! a$ti*it%3 /ro*idi! 4it" a
e0o%a)le readi! e./erie$e( T"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams #der!o $"a!es to ser*e t"e
!oals )etter(
I t"e e/o$" 4"e E!lis" "as )e$ome !lo)al $omm#it% la!#a!e3 i t"e de*elo/i!
$o#tries s#$" as Geor!ia3 4"ere GrammarBTraslatio met"od 4as mail% /ra$tised o*er a de$ade
a!o3 oe o' t"e most im/ortat iss#es remais tea$"i! E!lis" e''i$ietl%( T"e resear$" A#estios
are ur"ent as t"e% 'o$#s o t"e im/ro*emet o' tea$"i! readi! /ro!rams i E!lis" la!#a!e
+;
tea$"i! met"odolo!% )% i$or/orati! moder !ais ad /ra$ti$al im/li$atios ito t"e Geor!ia
ed#$atioal area(
T"e %i"nifi!n!e o' t"is resear$" is t"at itG
-D !i*es t"e des$ri/tio o' t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!ramsH s"a/es t"eir tea$"i!
met"odolo!iesH re*eals t"eir /ro)lems ad stro! /oitsH $o'rots t"ese /ro!rams to a
e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ramH !i*es t"e )asis 'or t"e im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram at Geor!ia #i*ersities(
+D de*elo/s e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% ado/ted o t"e )asis o' t"e res#lts o' t"e
readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram s#r*e%s(
8D /resets ste/s 'or /ra$ti$al im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i Geor!ia
#i*ersitiesH dis$#sses o)sta$les ad /ro)lems t"ro#!" t"is /ro$ess(
T"e im o' t"is /a/er is to e./lore t"e /ro)lem o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at
#i*ersit% le*el i Geor!iaH to aal%ze t"eir tea$"i! met"odolo!% ad 0#.ta/ose 4it" a e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ramH also to /reset m% *ie4/oit o "o4 t"e /ossi)le /ro)lems $a )e addressed ad
maa!ed )% a//l%i! e.tesi*e readi! /ri$i/lesH to de*elo/ e.tesi*e readi! met"odolo!% 4"i$"
4ill "a*e dee/er isi!"t i tea$"i! model o' e.tesi*e readi!3 moti*atioal 'rame4ork3 et$( t"a
ot"er $otem/orar% st#dies( T"e que%tion% t"at !#ided m% resear$" are 'ollo4i!G
-( 9"at readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams are t"ere at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o'
Geor!ia #i*ersitiesL
+( 9"at are t"e di''ere$es )et4ee t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ta#!"t at
Geor!ia #i*ersities ad e.tesi*e readi!L
8( Ho4 t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams $a )e $"a!ed ito a s#$$ess'#l e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ramL
<( 9"at met"odolo!% $a )e t"e )asis 'or t"e im/latatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram
at Geor!ia #i*ersitiesL
:( 9"at 4ill )e t"e o#t$omes o' e./erimetal tea$"i! o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i
$om/ariso 4it" t"e e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!ramsL
+7
T"e resear$" $riti$all% addresses a #m)er o' t"e #roblem% s#$" as a tea$"erFs domiat
role i a readi! /ro!ram3 i$o!r#e$e o' a !oal ad $otet 4it" t"e d#ratio o' t"e readi!
/ro!ram3 iadeA#ate readi! materials ad less e''i$iet a$ti*ities(
T"e h-#othe%i% o' t"is st#d% is t"at t"e *ario#s readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei!
la!#a!e de/artmets "a*e $ommo tea$"i! met"odolo!%H t"e% do ot $orres/od to a e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ramH t"e% reA#ire im/ro*emets i order to alter t"em ito e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram(
T"e tea$"i! model o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram is a#toomo#s leari!( De'ii! moti*atioal
'o$i ad ela)orati! t"eir 'rame4orks 4it"i t"is /ro!ram 4ill i$rease learersF moti*atio i
readi!( Im/lemeti! a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i Geor!ia #i*ersities o t"e )asis o'
a#toomo#s leari! 4it" /romote learersF "i!" /er'orma$e( E.tesi*e readi! 4ill $otri)#te to
)etter res#lts i de*elo/i! !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e amo! Geor!ia st#dets more t"a ot"er
readi! de*elo/met /ro!ramsH it 4ill e$o#ra!e /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi! ad 'ormatio o'
readi! as li'elo! "a)it amo! Geor!ia learers(
?or de$ades Geor!ia met"odolo!% o' tea$"i! 'orei! la!#a!es 4as i'l#e$ed )% t"e
t"eoreti$al 'rame4ork o' R#ssia met"odolo!ists( Later3 'rom t"e -77,s Geor!ia met"odolo!ists
itrod#$ed t"e e./erie$e ad !ais o' t"e 4ester resear$"ers( No4ada%s i t"e 'orei! la!#a!e
tea$"i! met"odolo!% )% Geor!ia a#t"ors t"e de'iitio o' e.tesi*e readi! is ado/ted i !eeral(
Ne*ert"eless3 t"ere is a !a/H t"e% do ot deal 4it" 4"ere3 "o4 ad 4"% to #se e.tesi*e readi!(
T"is area "as ot )ee st#died %et ad t"ere is e*e o $lear /i$t#re "o4 to itrod#$e e.tesi*e
readi! as a /ro!ram at Geor!ia #i*ersities( T"e no$elt- o' m% resear$" is t"at it e./lores t"e
readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams3 /ro/oses im/ro*emets ad $"a!es3 ad !i*es am/le !ro#ds 'or
im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia
#i*ersities(
T"e st#d% 4ill "a*e a $ertai /ra$ti$al *al#e )e$a#se it deals lar!el% 4it" t"e tea$"i! o'
'orei! la!#a!e 4"i$" is t"e $etral /oit i Geor!ia $omm#it%( It o''ers /ra$ti$al
re$ommedatios to im/ro*e tea$"i! o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams3 i /arti$#lar3 a e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ram(
T"e method%3##ro!he% o' t"e resear$" B am/le literat#re ad resear$" o readi!3
/arti$#larl%3 e.tesi*e readi! 4ere st#died( ?or t"e resear$" I "a*e ado/ted A#atitati*e a//roa$"
to /rod#$e $o$l#sios( T"e met"od o' s#r*e%sN A#estioaires B 4ere #sed to o)tai i'ormatio
'rom t"e sam/le( It !a*e me a o//ort#it% to !eeralize t"e s#r*e% res#lts i order to $om/are3 to
8,
relate oe $"ara$teristi$ to aot"er ad to /reset e*ide$e 'or m% "%/ot"esis( T"e i'ormatio 4as
!at"ered )% meas o' A#estioaires admiistered )% me( Tests 4ere #sed to meas#re t"e o#t$omes
i e./erimetal tea$"i! o' e.tesi*e readi!(
T"e 'irst $"a/ter /resets di''eret *ie4 o readi!3 $"ara$teristi$s o' !ood ad /oor readers3
ad de'ies e.tesi*e readi! 4it" its $"ara$teristi$s( T"e se/arate se$tios are de*oted to t"e
)ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi! ad t"e re*ie4 o' Geor!ia ad R#ssia met"odolo!%(
T"e se$od $"a/ter des$ri)es t"e s#r*e% 4"i$" 4as $od#$ted amo! t"e istr#$tors o'
readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams o' se*e ma0or #i*ersities i Geor!ia( T"e tea$"ersF as4ers
res#lted i t"e o*er*ie4 o' /ro!ram /ro'iles3 t"eir met"odolo!% ad )ee'its( T"is $"a/ter also deals
4it" t"e se$od s#r*e% $arried o#t amo! <, readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram !rad#ates 4"o took t"is
/ro!ram )et4ee -77;B+,,7( T"e de*elo/met o' a)o*emetioed /ro!rams is a//aret i t"is
/eriod( T"e $o$l#sios 'or )ot" s#r*e%s ad /ra$ti$al s#!!estios o "o4 to de*elo/ readi!
de*elo/met /ro!rams are i$l#ded i t"is $"a/ter(
I t"e t"ird $"a/ter e.tesi*e readi! met"odolo!% is /reseted( T"is met"odolo!% is
ado/ted 'rom ot"er a#t"ors 4"o 4ork i t"e 'ield o' e.tesi*e readi!( T"e met"odolo!% $osists o'
se*eral se$tios o tea$"i! e.tesi*e readi!G tea$"i! /ri$i/les3 =a%'5 /ri$i/les3 tea$"i! model3
ad moti*atioal 'rame4ork( Se/arate se$tios dis$#ss i more /ra$ti$al terms readi!
reA#iremets3 a$ti*ities i a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram ad sele$tio o' readi! materials(
T"e 'o#rt" $"a/ter dis$#sses e./erimetal tea$"i!( It des$ri)es /ra$ti$al a//li$atio o'
e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% 4it" t4o di''eret sam/le !ro#/sG st#dets o' 'orei!
la!#a!e de/artmet ad 'orei! la!#a!e $eter at Tela*i State Ui*ersit%( T"e /ro$ed#res3 res#lts,
aal%ses are /reseted i t"is $"a/ter( A se/arate se$tio is de*oted to t"e o)sta$les ad /ro)lems o'
t"e im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"e limitatios o' t"e st#d% ad im/li$atios
are dis$#ssed at t"e ed(
8-
'5APTER I
LITERATURE REVIE1
/(/( Redin" in L/ nd L0
Readi! is tras'er o' meai! 'rom mid to mid( T"e reader !ets t"e meai! )% readi!(
I t"is /ro$ess t"e reader3 t"e 4riter ad t"e te.t are i*ol*ed( 9ood C-77=3 /( 8=D re$o!izes t"at
1o meai! is $reated 4it"o#t t"e a$ti*e /arti$i/atio o' t"e reader(2 S"e stresses t"at meai! is
a$"ie*ed t"ro#!" a itera$tio )et4ee t"e reader ad t"ose 4ords( A$$ordi! to Smit" C-77<)3 /(
+,D 1Readi! 5 mi!"t )e de'ied as t"o#!"t t"at is stim#lated ad dire$ted )% 4ritte la!#a!e(2
T"ere are t4o mai reasos 4"% /eo/le readG 'or /leas#re ad 'or i'ormatio( Readi! is a
im/ortat skill to )e ta#!"t 'rom t"e earl% a!es( Vote J Bali$"i C+,,:3 /( >-D list se*eral reasos
4"% $"ildre s"o#ld )e itrod#$ed to )ooksG 1 to i$#l$ate ad $osolidate atta$"met to )ooksH to
im/lemet ad )ri! #/ readi! "a)itH to de*elo/ ad eri$" s/ee$"3 t"iki!3 ima!iatio ad
$reati*it%H to de*elo/ ad eri$" emotios Ct"e a)ilit% to re$o!ize oeFs o4 emotios as 4ell as
8+
ot"ersFDH to de*elo/ a skill o' #si! /rit e*irometH to de*elo/ ad e$o#ra!e oeFs sel'B
e./ressio3 'reedom o' $"oi$e3 ad ide/ede$eH to allo4 'ormatio o' relatios ad e$o#ra!e its
de*elo/metH to de*elo/ litera$%H to /re/are a $"ild 'or s$"ool li'e ad '#t#re li'e i !eeral2(
Readi! is #s#all% re$o!ized as a e$essar% /art o' 'orei! la!#a!e leari! CN#ttall3
+,,,D( Se$od la!#a!e readi! di''ers 'rom 'irst la!#a!e readi! i t"at t"e 'ormer i*ol*es t4o
la!#a!es( 6oti#al itera$tio )et4ee la!#a!es ad $oti#al $"a!e to la!#a!e demads
im/l% t"e d#alBla!#a!e i*ol*emet( ?or t"is reaso3 L+ readi! is $rossli!#isti$ ad3 t"#s3
i"eretl% more $om/le. t"a L- readi! CKoda3 +,,>3 /( -D(
As 4e metioed )e'ore3 L+ readi! $om)ies L- ad L+ readi! reso#r$es ito a d#alB
la!#a!e s%stem( T"e d#alBla!#a!e i*ol*emet im/lies $oti#al itera$tios )et4ee t4o
la!#a!es as 4ell as i$essat ad0#stmet i a$$ommodati! t"e demads ea$" la!#a!e im/oses(
?or t"is reaso3 Koda C+,,:3 /( -D relates L+ readi! to $rossli!#isti$ ad ar!#es t"at it is more
$om/le. t"a L- readi!(
L+ readi! is a a)ilit% t"at $om)ies L+ readi! ad L- readi! reso#r$es ito a d#alB
la!#a!e /ro$essi! s%stem CGra)e3 +,,73 /3 -+7D( 6ook C-77>3 as $ited i Gra)e +,,73 /( -+7D
des$ri)es t"is itera$tio o' L- ad L+ s%stems as m#ltiB$om/ete$e(
6ommeti! o t"e di''ere$es )et4ee L- ad L+ readi!3 Gra)e ad Stoller C+,,+3 /( =8D
o#tlied -< )road di''ere$es3 4"i$" t"e% /la$ed ito t"ree $ate!oriesG CaD li!#isti$ ad /ro$essi!
di''ere$es3 C)D idi*id#al ad e./erietial di''ere$es3 ad C$D so$ial3 $#lt#ral3 ad istit#tioal
di''ere$es( I "is latest /#)li$atio Gra)e C+,,73 /( -8,D disti!#is"es t"ree ma0or sets o'
di''ere$es )et4ee L- ad L+ readi!G
-D Li!#isti$ ad /ro$essi! di''ere$es
+D De*elo/metal ad ed#$atioal di''ere$es
8D So$io$#lt#ral ad istit#tioal di''ere$es
L+ readers di''er 'rom L- readers i terms o' li!#isti$ reso#r$es t"at s#//ort $om/re"esio
s#$" as le.i$al3 !rammati$al3 ad dis$o#rse ko4led!e( L- readers start to lear to read m#$" earlier
t"a L+ readers do( 6oseA#etl% t"e a)ilities o' L+ readers3 4"e t"e% are 0#st )e!ii! to read3
do ot mat$" t"eir L- )e!ier $o#ter/arts( L+ readers are $ostraied i time3 )e$a#se t"e% do ot
"a*e se*eral %ears to )#ild t"eir la!#a!e ko4led!e like L- readers do( L+ readers de*elo/ t"eir
readi! $om/re"esio skills ad li!#isti$ ko4led!e at t"e same time CGra)e3 +,,7D( 9"ile
readi! i t"e L+3 L+ readers are i*ol*ed i di''eret metali!#isti$ /ro$essi!( T"ese /ro$esses
88
ma% i$l#deG aD metali!#isti$ aal%ses /ro$esses Cko4led!e a)o#t la!#a!e s%stems ad
str#$t#resD3 )D metali!#isti$ $otrol /ro$ess Ca)ilit% to #se metali!#isti$ ko4led!e to $arr% o#t
tasksD3 $D metali!#isti$ a4areess Ce./li$itl% re$o!izi! t"e eed ad dire$ti! attetio to a$t o
t"at eedD CBial%stok3 +,,-3 /( -8-D(
T4o o' t"e mai sets o' di''ere$es )et4ee L- a!d L+ readi! re'er to /ra$ti$e i readi!
ad *is#al i'ormatio i t"e ort"o!ra/"% o' t"e L+( ?or t"ese reasos3 L+ readers 4ill )e slo4er i
4ord re$o!itio ad less a$$#rate i 4ordBre$o!itio /ro$essi! CBial%stok3 +,,-D( L+ reader 4ill
)e slo4er 'or t"ese 'ollo4i! reasosG aD less /ra$ti$e i t"e L+ readi! )D a e4 L+ ort"o!ra/"% $D
di''eri! /atters o' mor/"olo!% i t"e L+ ort"o!ra/"%( L+ learers 4ill /ro)a)l% eed to )e reB
orieted to3 ot ol% t"e si!i'i$at letter 'eat#res o' t"e e4 s$ri/tal s%stem3 )#t t"at more strate!i$
$otrol /ro$esses3 s#$" as t"e size o' t"e #it ad t"e saliet letter 4ill also eed to )e $"a!ed
CRadall3 +,,>3 /( ;:D(
T"e e.t set o' di''ere$es is de*elo/metalI $o!iti*e ad ed#$atioal disti$tios )et4ee
L- ad L+ readi!( ?irst3 L- readers tras'er all t%/es o' readi! strate!ies ad e./erie$es to t"eir
L+ readi! e''orts( T"ese a$ademi$ skills #s#all% de*elo/ t"ro#!" L+ readi! /ra$ti$e( Se$od3
t"ere is a )i! di''ere$e i amo#t o' e./os#re to /rit t"at L- readers "a*e i $om/ariso to L+
readers3 4"o #s#all% "a*e *er% limited e./os#re to L+ /ritH it mostl% $omes 'rom t"e $lassroom
$ote.ts( T"ird3 t"e moti*atio to read i L- ad L+ readers is di*erse( Moti*atio i readi! is
stro!l% $oe$ted to !oals ad /#r/oses( Readi! L- ad L+ *aries i terms o' !oals ad /#r/oses(
L- readers are 4illi! to read to de*elo/ some skills or t"eir e./ertise3 etertai adIor to !et
i'ormatio( L+ readers #s#all% "a*e to read to $arr% o#t la!#a!eBleari! assi!mets rat"er t"a
to )#ild e4 a$ademi$ skills( ?o#rt"3 t"e readi! material o' L- ad L+ readers o'te *aries( L+
readers o'te e$o#ter di''eret kids o' te.ts i L+ setti!s t"a i t"eir L- setti!s3 /arti$#larl% i
E?L $ote.ts( ?i't"3 L+ readi! i*ol*es a ra!e o' s#//orti! reso#r$es t"at are #iA#e to t"e L+
leari! sit#atio( T"ese reso#r$es3 4"i$" are #$ommo 'or L- setti!s3 i$l#de $o!ates3
)ili!#al di$tioaries3 4ord !losses3 te.t traslatios ad learerB)ased te.t)ooksH t"e% 'a$ilitate L+
readi! de*elo/met ad t"ere'ore it is 'aster t"a L- readi! de*elo/met( Si.t"3 L+ readers 4it"
a$ademi$ orietatio are at "i!"er le*el o' metali!#isti$ a4areess t"a mooli!#al L- readers
CKoda3 +,,>D( ?or e.am/le3 L+ readers $a traslate meai! 'orm L+ to L-3 L+ readers $all 'or t"e
s%o%ms3 et$( Bail%stok C+,,-D s#!!ests t"at L+ readers 4o#ld "a*e a !reater a4areess o' "o4 a
te.t3 ad t"e la!#a!e i t"e te.t3 is or!aized(
8<
Aot"er set o' di''ere$es is so$ietal ad $#lt#ral $ote.ts i 4"i$" a learer is so$ialized( It
also i'l#e$es L-B L+ di''ere$es( L- readers3 4"ile leari! to read3 "a*e $ertai e./e$tatios
a)o#t readi! o t"e )asis o' t"eir so$io$#lt#ral )a$k!ro#ds( ?or L+ readers t"e role o' a te.t $a
)e *er% di''eret 'orm t"eir L- litera$% e./erie$es( 6#lt#ral i'l#e$e o' te.ts is em/"asized )%
ed#$atioal ad i'ormatioal /#r/oses( More s/e$i'i$ to ad*a$ed ed#$atioal setti!s3 L+ learers
ma% )e asked to do more readi! i t"e L+ t"a t"e% "ad e*er doe i t"e L- $ote.t( T"e di''ere$e
)et4ee L- ad L+ readi! is also )ased o te.tsF di''eret or!aizatio i di*erse $#lt#res(
T"ere are t"ree ma0or t"eories s#!!esti! tras'er o' L- e''e$ts o L+ readi! de*elo/met(
T"ese t"eories areG t"e De*elo/metal Iterde/ede$e H%/ot"esis3 t"e la!#a!e t"res"old
"%/ot"esis ad t"e $o$e/t o' L+ readi! as t"e /rod#$t o' a d#alBla!#a!e s%stem CGra)e3 +,,73 /(
-<,D(
T"e De*elo/metal Iterde/ede$e H%/ot"esis ar!#es t"at readi! is a s"ared Ci' ot
ideti$alD a)ilit%3 o matter 4"at 'irst ad se$od la!#a!es are i*ol*ed( 9"e L- readi! a)ilities
rea$" a $ertai le*el o' /ro'i$ie$%3 i*ol*i! some de!ree o' a#tomati$it% ad 'l#e$%3 t"ose
#derl%i! skills 4ill tras'er to L+ readi!( A$$ordi! to t"is "%/ot"esis3 L+ st#dets $a "a*e
4eak L+ la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$%3 )#t #se all o' t"eir L- a$ademi$ readi! skills to $arr% o#t L+
a$ademi$ readi! tasks s#$$ess'#ll%( 6#mmis C+,,,3 /( ->8D /osits t"at 1a$ademi$ /ro'i$ie$%
tras'ers a$ross la!#a!e s#$" t"at st#dets 4"o "a*e de*elo/ed litera$% i t"eir 'irst la!#a!e 4ill
ted to make stro!er /ro!ress i a$A#iri! litera$% i t"eir se$od la!#a!e2 CGeessee et al3 +,,=3
as $ited i Gra)e3 +,,73 /( -<-D(
I t"e la!#a!e t"res"old "%/ot"esis3 se$od la!#a!e is more im/ortat t"a 'irst la!#a!e
readi! a)ilities( T"ere e.ists a li!#isti$ t"res"old3 4"i$" m#st )e $rossed )e'ore 'irst la!#a!e
readi! a)ilit% $a )e tras'erred to se$odBla!#a!e readi! $ote.ts CAlderso3 +,,,3 /( 87D(
Alt"o#!" t"e tras'er o' readi! attit#de is !eerall% s#//orted3 t"ere are di''eret de!rees o'
tras'era)ilit% amo! di''eret attit#de *aria)lesG 4"at learers *al#e is more likel% to tras'er 'rom
L- to L+ t"a 4"at t"e% 'eel3 'or e.am/le3 $om'ort3 a.iet%3 sel'B/er$e/tio CYamas"ita3 +,,<D(
T"e d#alBla!#a!e /ro$essi! s%stem t"at emer!es 4ill )e d%ami$ $"a!i!3 ad s"i'ti! i
res/ose to t"e reader3 task3 to/i$3 !oal3 traii!3 $ote.t3 et$(
I order to /ro*ide L+ readers 4it" lar!e amo#t o' e./os#re to /rit ad "el/ t"em to
im/ro*e di''eret metali!#isti$ /ro$essi! a readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram is #tilized( Oe o' t"e
8:
im/li$atios 'or istr#$tio L+ readi! a$$ordi! to Gra)e C+,,<3 /( <=3 <;D is im/lemeti! some
'orm o' e.tesi*e readi! i readi! $#rri$#la i order to i$rease e./os#re to L+ /rit(
/(0( Good nd #oor reder%
Readi! is t"e /o4er'#l meas o' 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio( A$$ordi! to Smit" C-77<a3
/( ->;D 14e lear to read )% readi!2( Kras"e C-7783 /( +8D !oes '#rt"er ad states t"at 1readi! is
t"e ol% 4a%3 t"e ol% 4a% 4e )e$ome !ood readers(2 T"e 4"% do ma% /eo/le 'ail to de*elo/ t"is
skillL
N#ttall C+,,,3 /( -+>D 'ids t"e as4er i t"e 'ollo4i! e./laatio( S"e e./lais t"at most
o' t"e st#dets 4"o $aot de*elo/ readi! skill are tra//ed i *i$io#s $%$le C?i!(-(-(D( T"e *i$io#s
$%$le o' t"e 4eak reader $osists o' t"e 'ollo4i! sta!esG A% o' t"ese 'a$tors /rod#$e t"e same
res#lt( Slo4 readers rarel% de*elo/ m#$" iterest i 4"at t"e% read3 $oseA#etl% t"e% do ot e0o%
4"at t"e% read ad t"e% remai slo4 readers( N#ttall also /resets t"e o//osite $o$e/t o' *i$io#s
$ir$le( It is *irt#o#s $ir$le o' t"e !ood reader C?i!( -(+(D( T"is $ir$le $osists o' t"e 'ollo4i! ste/s(
Readi! s/eed3 e0o%met3 ad $om/re"esio are $losel% $oe$ted( Ea$" o' t"ese ste/s $a )e a
ke% to de*iate 'rom *i$io#s $ir$le to *irt#o#s oe( E0o%met is t"e ma0or 'a$tor 'ollo4ed )%
A#atit%( T"#s3 st#dets3 4"o read a lot3 /ro!ress at i$reasi! s/eed(
8=
Reads
?aster
Reads
more
E0o%s
readi!
Uderstads
)etter
*i"( /(/( The $i!iou% !-!le of the ,e+ reder
6b- Nuttll7
*i"( /(0( The $irtuou% !ir!le of the "ood reder
Reads
slo4l%
DoesFt
e0o%
readi!
DoesFt
#derstad
DoesFt
read
m#$"
A$$ordi! to N#ttall C+,,,3 /( <;D oe o' t"e /ri$i/le $"ara$teristi$s o' a !ood reader is
'le.i)ilit%( He *aries "is s/eed ad "is 4"ole maer o' readi!3 a$$ordi! to t"e te.t ad "is
/#r/ose i readi! itG
-D Te.tI /#r/ose S s/eed
N#ttall C+,,,3 /( :<D sets a A#estioG do /eo/le read A#i$kl% )e$a#se t"e% #derstad easil%
or do t"e% #derstad easil% )e$a#se o' t"e s/eed at 4"i$" t"e% readL T"e relatios"i/ o' $a#se ad
e''e$t i t"is A#estio is *a!#eG
+D S/eed T #derstadi! C$a#se ad e''e$t relatios"i/ is ot $learD
I t"e same 4a%3 t"ere is a stro! $orrelatio )et4ee s/eed ad iterest or e0o%met(
N#ttall C+,,,3 /( -8-D e./lais t"is 4it" t"e moti*atio t"at 1s/#rs #s to !et to t"e ed o' t"e stor% as
A#i$kl% as 4e $a(2
8D IterestIe0o%met S s/eed
N#ttall C+,,,D de'ies a !ood reader as oe 4"o al4a%s iter/rets a te.t as t"e 4riter
itededB e.$e/t 4"e "e $"ooses ot to do so( 9alla$e C-77+D des$ri)es e''i$iet readi! i t"e real
4orld as 'le.i)le ad a//ro/riate res/ose to t"e material i "ad !#ided )% t"e readerFs /#r/ose3
4"i$" meas t"at readers "a*e o/tios3 i$l#di! t"e o/tio to !i*e #/( Ber"ardt C-77-3 /( 8>D states
14"at makes oe R!oodF or R/oorF reader or !i*e a R!oodF or R /oorF /er'orma$e is )o#d to t"e
$ote.t or t"e te.t ad sit#atio52
A$$ordi! to Alderso C+,,,3 /( <-D /oor readers do ot /ossess ko4led!e o' strate!ies ad
are o'te ot a4are o' "o4 or 4"e to a//l% t"e ko4led!e t"e% do "a*e( T"e% o'te $a ot i'er
meai! 'rom s#r'a$e le*el i'ormatio3 "a*e /oorl% de*elo/ed ko4led!e a)o#t "o4 t"e readi!
s%stem 4orks3 ad 'id it di''i$#lt to e*al#ate te.t 'or $larit%3 $osiste$% ad /la#si)ilit%( Istead
t"e% o'te )elie*e t"at t"e /#r/ose o' readi! is errorless 4ord /ro#$iatio3 ad t"at readi!
i$l#des ot"i! more t"a *er)atim re$all(
6oo/er C-7;<D $otrasted 4"at "e $alls 1/ra$tised2 readers 4it" 1#/ra$tised2 readers(
U/ra$ti$ed readers 4ere disad*ata!ed )% a /oor ko4led!e o' *o$a)#lar% ad a 4eak
#derstadi! o' semati$ relatios"i/s )et4ee 4ords3 as 4ell as t"e meai! o' $ommo
sete$es $oe$tors(
&a! C+,,;3 /( +D la)els as R!oodF ad R)adF t"e readi! )e"a*iors 4"i$" de/ed o *ario#s
'a$tors like time o' readi!3 t"e $om/le.it% ad t"e to/i$ o' a te.t( 6oseA#etl%3 t"e same reader
demostrates !ood or )ad $"ara$teristi$s at di''eret times ad to *ar%i! de!rees o di''eret
8>
dimesios( I aot"er 4ords 1!ood2 ad 1)ad2 readi! $"ara$teristi$s $a )e re!arded as desira)le
ad #desira)le readi! )e"a*ior(
&a! C+,,;D limits readersF a)ilities i terms o' t"ree dimesiosG li!#isti$3 $o!iti*e3 ad
meta$o!iti*e( Li!#isti$ ko4led!e i a se$odI'orei! la!#a!e readi! i$l#des t"e 'ollo4i!
$om/oetsG 4ord re$o!itio3 /"oolo!i$al as/e$ts3 le.i$al ko4led!e ad mor/"os%ta$ti$
ko4led!e CBer"ardt3 +,,;H &a!3 +,,;D( I a !ood reader 4ord re$o!itio is ra/id3 a$$#rate ad
a#tomati$H a#tomati$ s%ta$ti$ /arsi! ad semati$ /ro/ositio is 'ormedH reasoa)le size o'
*o$a)#lar% ra!i! 'rom -,3,,, to -,,3,,, is o)taiedH t"ere is a4areess o' te.t t%/e ad
dis$o#rse or!aizatio(
6o!iti*e a)ilit% is $o$ered 4it" readersF #se o' /rior ko4led!e ad *ario#s strate!ies i
t"eir e''orts to $ostr#$t meai! i t"e $om/re"esio /ro$essG aD !ood store o' $o!iti*e
strate!ies3 )D read% a$$ess to *ariet% o' /#r/ose'#l strate!ies3 $D "i!"er ad /ro'i$iet #se o'
strate!ies3 dD e''e$ti*e #se o' /rior ko4led!e3 eD s#//orti*e #se o' mot"er to!#e i L+(
Meta$o!iti*e strate!i$ $om/ete$e re'le$ts readersF moitori! ad $otrol o' readi!
strate!iesG !ood ko4led!e o' $o!itio3 $om/ete$e i moitori! $om/re"esio /ro$ess3
$om/ete$e i e*al#ati! ad re!#lati! strate!% #se to a$"ie*e ma.im#m $om/re"esio(
&a! C+,,;D disti!#is"es < $"ara$teristi$s t"at di''eretiate !ood 'rom /oor readers( T"e%
are CaD ite!ratioH C)D re$o!itio o' as/e$ts o' te.t str#$t#reH C$D #se o' !eeral ko4led!e3
/ersoal e./erie$es3 ad asso$iatiosH ad CdD res/ose i e.tesi*e *ers#s re'le.i*e modes(
I a re'le.i*e mode readersF attetio is s"i'ted 'rom t"e te.t i'ormatio to4ards t"emsel*es
i a a''e$ti*e ad /ersoal 4a%( E.tesi*e mode is t"e o//osite o' re'le.i*e mode( I e.tesi*e
mode t"e readersF attetio is 'i.ed o t"e a#t"orFs ideas i t"e te.t istead o' relati! t"e te.t to
t"emsel*es /ersoall% ad a''e$ti*el%( Good L+ readers res/od to t"e te.t i a e.tesi*e mode(
T"e% ite!rate i'ormatio i t"e te.t ad moitor t"eir #derstadi! $osistetl% ad e''e$ti*el%(
Bee)e C-7;;3 /( 8+D $o$l#des 1Im/li$it i all t"is 4ork is t"e ass#m/tio t"at i' 4e lear t"e
$"ara$teristi$s o' t"e !ood la!#a!e learer3 /er"a/s t"ro#!" e.teral mai/#latio Ce(!(
modi'i$atio o' materials ad met"odD3 4e $a some"o4 $o*ert /oor la!#a!e learers ito !ood
oes( T"e im/li$atio t"ere'ore is t"at e.teral mai/#latio orietatio $a some"o4 $"a!e t"ese
/ersoalit% *aria)les i order to /rod#$e a )etter la!#a!e learer(2
Mechanical and Psychological ifferences - A$$ordi! to 9ai4ri!"t C+,,>3 /( +:D resear$"
ito readi! i t"e Uited States "as ideti'ied se*eral si!i'i$at $"ara$teristi$s o' Mt"e mat#re
8;
readerM( 9ai4ri!"tFs 4orks deal 4it" t"e slo4 ad 'ast readers alt"o#!" t"e $"ara$teristi$s
ideti'ied ad des$ri)ed )% "im mat$"es t"ose o' !ood ad /oor readers( T"e same $"ara$teristi$s o'
a slo4 reader $a )e 'o#d amo! )ad readers ad t"e 'eat#res o' 'ast readers are t"ose o' t"e !ood
readers( Me$"ai$al di''ere$es 'o#d amo! readers are t"e 'ollo4i!G aD re!ressi!3 4"i$" is t"e
)i!!est /ro)lem o' a ie''i$iet or slo4 reader "as is t"at "e or s"e re!resses3 t"at is3 !oes )a$k to
read t"i!s a!ai( It is )elie*ed t"at re!ressios are e$essar% )e$a#se oe does ot #derstad t"e
'irst time 4"at oe is )ei! told( T"e e*ide$e is3 "o4e*er3 t"at t"is is ormall% ot t"e $ase( T"ere
are se*eral reasos o' !oi! )a$k( ?irst3 re!ressio is a 4a% o' $"e$ki! t"e i'ormatio i' it is
e$essar%( Se$od3 re!ressio is a si! o' la$k o' $o'ide$e( T"ird3 re!ressio is o#t o' "a)it( Yet
t"e e*ide$e is t"at3 i' readers are /#t i a /ositio i 4"i$" t"e% $aot re!ress3 t"e loss o'
$om/re"esio is o a*era!e o more t"a 8Q to >QH )D *o$alisi! ad ier s/ee$"B Ma% readers
*o$alise or s#)*o$alise as t"e% read( Vo$alisi! is sim/l% a te$"i$al term 'or readi! alo#d( Some
are #a)le to read siletl%( More s#)*o$alise3 t"at is3 t"e% read alo#d siletl%( It is o'te $alled ier
s/ee$" ad is most oti$ea)le i' oe is readi! somet"i! 4ritte )% someoe oe ko4s 4ell or )%
a 4ellBko4 /ersoalit%H $D 'i.atio time B s/eed o' /er$e/tio or 'i.atio time is a di''ere$e
)et4ee slo4 ad 'ast readersH dD e%e s/a B is a a)ilit% o' a e%e to take i i'ormatio i terms o'
!ro#/s o' 4ords rat"er t"a si!le 4ords( T"e !ood ad 'aster reader "as 4ider e%e s/a ad do ot
'i. o se/arate 4ordsH eD r"%t"m B t"e slo4 reader3 i' m#$" re!ressio is taki! /la$e3 la$ks r"%t"m
i readi!( T"e 'aster reader "as r"%t"mi$3 $o'idet e%e mo*emetsH 'D 'le.i)le s/eeds B t"e slo4
reader "as o $"oi$e )#t to read slo4l% all t"e time3 o matter 4"at "e or s"e is readi!( T"e 'aster
reader "as a $"oi$e ad $a )e 'le.i)le3 readi! eas% materials A#i$kl% ad demadi! material
relati*el% slo4l%3 a'ter skimmi! 'irst(
&s%$"olo!i$al di''ere$es des$ri)ed )% 9ai4ri!"t C+,,>3 /( +=D are t"e 'ollo4i!G aD
tesio B ma% slo4 readers e./erie$e tesio 4"e readi! #der /ress#re )e$a#se o' time limitH
)D ati$i/ati! B slo4 readers o'te "a*e di''i$#lt% i ati$i/ati! t"e at#re o' s#)seA#et material
ad t"e% 'or!et 4"at t"e% "a*e read at t"e to/ o' a /a!e )e'ore t"e% !et to t"e )ottom( It "a//es
d#e to t"e 'a$t t"at t"e% are !oi! so slo4l% t"at t"e im/ressio made )% earlier i'ormatio 'ades
)e'ore it $a )e related to 4"at 'ollo4s( ?aster readers #se ati$i/ator% s$ai! te$"iA#es to
/redi$t t"e at#re o' material t"e% "a*e ot %et readH $D $o$etratio B slo4 readers o'te la$k
$o$etratio e.$e/t 'or s"ort /eriods( E''i$iet readers e.$l#de distra$tios3 t"e% ted to read at
times o' da% 4"e t"e% ko4 'rom e./erie$e t"e% $a $o$etrate )etter ad readi! i
87
e*iromets $od#$i*e to !ood $o$etratio3 t"#s t"e% $o$etrate 4ellH dD retetio B ie''i$iet
readers are 'reA#etl% #a)le to retai i'ormatio 'or *er% lo! a'ter readi!( Retetio o'
i'ormatio is )etter o*er lo!er /eriods i 'aster readersH eD /#r/ose B slo4 readers are ot s#re
a)o#t t"eir /#r/oses i readi! 4"i$" meas t"e% "a*e o $lear !oals to aim 'or 4"e t"e% read(
?aster readers "a*e a $lear ko4led!e o' t"eir /#r/ose ad e./e$tatios )e'ore t"e% )e!i to read
somet"i!(
/(8( Redin" ##ro!he%
I 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i! t4o a//roa$"es o' readi! is re$o!izedG itesi*e readi! ad
e.tesi*e readi!( Itesi*e readi! a//roa$" deals 4it" s"ort te.ts #der a tea$"erFs !#ida$e 'or
detailed #derstadi!( T"e Itesi*e readi! te$"iA#e is readi! 'or a "i!" de!ree o'
$om/re"esio ad retetio o*er a lo! /eriod o' time( E.tesi*e readi! deals 4it" relati*el% lo!
te.ts( &leas#re3 i'ormatio ad !eeral #derstadi! are a /#r/ose o' e.tesi*e readi!(
9"at are di''ere$es )et4ee itesi*e ad e.tesi*e readi!L A$$ordi! to S$"Ur")#ker
C+,,;3 /( +D list3 t"ere are se*eral di''ere$es )et4ee t"ese t4o readi! a//roa$"es( ?irst o' all3 let
me e./lore t"e /e$#liarities o' itesi*e readi! ad t"e e.amie t"ose o' e.tesi*e readi!(
Itesi*e readi! reA#ires 'rom a reader -,,Q o' #derstadi! o' t"e material( T"e le*el o'
t"e readi! material s"o#ld )e at i ! 1( T"e readi! s/eed is #s#all% slo43 t"e le!t" o' te.ts are
small3 a//ro.imatel% "al' a /a!e( I itesi*e readi! tea$"ers o''er st#dets te.ts o' di''eret
!eres( T"ese te.ts are 'or $lass 4ork ad t"e% are t"e same 'or ea$" st#det( T"ese te.ts are al4a%s
'ollo4ed )% e.er$ises o $om/re"esio ad la!#a!e de*elo/met( T"e tea$"erFs role is a$ti*e(
T"e tea$"er a$ts as a 'a$ilitator3 4"o leads $lassroom a$ti*ities ad reads( I itesi*e readi! )ot"3
silet ad alo#d readi! are /ra$tised( 6lassroom a$ti*ities are dis$#ssios3 readi! ad di''eret
kids o' e.er$ises(
E.tesi*e readi! is 'or !eeral #derstadi! 4"i$" meas $om/re"esio o' t"e readi!
material less t"a -,,Q( 6om/re"esi)le i/#t s"o#ld "a//e at t"e i 1 model( T"e readi! s/eed
i e.tesi*e readi! is relati*el% 'ast3 )#t it s"o#ld )e $om'orta)le 'or a reader( E.tesi*e readi!
im/lies readi! o' a lar!e amo#t o' readi!3 'or e.am/le3 a )ook( T"e readi! material /resets
#s#all% 'i$tio( T"e readi! material is idi*id#al 'or ea$" st#det( T"e mai assi!met 4"i$" is
!i*e to st#dets is readi!( T"e tea$"er s#//orts t"e st#dets ad !i*es a role model 'or readi!( I
e.tesi*e readi! st#dets mail% a//l% silet readi!( T"e mai $lassroom a$ti*it% is readi!(
<,
S#sserJRo)) C-77,D des$ri)e itesi*e readi! a//roa$" i Oa/a( ?or e.am/le3 E!lis"
istr#$tio at t"e #i*ersit% le*el is #s#all% t"e 1itesi*e readi! /ro$ed#re23 4"i$" im/lies $lose
st#d% o' s"ort /assa!es3 i$l#di! s%ta$ti$3 semati$3 ad le.i$al aal%ses ad traslatio ito t"e
L- to st#d% meai!( N#ttall C+,,,3 /( 8;D also states t"at a te.t at a la!#a!e de*elo/met lesso is
a meas to /reset *o$a)#lar% ad str#$t#re3 4"i$" is #s#all% a 'o$#s o' t"is kid o' lesso( T"e
meai! o' t"e te.t is ot 'o$#s o' t"e la!#a!e de*elo/met lesso( Ne*ert"eless3 i a readi!
lesso t"e meai! o' a te.t is im/ortatH st#dets #se t"e la!#a!e to res/od to t"e messa!es i a
te.t3 ad leari! "a//es i$idetall%( Alderso ad Ur!#"art C-7;<D "a*e ar!#ed t"at is ot a
readi! )#t a la!#a!e lessoG S#$" /eda!o!i$ /ra$ti$e o' 'o$#si! o t"e la!#a!e o' a te.tB ma%
)e 0#sti'ied as a la!#a!e lesso3 )#t it ma% *er% 4ell )e $o#ter/rod#$ti*e as a readi! lesso(
B% $om/ari! t"ese t4o a//roa$"es 4e do ot sa% t"at oe o' t"em is ideal or )etter3 )#t t"e%
are $om/lemets to ea$" ot"er( &almer C-7+>3 as $ited i Smit"3 +,,83 /( ---D em/"asized t"at t"e
)ee'its o' doi! lar!e A#atities o' e0o%a)le3 le*elBa//ro/riate readi! $o#ld most e''e$ti*el% )e
realized t"ro#!" ite!ratio 4it" ot"er more la!#a!eB'o$#sed a$ti*ities( A 1m#lti/le lie o'
a//roa$"2 4as oe o' &almerFs ie /ri$i/les o' la!#a!e st#d%3 ad "e el#$idated t"e im/orta$e
o' )ot" a//roa$"es )% ado/ti! t"em $o$#rretl% 15 )#t ot i oe ad t"e same o/eratio( At
times read itesi*el%H at ot"ers read e.tesi*el%(2
/(9( The definition of e4ten%i$e redin"
&almer C-7+>3 as sited i Smit"3 +,,83 /( <:<D 4"o is t"e ori!iator o' t"e term de'ies t"at
e.tesi*e readi! meas Rra/id readi!F( T"ose3 4"o o)taied some amo#t o' 'orei! la!#a!e3 are
a)le to read te.ts 4ritte i t"e 'orei! la!#a!e 4it" #derstadi! ad 4it"o#t t"at /ro$ess o'
metal traslatio3 re'erri! to t"e di$tioar% 'reA#etl%( &almer $alled 'reA#et #se o' a di$tioar% a
*i$io#s li!#isti$ tede$%( 9est C-7::3 /( -;7D3 4"ile $reati! s#//lemetar% readers3 re'erred to
t"e aim o' readi! e.tesi*el%3 1to $o'er !reater 'a$ilit% i t"e #se o' t"e *o$a)#lar% alread%
!aied3 to !i*e t"e $"ild a sese o' a$"ie*emet ad a taste o' t"e /leas#re to )e deri*ed 'rom "is
a$$om/lis"met(2 Lo!ma Di$tioar% o' La!#a!e tea$"i! ad A//lied Li!#isti$s de'ies
e.tesi*e readi! as a skill t"at is 1iteded to de*elo/ !ood readi! "a)its3 to )#ild #/ ko4led!e
o' *o$a)#lar% ad str#$t#re3 ad to e$o#ra!e a liki! 'or readi!2 CRi$"ards3 &latt3 J&latt3 -77+3 /(
-88D( 9illiams C-7;<3 /( -,D de'ies e.tesi*e readi! as 1T"e relati*el% ra/id readi! o' lo!
te.ts52 S#sser ad Ro)) C-77,D !i*e t"e de'iitio to e.tesi*e readi! #si! $riteria( E.tesi*e
<-
readi! is readi! 1CaD o' a lar!e A#atities o' material or lo! te.tsH C)D 'or !lo)al or !eeral
#derstadi!H C$D 4it" itetio o' o)taii! /leas#re 'rom t"e te.t(2 4"i$" is im/ortat 'or
la!#a!e leari!( Da*is C-77:3 /( 8+7D s#mmed #/ t"e otio o' e.tesi*e readi!G 1/#/ils are
!i*e t"e time3 e$o#ra!emet ad materials to read /leas#ra)l%3 at t"eir o4 le*el3 as ma% )ooks
as t"e% $a3 4it"o#t t"e /ress#res o' testi! or marks(2 E.tesi*e readi! e./oses learers to Plar!e
A#atities o' material 4it"i t"eir li!#isti$ $om/ete$eP CGra)e ad Stoller3 +,,+3 /( +:7D3 4"i$"
is3 at t"e same time3 /leas#ra)le(
I la!#a!e tea$"i! terms3 e.tesi*e readi! is $osidered )% some 4riters as 0#st aot"er
readi! s#)skill alo! 4it" skimmi!3 s$ai! ad itesi*e readi! CGrellet3 -7;-H 6al'o!lo# J
Si'akis3 +,,<D( E.tesi*e readi! is re!arded as a tea$"i!Ileari! /ro$ed#re3 ot a readi! s#)skill
)% Da% J Bam'ord C+,,:D3 S#sser J Ro)) C-77,D3 Kras"e C-778D3 N#ttall C+,,,D(
A$$ordi! to Rodri!o3 V(3 Gree)er!3 D(3 B#rke3 V(3 Hall3 R(3 Berr%3 A(3 Bri$k3 T(3 Oose/"3
H(3 O)%3 M( C+,,>D e.tesi*e readi! is readi! o' !reat amo#ts 'or a !eeral #derstadi! o' t"e
te.t or 'or t"e e0o%met o' t"e readi! e./erie$e(
Ot"er terms #sed 'or e.tesi*e readi! are "##$ C#iterr#/ted s#staied silet readi!D3
##$ CS#staied Silet Readi!D3 %&$ C'ree *ol#tar% readi!D3 'A$ CDro/ E*er%t"i! Ad ReadD
s#//lemetar% readi!3 'ree readi! time3 readi! la) ad /leas#re readi!( A$$ordi! to Kras"e
C-778D 'ree *ol#tar% readi!3 or ?VR3 is a s%stem 'or e$o#ra!i! silet3 sel'Bsele$ted readi! o'
e0o%a)le )ooks 4ritte at t"e st#detsF ide/edet le*el(
/(:( 5-#othe%i% nd in#ut model% %u##ortin" e4ten%i$e redin"
T"e 'rame4ork t"at s#//orts e.tesi*e readi! is Kras"eFs se*eral "%/ot"eses N t"e se$od
la!#a!e a$A#isitio "%/ot"esis3 t"e $om/re"esi)le i/#t "%/ot"esis3 t"e a''e$ti*e 'ilter "%/ot"esis3
t"e moitor "%/ot"esis ad /leas#re "%/ot"esis C-7;+3 -7;73 -778D(
I Kras"eFs t"eoreti$al model o' t"e la!#a!e tea$"i! /ro!ram t"ere are t4o ma0or
$om/oetsG a$A#isitio ad leari!(
<+
*i"( /(8( A %e!ond ln"u"e te!hin" #ro"rm b- ;r%hen
Kras"e ar!#es t"at la!#a!e a$A#isitio is more $etral t"a la!#a!e leari! i se$od
la!#a!e /er'orma$e( T"ere'ore3 t"e most im/ortat /art o' t"e etire /ro!ram is t"e 1itake2 ode
#der t"e Pa$A#isitioP ode( T"e s#)set o' li!#isti$ i/#t t"at "el/s t"e a$A#irer a$A#ire la!#a!e
is $osidered to )e 1itake2( La!#a!e a$A#isitio $omes 'rom 1itake2(
E.tesi*e readi! is t"e /art o' t"is 1itake2 #der t"e 1a$A#isitio2 ode( Kras"e
'orm#lates t"e ma0or '#$tio o' t"e se$od la!#a!e $lassroom as /ro*idi! itake 'or a$A#isitio(
Itake is 'irst o' all i/#t t"at is #derstoodH $om/re"esio is t"e )asis o' t"e la!#a!e a$A#isitio
/ro$essG Kras"e states t"at 14e a$A#ire )% understanding la!#a!e t"at is Pa little )e%odP o#r
$#rret le*el o' $om/ete$e(2 A$$ordi! to Kras"eFs I/#t H%/ot"esis i' a learer is at RiF
li!#isti$ $om/ete$e t"e t"e a$A#isitio "a//es Ri ! 1( T"e !1 re/resets e4 ko4led!e or
la!#a!e str#$t#res t"at t"e learer s"o#ld )e read% to a$A#ire3 ad 4"i$" are ot )e%od "is
li!#isti$ $om/ete$es( Sel'Bsele$ted 'ree readi! /ro*ides t"at kid o' itake t"at is #derstood )%
a reader3 4"i$" is easil% $om/re"esi)le ad 4it"i t"e la!#a!e $om/ete$e o' a reader(
<8
&ro!ram
A$A#isitio Leari!
Itake
Co)li!ator%D
Meai!'#lI
$omm#i$ati*e
e.er$ises
E.tesi*e readi!
Nat#ral met"od
Iter$am)io
Total /"%si$al
res/ose
Itake
?l#e$%
6omm#i$atio
Strate!ies
Ro#tiesI/atters
Cs"ort termD
RoleB/la%i!3 !ames3
et$(
9riti!
R#les o' t"#m)
Cleara)le r#les 'or
editi!D
Limited error $orre$tio
Str#$t#re o' t"e la!#a!e
Co/tioalD
Cla!#a!e a//re$iatioD
Kras"e ar!#es t"at la!#a!e a$A#isitio "a//es )% #derstadi! messa!es or o)taii!
1$om/re"ei)le i/#t2 i lo4Ba.iet% sit#atios( His "%/ot"esis B the affecti(e filter hypothesis B
states t"at t"e a$A#isitio /ro$ess3 to )e s#$$ess'#l s"o#ld take /la$e i a stress 'ree e*iromet( It
is s#!!ested t"at ma% learers "a*e a e''e$ti*e 'ilter 4"i$" militates a!aist a$A#isitio( Oe o'
t"e mai $a#ses o' t"is 'ilter deri*es 'rom t"e o*erBmoitori! o' o#t/#t 4"i$" itsel' $omes 'rom
leari! la!#a!e r#les( )he monitor hypothesis i*ol*es t4o /ro$esses o' leari! ad a$A#isitio
4"i$" a$t di''eretl%( A$A#isitio allo4s t"e learer to 1/i$k #/2 a la!#a!e ad is res/osi)le 'or
'l#e$%3 4"ile leari! a$ts as a 1edit2 $orre$ti! ad reBs"a/i! t"e s/otaeo#s res/ose( T"is
/ro$ess is $otrolled )% a moitor(
A$$ordi! to "im3 'ree *ol#tar% Caot"er ame 'or e.tesi*e readi!D readi! /ro*ides t"e
messa!e i a lo4Ba.iet% sit#atio( T"is is t"e )ase o' "is aot"er "%/ot"esis $alled the pleasure
hypothesis( Kras"e C+,,=D states 1I' a a$ti*it% is !ood 'or la!#a!e ad litera$% de*elo/met3 t"e
t"e a$ti*it% is /leas#ra)le(2 T"ere are 'ollo4i! e*ide$es t"at readi! is /leasat( T"ese 'a$ts are
)ased o t"e resear$" o' ad#lts3 $"ildre ad E?L st#detsF attit#des to4ards readi!G -D readi! is
so /leasat t"at t"e readers o'te are re/orted to )e addi$ted to it +D readi! is rela.i!3 es/e$iall%
)edtime readi! 8D st#dets /re'er 'ree readi! to traditioal la!#a!e arts istr#$tio( Kras"e !oes
o talki! a)o#t 1$orrelatioal2 st#dies t"at $o'irm3 a /erso 4"o reads more s"o4s more litera$%
de*elo/met3 alt"o#!" it does ot mea t"at sel'Bsele$ted readi! is t"e !#aratee o' a st#detFs
a$$om/lis"met o' "i!" le*el o' $om/ete$e i a 'orei! la!#a!e( Kras"e $o$l#des t"at t"e time
s/et i 'ree readi! s#r/asses t"e time s/et i traditioal istr#$tio i terms o' la!#a!e
de*elo/met 4it" its e''i$ie$%(
Aot"er model o' e.tesi*e readi! $om/re"esi)le i/#t is des$ri)ed )% Da% J Bam'ord
C+,,:D( A$$ordi! to t"is model si!"t *o$a)#lar% or a#tomati$it% traii! m#st )e at 1i minus 12
4"ere 1i2 is t"e st#detFs $#rret le*el o' a$A#isitio( Da% J Bam'ord C+,,:3 /( -8D de'ie si!"t
*o$a)#lar% as t"e 14ords t"at readers are a)le to re$o!ize a#tomati$all%(2 Da% J Bam'ordFs C+,,:3
/( -=3 ->D ar!#e t"at 1T"is i minus 1 is i $otrast to Kras"eFs $om/re"esi)le i/#t "%/ot"esis3 i
4"i$"3 'or '#rt"er a$A#isitio to take /la$e3 t"e $om/re"esi)le i/#t "as to $otai elemets t"at
are sli!"tl% )e%od RiFB t"at is3 Ri ! 1( T"e reaso 'or i minus 1 is t"at t"e !oal o' t"e a#tomati$it%
traii! is de*elo/i! a lar!e si!"t *o$a)#lar% rat"er t"a t"e leari! o' e4 li!#isti$ elemets(2
I t"is $ase t"e material at i minus 1 i$l#des *o$a)#lar% ad s%ta$ti$ str#$t#res o' t"e readersF
le*el o' la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad some elemets t"at t"e reader "as ot a$A#ired %et( S$"Urk"#)er
<<
C+,,;3 /( 8D !oes '#rt"er )% o''eri! 1i *2 $om/re"esi)le i/#t 4"i$" 4ill )e a//ro/riate at t"e
iitial sta!e o' t"e readi! /ro!ram(
A '#rt"er "%/ot"esis t"at s#//orts e.tesi*e readi! is a)o#t i$idetal *o$a)#lar%
a$A#isitio( It is t"e /art o' im/li$it leari!( Im/li$it leari! i*ol*es t"e i$remetal !ro4t" o'
t"e asso$iati*e ko4led!e3 leari! o' skills ad la!#a!e ko4led!e 4it"o#t )ei! a4are o' it
rel%i! o a e.tesi*e amo#t o' i/#t( I/#t t"at s#//orts im/li$it leari! i$l#des 'reA#e$% o'
re/etitio3 $oBo$$#rre$e o' items t"at )#ild asso$iatios3 seA#e$es t"at are re/eated ad !rad#all%
im/rited as lar!er #its C$"#ki!D3 ad !rad#al !eeralizatio o' similar e.em/lar 'orms ad
'eat#res to /rod#$e $ate!ories ad /rotot%/es CGra)e3 +,,7D( I i$idetal *o$a)#lar% a$A#isitio3
t"e learerFs attetio is 'o$#sed /rimaril% o $omm#i$ati*e meai!3 ot o 'orm( Kras"eFs
I/#t H%/ot"esis makes a stro!er $laimVamel%3 t"at a$A#isitio o$$#rs ol% 4"e t"e learerFs
attetio is 'o$#sed o meai!( 6om/ariso st#dies i*ol*i! t"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi! o
*o$a)#lar% !ro4t" "a*e also idi$ated t"at st#dets lear :N-:Q o' e4 4ords 'rom i$idetal
e./os#re to t"ese 4ords 4"ile readi!3 ad t"is /er$eta!e i$reases 4it" i$reasi! #m)ers o'
re/eated e./os#res to 4ords CS$"mitt3 +,,;H Sta"l J Na!%3 +,,=H Gra)e3 +,-,D(
Kras"eFs "%/ot"eses stim#lated t"e re*isio o' e.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams as 4ell as ot"er
readi! /ro!rams i *ario#s #i*ersities o' di''eret $o#tries( ?or e.am/le3 Oa/aese3 Korea3
6"iese ad T"ai #i*ersities a$ti*el% #se e.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams i 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i!
ad most o' t"e resear$" doe i e.tesi*e readi! are re/orted )% t"ese $o#triesF ed#$atioal
istit#tios(
/(<( The !hr!teri%ti!% of e4ten%i$e redin"
T"e mai !oal o' a readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram is to ea)le st#dets to e0o% C'or at least
'eel $om'orta)le 4it"D readi! i t"e 'orei! la!#a!e3 ad to read ide/edetl% #'amiliar
a#t"eti$ te.ts3 at a a//ro/riate s/eed3 siletl%3 ad 4it" adeA#ate #derstadi!( T"e meas#re o'
t"e tea$"erFs s#$$ess is "o4 m#$" t"e st#det lears to do 4it"o#t "er "el/( A$$ordi! to N#ttall
C+,,,3 /( -+>D e.tesi*e readi! C"e$e'ort"3 ERD "as t4o /ositi*e sides( ?irst3 ER im/ro*es
readerFs readi! skills( Se$od3 i' ER is so#r$e o' e0o%metH it is eas% to tea$" /eo/le to read )etter(
N#ttall C+,,,3 /( -+;D des$ri)es ER as a a$ti*it% t"at st#dets $a do 'or t"emsel*es(
<:
A$$ordi! to Gra)e C+,,7D readi! e.tesi*el% #s#all% reA#ires t"at a reader ko4 7;B77Q
o' t"e 4ords i a te.t3 some le*el o' 'l#e$% /ro$essi! 4ords ad sete$es3 t"e ko4led!e a)o#t
te.t str#$t#re3 a//l%i! o' /arti$#lar strate!ies ad skills as i'ere$i!3 moitori!3 ad e*al#atio(
T"ere are te /ri$i/les i tea$"i! e.tesi*e readi!( T"e% are t"e mai '#dametals
de*elo/ed )% Da% ad Bam'ord C+,,+D( T"e% areG
-( )he reading material is easy+
+( A (ariety of reading material on a ,ide range of topics must -e a(aila-le+
8( .earners choose ,hat they ,ant to read+
<( .earners read as much as possi-le+
:( )he purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure/ information and general
understanding+
=( $eading is its o,n re,ard+
>( $eading speed is usually faster rather than slo,er
;( $eading is indi(idual and silent
7( )eachers orient and guide their students
-,( )he teacher is a role model of a reader+
Ot"er 1to/ te2 /ri$i/les are ela)orated )% &ro4se C+,,+D 4it" some modi'i$atio o' a)o*e
metioed e.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! /ri$i/les( &ro4se C+,,+D e./eds some /ri$i/les ad e*e
adds some e4 ideas( He itrod#$es t"e 'ollo4i! /ri$i/lesG t"ere s"o#ld )e o $om/re"esio
A#estiosH o #se o' di$tioariesH re$ordi!s are #sed i t"e /ro!ramH tea$"ers do ot test learersH
t"e te.ts 4"i$" $a e!a!e learers i readi! s"o#ld )e e./loited( S#sser ad Ro)) C-77,D
$"ara$terize e.tesi*e readi!G CaD readi! is idi*id#alized3 4it" st#det $"oosi! t"e )ooks t"e%
4at to read3 C)D t"e )ooks are ot dis$#ssed i $lass( T"is *ariet% s#!!ests t"at A#atit% o' readi!
is ot a a)sol#te #m)er o' "o#rs or /a!es )#t de/eds o tea$"er ad st#det /er$e/tios o' "o4
e.tesi*e readi! di''ers 'rom ot"er readi! $lassesH t"is 4ill *ar% a$$ordi! to t%/e o' /ro!ram3
le*el3 ad ot"er *aria)les( N#ttall C+,,,D #derlies t4o mai $riteria 'or sele$ti! te.ts i e.tesi*e
readi!G reada)ilit% ad s#ita)ilit% o' $otet( S"e also s#!!ests a$ro%m SAVE 4"i$" s#mmarizes
$riteria 'or $"oosi! e.tesi*e readi! materialsG S"ort3 a//eali!3 *aried3 eas%( Tea$"er is
res/osi)le to #se e*er% tri$k to /ers#ade st#dets to F!et "ooked o )ooksF( Gi*i! st#dets a
/#r/ose 'or readi! is a 4a% o' $li!i! st#dets to readi!( Readi! is a /#r/ose'#l a$ti*it%(
<=
A$$ordi! to Smit" C-77<)3 /( 8D 1a /erso 4"o "as o /#r/ose i readi! $a )ri! ot"i!
to t"e readi! ad t"e a$ti*it% is to )e meai!less2( N#ttall C+,,,3 /( -+;D disti!#is"es t4o 4a%s
to make st#dets read moreG reA#iri! t"em to do so ad tem/ti! to do so(
Da%JBam'ord C+,,<D o''er a #m)er o' a$ti*ities 'or e.tesi*e readi! ela)orated ad #sed
i /ra$ti$e )% e.tesi*e readi! tea$"ers( Most o' t"em are doe i t"e $lassroomH t"e% are di*ided
ito 'ollo4i! se$tiosG !etti! started3 itrod#$i! readi! material3 moti*ati! ad s#//orti!
readi!3 moitori! readi!3 e*al#ati! readi!3 oral readi! re/orts3 drama ad role /la%3 "a*i!
'#3 4ritte readi! re/orts3 4riti! $reati*el%3 de*elo/i! a4areess i readi!3 i$reasi! readi!
rate3 de*elo/i! ad $osolidate *o$a)#lar%( T"ese a$ti*ities are a "el/'#l !#ida$e 'or a tea$"er to
oriet a st#det i e.tesi*e readi!( T"e tea$"ers s"o#ld )e a)le to ask st#dets to des$ri)e eit"er
orall% or i 4riti! 4"at t"e% are t"iki! as t"e% read( T"e amo#t o' readi! learers do i a
readi! $lass is $r#$ial(
N#ttall C+,,,3 /( -<8D does ot re$ommed re!#lar 'ormal testi! o' e.tesi*e readi!( S"e
)elie*es it $a )e dama!i! i' it makes st#dets read less 'reel% ad 4idel% ad 4it" less /leas#re(
Istead s"e s#!!ests re$ords o' )ooks 4"i$" st#dets "a*e read(
Amo! t"e ma% 'a$tors a''e$ti! t"e s"a/e ad s#$$ess o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram3
S$"midt C+,,>D o#tlied 'i*e 'eat#red /romietl% i iter*ie4s 4it" ei!"t e.tesi*e readi!
/ra$titioers at #i*ersities i Oa/aG
-D 6o*i$tios re!ardi! la!#a!e leari!3 es/e$iall% i re!ards to amo#ts o'
$om/re"eded i/#t eeded ad t"e role o' ide/edet readi! Cad listei!D i relatio to ot"er
leari! a$ti*ities
+D De'ii! desired leari! ad attit#dial o#t$omes ad setti! readi! tar!ets ad tasks
a//ro/riatel%(
8D Ada/ti! t"e a//roa$" to ER 'or st#det attit#des3 iterests3 a)ilities3 ad !oals
<D E''e$ti*e itrod#$tio o' a easil% #derstood ER /ro!ram3 4it" o!oi! s#//ort ad
/ersoal 'ollo4B#/
:D De*elo/i! readi! $omm#ities3 iB ad o#tBo'B$lass(
Ma$alister C+,-,D i*esti!ated tea$"ersF attit#des to e.tesi*e readi! i "i!"er ed#$atioal
$ote.ts( T"e tea$"ers ta#!"t at #i*ersit% /re/aratio $o#rses at la!#a!e tea$"i! $eters i Ne4
Wealad( Ma$alister C+,-,D $o$l#des t"at i' e.tesi*e readi! is to )e more 4ides/read i "i!"er
ed#$atioal $ote.ts3 it eeds to )e /romoted t"ro#!" tea$"er ed#$atio3 e4 resear$"3 $"a!es i
<>
$o#rse desi!3 raisi! a4areess amo! admiistrators ad maa!ers3 ad im/ro*ed reso#r$e
/ro*isio( 6larit% C+,,>D $o$l#des "er s$"eme o' im/lemetatio o' a ER /ro!ram 1i' t"e
/ro!ram is maa!ed i a e''e$ti*e3 /ositi*e3 ad o!oi! maer3 e.tesi*e readi! ma% )e oe o'
t"e most *al#a)le lessos i leari! %o# 4ill e*er tea$"(2
/(=( The benefit% of e4ten%i$e redin"
E.tesi*e readi! "as /ositi*e o#t$omes( It $otri)#tes to de*elo/met o' di''eret li!#isti$
as/e$ts( T"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi!3 s#$" as !ais i *o$a)#lar%3 4riti!3 s/elli!3 ad
/ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi!3 are des$ri)ed )% Da% ad Bam'ord C+,,<D3 Bell C+,,-D( N#ttall
C+,,,3 /( -+;D 'orm#lates t"e role o' e.tesi*e readi! i 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio i a
/ers#asi*e slo!a Rt"e )est 4a% to im/ro*e %o#r ko4led!e o' a 'orei! la!#a!e is to !o ad to
li*e amo! its s/eakers( T"e e.t )est 4a% is to read e.tesi*el% i it(2
Steier C-77:D $"ie' is/e$tor 'or E!lis" at Israel miistr% o' ed#$atio3 i "er )ooklet
1Readi! 'or &leas#re2 lists 'ollo4i! )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi!G aD e"a$es 4orld ko4led!e3
)D a$$o#ts 'or oeBt"ird o' *o$a)#lar% !ro4t"3 $D /romotes readi! as a li'elo! a$ti*it%3 dD )#ilds
*o$a)#lar%3 eD )#ilds str#$t#ral a4areess3 'D im/ro*es $om/re"esio skills3 !D /romotes
moti*atio3 "D e$o#ra!es /#/ils to read 'l#etl% ad #se all t"e strate!ies3 iD e$o#ra!es /#/ils to
/ro!ress t"ro#!" di''eret le*els o' te.t ad moitor t"eir o4 /ro!ress3 0D /ro*ides 4it" a
e0o%a)le readi! e./erie$e( Natio C-77>D e./lais t"e )ee'its o' ER 1E.tesi*e readi! is
attra$ti*e 'or se*eral reasosH 'irst3 readi! is essetiall% a idi*id#al a$ti*it% ad t"ere'ore learers
o' di''eret /ro'i$ie$% le*el $o#ld lear at t"eir o4 le*el 4it"o#t )ei! lo$ked ito a i'le.i)le
$lass /ro!ram( Se$od3 it allo4s learers to 'ollo4 t"eir iterests i $"oosi! 4"at to read ad t"#s
i$rease t"eir moti*atio 'or leari!( T"ird3 it /ro*ides t"e o//ort#it% 'or leari! to o$$#r o#tside
t"e $lassroom(2 Elle% C-77-3 //( 8>;B8>7D attri)#tes t"e s#$$ess to 'i*e 'a$torsG aD e.tesi*e i/#t o'
meai!'#l /rit3 )D I$idetal leari!3 $D t"e ite!ratio o' oral ad 4ritte a$ti*it%3 dD 'o$#s o
meai! rat"er t"at 'orm3 eD "i!" itrisi$ moti*atio(
Le#! C+,,+D I*esti!atio 4as $od#$ted o t"e im/a$t o' t"e e.tesi*e readi! o a
ad#ltFs sel'Bst#d% o' Oa/aese o*er a +,B4eek /eriod( Data 4ere $olle$ted 'rom a learer diar%3
a#dioBre$ordi!s 'rom /ri*ateBt#torial sessios ad *o$a)#lar% te.ts( T"e res#lts o' t"is st#d% s"o4
t"at e.tesi*e readi! $a e"a$e *o$a)#lar% a$A#isitio3 readi! $om/re"esio ad /romote
/ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi!( T"e a#t"or admits t"at it is 4ort" i$or/orati! e.tesi*e readi!
<;
ito t"e readi! $#rri$#l#m( T"e a#t"or em/"asizes kee/i! a re$ord o' readi! ad readi! s/eed
re!ardi! t"e e''e$ti*eess o' e.tesi*e readi!(
A$$ordi! to Heradez C-77>D it is di''i$#lt to im/lemet e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram
)e$a#se o' t"e lar!e #m)ers o' )ooks reA#ired alt"o#!" It "as )ee s"o4 to )e e''e$ti*e 'or
E!lis" la!#a!e learers )e$a#se o' t"e /o4er i e./osi! t"em to a lar!e *ol#me o' E!lis"
readi! ad t"e a.iet% red#$i! /o4er o' eas% readi! C$ited i Herrell J Oorda3 +,,;D(
Gra)e C+,,7D idi$ates t"e 'ollo4i! )ee'itsG /ositi*e attit#de ad moti*atio3 *o$a)#lar%
!ro4t"3 de*elo/met o' la!#a!e ad litera$% skills3 $o$e/t#alBko4led!e !ro4t" ad reasoi!(
Here is t"e ta)le o' st#dies related to t"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi!( T"ese st#dies 4ere $arried
o#t i E!lis" as a se$od la!#a!e CESLD or E!lis" as a 'orei! la!#a!e CE?LD3 setti!s(
Table 1.1. T"e st#dies i e.tesi*e readi! sorted )% Gra)e
Re/ort &o/#latio Res#lts
Greae% J He!art% C-7;>D ?i't" !rade st#detsH Irelad &ositi*e $orrelatio )et4ee
amo#t o' time readi!
)ooks ad readi!
$om/re"esio
Elle% J Ma!#)"ai C-7;8D &rimar%H ?i0i Readi! $om/re"esio3
E!lis" !rammar3
*o$a)#lar%3 listei!
$om/re"esio3 4ritte
$om/ositio
Oao/o#los C-7;=D Ui*ersit%3 USA 9riti! /ro'i$ie$%
&itts et al( C-7;7D Ad#ltsH USA *o$a)#lar%
Li!"t)o4 C-7;;B-77+D Readi!3 listei!3
*o$a)#lar%3 s/eaki!
Ro) J S#sser C-7;7D Ui*ersit%3 Oa/a Readi! /ro'i$ie$% ad
/ositi*e a''e$t
Ha'iz J T#dor C-77,D &rimar%3 &akista Vo$a)#lar% )ase ad
4riti!
Elle% C-77-D &rimar%3 Si!a/ore &ro'i$ie$% ad /ositi*e
a''e$t
Gradma J Haaia
C-77-D
1readi! o#tside o' $lass2 N
o#tstadi! /redi$tor o
TOE?L /er'orma$e
<7
Lai C-778aH -778)D Se$odar%3 Ho!BKo! Readi! /ro'i$ie$% ad
*o$a)#lar%
6"o J Kras"e C-77<D Ad#lts3 USA Readi! /ro'i$ie$%3
*o$a)#lar%3 /ositi*e a''e$t3
ad oral skills
Rodri!o C-77:D Ui*ersit%3 USA &ositi*e a''e$t
Maso J Kras"e C-77>D Ui*ersit%3 Oa/a Readi! /ro'i$ie$%3
/ositi*e a''e$t ad 4riti!
Elle% C+,,,D Readi! $om/re"esio
Taaka J Sta/leto C+,,>D Hi!" s$"ool3 Oa/a &ositi*e attit#de
/(>( Redin" in Geor"in nd Ru%%in forei"n ln"u"e te!hin"
methodolo"-
I t"e -7;,s all t"e 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' #i*ersities i Geor!ia s"ared t"e same
$#rri$#la3 similar dis$i/lies ad /ro!rams 4it" t"e *ariatio o' material #sed to tea$"( T"e tea$"i!
met"ods ad a//roa$"es a//lied i t"ese /ro!rams 4ere t"e same( Mostl% t"ese /ro!rams re'le$ted
t"e i'l#e$e o' R#ssia met"odolo!ists ad t"eir !ais i tea$"i! 'orei! la!#a!es(
T"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram ko4 as "ome readi! 4as /o/#lar i t"e -7;,s ad e*e
later( Home readi! "as some $ommo as/e$ts 4it" e.tesi*e readi! ad o)*io#s di''ere$es(
Kli$"iko*a C-7>8D des$ri)es "ome readi! as a a//roa$" 4"i$" ser*es t4o !oalsG aD meas to
$osolidate t"e readi! skills leared at t"e lessos ad )D /re/aratio 'or ot"er $lassroom a$ti*ities(
S"e admits t"at "ome readi! s"o#ld )e e0o%a)le 'or t"e reader3 alt"o#!" sometimes t"is
e0o%met is dimiis"ed )% a)#dat 'ollo4B#/ a$ti*ities( K"ali#k C-7;>3 /( 8,D s#!!ests t"at
readi! o' a lar!e A#atit% o' eas% materials $a s#//ort t"e moti*atio 'or readi! ad e$o#ra!e
o)taii! s/e$i'i$ la!#a!e skills more e''e$ti*el%( R#ssia met"odolo!ists ad tea$"ers o''er ma%
kids o' te.tB)ased a$ti*ities( Koriaktse*a C-7;>D makes disti$tio )et4ee /"ilolo!i$al ad
li!#isti$ readi! at t"e 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets( &"ilolo!i$al readi! is orieted o $#lt#ral
$otet( T"e readi! material i /"ilolo!i$al readi! is mail% literar% 4orks3 4"ere $#lt#ral as/e$ts
o' a 'orei! la!#a!e are more *i*idl% /reseted( O t"e ot"er "ad li!#isti$ readi! is 'o$#sed o
t"e la!#a!e o' t"e te.tH t"e te.t is t"e meas to e./ad a learerFs la!#a!e $om/ete$e( Li!#isti$
readi! is mail% #sed to i$rease *o$a)#lar% o' a learer or i a a#toomo#s leari!( T"is kid
o' readi! is im/ortat i /ro'essioal ed#$atio( R#ssia met"odolo!ists did ot $ome to a disti$t
/ro$ed#re o' tea$"i! "ome readi!( Mostl% t"e% disti!#is"ed t4o /"ases i "ome readi!( T"e
:,
'irst /"ase 4as readi! ad t"e ot"er 4as t"e seA#e$e o' a$ti*ities 4"i$" 4ere *o$a)#lar% 4ork3
$om/re"esio a$ti*ities3 dis$#ssio3 ad 4riti! a$$ordi! to ?adee* C-7>7D3 Balakire* C-7;;D3
Skazki* C-7;+D( ?#rt"ermore3 t"ere is o a!reemet amo! R#ssia met"odolo!ists 4"et"er to #se
t"e a$ti*ities )ased o *o$a)#lar% ad !rammar str#$t#res /reset i t"e readi! material( Nat#rall%3
t"e sele$tio o' t"ese a$ti*ities )% a tea$"er de/eds o 4"at t"e aim o' "ome readi! is( I' t"e
/#r/ose o' "ome readi! is readi! itsel'3 t"e t"e a$ti*ities 4ill ser*e to $"e$k st#detsF
$om/re"esio o' te.ts( I additio3 i' t"e /#r/ose o' "ome readi! is to lead some dis$#ssios
a)o#t t"e material 4"i$" st#dets read3 t"e t"ere 4ill )e s#//lemetar% tasks 4"i$" 4ill s#//ort
st#detsF dis$#ssios(
I Geor!ia 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i! met"odolo!% readi! is /rimaril% $osidered to )e t"e
so#r$e o' i'ormatio ad at t"e same time t"e meas o' la!#a!e leari! i(e( readi! is t"e !oal o'
la!#a!e leari! as 4ell as meas( Kra*eis"*ili C+,,+3 //( -=8B-=<D des$ri)es readi! a//roa$"es
ad metios e.tesi*e readi! as a a//roa$" t"at 'o$#ses o t"e lar!e A#atit% o' readi! material
4"i$" /resets t"e !oal o' tea$"i! readi!H t"e readerFs attetio is tar!eted at t"e meai! o' t"e
4ritte 'orm( I aot"er met"odolo!i$al /#)li$atio CTsitsis"*ili3 R(3 Ni0aradze3 N(3 Dar$"ia3 M(3
Te*zia3 M(3 J Tka*as"*ili3 E(3 +,,=D e.tesi*e readi! is de'ied as a a//roa$" #sed to im/ro*e a
st#detFs readi! a)ilit%( It 'o$#ses o readi! materials i t"e tar!et la!#a!e i a ra/id ad $as#al
4a% 4it" a em/"asis o A#atit% rat"er t"a A#alit%(
/(?( 'ontribution to the re%er!h re
Oe o' t"e earl% /#)li$atios o tea$"i! "ome readi! is )% Tsitsadze desi!ated 'or
seior st#dets o' 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities( A$$ordi! to Tsitsadze
C-7;>3 //( 8B<D t"e !oal o' "ome readi! is to de*elo/ a learerFs readi! skill ad readi!
$om/re"esio3 eri$" *o$a)#lar% ad im/ro*e s/eaki! skill( T"is "el/'#l te.t)ook 'or tea$"i!
"ome readi! is )ased o s"ort stories a'ter O( Sali!er( Ea$" stor% is es#ed )% e4 4ords ad
4ord $om)iatios to remem)erH le.i$al #its 'or re*isioH *o$a)#lar% e.er$ises Ce(!( traslatio3
/ara/"rase3 mat$"i!3 et$(D aimed at remem)eri! le.i$al itemsH A#estios ad to/i$s 'or
dis$#ssios( Tsitsadze $osiders t"at "ome readi! ea)les to itrod#$e li!#isti$ aal%sis ad
a$ko4led!es t"at t"e amo#t o' readi! is /re'era)l% 8, /a!es o' a#t"eti$ material a 4eek( I
order to rea$" readi! $om/re"esio3 4"i$" s"o#ld )e miim#m =,QB;,Q a$$ordi! to t"e
reA#iremets o' moder met"odolo!% o' tea$"i! "ome readi!3 t"e list o' o)li!ator% 4ords ad
:-
4ord $om)iatios 4ill ot )e eo#!"( St#dets 4ill "a*e to a$A#ire /artl% a$ti*el% ad /artl%
/assi*el% le.i$al #its t"ro#!" e.er$ises ad A#estios(
I +,,< t"e /ro'essioal ad ed#$atioal 0o#ral RTsi!ieriF CDzam#kas"*ili et al(3 +,,<D
/#)lis"ed a s#r*e% a)o#t litera$% o' -:B%ear old learers i T)ilisi( T"e s#r*e% 4as $od#$ted )% t"e
'a$#lt% o' &s%$"olo!% o' I*ae Oa*ak"is"*ili T)ilisi State Ui*ersit% i +,,8( T"e model o' t"e
s#r*e% )elo!ed to &ISA C&ro!ram o' Iteratioal St#dets AssessmetD 4"i$" i +,,, $arried o#t
t"e similar s#r*e%s i 8+ $o#tries(
I Geor!ia oe o' t"e 'o$#ses o' t"is s#r*e% 4as readi! i ati*e la!#a!e( T"e 'ollo4i!
iss#es 4ere e./loredG aD attit#de to4ards readi! amo! -:B%ear old st#dets )D moti*atio i
readi! $D Sel'B$otrol i a$A#isitio o' readi! material( +,, -:B%earBold st#dets 'rom T)ilisi
/arti$i/ated i t"is s#r*e% 4"i$" re*ealed t"e 'ollo4i!H t"e !eeral iterest ad /ositi*e attit#de
to4ard readi! 4as o)*io#s( T"e moti*atio i readi! 4as "i!" N 7=Q3 alt"o#!" ol% <,Q o' t"e
st#dets #sed to read a)o#t -B+ "o#rs a da%( ;:Q o' t"e st#dets e./osed "i!" sel'B$otrol( I' sel'B
$otrol idi$ator is $om/ared 4it" t"e amo#t o' readi! st#dets did i a da%3 t"e t"is #m)er
/ro*es to )e i$o!r#o#s( T"e $o$l#sio o' t"is s#r*e% states t"at t"e moti*atio is "i!" ad sel'B
$otrol is e''e$ti*e3 e*e t"o#!" t"e #m)er o' st#dets3 4"o read e*er% da%3 is mior3 ad t"e time
s/et o readi! is little too( T"e root o' t"is i$o!r#o#s 'a$t !oes to t"e iadeA#ate tea$"i! o'
readi! i Geor!ia ed#$atioal istit#tiosH $oseA#etl%3 readi! as a "a)it ad li'elo! a$ti*it% is
*er% 4eak(
Aot"er st#d% $o$ers "ome readi! ad t"e strate!ies o' its tea$"i!( Daelia C+,,:D
/resets "er st#d% o "ome readi! at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' t"e #i*ersities i T)ilisi(
-,, st#dets ad +, tea$"ers o' "ome readi! /arti$i/ated i "er s#r*e%( Here are some $o$l#sios
made )% Daelia C+,,:3 /( -8,DG
-( ;7Q o' t"e tea$"ers $osider t"at t"e% #se iteresti! materialsH ol% +8Q o' t"e st#dets
a!ree 4it" t"e tea$"ersF o/iio3 4"i$" idi$ates t"at st#detsF iterests ad desires are ot
take ito $osideratio( =,Q o' t"e tea$"ers ad 7+Q o' t"e st#dets a$ko4led!e t"at most
o' t"e readi! materials are A#ite di''i$#lt ad t"e /lots are A#ite $#m)ersome(
+( Home4ork i$l#des readi! ad memorizatio o' le.i$al #its( I t"e $lassroom3 mail%
a$ti*ities are related to retelli! t"e s#mmaries ad testi! e4 *o$a)#lar%H dis$#ssios are
rarel% #sed(
:+
8( 8<Q o' t"e st#dets t"ik t"at it is /ossi)le to tea$" "ome readi! )etter ad to make t"is
/ro!ram m#$" more /leasat(
<( =,Q o' t"e st#dets e./ress t"eir desire o' "a*i! more $reati*it% i "ome readi!(
:( T"e tea$"ers ad t"e st#dets3 )ot"3 ar!#e t"e ia//ro/riateess o' di''i$#lt ad lar!e A#atit%
o' readi! materialsH *er% o'te readi! o' a )ook is ot $om/leted 4it"i a semester( Most o'
t"e res/odets /re'er to read smaller )ooks(
=( =,Q o' t"e tea$"ers ad :;Q o' t"e st#dets )elie*e t"at s#$$ess'#l tea$"i! o' "ome readi!
4ill $otri)#te to masteri! ot"er t"eoreti$al s#)0e$ts(
Daelia C+,,=3 /( :D set t"e 'ollo4i! A#estios a)o#t tea$"i! "ome readi!G 9"at kid o'
readi! materials s"o#ld )e sele$tedL 9"at s"o#ld )e t"e !oals o' "ome readi!L Ho4 $a t"e
readi! materials 'or "ome4ork )e $"e$ked i t"e $lassroomL A$$ordi! to Daelia C+,,:D3
4orki! o a readi! material i "ome readi! /ro!ramme $osists o' t"e 'ollo4i! /ri$i/lesG
s%stematizatio3 $osiste$%3 ad a$$essi)ilit%( St#detsF assi!met is readi! at "ome a /art or a
4"ole literar% 4ork ad doi! e.er$ises )ased o t"is readi! material( T"e e.er$ises are $"e$ked i
$lass( T"e 'o$#s o' "ome readi! is ot t"e *ol#meI amo#t o' readi!3 )#t a$A#ired ko4led!e ad
skills( Daelia $o$l#des t"at "ome readi! or soB$alled Re.tesi*e readi!F s"o#ld )e istr#$ted at
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets( Readi! materials3 #tilized i "ome readi!3 s"o#ld $om)ie
tea$"i! o' la!#a!e 4it" $otets3 st%le3 literat#re3 ad $#lt#re( S"e el#$idates t"at 4"ile tea$"i!
"ome readi! it does ot im/l% solel% tea$"i! readi! skillsH moreo*er3 it i*ol*es tea$"i! o'
ot"er la!#a!e skills B s/eaki!3 readi!3 4riti!3 ad !rammar( A$ti*ities related to t"ese skills
s"o#ld )e #sed i t"e /ro!ram( S"e re$ommeds t"e s%stem o' a$ti*ities i "ome readi!( T"is
s%stem dis$ers t"e a$ti*itiesG
doe at "ome ad i t"e $lassroom
at di''eret sta!es o' readi!
doe idi*id#all%3 i /airs ad !ro#/s
related to !eeral #derstadi! ad details
'or s%t"eti$ ad aal%ti$al readi!
To s#m #/3 t"e 'irst resear$" /resets t"e tede$% i L- litera$% amo! -:B%earBold st#dets
i Geor!ia( T"e st#dets *al#e readi! )#t allot a little time 'or doi! it( T"e se$od resear$" is t"e
'irst attem/t to e./ose t"e s"ort$omi!s3 s#$" as di''i$#lt ad ia//ro/riate readi! material3 i
tea$"i! "ome readi!( Daelia C+,,-D ela)orates tea$"i! o' "ome readi!3 4"ere s"e ames
:8
R"ome readi!F as Re.tesi*e readi!F( A$$ordi! to DaeliaFs de'iitio "ome readi! resem)les a
la!#a!e de*elo/met /ro!ram 4"i$" 'o$#ses o di''eret la!#a!e skills $o$#rretl%H e*e t"e
a$ti*ities ser*e t"is 'o$#s(
A$$e/ti! "ome readi! as e.tesi*e readi! is *er% $ommo amo! Geor!ia 'orei!
la!#a!e met"odolo!ists( It is im/ortat to )ri! li!"t to t"e /oit t"at e.tesi*e readi! di''ers
'rom "ome readi!(
/(/@( The ob2e!ti$e% of the %tud-
It is o)*io#s t"at Geor!ia met"odolo!ists ado/ted t"e de'iitio o' ER i !eeral 4it"i t"e
'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i! met"odolo!%3 alt"o#!" t"e% did ot $osider 4"ere3 "o4 ad 4"% to #se
ERL It is e*idet t"at t"is area is ot st#died at all ad t"ere is e*e o $lear /i$t#re "o4 to itrod#$e
ER as a /ro!ram( Aot"er *oid is i t"e A#estio o' tea$"i! ER at #i*ersit% le*el(
9it" /er#se o' e.tesi*e readi! t"ro#!" t"e am/le literat#re ad resear$"3 t"e 'ollo4i!
A#estios 4ere s"a/edG
=( 9"at readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams are t"ere at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia
#i*ersitiesL
>( 9"at are t"e di''ere$es )et4ee t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ta#!"t at Geor!ia
#i*ersities ad a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ramL
;( Ho4 t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams $a )e $"a!ed ito a s#$$ess'#l e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ramL
7( 9"at met"odolo!% $a )e t"e )asis 'or t"e im/latatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram at
Geor!ia #i*ersitiesL
-,( 9"at 4ill )e t"e o#t$omes o' e./erimetal tea$"i! o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i
$om/ariso 4it" t"e e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!ramsL
9e ela)orated t"e as4ers to t"ese A#estios ito a "%/ot"esisG
B T"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets re'le$t t"e i'l#e$e o'
"ome readi! /ro!ram desi!ed )% R#ssia met"odolo!ists( T"e readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams do ot $orres/od to a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ramH t"#s3 t"ese readi! de*elo/met
:<
/ro!rams reA#ire s/e$ial im/ro*emets as 4ell as alteratios i order to )e de*elo/ed ito
s#$$ess'#l e.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams(
B T"e tea$"i! model o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram is learer a#toom%( De'ii!
moti*atioal 'o$i ad ela)orati! t"eir 'rame4orks 4it"i t"is /ro!ram 4ill i$rease learersF
moti*atio i readi!(
B Im/lemeti! a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i Geor!ia #i*ersities o t"e )asis o'
a#toomo#s leari! 4ill /romote learersF )etter /er'orma$e( I t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!
at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet3 e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 4ill $otri)#te to )etter res#lts i
de*elo/i! !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad !rammar more t"a ot"er readi! de*elo/met
/ro!ramsH it 4ill e$o#ra!e Geor!ia learersM /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi!3 i$rease t"eir
moti*atio ad 'orm li'elo! readi! "a)it(
B I t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! at t"e 'orei! la!#a!e $eter CTela*i State Ui*ersit%D t"e !ro#/
t"at e.tesi*el% read )ooks 4it"o#t dire$t istr#$tio ad 'ollo4B#/ a$ti*ities 4ill $otri)#te
to di''eret res#lts i de*elo/i! !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad !rammar 'rom t"e !ro#/
t"at did ot read s#//lemet material(
'5APTER II
READING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
AT GEORGIAN UNIVERSITIES
0(/( A Sur$e- of the Redin" De$elo#ment Pro"rm% t Geor"in
Uni$er%itie%
0(/(/( Method%
T"e /o/#larit% o' e.tesi*e readi! stim#lated #s to e.amie t"e readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities ad $om/are t"em 4it"
e.tesi*e readi!( T"e 'ollo4i! A#estio !#ided o#r /relimiar% st#d%G 9"at readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams are t"ere at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersitiesL To as4er t"e
resear$" A#estios I $"ose A#atitati*e met"od N s#r*e%i!( S#r*e% "as some ad*ata!es a$$ordi!
to Bro4 J Rod!ers C+,,+DG
::
A 4ide ra!e o' i'ormatio $a )e $olle$ted(
Be$a#se t"e% are stadardized3 t"e% are relati*el% 'ree 'rom se*eral t%/es o' errors(
T"e% are relati*el% eas% to admiister(
Sam/le s#r*e%s are #s#all% $"ea/ to $od#$t
S#r*e%s are stro! 4it" res/e$t to e.teral *alidit%H t"eir res#lts ma% )e !eeralized to a
4ider /o/#latio(
?or t"ese reasos s#r*e%i! 4as e*isioed as t"e a/t 4a% o' $olle$ti! i'ormatio to
as4er t"e resear$" A#estios( T4o s#r*e%s 4ere $od#$ted 4it"i t"is resear$"(
T"e 'irst s#r*e% 4as $od#$ted i ma0or #i*ersities o' Geor!ia( T"e s#r*e% aimed to 'ill t"e
!a/ a)o#t e.isti! e.teded readi! /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets( I $ota$ted t"e
"eads o' t"e 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets to ask 'or t"eir assista$e( T"e admiistrators 4ere ea!er
to /ro*ide 4it" t"e i'ormatio a)o#t t"ese /ro!rams ad !a*e me t"e $ota$ts o' t"e /ro!ram
istr#$tors(
0(/(0( Prti!i#nt%
T"e s#r*e% 4as $od#$ted i se*e ma0or #i*ersities o' Geor!ia CI T)ilisi N 8 #i*ersities3
Bat#mi B -3 Gori B-3 Tela*i B -3 K#taisi B -D i +,-,( T"e as4er s"eets 'illed )% t"e istr#$tors o' t"e
readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram 4ere #m)ered radoml% 'rom - to >( I oe o' t"e #i*ersities t4o
tea$"ers istead o' oe /ro*ided as4ers i t"e A#estioaire( Bot" tea$"ersF as4ers Ci' t"e
as4ers are di''eret3 t"e% are se/arated )% slas"D ad a//roa$"es i tea$"i! a readi!
de*elo/met /ro!ram are /reseted i t"e ta)le )elo4 i t"e se$tio o' #i*ersit% N:(
0(/(8( Pro!edure%
T"e A#estios i t"e A#estioaire 4ere o/eBeded C$'( A//edi. -7( T"ere 4ere 'i'tee
A#estios3 4"i$" aimed at re*eali!G -D /ro!ram /ro'ile3 +D t"e readi! material i t"e /ro!rams ad
t"e as/e$ts $oe$ted to it3 ad 8D t"e )ee'its o' t"e /ro!rams( T"e A#estios related to /ro!ram
/ro'ile asked a)o#t t"e title o' t"e /ro!ram3 d#ratio o' it3 t"e le*el it starts at3 a$ti*ities doe i t"e
$lassroomI"ome( T"e A#estios i t"e se$od !ro#/ dis$losed amo#t o' readi! assi!met i a
4eek3 amo#t o' e4 le.i$al #its 'or ea$" assi!met3 !eres3 4"o $"ooses t"e readi! material3
:=
et$( I t"e t"ird !ro#/ t"e A#estios asked a)o#t tea$"ersF o/iio a)o#t t"e /ossi)le )ee'its a'ter
$om/leti! t"is /ro!ram3 i' st#dets like t"is /ro!ram(
T"e A#estioaires 4ere set to t"e tea$"ers 4"o istr#$t t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams
at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets )% eBmail( It took t"ree mot"s to $olle$t t"e data 'rom all t"e
#i*ersities( T"e as4ers are !i*e i t"e ta)le(
Table 2.1. T"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia
Ui*ersities i +,-,(
E#estios Ui*ersit%
-
Ui*ersit%
+
Ui*ersit% 8 Ui*ersit%
<
Ui*ersit% :X Ui*ersit% = Ui*ersit% >
Title o' t"e
/ro!ram
Home
readi!
Readi! C:
%ears a!o
1"ome
readi!2D
?i$tio
readi!
A$ademi$
readi!
&assi*e "ome
readi!
Itesi*e
readi!
Home readi!
Ho#rs i a
4eek
+ - - - a$ademi$
"o#r i +B
4eek
+ I 'ree
s$"ed#le
- +
D#ratio o'
t"e /ro!ram
Ci termsD
+ = 8 B < < ; B -+ + 8 B <
T"e
/ro!ram
starts i
'o#rt"
semester
t"ird
semester
t"ird semester se$od
semester
se$od
semester
t"ird or 'o#rt"
semester
se$od
semester
Readi!
material is
$"ose )%
Tea$"er Tea$"er Tea$"er Tea$"er Tea$"erI
St#dets XXX
Tea$"er Tea$"er
Amo#t o'
readi!
doe at
"ome i a
4eek
;B-, /a!es No readi!
at "ome
At t"e
)e!ii! +B8
/a!es3 o t"e
#//er le*el
more
-B+ /a!es -,B+, /a!esI
> /a!es
8B< /a!es >B-: /a!es
Geres read
i t"is
/ro!ram
o*els B No*els3
dete$ti*es
I'ormati*
e ad
s$ieti'i$
te.ts
?i$tio3
dete$ti*e3
ad*et#re
S"ort stories3
o*els
S"ort stories3
o*els
9orki!
/ro$ess
Readi!
ad
retelli!3
$"e$ki!
6lass 4ork3
readi! ad
readi!
$om/re"es
Readi! i
$lass3 4orki!
o e4 le.is3
traslatio3 o
Readi! at
"ome ad
doi!
readi!
Readi! ad
retelli!3
looki! #/ t"e
meai!s ad
&reBreadi!
a$ti*ities3
dis$#ssio
&reBreadi!
a$ti*ities3 /ostB
readi!
a$ti*ities
:>
t"e
ko4led!e
o' e4
4ords
io
a$ti*ities
#//er le*el
4orki!
ide/edetl%
at "ome
$om/re"e
sio
a$ti*ities
i $lass
leari! e4
4ords
Amo#t o'
e4 4ords
i ea$"
assi!met
More t"a
+, 4ords
It de/eds
o t"e le*el
It de/eds o
t"e le*el
=B-: 4ords -,B-: 4ordsI
B% t"e ed o'
t"e semester
st#dets 4ill
"a*e a$A#ired
8,, e4 4ords
-:B+, 4ords -:B+, 4ords
A$ti*ities
doe at
"ome
Readi!3
traslatio3
looki! #/
t"e e4
4ords i
t"e
di$tioar%3
leari!
e4 4ords
Y Readi!3
traslatio3
looki! #/ t"e
e4 4ords i
t"e di$tioar%3
leari! e4
4ords
Readi! Readi!3
looki! #/ t"e
e4 4ords i
t"e di$tioar%3
leari! e4
4ords3 lear
t"e te.t to
retell
Readi!3
leari! e4
4ords3 4riti!
a essa%3
aal%zi!
ideas i t"e
material
Readi!3
leari! a te.t3
a$ti*ities
related to le.is3
!rammar3
st%listi$3
/"raseolo!i$al
#its
6lassroom
a$ti*ities
Retelli!
ad
$"e$ki!
t"e
ko4led!e
o' e4
4ords
Readi!
$om/re"es
io
a$ti*ities3
tr#e ad
'alse3
As4er t"e
A#estios3
traslatio3
retelli!3
dis$#ss t"e
$"ara$ters
Mat$"i!
s%o%ms3
ato%ms3
m#lti/le
$"oi$e3 !a/
'illi!
Retelli!3
testi! e4
4ords3
as4eri! t"e
A#estios
retelli! t"e
/lot3
iter/retatio3
li!#isti$
aal%ses3
dis$#ssio
Retelli! t"e
/lot3
6"e$ki!
"ome
assi!met3
aal%sis o' t"e
te.t3
traslatio
St#dets
like t"is
/ro!ram
%es %es %es %es Ma0orit%I o %es %es
Reasos
4"%
st#dets
like t"is
/ro!ram
E./ad
t"eir
*o$a)#lar%3
Lear e4
t"i!s
O)tai
*ario#s
i'ormatio
3 de*elo/
le.is3 read
di''eret
te.ts
Itera$ti*e
le$t#re3 $a
e./ress t"eir
o/iios
T"e to/i$s
are
'amiliar3 as
t"e% st#d%
t"ese
to/i$s i
Geor!ia
E./ress t"eir
o/iios3 read
di''eret te.ts
Get a$A#aited
4it" di''eret
4orks o'
Ameri$a I
Britis" 4riters3
4rite essa%s3
'orm o/iio3
i$rease
*o$a)#lar%
Lear st%listi$
aal%sisI
so$io$#lt#ral
aal%sis3
de*elo/
$omm#i$ati*e
skills3
:;
6"a!es
%o# 4ill
make i
tea$"i! o'
t"is
/ro!ram
Add time Add time Add time Utilize
*ideo
material
Add
traslatio o'
some
im/ortat /arts
'rom t"e te.ts
as a a$ti*it%
Add time Add time
A!ree 4it"
t"e tea$"i!
model o'
t"is
/ro!ram
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bee'its
a'ter
$om/leti!
t"is
/ro!ram
Gais i
Vo$a)#lar%
3
Litera$%3
readi!
skill
Gais
Vo$a)#lar%
3
Litera$%
Readi!
$om/re"esio
3
Traslatio3
idi*id#al
4ork3
retelli!
Readi!
skill3
skimmi!3
s$ai!
readi!
idi*id#all%3
$omm#i$atio
3 deali! 4it"
e4 le.is I
T"e tea$"i!
model
reA#ires
$"a!es XX
Readi!
$om/re"esio
3 4riti!3
Iter/retatio
skill3 maki!
liks )et4ee
i'ormatio
ad o/iio
Vo$a)#lar%3
La!#a!e
skills3 4riti!
skills3
0(/(9( Re%ult%
T"e a'oremetioed disa!reemets C see $"a/ter I3 se$tio -(;D i "ome readi! tea$"i!
met"odolo!% are $#rretl% re'le$ted i 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities( I all
resear$"ed #i*ersities t"ere is o $ommo a//roa$" i tea$"i! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams(
)he titles of these programs *ar% 4it"i t"e #i*ersities( T"ree o' t"ese #i*ersities still "a*e
t"e /ro!ram )% t"e ame "ome readi!3 t"e #i*ersit% N+ admitted t"at 8 %ears a!o "ome readi!
e.isti! at t"eir 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmetH ot"ers "a*e $"a!ed t"e title o' t"e /ro!ram ito
1Readi!23 1Itesi*e readi!23 ad 1A$ademi$ readi!2(
)he amount of hours in a ,ee0 and duration o' t"ese /ro!rams *ar% 'rom #i*ersit% to
#i*ersit%( T4o mai /atters "o4 t"ese /ro!rams 4ork $a )e o#tliedG -B+ a$ademi$ "o#rIs i a
4eek 4it" t"e d#ratio + or < semesters( I #i*ersit% N: t"e /ro!ram "as 'ree s$"ed#le ad t"e
$olloA#i#ms are "eld a$$ordi! to t"e st#dets demad(
)he le(el at ,hich the programs start is t"e same 'or 8 #i*ersities N i t"e t"ird semester
ad 'or 8 #i*ersities N i t"e se$od semester(
:7
1ho selects the reading material is t"e /oit t"at all a$ademi$ias o' t"e #i*ersities are
#aimo#s( All o' t"em idi$ated t"at t"e tea$"er o' t"e /ro!ram $"ooses t"e readi! materials
taki! ito $osideratio t"e learersF la!#a!e le*el3 alt"o#!" i #i*ersit% N: t"ere is a
modi'i$atioH t"e st#dets are 'ree to sele$t )ooks 'rom t"e /re/ared readi! /ro!ram 4"i$"
mat$"es t"eir la!#a!e le*el(
)he amount of reading done at home is aot"er $otro*ersial iss#e o' t"ese /ro!rams( T"e
/ro!ram o' #i*ersit% N+ does ot e*e "a*e readi! assi!mets at "ome 4"ile ot"ers /reseted
di''eret 'i!#res( N< "as *er% small amo#t o' readi! B -B+ /a!es ad #i*ersit% N: "as t"e most
readi! amo#t( Ot"ers *ar% 'rom B+B8 /a!es to >B -: /a!es(
)he genres of reading materials are t"e same 'or 'i*e #i*ersities( T"e% are 'i$tio3 o*els3
ad dete$ti*e stories( T"e #i*ersit% N+ as it 4as o)ser*ed does ot "a*e readi! assi!mets at
"ome( A te.t)ook t"at is #sed i t"is /ro!ram is 'o$#sed o de*elo/i! readi! skills ad i$l#des
di''eret s"ort i'ormati*e te.tsH as a res#lt3 !ere is ot s/e$i'ied( Ot"er t%/es o' te.ts o''ered )%
#i*ersit% N < are te.ts 'rom /o/#lar s$ie$e ad s$ieti'i$ so#r$es( It is si!i'i$at to metio t"at
t"e readi! materials i t"e /ro!rams are #a)rid!ed(
)he stages of the programs differ from uni(ersity to uni(ersity+ I t4o #i*ersities t"e% are
alike( T"e #i*ersities N= ad N> i t"eir /ro!ram tea$"i! i$l#de /reBreadi! ad /ost readi!
a$ti*ities i t"eir tea$"i! /ro!rams( T"e #i*ersities N+ ad N8 des$ri)e t"eir /ro!ram tea$"i!
/ro$ess as readi! i $lass 'ollo4ed )% traslatio ad additioal readi! $om/re"esio a$ti*itiesH
t"e #i*ersit% N8 makes disti$tio )et4ee t"e /ro!ram ta#!"t at lo4er le*el ad t"e "i!"er le*el(
T"is alteratio o' t"e /ro!ram de/eds o learersF la!#a!e skills ad e./erie$e !aied at t"e
lo4er le*el( At t"e "i!"er le*el t"e /ro!ram /ro$ed#re i*ol*es !i*i! readi! assi!mets to
st#dets at "ome 4it"o#t a% /reBreadi! a$ti*ities ad e./laatio i $lass( T"e #i*ersities N-3
N< ad N: i t"eir /ro!rams do ot "a*e /reBreadi! a$ti*ities( T"e material is !i*e to st#dets to
read at "ome ad t"e% retell ad /er'orm di''eret a$ti*ities o t"e 'ollo4i! le$t#re(
)he amount of ne, ,ords for each reading assignment is a)o#t -:B+, 4ords3 ad e*e more
t"a +, 4ords( T4o #i*ersities did ot !i*e a s/e$i'i$ as4er to t"is A#estio( T"e% /oited o#t
t"at t"e amo#t o' e4 le.is de/eds o t"e le*el t"e /ro!ram is ta#!"t at3 alt"o#!" t"e%
a$ko4led!e t"at t"ere is t"e amo#t o' e4 le.is 'or ea$" assi!met i t"ese readi! /ro!rams(
T"e least amo#t o' 4ords3 =B-: 4ords3 is 'o#d i t"e /ro!ram o' #i*ersit% N< 4"ere t"e readi!
=,
assi!met is -B+ /a!es( Oe o' t"e tea$"ers o' #i*ersit% N: /oited o#t t"at )% t"e ed o' t"e
semester t"e st#dets 4ill "a*e leared 8,, e4 4ords(
Acti(ities at home are a)#dat i some /ro!rams( Mail% t"ese a$ti*ities are related to
a$A#iri! *o$a)#lar%3 traslati! ad 4riti! a essa% or a $om/ositio( I t"e /ro!ram o'
#i*ersit% N> t"e a$ti*ities doe at "ome are m#$" more ela)oratedH t"e% $osist o' !rammar3 le.is3
readi! $om/re"esio a$ti*ities ad st%listi$ aal%sis( I most /ro!rams st#dets !et read% to retell
t"e /lot or s#mmar% o' t"e material( Classroom acti(ities are $om/rised /rimaril% retelli! ad /ostB
readi! a$ti*ities( T"ese /ostBreadi! a$ti*ities are 'o$#sed o *o$a)#lar%3 !rammar3 readi!
$om/re"esio Ce(!( mat$"i!3 !a/ 'illi!3 tr#e ad 'alse3 m#lti/leB$"oi$e a$ti*itiesD3 li!#isti$ ad
st%listi$ aal%sesH aot"er a$ti*it% 4"i$" is $ommo to t"ese /ro!rams is dis$#ssio( T"ree
#i*ersit% /ro!rams #se dis$#ssio as s/eaki! a$ti*it% t"at ea)les st#dets to e./ress t"eir
o/iios a)o#t a idea ad $"ara$ters i t"e readi! materials(
Almost all o' t"e tea$"ers o' t"ese /ro!rams Ce.$e/t oe tea$"er 'rom #i*ersit% N:2
#aimo#sl% a!ree t"at students li0e their reading programs( I t"e e.t A#estio t"e% !i*e
e./laatios to t"e st#detsF /re'ere$e( T"e% $lari'% t"at st#dets like t"e s/e$i'i$ /ro!ram )e$a#se
o' t"e !ais ad )ee'its t"at st#dets o)tai 'rom t"e readi! /ro!ramH !eerall% t"ese !ais are i
*o$a)#lar%3 !eeral ko4led!e ad 4riti!( T"e #i*ersit% N8 /oits o#t t"e 'ormat o' le$t#re N a
itera$ti*e le$t#re B as a attra$ti*e e*iromet 'or t"e st#dets( ?or #i*ersit% N> t"e reaso 4"%
st#dets like t"e s/e$i'i$ /ro!ram is t"e de*elo/met o' some la!#a!e skillsG s/eaki! ad t"e
a)ilit% o' st%listi$ ad so$io$#lt#ral aal%ses( Ui*ersit% N< "ad t"e most #e./e$ted as4er( It
seems t"at st#dets3 4"o alread% ko4 t"e to/i$s i Geor!ia3 'id it eas% ad e0o%a)le to read t"e
same te.ts i E!lis"H t"#s t"e% like t"is /ro!ram(
Almost all o' t"e tea$"ers o' t"e /ro!rams $osider /ro*idi! additional hours of teaching as
a $r#$ial 'a$tor to make t"e /ro!ram more s#$$ess'#l ad /rod#$ti*e( Ol% i t"e /ro!ram o'
#i*ersit% N< t"e *ideo material is si!i'ied as a e$essar% $"a!e ad i t"e /ro!ram o' #i*ersit%
N: B addi! traslatio o' readi! materials as a a$ti*it%( All o' t"e tea$"ers o' t"e readi!
/ro!rams a$$e/t t"e tea$"i! model o' t"eir /ro!rams ad o$e more o#tlie t"e )ee'its t"e
st#dets !ai a'ter $om/leti! t"e readi! /ro!rams( T"ese )ee'its areG i$rease i *o$a)#lar%3
!ais i litera$%3 readi! $om/re"esio3 di''eret readi! skills B skimmi! ad s$ai!3 4riti!3
idi*id#al 4ork3 a)ilit% to aal%ze( Oe o' t"e tea$"ers o' #i*ersit% N: s#!!ested some $"a!es 'or
t"is /ro!ramG t"e 'irst3 testi! o' t"e readi! material s"o#ld )e $"a!ed( Most o' t"e st#dets 'id
=-
t"e eas% 4a% o' a*oidi! readi!( T"e% )orro4 'rom ot"er st#dets oteB)ooks 4it" t"e otes made
'rom t"e te.ts ad /reted as i' t"e% "a*e read t"e te.t( S"e a$ko4led!ed t"at st#dets do ot like
t"e /ro!ram3 ad said t"at3 1t"ere s"o#ld )e a met"od 4"i$" 4ill e.$l#de $"eati! )% st#dets(2
Aot"er iss#e 4"i$" m#st )e $"a!ed is t"e e*al#atio o' t"e st#dets( St#dets o'te do ot ko4
t"e assessmet $riteria i a readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram(
0(/(:( Di%!u%%ion
T"e res#lts o' t"e s#r*e% 4ere s$r#tiized $are'#ll% ad $om/ared 4it" ER C$'( $"a/ter I3
se$tio -(=( 'or more $om/lete dis$#ssio o' ER $"ara$teristi$sD All t"ese readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams di''er 'rom a ER /ro!ram i t"e 'ollo4i! as/e$tsG
BT"eir titles are di''eret ad t"e% do ot re'le$t t"e at#re o' ER( E*e t"e R'i$tio readi!F
sets t"e reader ito a 'rame o' readi! ol% 'i$tio3 4"ile i a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram st#dets
"a*e 'reedom o' $"oi$e to read a%t"i! C)ooks3 ma!azies3 e4s/a/ers3 !raded readersD t"e% 4at(
BT"e role o' t"e tea$"er is domiat i t"ese /ro!rams( T"e tea$"ers $"oose t"e readi!
materials ad t"e a$ti*ities( I a ER /ro!ram t"e tea$"er is a !#ide 4"o leads t"e readers to
s#$$ess'#l e./erie$e i readi!(
BT"e readi! materials are a#t"eti$ i t"ese /ro!rams( ?or t"e st#dets o' itermediate le*el
it is di''i$#lt to read3 traslate ad aal%ze >B-: /a!es o' t"ese a#t"eti$ materials 'or ea$"
assi!met( I a ER /ro!ram sim/li'ied materials or !raded readers are #sed3 as t"e 'o$#s is o
/leas#re ad a lar!e A#atit% o' readi!H sim#ltaeo#sl%3 i itesi*e readi! /ro!rams Cla!#a!e
leari! /ro!ramsD a#t"eti$ materials are e./loited( T"e la!#a!e le*el o' t"e st#dets *aries i a
!ro#/H t"ere'ore3 readi! materials are )e%od t"e st#detsF la!#a!e $om/ete$e( T"ere are too
ma% e4 4ords ad st#dets are reA#ired to look #/ t"e meai!s i t"e di$tioar% ad lear e4
le.i$al #itsH i e.tesi*e readi! st#dets $"oose t"e le*el t"e% are $om'orta)le to read at Ca)o#t 8
e4 4ords o a /a!eD( Di$tioaries are rarel% #sed 4"ile readi!(
B T"e 4orki! /ro$ess i t"ese /ro!rams is similar to itesi*e readi! a//roa$"3 4"i$" is
)asi$all% a st#d% te$"iA#e 'or or!aizi! readi! t"at 4ill "a*e to )e #derstood ad remem)ered(
?or *er% e''e$ti*e readi!3 detailed $om/re"esio3 ad lo! retetio tea$"ers ask learers to do
t"e /ro$ed#res t"at $o*er itesi*e readi! te$"iA#e s#$" as3 o*er*ie4i!3 /lai! /#r/ose3
aski! A#estios3 readi!3 s#mmarizi!3 testi!3 ad #derstadi!(
B T"e tea$"ers o' t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams are s#re t"at t"e st#dets like t"e
/ro!rams )#t t"e% do ot !i*e t"e 'a$tors o' satis'a$tio ad /leas#re liked to t"e st#d% i t"ese
=+
/ro!rams( T"e% 0#d!e 'rom t"e /oit o' *ie4 o' t"e )ee'its t"at st#dets "a*e to !et a'ter
$om/leti! t"ese /ro!rams( T"e% em/"asize t"e i$rease i *o$a)#lar%3 ad de*elo/i! 4riti!3
readi! $om/re"esio3 di''eret li!#isti$ ad st%listi$ aal%ses( T"ese !ais are more likel% o' a
la!#a!e /ro!ramsF3 alt"o#!" e.tesi*e readi! as it 4as metioed i t"e )e!ii! C$'( $"a/ter I3
se$tio -(>(D also i$reases readi! s/eed ad $otri)#tes to readi!3 4riti!3 !rammar3 la!#a!e
$om/ete$eH it e$o#ra!es learers to read 'l#etl%3 #se all t"e strate!ies3 /ro!ress t"ro#!" di''eret
le*els o' te.t ad moitor t"eir o4 /ro!ressH it /ro*ides 4it" a e0o%a)le readi! e./erie$e( T"e
e$o#ra!i! 'a$t i t"ese /ro!rams is t"at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets "a*e lo! e./erie$e o'
tea$"i! readi!3 /oiti! o#t t"at at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities readi!
is re!arded as a im/ortat skill(
B Oe o' t"e tea$"ers admitted t"at t"ere are o e''e$ti*e tools to test learers t"ro#!" t"is
/ro!ram( T"e tea$"er ad t"e learers are ot a4are 4"at s"o#ld )e tested t"ro#!" t"e readi!
de*elo/met /ro!ram( T"is A#estio reA#ires '#rt"er de*elo/met(
0(0( T5E SURVEA O* T5E GRADUATES O* T5E READING
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
0(0(/( Method
T"e se$od s#r*e% 4as $arried o#t amo! 'ort% !rad#ates o' 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o'
se*e ma0or Geor!ia #i*ersities CT)ilisi3 Bat#mi3 K#taisi3 Tela*iD i +,-,( T"e aim o' t"e se$od
s#r*e% 4as to !et $om/lete /i$t#re o' readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams( T"e o)taied i'ormatio
'rom t"e !rad#ates 4o#ld s#//lemet t"e 'irst s#r*e%Fs res#lts( S#r*e% 4as $"ose as t"e met"od o'
resear$"( I t"e )e!ii! t"ere 4ere t4o iss#es to )e addressed( ?irst3 it 4as di''i$#lt to rea$" t"e
!rad#ates3 4"o $om/leted t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams( Se$od3 it 4as im/ortat to CaD de$ide
4"i$" %ears o' !rad#atio 4o#ld )e i$l#ded i t"is st#d% ad C)D o)ser*e t"e de*elo/met o' t"e
/ro!ram ad t"e !eeral tede$% i tea$"i! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at di''eret
#i*ersities 4it"i t"is /eriod(
T"e 'irst iss#e 4as sol*ed )% aal%zi! t"e /otetial sam/le( I tra$ked t"e /ossi)le areas
4"ere t"e !rad#ates o' 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets are em/lo%ed( T"e !rad#ates 4"o made #/
t"e sam/le o' m% se$od s#r*e% 4ere em/lo%ed as a$ademi$ sta'' at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets3
or as E!lis" tea$"ers at s$"ools( Some o' t"e /arti$i/ats 4ere MA st#dets o' 'orei! la!#a!es(
=8
T"e se$od iss#e 4as sol*ed i t"e 'ollo4i! 4a%( I de$ided t"at3 4"ile data 4ere $olle$ted
)% si.t% /eo/le3 4"o !rad#ated 'rom -77; to +,,73 I 4o#ld aal%ze t"e data o' t"ese res/odets
si$e t"e de*elo/met o' t"ese readi! /ro!rams is most a//aret i t"is /eriod( T"ese $"a!es are
rele*at to o#r /reset st#d%(
0(0(0( Prti!i#nt%
T"e A#estioaire 'orm i$l#ded A#estios a)o#t -D t"e des$ri/tio o' t"e readi!
de*elo/met /ro!ram Cd#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram3 amo#t o' readi! materials3 a$ti*ities #sed i t"e
/ro!ramD3 +D T"e im/a$t o' t"e /ro!ram o t"e !rad#ates Cemotios e./erie$ed )% t"e !rad#ates i
t"e /ro!ram3 /ro)lems ad s"ort$omi!s o' t"e /ro!ram3 i'l#e$e o !rad#atesF attit#de to4ard
readi! i E!lis"D( T"ere 4ere m#lti/leB$"oi$e A#estios as 4ell as o/eBeded A#estios i t"e
A#estioaire C$'( A//edi. +7( T"e a!e o' t"e !rad#ates *aried 'rom +- to 8=( T"e A#estioaires
4ere 'illed ao%mo#sl% ad $o'idetialit% 4as ke/t d#ri! t"e /ro$essi! o' data ad /reseti! it
to /#)li$(
0(0(8( Pro!edure
T"e /ro$ed#res 4"i$" 4ere #sed to admiister t"e A#estioaire 4ere oBt"e s/ot3 oeBtoB
oe3 takeBa4a%3 !ro#/3 ad *ia mail( T"e A#estioaires 4ere itrod#$ed at "i!" s$"ools ad
#i*ersities( 9it" t"e $oset o' rele*at )odies t"e A#estioaires 4ere le't i at 'orei! la!#a!e
de/artmets ad later !i*e to t"e s#)0e$ts to 'ill( Some o' t"e res/odets 4ere rea$"ed )% eBmail(
It took 7 mot"s to $olle$t all t"e data( T"e data 4ere /ro$essed )% t"e statisti$al /ro!ram S&SS(
0(0(9( Re%ult%
T"e 'irst A#estio is related to t"e d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram( ?i!( +(- /resets t"e o/tios o'
as4ers o' t"e d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram( ?rom -77; to +,,: t"e /ro!ram 4as ta#!"t 'or : %earsH i
some #i*ersities t"e d#ratio o' < %ears is o)ser*a)le i t"is /eriod( I +,,7 t"e d#ratio o' t"e
/ro!ram 'alls to -B+ %ears(
=<
Figure 2.1. T"e $"a!es i d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram 'rom -77; to +,,7(
T"e !rad#ates 4ere asked to idi$ate amo#t o' readi! t"e% #s#all% did i a 4eek( T"e
o/tios o' as4ers o' amo#t o' readi! assi!mets ra!ed 'rom +B8 /a!es to more t"a +, /a!es(
C?i!( +(+(D
=:
Figure 2.2. Amo#t o' readi! assi!mets re!#larl% !i*e to st#dets 'rom -77; to +,,7(
T"e !rad#ates 4ere asked to mark t"e emotios t"e% e./erie$ed i t"is /ro!ram( T"e most
$ommo 'eeli! e./erie$ed )% !rad#ates 4as iterest( T"e ot"er emotios e./erie$ed )% t"e
!rad#ates 4ere irritatio3 satis'a$tio3 /leas#re3 er*o#sess ad tesioH iterest B <8(-QH irritatio
B -7(,QH satis'a$tio B -,(8QH /leas#re B ->(+QH er*o#sess B :(+QH tesio B :(+Q C?i!( +(8(D
==
Figure 2.3. Emotios e./erie$ed )% t"e !rad#ates i t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram(
7+(:Q o' t"e !rad#ates admitted t"at t"e% e$o#tered /ro)lems i t"e /ro!ram( T"ese
/ro)lems ad s"ort$omi!s areG m#$" readi! B >(-Q3 ma% e4 4ords B -+(7Q3 tea$"erFs
domiat role B <(8Q3 la$k o' $reati*it% B -;(=Q3 #iteresti! material B -:(>Q3 mootoo#s le$t#re
B +,(,Q3 la$k o' a$ti*ities B -<(8Q3 limited 'reedom i t"e /ro!ram B <(8Q3 di''i$#lt material B +(7Q(
C?i!(+(<(D
=>
<8(-Q
-,(8Q
->(+Q
-7(, Q
:(+ Q
:(+ Q
Figure 2.4. T"e /ro)lems ad s"ort$omi!s o' t"e /ro!ram idi$ated )% !rad#ates(
T"e a$ti*ities o' t"e /ro!ram 4"i$" 4ere metioed )% !rad#ates are mail% readi! ad
retelli!3 4orki! o *o$a)#lar%3 looki! #/ e4 4ords ad memorizi! t"em3 traslatio o'
readi! materials3 4riti! $om/ositios ad dis$#ssios(
All t"e !rad#ates a$ko4led!ed t"at a tea$"er sele$ted readi! material( All t"e !rad#ates i
!ro#/s read t"e same )ooks(
Grad#ates 4ere asked i' t"eir attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis" 4as i'l#e$ed a'ter
$om/leti! t"is /ro!ram( T"is A#estio 4as aimed to dis$lose t"e i'l#e$e t"at t"is /ro!ram mi!"t
"a*e "ad o !rad#atesF attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis"( A'ter $om/leti! t"is /ro!ram !rad#atesF
attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis" is $"a!edG ot at all B ->(:QH ot reall% B +(:QH soBso B ->(:QH
A#ite a lot B +:(,QH *er% m#$" B 8>(:Q C?i!( +(:(D
=;
>(- Q
-+(7 Q
<(8 Q
-;(= Q
-:(> Q
+,(, Q
-<(8 Q
<(8 Q
+(7 Q
Figure 2.5. Grad#atesF attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis" a'ter $om/leti! t"e readi! de*elo/met
pro!ram(
0(0(:( Di%!u%%ion% of the "rdute%B %ur$e- re%ult%
T"e res#lts o' t"e se$od s#r*e% re*eal t"e tea$"i! met"odolo!% o' t"e readi! de*elo/met
/ro!ramH t"e% also /ro*ide #s 4it" si!i'i$at i'ormatio a)o#t t"e $"a!es t"at t"is /ro!ram "as
)ee !oi! t"ro#!" si$e -77;(
T"e d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram 'rom-77; to +,,7 !rad#all% de$reased( ?rom -77; to +,,= t"e
d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram 4as )et4ee <B: %ears( B% +,,7 t"e d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram "ad )ee
red#$ed to oe %ear( T"e red#$tio i t"e d#ratio o' t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams 4as
res#lted )% t"e re'orms t"at o$$#rred i Geor!ia Hi!"er Ed#$atioal S%stem 'rom +,,:3 4"e
Geor!ia 0oied t"e Bolo!a &ro$ess( T"e #i*ersit% /ro!rams "a*e #der!oe tras'ormatios( As a
res#lt 'ormer :B%ear #i*ersit% st#dies 4ere red#$ed to <B%ear st#dies( T"is $"a!e 4as re'le$ted at
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets )% itrod#$i! $redit s%stem $a#si! t"e s"ortei! ad
$om)iatioI!ro#/i! o' se*eral s#)0e$ts i t"e $#rri$#la Cre'ere$eD( I additio3 i t"e 'irst
semester #i*ersit% o''ers o)li!ator% itrod#$tor% $o#rses 'or all st#dets( It $a )e i'erred t"at t"e
#der!rad#ate st#dets at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets "a*e ol% 8(: %ears to master t"eir la!#a!e
=7
->(: Q
+(: Q
->(: Q
+:(, Q
8>(: Q
skills( I s#$" a s"ort /eriod o' time Ctotall% > semestersD st#dets are o*erloaded )% di''eret
$o#rses(
T"e amo#t o' readi! materials t"at domiates i t"e res#lts is R<B7 /a!esF( It s"o#ld )e
metioed t"at a'ter +,,= t"e amo#ts o' readi! R-,B+, /a!esF ad Rmore t"a +, /a!esF 4ere ot
o)ser*ed i t"e res#lts( Some $ases s"o4 readi! amo#t o' R+B8 /a!esF i +,,7( It $a )e
$o$l#ded t"at t"e amo#t o' readi! i a 4eek dimiis"ed 'rom +,,=( Oe o' t"e reasos 4"%
st#dets read less is t"e tea$"ersF 'o$#s3 4"i$" is tar!eted at tea$"i! skills rat"er t"a la!#a!e(
Se$odl%3 i re$et %ears t"e 'o$#s o ite!rati*e la!#a!e leari! "as )ee A#ite /o/#lar i
Geor!ia( It "as de*iated tea$"ersF 'o$al /oit 'rom readi! to more ite!rated $otetB)ased
a//roa$" Rreadi! Z 4riti! Z s/eaki! Z *o$a)#lar% Z !rammarF
-
( To make t"is a//roa$"
a$"ie*a)le 'or learers t"e amo#t o' readi! material "as )ee red#$ed ad e.teded readi! "as
)ee altered ito a itesi*e a//roa$"( T"ese $"a!es are similar to a la!#a!e leari! /ro!ram(
It is im/ortat to /oit o#t t"at t"e #tilized readi! material i t"e /ro!ram is a#t"eti$( T"e
readi! material is sele$ted )% t"e tea$"er3 ad all st#dets read t"e same readi! material i !ro#/sH
it is ot a /leasat e./erie$e 'or all st#dets )e$a#se 4eak st#dets s#''er 'rom readi! di''i$#lt
te.ts ad t"e% are tra//ed i a 1*i$io#s $ir$le2 C$'( $"a/ter I3 se$tio -(+( 'or more $om/lete
dis$#ssio o' 1*i$io#s $ir$le2D(
T"e tea$"ersF domiat role is /artl% e./laied )% t"e tea$"i! met"od e./loited i t"e +,
t"
$et#r% at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia Ui*ersities( T"e most $ommo oe 4as
GrammarBtraslatio met"od( It is Pa 4a% o' st#d%i! a la!#a!e t"at a//roa$"es t"e la!#a!e 'irst
t"o#!"t detailed aal%sis o' its !rammar r#les3 'ollo4ed )% a//li$atio o' t"is ko4led!e t"ro#!"
t"e task o' traslati! sete$es ad te.t ito ad o#t o' t"e tar!et la!#a!eP CRi$"ards ad Ro!ers3
+,,+D( St#dets i t"is met"od de*elo/ t"e a)ilit% to read /resti!io#s literar% te.ts( T"e% also lear
to read ad 4rite i t"e tar!et la!#a!e a$$#ratel%3 4"i$" is a e$essit%(
T"e /ositi*e 'idi! o' t"e st#d% is t"at Geor!ia learers are iterested i readi!H t"ere'ore
t"e% are moti*ated to read( Oe o' t"e res/odets !a*e e./laatio to t"e 1irritatio2 s"e "ad
e./erie$ed i t"e /ro!ram3 ad s"e 4rote t"at3 1I 4as #s#all% iterested i readi!3 )#t I 'elt
irritatio 4"e I met a lot o' #ko4 4ords ad I "ad to look t"em #/ i t"e di$tioar%2( E*idetl%
oe o' t"e reasos o' irritatio 4as too ma% #ko4 4ords i t"e te.t(
- 3ntegrated content and language instruction B )roadl% de'ied3 it is taskB)ased istr#$tio ad assessmet o'
ko4led!e3 skills3 ad a$ademi$ la!#a!e 4it"i a $otet area( T"e a$ademi$ la!#a!e i$l#des t"e
>,
$o$e/ts3 ke% *o$a)#lar%3 !rammar3 ad dis$o#rse e$essar% to a$$om/lis" $otetB area tasks CS"erris3
+,,;D(
T"e s"ort$omi!s o' t"e /ro!ram idi$ated )% t"e !rad#ates3 i(e(3 Rla$k o' $reati*it%F3
Rmootoo#s le$t#reF ad Rla$k o' a$ti*itiesF $learl% s/eak a)o#t t"e serio#s /ro)lems o' t"e lesso
str#$t#re ad tea$"i! met"odolo!% o' t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram( Ho4e*er3 t"e !rad#ates
listed se*eral a$ti*ities )#t it seems t"ese a$ti*ities do ot $o*e% a$ti*e3 $reati*e ad 'as$iati!
A#alit%(
T"e !rad#atesF s#r*e% e./osed st#detsF attit#de to4ard t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!ramH
"e$e3 it s#//lemeted t"e res#lts o' t"e 'irst s#r*e%(
0(8( 'on!lu%ion%
T"e im/lemetatio o' e.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o'
Geor!ia #i*ersities $osists o' se*eral /"ases( ?irst o' all3 it is im/ortat to st#d% t"e e.isti!
readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets( ?or t"is reaso t4o s#r*e%s 4ere
$od#$ted i +,-,( T"e 'irst s#r*e% 4as $od#$ted amo! t"e istr#$tors o' t"ese /ro!rams at
Geor!ia #i*ersities( T"e% 4ere asked to des$ri)e t"ese /ro!rams( T"e ot"er s#r*e% 4as $arried
o#t amo! t"e !rad#ates o' 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets 4"o "ad $om/leted t"ese readi!
/ro!rams( Bot" s#r*e%s s"o4ed a ra!e o' di''ere$es )et4ee e.isti! readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams ad a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"ese dis$re/a$ies im/l% t"e $"a!es t"at s"o#ld )e
made i order to im/ro*e ad $"a!e t"ese readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams ito e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!rams( T"e e.isti! readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams reA#ire de*elo/met ad im/ro*emet( 9e
o''er t"e 'ollo4i! alteratios to a)o*emetioed /ro!ramsG
-( T"e title o' t"e /ro!ram s"o#ld )e de'ied i a$$orda$e 4it" t"e /ro!ram !oal ad $otet(
+( T"e d#ratio o' t"e /ro!ram m#st )e i$reased as t"e d#ratio ad itesit% o' t"e a$ademi$
"o#rs are t"e /ri$i/al 'a$tors 4"i$" s#//ort s#$$ess'#l o#t$ome o' a ER /ro!ram(
8( T"e /ri$i/les o' ER s"o#ld )e a//lied i tea$"i! ER /ro!ram( B% /ro/erl% ad0#sti! ER
/ro!ram to t"e learersF la!#a!e le*el ad iterests3 t"e /ro)lems metioed i t"e A#estioaire
$a )e realisti$all% sol*ed( ?irst3 i ER /ro!rams readi! material $orres/ods 4it" t"e la!#a!e
le*el o' t"e readerH t"e amo#t o' e4 4ords i readi! material is limited to 8B: 4ords o a /a!e(
T"e sol#tio o' t"e /ro)lem $oe$ted to t"e e4 le.i$al #its 4ill /ositi*el% i'l#e$e learersF
emotioal e./erie$e i ER /ro!ram3 ad s#$$ess'#l readi! $om/re"esio 4ill make readi!
>-
e0o%a)leH e*e readi! o' :, /a!es a 4eek 4ill )e /leas#ra)le( Se$od3 t"e readers sele$t di''eret
)ooksH i' t"e sele$ted )ook is #iteresti! t"e reader $a $"a!e it( T"is kid o' a//roa$" /re*ets
t"e learers 'rom readi! t"e )ooks t"at are )ori! 'or t"em( T"ird3 t"e tea$"erFs domiat role is
red#$ed i a ER /ro!ram( A tea$"er /ro*ides learers 4it" 'reedom i sele$tio o' materials ad
a$ti*ities( Learers are res/osi)le 'or t"eir readi! ad a$ti*ities t"e% do at "ome ad i t"e
$lassroom( T"e a$ti*ities #sed i t"e la!#a!e leari! e*iromet are rare i ER e*iromet( A
list o' t"e $lassroom a$ti*ities s"o#ld )e /re/ared i ad*a$e ad o''ered to learers 'or sele$tio(
T"e a$ti*ities o''ered )% Da% ad Bam'ord C+,,:D !i*e o//ort#ities to t"e tea$"ers ad learers to
add $reati*it% to $lassroom a$ti*ities ad $"a!e mootoo#s le$t#res ito a e.$iti!3 readi!B
'riedl% setti!(
<( A e4 tea$"i! model 'or a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram im/lemetatio s"o#ld )e de*ised(
T"e /ri$i/les o' e.tesi*e readi! $a ot )e a//lied i a traditioal $lassroom setti!( I t"e
e4 tea$"i! model a tea$"er is a !#ide ad 'a$ilitator3 ad a learer "as a a$ti*e role(
:( Kee/i! re$ord o' readi! o re!#lar )ases is a $"ara$teristi$ o' ER /ro!rams( Lo!)ooks
re*eal at 4"at e.tet t"e learer is a a$ti*e reader(
=( Li)raries s"o#ld )e s#//lied 4it" )ooks3 !raded readers ad *ario#s readi! materials i
E!lis"(
ER /ro!rams 4ill 'ill t"e !a/s re/orted )% t"e !rad#ates3 ad tea$"ersF a4areess o' tea$"i!
ER 4ill )e i$reased(
T"e e.t ste/ i im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram at 'orei! la!#a!e
de/artmets o' Geor!ia #i*ersities is to de*elo/ ER tea$"i! met"odolo!% )ased o t"e !i*e
res#lts ad s#!!estios( T"is met"odolo!% 4ill )e #tilized i a e./erimet i 4"i$" st#dets o' t"e
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet ad t"e 'orei! la!#a!e $eter o' Tela*i State Ui*ersit% 4ill
/arti$i/ate( T"e e./erimet 4ill r# at di''eret le*els3 'or e.am/le3 4it" se$odB%ear ad t"irdB%ear
st#dets o' t"e 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet 4it" t"e d#ratio o' -: 4eeks( T"e /#r/ose is 4"et"er
t"e s#!!ested readi! /ro!rams "el/ learers im/ro*e la!#a!e skills3 moti*atio3 ad /ositi*e
attit#de i a more e''e$ti*e 4a% t"a t"e e.isti! readi! /ro!rams(
>+
'5APTER III
IMPLEMENTATION O* EXTENSIVE READING PROGRAMS AT
GEORGIAN UNIVERSITIES
8(/( E4ten%i$e redin" te!hin" Methodolo"-
T"e met"odolo!% 4"i$" I de*ised is )ased o t"e res#lts ad s#!!estios o' t4o s#r*e%s
dis$#ssed i t"e se$od $"a/ter( T"e met"odolo!% "as ado/ted t"e re$ommedatios o' ot"er
st#dies( It $osists o' t"e t"eoreti$al /ri$i/les3 t"e tea$"i! /ri$i/les3 t"e $"ara$teristi$s o' t"e
/ro!ram ad a moti*atioal 'rame4ork( I more /ra$ti$al terms t"e met"odolo!% i$l#des
istr#$tios o sele$ti! readi! materials ad dis$#ssios o' t"e a$ti*ities i e.tesi*e readi!(
8(0( The te!hin" #rin!i#le% of n e4ten%i$e redin" #ro"rm
Tea$"i! /ri$i/les re!#late t"e tea$"i! /ro$ess( T"is is t"e ko4led!e a)o#t "o4 tea$"i!
s"o#ld )e /ro$eeded i a$$orda$e 4it" t"e o)0e$ti*es o' t"e so$iet%( Tea$"i! /ri$i/les de'ie t"e
a$ti*ities o' a tea$"er ad t"e% are 'ormed i t"e /ro$ess o' tea$"i! CAsatiai3 +,,;3 /( -+:;
Malazoia3 +,,-3 /(;<D( T"e s#$$ess'#l tea$"i! /ro$ess is )#ilt o se*eral tea$"i! /ri$i/les(
Malazoia C+,,-D disti!#is"es t"e 'ollo4i! tea$"i! /ri$i/lesG s$ieti'i$ /ri$i/le o' tea$"i!H
$osiste$%H $oe$tio )et4ee li'e ad tea$"i!H $os$io#sess ad a$ti*eessH #se o' *is#al aidsH
a$$essi)ilit%H so#d ko4led!e a$A#isitio( ?or a s#$$ess'#l e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram t"ree
tea$"i! /ri$i/les are de'ied 4"i$" are $ore o' t"e /ro!ram ad are )ased o t"e tea$"i!
/ri$i/les o' "i!"er ed#$atio i Geor!ia( T"e% are $osiste$%3 a$$essi)ilit% ad /ra!matism(
-( 6osiste$% B t"e /ri$i/le o' $osiste$% im/lies t"at a learer is $ostatl% i*ol*ed i
leari! t"ro#!" readi! /ro$ess(
+( A$$essi)ilit% B t"e /ri$i/le o' a$$essi)ilit% kee/s t"e /ro!ram str#$t#re3 materials3 a$ti*ities3
learersF ad tea$"ersF e./e$tatios a$$essi)le ad $lear(
8( &ra!matism B t"e /ri$i/le o' /ra!matism dire$ts leari! i /ra$ti$al $oseA#e$es 4"i$"
meas t"at learers a$A#ire t"e skills t"at "a*e /ra$ti$al *al#e 'or t"em(
>8
8(8( The !hr!teri%ti!% of the #ro"rm
T"e !oal o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram is e$essar% $oditio to r# it s#$$ess'#ll%( ?or a
tea$"er it is a ladmark ad 'or a st#det it is t"e destiatio to rea$"( T"e !oal o' a e.tesi*e
readi! /ro!ram is to allo4 st#dets to read sel'Bsele$ted lar!e A#atit% o' readi! materials ad
e0o% it( T"ro#!" t"is /ro!ram some o)*io#s !ais s"o#ld )e 'ormed i a readerG aD a /ositi*e
readi! e./erie$e3 )D readi! as a li'elo! a$ti*it%3 $D elemets o' a#toomo#s leari! I taki!
res/osi)ilit% 'or o4 leari!( T"e tea$"er "as to $learl% #derstad t"e !oal o' t"e /ro!ram to
oriet t"e st#dets to t"e /rod#$ti*e res#lt( At t"e same time a st#det s"o#ld )e a4are t"at
e.tesi*e readi! is t"e )est /leasat ad /ailess 4a% o' masteri! la!#a!e ad o)taii!
e./erie$e i readi!(
?rom t"e traditioal -, /ri$i/les )% Da%JBam'ord t"e 'ollo4i! /ri$i/les 4ere ado/ted
ad modi'ied( T"eir si!i'i$a$e is #derlied 'or a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ramG
-D T"e material s"o#ld )e eas%( 9"e 4e sa% eas% 4e admit Da%JBam'ordFs $om/re"esi)le
model 1i mi#s -2 as t"e model to /ra$ti$e a#tomati$it% i readi! ad de*elo/ si!"t
*o$a)#lar%( Aot"er model 4"i$" is also a$$e/ta)le 'or t"e /ro!ram is Kras"eFs
$om/re"esi)le i/#t 1i Z -2 to a$A#ire t"e small amo#t o' e4 str#$t#res ad #its(
S"or)r#kerFs $om/re"esi)le i/#t 1i mi#s +2 $a also )e #sed )% 4eak st#dets( St#dets
s"o#ld )e e$o#ra!ed to #se t"e 'irst t4o models o' i/#t i s#)stit#tio( St#dets m#st )e
e./laied 'irst to read t"e )ook 4"ere t"ere is o e4 4ords ad is eas% to read3 t"e to take
aot"er )ook3 4"ere t"ere 4ill )e 'rom 8 to : e4 4ords o a /a!e(
+D St#dets sele$t readi! materials I )ooks t"emsel*es( T"e% are a#toomo#s i t"is A#estio(
T"e% are 'ree to e./ress t"eir iterests i di''eret 'ields or 4orks o' a /arti$#lar 4riter(
8D St#dets s"o#ld )e s#//orted to read a lot( A tea$"er s"o#ld e./lai to t"em t"at readi! a
lar!e A#atit% is oe o' t"e $"ara$teristi$s o' t"is readi! /ro!ram ad t"e /art o' t"e
/ro!ramFs !oal3 alt"o#!" t"e% s"o#ld a*oid tesio i readi!( A tea$"er $a remid t"em
a)o#t t"eir e0o%a)le e./erie$e o' readi! i L-3 ad ad*ise 4"ere ad "o4 to read(
St#dets are ot reA#ired to #derstad -,,Q o' t"e te.t3 traslate it3 or #se a di$tioar%(
><
T"is is oe o' t"e di''ere$es )et4ee t"e ot"er la!#a!e /ro!rams ad e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram( St#dets read 'or !eeral #derstadi!(
D#ri! t"e ot"er la!#a!e $o#rses Geor!ia st#dets are #sed to 4ork 4it" di$tioaries( At
t"e lesso t"e% #s#all% ask a tea$"er t"e meai! o' a e4 le.i$al item( Us#all% t"e tea$"er "el/s
4it" t"e traslatio o' a 4ord( 9"e st#dets "a*e to read somet"i! ide/edetl% t"e% !et t"e
meai! t"ro#!" 4ordB'orB4ord traslatio #si! a di$tioar%( Almost all o' t"e #ko4 4ords are
looked #/ i t"e di$tioar%( I' st#dets are asked ot to /a% attetio to some #ko4 4ords t"e%
'eel a.iet% ad #$ertait% a)o#t t"e meai!( Geor!ia st#dets s"o#ld lear to /ra$ti$e s#$"
strate!ies as !#essi! or i!ori! #ko4 4ords or /assa!es3 !oi! 'or t"e !eeral #derstadi!3
ad )ei! $om'orta)le 4it" a $ertai le*el o' am)i!#it%( E.tesi*e readi! is a a//roa$" o' kee/
readi!(
<D T"e $om/re"esio o' t"e readi! material it a)sol#tel% st#detFs e./erie$e( T"e mai
'o$#s is readerFs /ersoal e./erie$eG
6om/re"esio a$"ie*edIko4led!e !aied S readerFs /ersoal e./erie$e
:D Readi! is its o4 re4ard( A tea$"er $a e./lai 4"at kid o' /ro$esses are !oi! i a
readerFs mid 4"ile readi! i a 'orei! la!#a!e( A tea$"er m#st s/eak 4it" st#dets a)o#t
t"e )ee'its o' readi!( St#dets 4ill a//re$iate readi! ol% a'ter s#$" a ratioal a//roa$"(
T"e s/eed s"o#ld )e $om'orta)le 'or a reader( T"e readi! s/eed $a *ar%( It de/eds o a
reader( T"e readi! s/eed de/eds o iterest or e0o%met3 $om/re"esio ad /#r/ose o' a
st#det( A$$ordi! to Leed% C-7=;3 /( -<D 19e read ol% as 'ast as t"e )rai $o*erts t"e
*er)al /er$e/tio ito meai!(2
=D Readi! is idi*id#al ad silet(
>D Tea$"ers oriet ad !#ide t"eir st#dets(
;D T"e tea$"er is a role model o' a reader(
8(9( A te!hin" model of n e4ten%i$e redin" #ro"rm
T"e met"odolo!% o' tea$"i! e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram assimilates t"e elemets o' learer
a#toom%( T"e essetial elemets o' learer a#toom% i t"is /ro!ram are 'o$#sed 'rom tea$"i! to
leari!3 /eer e$o#ra!emet ad $oo/eratio3 /ra$ti$e 4it" readersF lo!)ooks 4"i$" are a
do$#metatio o' leari! ad a tool o' re'le$tio(
>:
Tea$"er i traditioal $lassroom is $osidered as a im/ortat media3 )#t i e.stesi*e
readi! t"e role o' t"e tea$"i! is dimiis"ed 4"i$" $a#ses do#)ts ad $o$ers( Here is t"e $ase
4"e tea$"i! is $"a!ed ito leari! ad t"e learers are starti! taki! res/osi)ilit% 'or t"eir
readi! ad la!#a!e a$A#isitio CDam3 +,,8D(
A learer is s#//orted to take res/osi)ilit% 'or "isI"er o4 leari!Ireadi! )%
ide/edetl%G
-D 6"oosi! /arti$#lar aims ad /#r/oseH 'or e.am/le3 t"e amo#t o' /a!es read i a 4eek3
mo*i! 'rom oe le*el o' !raded reader i a s/e$i'i$ /eriod(
+D $"oosi! materials ad tasks( A learer is 'ree to $"oose t"e readi! material i
$orres/ode$e to "isI"er la!#a!e le*el( readi! "isI"er 'a*o#rite 4riterFs )ooks3 or dee/e
ko4led!e i "isI"er 'a*o#rite 'ield( At t"e )e!ii! t"e tea$"er o''ers t4o t%/es o' a$ti*ities to a
learer(
8D e.er$isi! $"oi$e ad /#r/ose i or!aizi! ad $arr%i! o#t t"e tasks( St#dets
s%stemati$all% e.er$ise t"eir $"oi$e )% sele$ti! a$ti*ities ad readi! materials( T"e% !et
a$$#stomed to maki! de$isios i t"eir leari!3 $oseA#etl% t"e% lear to /la ad 'id t"e
4a%s o' its a$$om/is"met3 'or e.am/le3 t"e% "a*e to /la t"eir dail% readi! /ro!ram(
A tea$"erFs role i a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram is $om/erati*el% di''eret 'rom t"e role i
ot"er la!#a!e /ro!rams( I ot"er la!#a!e /ro!rams a tea$"erFs res/osi)ilit% is to tras'er
i'ormatio3 ko4led!e( A$$ordi! to Tsitsis"*ili et al( C+,,;3 //( -8B-:D t"ere are se*eral roles o' a
tea$"er de/eedi! o t"e *ario#s ELT met"ods3 'or e.am/le $otroller3 or!aizer3 assessor3
/rom/eter3 /arti$i/at3 reso#r$e3 t#tor ad o)ser*er( A$$ordi! to t"e tea$"i! st%les t"e tea$"er
rolesF $a )e dis$ered as tea$"er e./laier3 tea$"er i*ol*er3 tea$"er ea)ler3 et$( Tea$"er ea)ler
aims to assist st#dets to )e$ome s#$$ess'#l learer )% allo4i! t"em to lear t"emsel*es( T"is
'ormer is t"e $losest to a e4 role o' a tea$"er i a ER /ro!ram( A tea$"erFs role as a !#ide is a
e4 $o$e/t i Geor!ia met"odolo!% o' 'orei! la!a#!e tea$"i!( A tea$"er is a !#ide i a
e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram(
A tea$"er oriets learers t"ro#!" t"e 'ollo4i! ste/sG -D E./erie$e o' readi! B o 4eak
learer $a 1"ide2( E*e 4eak learers are reA#ired to read( +D A4areess o' a learerFs readi! N
4"%3 4"at ad "o4 to read( A tea$"er raises t"e a4areess o' learers )% em/"asizi! t"e )ee'its
e.tesi*e readi! ad e./lais t"e /#r/ose o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram3 4"i$" is ot 'or a
tea$"er3 or #i*ersit%3 )#t 'or li'e( Tea$"er makes $lear to learers 4"at is e./e$ted 'rom t"em ad
>=
itrod#$e t"em 4it" t"e ti/s "o4 to $"oose a )ook as 4ell as /ossi)le ad *aried a$ti*ities 'or t"e
learers to sele$t( T"e tea$"er /resets *ario#s 4a%s o' or!aizi! readi!( T"e tea$"er s"o#ld
e./lai t"e demads t"ro#!" t"e ER /ro!ram $learl%( Oe o' t"e i'l#etial 'a$tors to make st#dets
demostrate t"eir skills s%stemati$all% 4it" a//ro/riate A#alit% is t"e $larit% ad itesit% o'
tea$"ersF reA#iremets( I' reA#iremets are "i!"3 $learl% de*elo/ed ad $o$rete3 st#dets do t"eir
ma.im#m3 ad i $otrar% 3 i' t"e reA#iremets are *a!#e3 or t"e% are lo4er3 a learer is less
/rod#$ti*e3 iert3 ad !rad#all% )e$omes /assi*e( At"o#!"3 it s"o#ld )e oted t"at t"e tea$"erFs
reA#iremets t"ro#!" a ER /ro!ram s"o#ld )e realisti$ ad a$"ie*a)le CTk"emaladze et al(3 +,,;3
/( +8D(
8D /arti$i/atio i de$isio maki! C$"oi$e o' readi! materials3 a$ti*itiesD( Learers are
s#//orted to $"oose a$ti*ities i order to rea$" $#rri$#lar aims ad /ersoal !oals(
<D res/osi)ilit% 'or a st#detFs readi! Creadi!3 $om/leti! lo!)ooks3 maki!
/resetatiosD(
A tea$"er s#//orts "er st#detsF $"oi$es3 de$isios3 ad t"eir roles i t"e /ro!ram )%
e$o#ra!i!3 /rom/ti!3 modeli!3 ad $lari'%i!( Natio C-77>D re$ommeds t"at 1tea$"ers eed to
)e serio#s a)o#t e.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams /arti$#larl% i es#ri! t"at learers do lar!e amo#ts
o' readi!( T"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi! do to $ome i t"e s"ort term( Ne*ert"eless3 t"e
s#)statial lo!Bterm )ee'its 0#sti'% t"e "i!" de!ree o' $ommitmet eeded(2
T"e tea$"erFs res/osi)ilities i$l#de 'ollo4i!G
"el/i! st#dets e0o% ad *al#e e.tesi*e readi!
#derstadi! 4"at e.tesi*e readi! i*ol*es
'idi! o#t 4"at t"e st#dets $a ad $aot do
itrod#$tio to li)rar% ad /ro$ed#re o' sele$ti! )ooks
$"oosi! or de*isi! e''e$ti*e tasks ad a$ti*ities
/re/ari! t"e st#dets to #dertake t"e tasks
maki! s#re t"at e*er%oe reads /rod#$ti*el%
moitori! /ro!ress to make s#re t"at e*er%oe i t"e $lass im/ro*es steadil% a$$ordi! to
t"eir o4 $a/a)ilities
>>
8(:( The role of moti$tion
Oe o' t"e /ri$i/les o' e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram is readi! 'or /leas#re( Readers 4ill )e
more moti*ated to read i' t"e materials t"e% are readi! "el/ to meet t"ese )road /#r/oses( As
9illiams C-7;<3 /( 8=D #derlies 1moti*atio3 t"at is B 4ati! to read3 4ati! to lear3 is $r#$ial2(
?rasso C-7;<3 /( --+D 'o#d a itera$tio )et4ee itrisi$ moti*atio ad state a.iet%3 st#dets
4"o re/orted )ei! a.io#s d#ri! t"e readi! s"o4ed 4eak itrisi$ moti*atio( St#dets 4"o
"a*e lo4 trait a.iet% ted to read at a dee/er le*el3 4"ereas "i!"l% state a.io#s st#dets ted to )e
s#r'a$e /ro$essors( Readi! 'or /leas#re /ro*ides ma% readers a o//ort#it% to rela. ad e0o%
t"e 4orld o' )ooks( ?or )ot" reasos3 readers e./e$t to )e a)le to $om/re"ed t"e material )ei!
read ad to rea$" t"eir /#r/oses( As G#t"rie at el( C-7773 /( +:,D /oited o#t 1oe o' t"e ma0or
$otri)#tios o' moti*atio to te.t $om/re"esio is t"at moti*atio i$reases readi! amo#t3
4"i$" t"e i$reases te.t $om/re"esio(2 I a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram t4o moti*atio 'o$#ses
$a )e de'iedG Moti*atio istr#$tio ad tea$"er moti*atio(
Ir4iFs C-77-3 /( -<:D model o' moti*atio istr#$tio is s#ita)le ad a//li$a)le i a
e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( Moti*atio $a )e i$reased i' e./e$ted e''orts are de$reased or t"e
e./e$ted re4ard is i$reasedG
Moti*atio [ e./e$ted re4ardG e./e$ted e''ort CIr4i C-77-3 /( -<:D
I a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram e./e$ted e''ort is de$reased )% o''eri! st#dets to read
4it"i t"eir la!#a!e $om/ete$e( St#dets do ot "a*e to re'er to a di$tioar%( Aot"er 'a$tor "o4
4e de$rease t"e e./e$ted e''ort is t"e amo#t o' /ostBreadi! a$ti*ities( T"e A#estios i /ostB
readi! 4orks"eets C&R9D are eas% to 'ill i ad do ot reA#ire m#$" e''ort ad time 'rom st#dets(
A tea$"er e*er /resets readi! as a $"ore or a /#is"met( I a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i' a
st#det 'ails to read3 t"e tea$"er s"o#ld a*oid aski! st#dets to do e.tra readi! to re$o*er t"e
amo#ts o' readi!( Istead o' t"is3 t"e tea$"er s"o#ld ideti'% t"e o)sta$le3 ad "el/ t"e st#det to
o*er$ome it(
I e.tesi*e readi! e./e$ted re4ard is i$reased )% e./laii! to st#dets t"e im/orta$e
o' readi! ad t"e )ee'its t"at e.tesi*e readi! $otri)#tes to3 'or e.am/le it )#ilds *o$a)#lar%3
im/ro*es readi! 'l#e$%3 /ro*ides 4it" e0o%a)le readi! e./erie$e3 /romotes readi! as a
li'elo! a$ti*it%3 et$(
>;
Moti*atio istr#$tio reA#ires /#r/ose'#l ad s%stemati$ a//roa$"es 'rom a tea$"er 4"i$"
s"o#ld )e /laed i ad*a$e 4it"i t"e /ro!ram CNats*lis"*ili J Gor!odze3 +,,;DH 'or e.am/le3 it
$a i*ol*e !i*i! /ra$ti$al ti/s to readers( A tea$"er /ro*ides readers 4it" t"e ti/s !i*e )elo4 ad
asks t"em to read re!#larl% i order to /romote ad is/ire readi! amo! readers( It is also "el/'#l
to 4rite t"ese ideas o a /oster ad "a*e it i t"e $lassroom(
-D &la %o#r idi*id#al readi! /ro!ram(
+D ?o$#s o t"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi!3 )e /ositi*e ad *is#alize %o#r s#$$ess(
8D See e*er%t"i! t"at %o# read as a o//ort#it% to !ro4(
<D Meas#re %o#r s#$$ess e*er% da% )% "o#rs s/et o readi!3 /a!es read ad 'eeli! o'
satis'a$tio %o# !ot(
:D 6"oose t"e )ooks t"at mat$" %o#r /ersoal eeds ad seek t"e *ariet% i readi!(
=D Be $ostat i readi!H )e res/osi)le 'or %o#r readi!(
>D T"e more %o# read ad t"e more e''ort %o# /#t i %o#r readi! /ro!ram3 t"e more !ais %o#
"a*e(
;D S#rro#d %o#rsel' 4it" t"e learers 4"o like readi! i E!lis" ad are $ommitted to it(
7D ?eel 'ree to talk a)o#t )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi! to ot"er readers i %o#r !ro#/(
-,D Hel/ %o#r /eers $"oose )ooks 'or readi!(
As I "a*e dis$#ssed a)o*e a tea$"er does ot tras'er ko4led!e i a e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram3 )#t s"e "as a)#dat res/osi)ilities i dire$ti! t"e readi! /ro!ram i a /ro/er 4a%3
s#//orti! learers ad moitori! t"e /ro!ram o#t$omes( ?or t"ese reasos3 a tea$"er also
e$essitates moti*atioal ideas( T"e 'ollo4i! s#!!estios 'or tea$"er moti*atio i e.tesi*e
readi! are de*isedG
-( A tea$"er a!rees 4it" t"e tea$"i! met"odolo!% o' e.tesi*e readi! ad s"e $om/letel%
)elie*es i t"e )ee'its o' e.tesi*e readi!( Asra' J A"mad C+,,8D e./lai t"at 14e 'elt
t"at it 4as im/ortat t"at tea$"ers '#ll% #derstad t"e aims ad o)0e$ti*es as 4ell as t"e
ratioale 'or e.tesi*e readi!3 )e$a#se it is ol% 4"e t"e tea$"ers )elie*e i its *al#e
4o#ld t"e /ro!ram 4ork(2
+( As m#$" as /ossi)le3 a tea$"er i$reases t"e re4ard ad de$reases t"e e''ort(
8( A tea$"er 'ollo4s a$ti*ities t"at allo4 t"e st#dets to #se 4"at t"e% leared 4"ile readi!(
>7
<( A tea$"er is also iterested i t"e material( A tea$"er s"o#ld re!#larl% read ad )e a4are o'
t"e )ooks st#dets ted to read( It makes dis$#ssio i $lass eas%( Also it ea)les a tea$"er to
'oresee t"e /ossi)le o)sta$les i st#detsF readi! o' t"e s/e$i'i$ )ook(
:( A tea$"er is /ositi*e t"at ea$" st#det "as a $"a$e to s#$$eed(
Aot"er im/ortat iss#e i tea$"i! e.tesi*e readi! is i$#l$ati! readi! "a)it amo!
learers( Ho4 $a t"is "a)it )e $#lti*ated amo! 'orei! la!#a!e learersL I order to de*elo/ a
readi! "a)it i a reader3 a ier3 s/e$i'i$ 1readi!2 eed s"o#ld )e $reated i a s#)0e$tH later3 a
sit#atio satis'%i! readerFs eed s"o#ld )e iitiated CUzadze3 -7>>3 /( :<B::D( I' a learer is
allo4ed to read a )ook3 e0o% t"is readi! /ro$ess3 ad e./erie$e /ositi*e 'eeli!s re/eatedl%3 a'ter
some time a eed to read a )ook ad #der!o t"e momets o' /leas#re is isti!ated i a learerH to
satis'% t"is eed a learer stri*es to4ard a a$ti*it%3 a a$tio3 i(e( readi!( 9"e a learer takes a
)reak ad $eases t"e strokes3 #sed i a a$ti*it%3 sI"e 'o$#ses o a a$ti*it% itsel'( Here t"e
o)0e$ti*ism or t"iki! is de*elo/ed i a learer( I more $o$rete terms a learer $otem/lates
a)o#t a 4riter3 $"ara$ters i a )ook3 e$o#tered 4ords ad e./ressios(
8(<( Redin" requirement%C !ti$itie% nd te%tin" in n e4ten%i$e redin"
#ro"rm
Oe o' t"e /oits t"at di''eretiates a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 'rom ot"er la!#a!e
/ro!rams3 ad mai'ests i its title3 is t"e lar!e A#atit% o' readi! t"at a st#det is e./e$ted to read(
T"ere are o esta)lis"ed orms o' readi! amo#ts t"at $a )e $osidered as e.tesi*e( T"e
a//ro/riate te$"iA#e "o4 to de'ie t"e reA#ired amo#t o' readi! i a 4eek is to i*esti!ate "o4
m#$" o' readi! st#dets do i a itesi*e readi! /ro!rams 4eekl%( T"is amo#t 'or Geor!ia
st#dets *aries 'rom t"e le*el t"e% are at( It is a//ro.imatel% 'rom -, to -: /a!es( T"e amo#t o'
readi! i a 4eek t"at 4as 'o#d s#ita)le 'or e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 'or Geor!ia st#dets is
a)o#t :,B;, /a!es( T"ese #m)ers 4ere o)taied )% m#lti/l%i! itesi*e readi! idi$ator to :(
#ilent readingB t4i$e a mot" t"e tea$"er $a ask st#dets to do silet readi!( T"e st#dets
read t"eir )ooksH t"e tea$"er does ot iter'ere i t"eir readi! /ro$ess( S"e also !i*es t"e e.am/le
)% readi! "ersel'(
Oral presentationB St#dets re!#larl% /reset t"e )ook t"e% "a*e 'iis"ed( It is 8B: mi#te
/resetatio( D#ri! a oral /resetatio st#dets $a #se t"eir s#mmaries 4ritte i t"eir
;,
ote)ooks( T"e dis$#ssio o'te is like a $o'ere$e( T"e tea$"er $a $od#$t a iter*ie4 o t"e
to/i$ Rt"e )est ad t"e most )ori! )ooksF(
)he log-oo0 B is a si!i'i$at tool i a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram )e$a#se lo!)ooks are t"e
do$#matatio 4"i$" are )asi$s 'or asessmet ad a tea$"erFs '#rt"er orietatio i a st#detFs
readi!( ?irst3 a readi! lo! /ro*ides readers a me$"aism o' a$$o#ta)ilit% to re$ord 4"at t"e% are
readi! ea$" da%( St#dets $a )e e$o#ra!ed to re$ord 4"at t"e% are readi!( Aot"er 4a% t"at t"is
readi! lo! "as /ro*ed #se'#l is "o4 m#$" time t"e% s/et o readi!( T"e lo! does ot reA#ire t"e
reader to /ro*ide a detailed des$ri/tio o' t"eir $om/re"esio o' 4"at "as )ee read( I lo!s
readers m#st s#mmarize 4"at t"e% "a*e read( T"e lo!)ook 4"i$" 4as desi!ed 'or Geor!ia
st#dets 'or a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram !ot a ame o' /ost readi! 4orks"eet C&R9D( T"e &R9
de*elo/s some readi! strate!ies i readers C$'( A//edi. 8D( T"e most /romiet oes are s$ai!
ad s#mmarizatio 4"i$" are dis$#ssed se/aratel% i t"e s/e$i'i$ se$tios( T"e &R9 'or$es t"e
st#dets to a$ti*ate t"e ko4led!e t"at t"e% !aied 'rom t"e readi!( ?rom t"is /ro$ess3 t"e st#dets
lear "o4 to do t"eir o4 resear$" o' t"e )ook(
I t"e 'irst se$tio t"e st#dets 4rite t"e a#t"orFs ame ad t"e title o' t"e )ook( T"is se$tio
"el/s t"em to /a% attetio to t"e si!i'i$a$e o' t"e title ad it 4ill "el/ t"em kee/ t"eir 4orks"eets
or!aized( St#dets s"o#ld kee/ a re$ord o' t"e material t"at t"e% "a*e read(
I t"e se$od se$tio t"e st#dets 4rite t"e amo#t o' time t"e% s/et o readi! t"e )ook(
T"is data ea)les t"e st#dets to moitor t"eir /ro!ress( T"e% $a $om/are t"e s/eed t"at t"e% read
a )ook to /re*io#s oe( T"e st#dets $a also #se t"is se$tio to moitor t"e time t"at t"e% "a*e
4orked o e.tesi*e readi! lessos t"ro#!"o#t t"e $o#rse(
I t"e t"ird se$tio t"e st#dets list ad des$ri)e )rie'l% t"e $"ara$ters( T"is se$tio3 as 4ell
as t"e 'o#rt" ad t"e 'i't" se$tios3 de*elo/s a readi! strate!%3 s$ai!3 i readers( S$ai! is a
te$"iA#e o'te #sed 4"e looki! 'or s/e$i'i$ i'ormatio3 'or ke% 4ords or ideas( I most $ases3
readers ko4 4"at t"e% are looki! 'or3 so t"e% are $o$etrati! o 'idi! a /arti$#lar as4er(
S$ai! i*ol*es mo*i! e%es A#i$kl% do4 t"e /a!e seeki! s/e$i'i$ 4ords ad /"rases CN#ttall3
+,,,3 /(<7D(
I t"e 'o#rt" se$tio t"e st#dets 4rite a)o#t t"e si!i'i$a$e o' t"e )ook ad t"eir '#rt"er
$ommets( A'ter readi!3 st#dets #s#all% remai #der t"e im/ressio o' t"e )ook( T"e% 4at to
e./ress t"eir ideas3 0#d!mets ad emotios a'ter readi!( T"e% o'te $om/lete t"is se$tio 4it"
zeal( I t"is se$tio st#dets o'te e./ress t"eir a//re$iatio o' t"e a#t"orFs 4riti! st%leH "o4e*er3
;-
sometimes st#dets $riti$ize t"e a#t"or ad t"e% 4rite t"eir /re'erred edi! to t"e stor%( St#dets
also s"o4 t"eir s%m/at"% ad a''e$tio to4ards t"e "eroes ad $"ara$ters o' t"e stor%3 ad t"e%
o'te #se e4 4ords 'rom a )ook to e./ress t"eir o/iios(
I t"e 'i't" se$tio t"e st#dets dis$#ss t"ose 'e4 e4 4ords ad e./ressios t"at t"e% 'o#d
im/ortat ad iteresti! 'or t"em( St#dets es/e$iall% like t"is se$tio )e$a#se t"e% $a
demostrate 4"at t"e% "a*e leared( T"e st#dets $a dis$#ss 4ordsF meai!s i t"eir oral
/resetatio(
I t"e si.t" se$tio t"e st#dets rate t"e )ook( T"is a$ti*it% is eas% 'or t"e st#dets( T"e%
o'te rate a )ook $otro*ersiall%( T"e dis$re/a$ies amo! t"eir o/iios stim#late de)ates amo!
st#dets as t"e% de'ed ad 0#sti'% t"eir rati!s3 sometimes mi!led 4it" "#mor(
I t"e se*et" se$tio t"e st#dets 4rite t"e s#mmar%( St#dets s#mmarize t"e /lot o' t"e
)ook )rie'l%( T"is a$ti*it% "el/s st#dets to $o$etrate o t"e mai idea o' t"e )ook( A$$ordi! to
Hatzit"eodoro# C+,,;3 /( =-D 15s#mmarizatio te$"iA#es ea)le t"e idi*id#al to )ot" re$ei*e ad
iter/ret a te.t $om/etetl%3 a//re$iati! its '#ll meai!3 reBea$ti! all most o' its iitial
$ir$#msta$es o' /rod#$tio ad *ie4i! it as a li*i! /ie$e o' te.t3 4"i$" is em)edded i its orders
o' /rod#$tio ad $os#m/tio ad $ostit#ted 4it" its /#r/ose o' /rod#$tio ad /#r/ose o'
$os#m/tio(2 Learers s"o#ld $om)ie )ot" $om/etet readers"i/ ad a#t"ors"i/ $om)ied 4it"
iter/reti! skills( T"e $otri)#tio o' s#mmarizi! to $om/re"esio 4it"i a /eda!o!i$al $ote.t
is attested i &earso ad ?ieldi!Fs C-77-3 /( ;88D st#d%3 4"i$" ar!#es t"at $odesi! te.ts is
$od#$i*e to im/ro*ed $om/re"esio3 i$reased re$all ad im/ro*emet o stadardized readi!
test s$ores( T"ere'ore3 s#mmarizi! ser*es t"e /#r/ose o' st#d% skill B readi! $om/re"esio(
I t"e ei!"t" se$tio t"e st#dets aal%ze t"e di''i$#lt% o' t"e readi! material(
T"e items o' &R9 $a )e $"a!ed or modi'ied a$$ordi! to a tea$"er or st#detsF
reA#iremets e*e t"o#!" a tea$"er s"o#ld a*oid o*erloadi! st#dets 4it" tasks(
)ests B O$e a mot" tea$"er ma% ask st#dets to 4rite a to/i$ )ased o a readi! material3
'or e.am/le t"e 'a*orite $"ara$terFs des$ri/tio3 et$( E*er% 'ollo4i! se$od 4eek t"e tea$"er
$olle$ts st#detsF ote)ooks ad $"e$ks t"em( S"e #s#all% /a%s m#$" attetio to t"e s#mmaries3
4"i$" s"o4s "o4 t"e st#dets $om/re"ed t"e te.ts3 rat"er t"a 4riti! ad s/elli!(
Ot"er o/tioal a$ti*ities areG
-D 6"ara$ters %o# ideti'% 4it"
;+
+D &oits o' t"e stor% or )e"a*iors t"at iterest %o#
8D &ersoal e./erie$e or t"o#!"ts related to t"e )ook
<D ?a*orite /arts
:D &arts %o# dislike
=D Ho4 %o# 4o#ld $"a!e t"e )ook
>D Ho4 %o# 4o#ld a$t di''eretl% 'rom t"e $"ara$ters
;D Lar!er iss#es raised i t"e )ook C4ar3 ra$ism3 se.ism3 et$D
7D E./erie$es 4"ile readi! Cmeeti! 'amiliar 4ords3 e.$itemet3 slee/iess3 et$D
-,D Desi! a /oster to ad*ertise t"e )ook
--D Dra4 or #se a ma/ to s"o4 im/ortat /la$esIro#tes i t"e )ook( E./lai 4"% t"e% are
im/ortat
-+D 6reate a timelie o' e*ets i t"e )ook3 /er"a/s 4it" some te.t to "el/ /eo/le #derstad t"e
e*ets i t"e timelie
-8D 6om/are t"e )ook 4it" a mo*ieITV *ersio o' t"e same )ook
-<D Ima!ie t"at a $"ara$ter i t"e stor% )e$ame a st#det at %o#r s$"ool( Ho4 4o#ld t"e% dressL
Ho4 4o#ld t"e% )e"a*eL Ho4 4o#ld st#dets3 tea$"ers3 %o#3 ad ot"ers rea$t to t"emL
-:D S"ort ote to t"e e.t reader o' t"e )ook
-=D Ima!ie3 %o# met t"e a#t"or3 4"at 4o#ld %o# tellL
Most ER resear$"ers dis$#ss learersF assessmet )rie'l% ad dis$o#ra!e tea$"ers 'rom
e*al#ati! learers ad testi! t"em i a ER /ro!ram CDa% J Bam'ord3 +,,:H N#ttall3 +,,,D
A$$ordi! to Tk"emaladze et al( C+,,;3 /( >>D t"ere are se*eral $riteria 'or assessmetG relia)ilit%3
*alidit%3 o)0e$ti*it%3 ad tras/are$%( A$$ordi! to t"e /#r/ose o' assessmet t"ere are t4o 'orms
o' e*al#atioG de*elo/i! ad de'ii!( T"e tea$"er *aries t"ese 'orms o' e*al#atio a$$ordi! to
t"e lesso o)0e$ti*es(
As t"e !oal o' ER is to e$o#ra!e st#dets to read more ad e0o% it3 t"e tea$"er3 i order to
maitai t"is !oal3 s"o#ld /re'er to #se 'reA#etl% de*elo/i! e*al#atio more t"a t"e de'ii! oe(
T"e de*elo/i! e*al#atio is aimed at im/ro*i! skills3 !i*i! ad*i$e ad re$ommedatios as a
sol#tio o' a $ertai /ro)lem( T"ro#!" t"is e*al#atio a learer $ostatl% !ets $ommets ad
i'ormatio 'rom t"e tea$"er t"ro#!" di''eret 4a%s( T"is 'eed)a$k "el/s a learer to 'ollo4 o4
/ro!ress ad /er$ei*e i leari!( ?#rt"ermore3 t"ro#!" t"e de*elo/i! e*al#atio t"e tea$"er
;8
moitors st#detsF 4eak ad stro! sides3 s#!!ests t"e 4a%s o' o*er$omi! /ro)lems ad a$"ie*i!
e.tesi*e readi! !oals C$'( $"a/ter 83 se$t( 8(8D(
8(=( Sele!tin" redin" mteril
I sele$ti! readi! material s#$$ess'#ll% ad e0o%i! t"e readi!3 s$"emata /la%s
si!i'i$at role( A s$"ema is a metal str#$t#re( It deri*es 'rom all t"e /arti$#lar e./erie$es
st#dets "a*e "ad( It is str#$t#re )e$a#se it is or!aizedH it i$l#des t"e relatios"i/s )et4ee its
$om/oet /arts( A$$ordi! to Alderso C+,,,3 /( 88D s$"emata 1are see as iterlo$ki! metal
str#$t#res re/reseti! readerFs ko4led!e( 9"e readers /ro$ess te.t3 t"e% ite!rate t"e e4
i'ormatio 'rom t"e te.t ito t"eir /reBe.isti! s$"emata( More t"a t"at t"eir s$"emata i'l#e$e
"o4 t"e% re$o!ize i'ormatio as 4ell as "o4 t"e% store it(2 T"e 4a% Geor!ia st#dets iter/ret
de/eds o t"e s$"emata a$ti*ated )% t"e te.tH ad 4"et"er st#dets iter/ret s#$$ess'#ll% de/eds
o 4"et"er t"eir s$"emata are s#''i$ietl% similar to t"e 4riterFs( I a res/osi*e readerB oe 4"o is
alert ad a$ti*el% /ro$essi! t"e ideas i t"e te.tB t"e rele*at s$"emata are a$ti*ated( T"at meas
t"e% are read% to )e $alled o to e./lai #stated relatios"i/s ad also lia)le to )e modi'ied )% e4
ideas( &er"a/s 4e $a sa% t"at t"e res/osi*e readers s"o#ld )e 'le.i)le i t"eir a//roa$" to t"e
ideas i t"e te.t ad s#)$os$io#sl% a reader is a e./erimeter( &eo/le o' similar )a$k!ro#d ted
to "a*e similar s$"emataH 'or t"em3 t"e $ommo !ro#d is m#$" )i!!er t"a 'or /eo/le $omi! 'rom
di''eret )a$k!ro#ds( 9e see t"e di''ere$e i )a$k!ro#ds ad t"#s i s$"emata )et4ee a
Geor!ia reader ad a E!lis" 4riter(
T"e 'ial $om/oet o' orietatio i sele$ti! )ooks is /ra$ti$al( A im/ortat matter re'ers
to st#detsF itrod#$tio 4it" t"e li)rar%( St#dets also eed to )e itrod#$ed to t"e !raded readers
ad ti/s "o4 to 'id t"eir a//ro/riate le*el( T"e tea$"er e./lais t"at )ooks are $olo#rB$oded
a$$ordi! to t"e le*els( T"e tea$"er "as also to s"o4 to t"e st#dets t"e )l#r) ad 4"% t"e% eed to
read it3 et$(
A tea$"er o' t"e /ro!ram ad a admiistrator o' t"e li)rar% $a to!et"er de*elo/ a list o'
E!lis" )ooks e.isti! i t"e li)rar%( T"is list o' /#)li$atios 4ill )e !i*e to st#dets at t"e
)e!ii! o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"e list 4ill "a*e t"e 'ollo4i! se$tiosG le*el o'
readi!3 title3 a#t"or3 amo#t o' /a!es i a )ook /#)lis"er( It 4ill )e !ood i' !ere 4ill also )e
i$l#ded i t"is des$ri/tio( St#dets $a o'te look ito t"e $atalo!#eBlist3 e*e at "ome ad /la
i ad*a$e t"eir readi! /ro!ram 'or a mot"( T"is kid o' list also sa*es st#dets ad a li)rariaFs
;<
time( St#dets dire$tl% $ome ad ask 'or a s/e$i'i$ )ook( I' a )ook is #iteresti! or too di''i$#lt a
st#det sim/l% a)ados it 'or aot"er( I ot"er 4ords3 reada)ilit% or $om/re"esi)ilit% is essetial(
St#dets o'te mark titles ad make otes o t"eir )ooklistH t"ere'ore t"is )ooklist is a matter o'
dis$#ssio amo! st#dets3 e*e o#t o' $lassH st#dets re$ommed t"e )ooks to oe aot"er( T"is
)ooklist em/o4ers t"em 4it" t"e $otrol o*er t"eir readi!3 ad i$rease t"eir a#toom%(
8(>( 'on!lu%ion
T"e ER tea$"i! met"odolo!% de*elo/ed i t"is $"a/ter i$l#des o*elt% i itsel'( It ado/ts
tea$"i! /ri$i/les 4"i$" are t"e /eda!o!i$al )asis o' ed#$atioal s%stem i Geor!ia( It o#tlies ad
str#$t#res t"e or!aizatio o' tea$"i! ER( A tea$"er as a !#ide ad a ea)ler is relati*el% e4
$o$e/t i 'orei! la!#a!e tea$"i! met"odolo!% i Geor!ia( T"is met"odolo!% s#//orts
im/lemeti! learer a#toom% i t"e ed#$atioal e*iromet o' Geor!ia )% allo4i! learers to
take res/osi)ilities 'or t"eir leari!( T"e ER met"odolo!% o''ers 4a%s o' a//roa$"i! moti*atio3
/arti$#larl%3 tea$"er moti*atio ad learer moti*atio( T"e met"odolo!% dire$ts t"e tea$"er t"ro#!"
all t"e ste/s o' tea$"i! ER3 s#$" as3 #si! a$ti*ities3 testi!3 ad sele$ti! readi! materials(
;:
'5APTER IV
EXPERIMENTAL TEA'5ING O* AN EXTENSIVE READING
PROGRAM
9(/( Re%er!h de%i"n
E./erimetal im/lemetatio o' a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram "as )ee started at t"e 'orei!
la!#a!e de/artmet at Tela*i State Ui*ersit% si$e +,,7( T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram
istr#$tio is )ased o t"e met"odolo!% des$ri)ed i t"e t"ird $"a/ter( I #sed A#atitati*e met"ods(
S#r*e% as a A#atiati*e met"od 4as #sed to $olle$t data o !eeral )a$k!ro#d ad e*al#ati*e 'orm
o' t"e istr#$tio( &reBtest ad /ostBtest 4ere #sed to meas#re ad $om/are t"e s$ores o' t"e
st#dets( Bot" met"ods aimed at re*eali! t"e res#lts )e'ore ad a'ter e./erimetal istr#$tio i all
!ro#/sH t"e tar!et 'o$i 4ere t"e 'ollo4i!G moti*atio3 /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis"3
readi! as a "a)it3 !rammar3 ad !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e(
T"e met"odolo!% #der4et t"e -:B4eekBlo! /ilot tea$"i! 'or Ci t"e 'irst semester o'
+,,7B+,-, a$ademi$ %earD( T"e /ilot st#d% ea)led to o)ser*e some iss#es i t"e e./erimetal
tea$"i! t"at reA#ired '#rt"er $"a!es3 'or e.am/le3 d#ri! t"e /ilot tea$"i! a tea$"er "as to
determie st#detsF la!#a!e le*el ad re$ommed !raded readers o' a /arti$#lar le*el a//ro/riate
to st#detsF la!#a!e le*el( St#dets did ot e0o% t"is a//roa$"( T"e% "ad to read ol% t"e )ooks o'
t"e assi!ed le*el( La$k o' et"#siasm amo! t"e st#dets 4as o)*io#s( 6oseA#etl%3 t"is
a//roa$" 4as $"a!ed( All st#dets 4ere allo4ed to read t"e )ooks t"e% 4ated 4it" t"e mai
$oditioG T"e #m)er o' t"e e4 4ords s"o#ld "a*e )ee limited to 8B: 4ords o a /a!e( T"e ot"er
iss#e dis$ered )% /iloti! 4as a test t%/e #sed i t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!(
;=
T"e resear$"ed sam/le 4as $"ose 'rom t"e 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet ad t"e 'orei!
la!#a!e $eter at Tela*i State Ui*ersit%( T"e /arti$i/ats3 t"e /ro$ed#re3 ad t"e res#lts are
dis$#ssed se/aratel% i s#)se$tios(
9(/(/( Prti!i#nt% 6A7(The %tudent% of the de#rtment of forei"n ln"u"e%
At t"e )e!ii! o' t"e se$od semester o' +,,7B+,-, a$ademi$ %ear +< 'o#rt"B%ear st#dets
at t"e 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet at Tela*i State Ui*ersit% 4ere sele$ted 4it" t"eir $oset 'or
t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!( I 4as i'ormed )% t"e a$ademi$ sta'' o' t"ese st#dets t"at t"e% 4ere too
4eak ad t"eir !rades i la!#a!e $o#rses 4ere too lo4( T"e st#dets disti!#is"ed 4it" lo4
moti*atio i leari!( T"eir iterest 4as de'i$iet i E!lis" la!#a!e( T"e st#detsF la!#a!e
s$ores re*ealed t"eir 4eakess( T"e st#dets 4ere di*ided ito t"e !ro#/s 4it" a//ro.imatel% eA#al
la!#a!e le*els a$$ordi! to t"eir la!#a!e leari! a/tit#deG at elemetar% le*el N = st#dets3 /reB
itermediateB : st#dets3 itermediate N - st#det(
T"e st#dets 'illed i t"e A#estioaire 'orms3 4"i$" $otaied A#estios a)o#t st#detsF
a!e3 atioalit%3 d#ratio o' E!lis" la!#a!e leari!3 so$ial $oditios o' t"e 'amil%3 e./erie$e o'
li*i! a)road3 t"e 'reA#e$% o' readi! i E!lis"3 ad t"eir attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis" C$'(
A//edi. <D(
T"e st#dets 4ere +,B+- %ears old )% t"e time t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! started( All o' t"em
are !irls ad t"eir atioalit% is Geor!ia( Ele*e o' t"em 'iis"ed "i!" s$"ool i t"e remote
*illa!es( T"e A#estio a)o#t so$ial $oditio o' t"e st#detsF 'amilies "as re*ealed t"at ol% :
st#detsF )ot" /arets 4ork3 -, st#detsF /arets are #em/lo%ed ad oe o' t"e /arets 4orks i 7
st#detsF 'amilies( S#//osedl%3 t"e lo4 a$ademi$ a/tit#de $a )e e./laied )% t"e 'amiliesF "ard
so$ial $oditios( T"e d#ratio o' leari! E!lis" Cat s$"ool3 at la!#a!e $o#rses3 ad 4it" t#tors B
alto!et"erD *aried 'rom = to -8 %ears( T4o o' t"e !irls 4ere i t"e USA t"ro#!" a st#dets e.$"a!e
/ro!ram 'or 8 4eeks( I t"e ta)le t"e 'i!#res s"o4 t"e /re*io#s ad /reset e./erie$e i E!lis"
readi!G

Ta)le <(-( St#dets e./erie$e i readi!(
No
readi!
+B8 /a!es i a
4eek
<B7 /a!es i a 4eek More t"a -,
/a!es
&re*io#s e./erie$e i - st#det -< st#dets < st#dets : st#dets
;>
readi! Cat s$"oolD
&reset readi!
amo#tCat #i*ersit%D
B > st#dets -+ st#dets : st#dets
T"irtee o' t"e st#dets marked t"at t"e% reall% like readi! i E!lis" *er% m#$"3 t"e rest N
ele*e st#dets e0o% readi! i E!lis"( T"e st#dets 4ere di*ided ito a//ro.imatel% ideti$al
!ro#/s a$$ordi! t"eir la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$% ad ot"er *aria)les o)taied 'rom t"e A#estioaire
'orms
Table 4.2. T"e readi! /#r/ose 'or t"e st#dets(
Readi! /#r/ose To !et /leas#re To !et /leas#re
ad i'ormatio
To !et /leas#re
ad do la!#a!e
leari!
assi!met
to do la!#a!eB
leari!
assi!met
N#m)er o' st#dets 8 st#dets - st#det = st#dets -< st#dets
9(/(0( Pro!edure
4ome-reading course traditional teaching - in the control group CT"e st#dets 4ere o'
elemetar%3 /reBitermediate3 itermediate le*elsD+T"e st#dets "ad t4o a$ademi$ "o#rs i a 4eek(
T"e tea$"er sele$ted a a#t"eti$ readi! )ook( S( Ma#!"amFs 1T"e moo ad t"e si. /e$e2 4as
$"ose 'or t"is /ro!ram( I ea$" lesso t"e tea$"er !a*e learers 'orm < to : $"a/ters at "ome to
read ad to lear t"em i order to retell i t"e 'ollo4i! lesso( St#dets "ad to look #/ #ko4
4ords i t"e di$tioar%3 4rite t"em do4 i t"eir *o$a)#lar%3 ad memorize t"em( T"e tea$"er
tested e4l% a$A#ired *o$a)#lar% i t"e 'ollo4i! lesso( O$e a mot" t"e tea$"er !a*e a 4ritte
assi!met3 'or e.am/le3 $om/re"esio A#estios related to t"e readi! material(
'xtensi(e reading course- experimental teaching- in the experimental group CT"e st#dets
4ere o' elemetar%3 /reBitermediate3 itermediate le*elsD+ T"e st#dets "ad t4o a$ademi$ "o#rs i
a 4eek( T"e tea$"er /reseted t"e )ooks at t"e li)rar%( St#dets sele$ted t"eir readi! materials
t"emsel*es( T"ese readi! )ooks 4ere !raded readers( T"e% read idi*id#all%( T"e% $"ose )ooks
a$$ordi! to t"eir la!#a!e le*els( St#dets 4ere e$o#ra!ed to read 'rom :, to ;, /a!es i a 4eek(
;;
T"e aim o' readi! 4as !eeral #derstadi! ad /leas#re istead o' detailed aal%sis( T"e tea$"er
e./laied to t"e st#dets t"at t"e readi! s/eed s"o#ld "a*e )ee $om'orta)le 'or t"em( T"e tea$"er
did ot re$ommed t"e o*er#se o' di$tioaries( Dis$#ssio 4as a 'orm o' t"e tea$"er ad st#detsF
itera$tio( St#dets /reseted t"eir )ooks #si! t"e re$ords i t"eir 4orks"eets C&R9B dis$#ssed i
t"e se$od $"a/terD ad t"e% $"ose o/tioal a$ti*ities(
T"e di''ere$es )et4ee t"e istr#$tios i $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s are /reseted i
t"e ta)leG
Table 4.3. Di''ere$es )et4ee e./erimetal ad traditioal istr#$tios C/arti$i/ats AD(
Gro#/s 6otrol !ro#/ N Home readi! E./erimetal !ro#/ N E.tesi*e
readi!
9"o sele$ted readi!
materials
A tea$"er sele$ted readi!
material
St#dets sele$ted )ooks
Readi! material T"e readi! material 4as a
#a)rid!ed )ook
Books #s#all% $orres/oded 4it"
st#detsF la!#a!e le*el(
A$ti*ities Retelli! t"e s#mmar% o' t"e
$"a/ters3 4orki! o #ko4
4ords
&resetatio o' t"e )ooks3 &R93
o/tioal a$ti*ities
ReA#ired amo#t o'
readi!
<B: $"a/ters o' t"e assi!ed
)ook Ca//ro.imatel% -,B-:
/a!esD
:,B;, /a!es o' sel'Bsele$ted
readi! materials
9(/(8( Redin" mteril% for the e4#erimentl "rou#%
I e.tesi*e readi! oe o' t"e $r#$ial 'a$tors is ri$" /rit e*iromet( I Geor!ia
#i*ersities t"ere is a la$k o' E!lis" /rit e*iromet ad e*e a)se$e( Tela*i State Ui*ersit% is
amo! t"ose 4"i$" does ot "a*e E!lis" la!#a!e /rit e*iromet( T"e sol#tio 'or t"is /ro)lem
4as 'o#d i t"e Tela*i )ra$" o' ETAG( ETAG is a /ro'essioal asso$iatio o' E!lis" tea$"ers i
Geor!ia( ETAG "as 7 re!ioal )ra$"es i T)ilisi3 K#taisi3 Bat#mi3 Ak"altsik"e3 &oti3 Tela*i3
W#!didi3 R#sta*i3 ad Gori( T"e Tela*i )ra$" o' ETAG is lo$ated i t"e mai )#ildi! o' Tela*i
State Ui*ersit%( T"e )ra$" at t"e #i*ersit% "o#ses )ooks3 $assettes3 ad *ideos i t"e li)rar%3
desi!ed 'or /eo/le iterested i E!lis" la!#a!e( T"e li)rar% /ro*ides a$$ess to t"e 'ollo4i!
E!lis" la!#a!e tea$"i! materialsG
!raded readers ad #a)rid!ed )ooks
;7
)ooks o met"odolo!%3 listei!3 s/eaki!3 readi!3 4riti!3 !rammar
*o$a)#lar%3 tests3 /ro#$iatio ad /ro'essioal E!lis"
$o#rse )ooks 'or ad#lts ad %o#! learers
a#dio ad *ideo $assettes
di$tioariesG !eeral ad s/e$ialized
e4s/a/ers ad /eriodi$als
I'ormatio reso#r$esG dire$tories3 $atalo!#es ad *ario#s /ros/e$t#ses(
Graded readers are t"e readi! materials 4"i$" 4ere #sed i t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!(
A$$ordi! to S"e# C+,,<D3 ad Da% J Bam'ord C-77;3 /( =-D 1!raded readers 4ritte #der
str#$t#re ad i'ormatio $otrol are t"e mai materials i most st#dies o ESLIE?L ER3 ad "a*e
)ee re/orted as s#$$ess'#l i de*elo/i! learersF la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$%(2 Graded readers are a
'orm o' la!#a!e learer literat#re( T"e% are )ooks s/e$iall% 4ritte 'or se$od or 'orei! la!#a!e
learers( T"e% do ot $orres/od to s/e$i'i$ !rade le*els( T"e% are !raded readers i t"e sese t"at
t"e% are i'ormed )% !rammar ad *o$a)#lar% !#idelies 'or s/e$i'i$ le*els o' di''i$#lt%( Be!ii!
learers 4o#ld read )ooks 4it" sim/le *o$a)#lar% Ca)o#t +,,B8,, most $ommo 4ords i arrati*e
E!lis"D3 4"i$" are 4ritte i )asi$ !rammar3 *o$a)#lar% ad /lot to mat$" t"eir li!#isti$ a)ilit%(
O$e readers 'eel $om'orta)le readi! at t"is le*el3 t"e% mo*e #/ t"ro#!" t"e series )% readi!
)ooks 4it" more $"alle!i! *o$a)#lar%3 !rammar3 /lot ad so o( T"is is similar to t"e 4a% a $"ild
lears to read i t"e 'irst la!#a!e( T"e 'irst le*el )ooks $otai 'e4 4ords ad ma% ill#stratios3
ad as readi! /ro!ressed3 st#dets are a)le to read more $om/le. materials(
T"e 'ollo4i! /#)li$atios o' !raded readers are i t"e li)rar% o' t"e ETAG )ra$"G -D
Heiema G#ided Readers +D O.'ord Book4orms Series 8D Ma$milla Graded Readers <D &e!#i
readers(
T"e tea$"er o' e./erimetal e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 4it" t"e "el/ o' a admiistrator o'
t"e )ra$" $reated a )ooklist 'or t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ st#dets( T"ere are at elemetar% le*elB +<
)ooks3 /reBitermediateB 7 )ooks3 ItermediateB ++ )ooks3 U//erBitermediate N -8 )ooks3
Ad*a$ed N 7 )ooks3 #a)rid!ed N +< )ooks( ?or iitial #m)er o' st#dets3 -+ st#dets i
e./erimetal !ro#/3 t"ese reso#r$es are eo#!"(
9(/(9( Te%tin" in e4#erimentl te!hin"
7,
T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal ad $otrol !ro#/s 4ere tested t4o times( T"e st#dets took
t"e test i t"e t"ird ad t"e 'i'teet" 4eeks o' t"e st#d%( T"e sam/le o' t"e test $osisted o' !rammar
ad 6Btest se$tios( T"e model o' 6Btesti! 4as ado/ted 'rom I4a"oriFs C+,,;D e./erimetal
tea$"i!( T"is st#d% e.amied t"e e''e$ti*eess o' ER o readi! rates o' "i!" s$"ool st#dets i
Oa/a( It 4as $od#$ted 'or > 4eeks i +,,=( T"e st#detsF ati*e la!#a!e 4as Oa/aese3 ad t"e%
4ere leari! E!lis" as a 'orei! la!#a!e(
To meas#re !eeral la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$%3 t"e st#dets took t"e 6Btest C$'( A//edi. 7D(
A//ro.imatel%3 -+,B4ord le!t"s3 t"ree e.tra$ts o' itermediate le*el 4ere $om/iled 'or 6Btests(
T"e 'irst t4o sete$es 4ere le't #$"a!ed( ?rom t"e t"ird sete$e t"e se$od "al' o' e*er%
se$od 4ord 4as deleted( I 4ords 4it" a odd #m)er o' letters /l#s oe 4ere deleted( Si$e t"e
st#dets 4ere taki! t"e 6Btest 'or t"e 'irst time3 t"e% 4ere !i*e a sam/le 6Btest )e'ore t"e /retest
to )e$ome 'amiliar 4it" t"e test 'ormat( T"e 6Btest 4as #sed to $"e$k o*erall /ro'i$ie$%( I 6Btest
it is t"e se$od "al' o' e*er% se$od 4ord 4"i$" is deleted( T"e s#//osed ad*ata!es o' t"e 6Btest
o*er t"e more traditioal $loze /ro$ed#re are t"at ol% e.a$t s$ori! is e$essar% ad t"at s"orter
/assa!es are /ossi)le( It takes little s/a$e ad ot earl% so m#$" time to $om/lete C$adidates do
ot "a*e to read m#$"D( &ossi)le disad*ata!es relate to t"e /#zzleBlike at#re o' t"e task( Resear$"
4o#ld seem to idi$ate t"at t"e 6Btest '#$tios 4ell as a ro#!" meas#re o' o*erall a)ilit% i a
'orei! la!#a!e C6ald4ell3 +,,+D( A$$ordi! to 9eir C-7783 /( ;-D t"e 6Btests are e$oomi$al3 ad
t"e res#lts are relia)le ad *alid iterall% ad e.terall%(
Grammar se$tio i$l#ded t"irt% m#lti/leB$"oi$e A#estios( T"e test 4as ado/ted 'rom
Nelso E!lis" La!#a!e test C-7>>D N itermediate le*el( T"e sam/le test3 t"e /retest ad /osttest
i$l#ded di''eret *ersios o' itermediate le*el tests A3 B3 ad 6 B 'rom eas% to di''i$#lt( T"e tasks
4ere ideti$al 4it" di*erse e.am/les ad sete$es( T"e st#dets s/et a "o#r to $om/lete )ot"
se$tios o' t"e test( Ea$" test started 4it" a stadardized e./laatio o' dire$tios to t"e st#dets(
9(/(:( Re%ult%
D#ri! t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e miim#m #m)er o' /a!es read )% t"e st#dets i
e./erimetal !ro#/ 4as +:,3 ad t"e ma.im#m B -,:, /a!es( T"e 'i!#res are )ased o t"e st#detsF
otes 'illed i t"e &R9 C$'( $"a/ter 83 se$t( 8(=D( T"e st#dets i t"e "ome readi! !ro#/ read t"e
)ook o' ++, /a!es(
7-
Scoring procedure 'or a !rammar se$tio o' 8, m#lti/le $"oi$e tasks3 oe /oit 4as
a4arded to ea$" $orre$t as4er3 ad o /oits to i$orre$t as4ers( ?or a total N 8, /oits i a
!rammar se$tio( T"e 6Btest se$tio 4as s$ored i t"e 'ollo4i! maerG ?or all $orre$t $om/letio
o' a 4ord oe /oit ad zero 'or a% i$orre$t letters i $om/letio( I a 6Btest se$tio ma.im#m
s$ore 4as <: /oits( T"e A#atitati*e aal%sis o' !rades to st#detFs /reB ad /osttests i t"is $"a/ter
aims to $om/lemet t"e aal%sis o' A#estioaires(
Table 4.4. T"e res#lts o' t"e 6Btest ad Grammar i t"e $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s(
N Geeral
/ro'i$ie$
% C&retestDI
6otrol
Grammar
C&retestDI
6otrol
Geeral
/ro'i$ie$
%
C&osttestDI
6otrol
Grammar
C&osttestDI
6otrol
Geeral
/ro'i$ie$%
C&retestDI
E./erimetal
Grammar
C&retestDI
E./erimetal
Geeral
/ro'i$ie$%
C&osttestDI
E./erimetal
Grammar
C&osttestDI
E./erimetal
-> -- -8 -- +8 -= +< -=
+8 -, -> -, +< -+ +, -+
+, 7 -8 -- -> ; -< :
+: 7 -; -+ +, -, -: --
-> ; -8 ; -> : -; ;
+> -+ += > +: -: +, -<
++ ; -< = 88 -7 +> +8
+< -+ +, = -- 7 +- 7
-7 -8 -< -: +7 -< +; -;
-> -8 -- -< -: ; -8 >
+8 ; +, ; +: > ++ -:
+8 -, +8 -- +> -8 +; :
T"e 'ollo4i! statisti$al te$"iA#es 4ere #sed 'or data aal%sisG
Measure of central tendency B t"e mea CMD3 or arit"meti$ a*era!e( It is t"e )asis 'or ma%
ad*a$ed meas#res Cad statisti$sD )ased o !ro#/ )e"a*ior(
Measures of dispersion- t"e stadard de*iatio CStd De*iatioD is a #m)er t"at s"o4s "o4
s$ores are s/read aro#d t"e mea( T"e lar!er t"e stadard de*iatio3 t"e more *aria)ilit% t"ere is a
/arti$#lar !ro#/ o' s$ores( 6o*ersel%3 a smaller stadard de*iatio idi$ates t"at t"e !ro#/ is more
"omo!eo#s i terms o' a /arti$#lar )e"a*ior( Be$a#se t"e mea does ot /ro*ide i'ormatio a)o#t
"o4 s$ores are dis/ersed aro#d t"e mea3 t"e stadard de*iatio is al4a%s re/orted i
'orei!Ise$od la!#a!e resear$"H
3nferential #tatistics B De!rees o' 'reedom CdfD is e$essar% as 4e $osider t"e determiatio
o' si!i'i$a$e o' statisti$al tests( ?or t-tests $a )e determied )% s#)tra$ti! oe 'rom t"e #m)er
o' /arti$i/ats i ea$" !ro#/ ad t"e addi! t"e t4o res#lti! #m)ers to!et"er(
7+
Parametric #tatistics B /aired tBtest Ct-(alueD is #sed 4"e t"e !ro#/s are ot ide/edet3 as
i a /retest ad /osttest sit#atio 4"e t"e 'o$#s is 4it"i a !ro#/( It is #sed to $"e$k i' some skills
"ad )ee a$A#ired )% t"e !ro#/ a'ter t"e treatmet(
S&SS3 a )asi$ aal%ti$ /ro!ram 4as #sed to /ro$ess t"e data3 o#t/#t ta)les ad $"arts(
Table 4.5. T"e des$ri/ti*e statisti$s 'or t"e /retests(
N Miim#m Ma.im#m Mea Std( De*iatio
6BtestI/retestI$otrol -+ -> +> +-(<+ 8(8>,
GrammarI /retestI$otrol -+ ; -8 -,(,, +(,,,
6BtestI/retestIe./erimetal -+ -- 88 ++(-> =(88>
GrammarI /retestIe./erimetal -+ : -7 --(88 <(-;:
I $otrol !ro#/ t"e /retest idi$ators are t"e 'ollo4i! Cta)le <(:(DG
?or t"e 6Btest t"e mea is +-(<+3 Std de*iatio is 8(8>,3 4"i$" s"o4s t"at t"e !ro#/ is
"omo!eo#s3 t"e miim#m s$ore is ->3 ad t"e ma.im#m B+>H
?or t"e !rammar test t"e mea is -,(,,3 Std De*iatio is +(,,,3 4"i$" s"o4s t"e !ro#/Fs
"omo!eeit%3 t"e miim#m s$ore is ; ad t"e ma.im#m is -8( N is t"e #m)er o' t"e sam/le
i t"e !ro#/3 4"i$" is t"e same 'or )ot" !ro#/s B-+(
T"e /retest 'i!#res o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ are t"e e.t Cta)le(..DG
?or t"e 6Btest t"e mea is ++(->3 Std De*iatio is =(88> 4"i$" s"o4s t"at t"is !ro#/ is less
"omo!eo#s t"a t"e $otrol oe( T"e miim#m s$ore -- ad t"e ma.im#m s$ore 88 also
demostrate t"at t"e s$ores are ot $losel% dis/ersed aro#d t"e meaH
?or t"e !rammar test t"e mea is --(883 Std De*iatio is <(-;:3 t"e miim#m s$ore is : ad
t"e ma.im#m is -73 t"e dis/ersio is 4ider t"a t"e $otrol !ro#/FsH t"#s3 t"e e./erimetal
!ro#/Fs )e"a*ior is less "omo!eo#s(
Table 4.6. T"e des$ri/ti*e statisti$s 'or t"e /osttests(
N Miim#m Ma.im#m Mea Std( De*iatio
6BtestI/osttestI$otrol
-+ -- += -=(;8 <(=<;
GrammarI/osttestI$otrol
-+ = -: 7(7+ +(7=;
6BtestI/osttestIe./erimetal
-+ -8 +; +,(;8 :(+:<
GrammarI /osttest Ie./erimetal
-+ : +8 --(7+ :(:-;
78
T"e /osttest idi$ators o' t"e $otrol !ro#/ are t"e 'ollo4i!G
?or t"e 6Btest t"e mea is -=(;83 Std de*iatio is <(=<;3 4"i$" is di''eret 'rom t"e /retest
idi$ator ad "as rise at t"e e./ese o' t"e e./eded dis/ersio( T"e miim#m s$ore 'ell to
--3 ad t"e ma.im#m is a)o#t t"e same as t"e /retest s$ore B +=H
?or t"e !rammar test t"e mea is 7(7+3 Std De*iatio is +(7=;3 it is i$reased i $om/ariso
4it" t"e /retest 'i!#re C-(;8<D3 ad t"e dis/ersio aro#d t"e mea "as e./aded( T"e
miim#m s$ore is = ad t"e ma.im#m is -:( T"e #m)er CND o' t"e sam/le i )ot" !ro#/s3
i /osttests is -+(
T"e /osttest 'i!#res o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ "a*e $"a!edG
?or t"e 6Btest t"e mea is +,(;83 Std De*iatio is :(+:< 4"i$" "as dimiis"ed ad t"e !ro#/
teds to more /arti$#lar )e"a*ior or i ot"er 4ords it is more "omo!eo#s( T"e miim#m
s$ore -8 ad t"e ma.im#m s$ore +;3 t"e s$ores are $losel% dis/ersed aro#d t"e meaH
?or t"e !rammar test t"e mea is --(7+3 a )it "i!"er t"a 'or t"e /retest mea C--(=>D3 Std
De*iatio is :(:-;3 t"e miim#m s$ore is : ad t"e ma.im#m is +83 t"e dis/ersio is 4ide
ad t"e e./erimetal is ot *er% "omo!eo#s(
7<
Figure 4.1. T"e di''ere$e )et4ee t"e meas o' t"e $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s i t"e /retest
o' !eeral la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$%(
I $om/are t"e o*erall /er'orma$e o' t"e t4o !ro#/s Ce./erimetal B $otrolD i relatio to
t"e /retests ad /osttests i !rammar ad !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e C6BtestD( &arti$i/ats i t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ "ad )etter /retest !rades t"a t"ose i t"e $otrol !ro#/( T"e mea di''ere$e
)et4ee $oditios i 6Btest is ,(>:, C$'( 'i!#re <(-(D
Table 4.7. &aired Di''ere$es 'or t"e /retest i !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e(
6Btest
Mea Std( De*iatio Std( Error Mea
7:Q 6o'ide$e Iter*al
o' t"e Di''ere$e
t d' /retest Lo4er U//er
E./erimetalB
6otrol
.750 6.621 1.911 -3.457 4.957 .392 11
I Grammar /retest t"e mea di''ere$e is -(,;8H t[,(;>; i !rammar3 t[(87+ i 6Btest(
7:
$otrol
e./erimetal
Table 4.8. &aired Di''ere$es 'or t"e /retest i !rammar(
Grammar
Mea Std( De*iatio Std( Error Mea
7:Q 6o'ide$e Iter*al o'
t"e Di''ere$e
t d' /retest Lo4er U//er
E./erimetalB
6otrol
1.083 4.274 1.234 -1.632 3.799 .878 11
I t"e /osttest t"e st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed sli!"tl% )etter res#lts i !rammar t"a
t"ose i t"e $otrol !ro#/ CTa)le <(7(D( T"e mea di''ere$e )et4ee $oditios is +(-=>3 i /aired tB
test3 t"e *al#e o' t[-(=++H t"e $riti$al *al#e 'or d'[-- is -(>7= at t"e (,: le*el o' si!i'i$a$e CBro4
J Rod!ers3 +,,<D3 4"i$" meas t"at t"ere is ol% : $"a$es i -,, C(,:D t"at t"e di''ere$e i mea
s$ores )et4ee t4o !ro#/s o$$#rred )% $"a$eH /\(,:( TB*al#e is smaller t"a t"e $riti$al *al#e3
4"i$" s"o4s t"at t"e di''ere$e is ot si!i'i$at i !rammar /osttest(
Table 4.9. &aired Di''ere$es 'or t"e /osttest i !rammar(
Grammar
Mea Std( De*iatio Std( Error Mea
7:Q 6o'ide$e Iter*al o'
t"e Di''ere$e
t d' /osttest Lo4er U//er
E./erimetalB
6otrol
+(-=> <(=+7 -(88= B(>>< :(-,; -(=++ --
I t"e /osttest t"e st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed )etter res#lts i 6Btest t"a t"ose i
t"e $otrol !ro#/( T"e mea di''ere$e )et4ee $oditios is 8(:;8 C$'( ta)le <(-,( ad 'i!#re <(+(D(
7=
Figure 4.2. T"e di''ere$e )et4ee t"e meas o' t"e $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s i t"e /osttest
o' !eeral la!#a!e /ro'i$ie$%(
I /aired tBtest3 t"e *al#e o' t[-(787 Cta)le <(-,DH t"e $riti$al *al#e 'or d'[-- is -(>7= at t"e (,: le*el
o' si!i'i$a$e CBro4 J Rod!ers3 +,,<D3 4"i$" meas t"at t"ere is ol% : $"a$es i -,, C(,:D t"at
t"e di''ere$e i mea s$ores )et4ee t4o !ro#/s o$$#rred )% $"a$eH /](,:( T"e tB*al#e is more
t"a t"e $riti$al *al#e3 ad I $a ass#me t"at t"ere is statisti$al si!i'i$a$e i t"e 6Btest
Table 4.10. &aired Di''ere$es i !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e i /osttest(
6Btest
Mea Std( De*iatio Std( Error Mea
7:Q 6o'ide$e Iter*al o'
t"e Di''ere$e
t d' &osttest Lo4er U//er
E./erimetalB
6otrol
8(:;8 =(<,8 -(;<; B(<;: >(=:- -(787 --
9(/(<( Re%ult% of the e$luti$e form
A'ter t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!3 $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/s "ad to 'ill i t"e readi!
/ro!ram e*al#atio 'orm3 4"i$" 4as aimed at !at"eri! 'eed)a$k o t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! C$'(
A//edi. :D( T"e A#estioaire 'orm i$l#ded ie A#estios di*ided ito t"e t"ree $ate!oriesG
7>
$otrol
e./erimetal
i'l#e$e o' t"e /ro!rams o t"e learers3 t"e 'eed)a$k o t"e readi! /ro!rams3 ad learersF
i*ol*emet i t"e readi! /ro!ram(
-( T"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ metioed 'ollo4i! as/e$ts )ei! im/ro*ed a'ter
$om/leti! t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!ram( T"e% /oited o#t t"e 'ollo4i! !aisG
*o$a)#lar% N +:QH s/eaki! N -=(>QH i litera$% N +:QH readi! 'l#e$% N -=(>QH i
la!#a!e str#$t#re ad s%ta. B-=(>Q(
T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ re/orted im/ro*emets i t"e 'ollo4i! as/e$tsG
Gais i *o$a)#lar% N ;(8QH litera$% B-=(>QH s/eaki! N <-(>QH readi! N ;(8QH readi!
'l#e$% N +:Q(
+( ==Q o' t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ said t"at t"e /ro!ram $"a!ed t"eir attit#de to4ard
readi!3 4"ile 88(8Q o' t"e st#dets o)0e$ted t"e i'l#e$e o' t"e /ro!ram o t"eir attit#de
to4ard readi! i E!lis"( :,Q o' t"e st#dets t"ik t"at t"e /ro!ram 4as soBso3 <-(>Q
Bliked it A#ite a lot ad ;(8Q liked t"e /ro!ram *er% m#$"(
All o' t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ stated t"at t"e readi! /ro!ram $"a!ed t"eir
attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis"H 88(8 Q o' t"e st#dets i e./erimetal !ro#/ liked t"e
e.tesi*e readi! *er% m#$"3 :;(8Q B A#ite a lot3 ad ;(8Q B soBso(
8( T"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ $"ose 'ollo4i! statemets to e./ress t"eir attit#de to4ard
readi! i E!lis"G +:Q o' t"e st#dets de*elo/ed readi! skill3 <-(>Q o' t"e st#dets
4ated to read more i E!lis"3 ad 88(8Q B e0o%ed readi! i E!lis"(
A'ter $om/leti! t"e readi! /ro!ram i e./erimetal !ro#/ +:Q o' t"e st#dets admitted
t"at t"e /ro!ram "el/ed to de*elo/ readi! skills3 :,Q B 4ated to read more i E!lis"3 ad
+:Q B e0o%ed readi! i E!lis"(
<( T"e st#detsF i*ol*emet i readi! 4as asserted )% t"e 'ollo4i! #m)ersG i t"e $otrol
!ro#/ N :,Q o' t"e st#dets read +, /a!es a 4eek3 t"e rest o' t"em 'rom : to +: /a!es i a
4eek(
I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ B <-(>Q o' t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ read -,, /a!es a
4eekH -=(>Q B 7, /a!esH ad t"e rest o' t"e st#dets read 'rom +, to ;, /a!es a 4eek(
:( T"e 'ollo4i! s"ort$omi!s 4ere re/orted i t"e $otrol !ro#/G 88(8Q $om/laied t"at t"e
readi! material 4as )ori!3 ad -=(=Q said t"at t"ere 4ere too ma% e4 4ords(
I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 88(8Q o' t"e st#dets $om/laied a)o#t t"e la$k o' e4 4ords i
t"e readi! materials3 +:Q B a$$o#ted o /oor sele$tio o' t"e readi! materials(
7;
=( T"e 'ollo4i! a$ti*ities i t"e $otrol !ro#/ are o)ser*edG retelli! t"e s#mmaries3
dis$#ssios3 e4 *o$a)#lar% testH i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ /resetatios o' t"e read )ooks3
dis$#ssios3 ad silet readi! are idi$ated(
9(0(/( Prti!i#nt% 6D7(The %tudent% of the de#rtment of forei"n ln"u"e%
At t"e )e!ii! o' t"e 'irst semester o' +,-,B+,-- a$ademi$ %ear t4et%Bt4o t"irdB%ear
st#dets at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet at Tela*i State Ui*ersit% 4ere sele$ted 'or e./erimetal
tea$"i! 4it" t"eir $oset( T"e st#detsF s$ores i la!#a!e $o#rses 4ere similar( D#e to t"e
$osideratios made a'ter t"e 'irst e./erimetal tea$"i! it 4as de$ided ot to di*ide !ro#/s )#t to
a$$e/t t"e !ro#/ di*isio at t"e 'a$#lt% as a de'a#lt( I additio3 t"e e./erimet istr#$tor did ot
ideti'% st#detsF la!#a!e le*els to assi! $orres/odi! readi! materials( Istead o' t"is t"e
st#dets 4ere !i*e $"oi$e to sele$t readi! materials t"emsel*es( T"e% 4ere e./laied to read
)ooks i t"e s#)stit#tios o' le*els3 i(e( 'irst3 to read a )ook3 4"ere t"ere 4ere o e4 4ords3 ad it
4as eas% to read3 ad t"e to take aot"er )ook 4it" t"e #m)er o' e4 4ords 'rom 8 to : o a
/a!e(
T"e st#detsF a!e *aried 'rom -7 to +7 )% t"e time t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! started( T"e
mode
-
o' t"e a!esF distri)#tio is +,( I t"e e./erimet all /arti$i/ats 4ere !irlsH t4et% !irls 4ere
Geor!ia ad t4o o' t"em B 6"e$"es C'rom East Geor!ia3 Ak"meta distri$tD( Ele*e o' t"em
'iis"ed "i!" s$"ool i t"e *illa!es( Bot" /arets o' ol% 'i*e st#dets 4orked3 "al' o' t"e st#detsF
/arets are #em/lo%ed3 ad eit"er 'at"er or mot"er o' ie st#dets 4as em/lo%ed( T"e d#ratio o'
leari! E!lis" Calto!et"er at s$"ool3 at la!#a!e $o#rses3 4it" t#torsD *aried 'rom = to -8 %ears(
mode
-
B a *al#e i a set o' #m)er t"at o$$#rs most 'reA#etl%
77
9(0(0( Pro!edure
T"e !ro#/s 4ere radoml% assi!ed as a e./erimetal !ro#/ ad $otrol !ro#/( T"e
st#detsF #m)er i ea$" !ro#/ 4as eA#al( T"e e./erimet lasted 'or -, 4eeks( Ori!iall% it 4as
/laed 'or -: 4eeks )#t d#e to t"e atioal "olida%s t"e d#ratio 4as s"orteed to te 4eeks(
3n control group the instructor ga(e home-reading course/ so-called traditional teaching+
T"e st#dets "ad t4o a$ademi$ "o#rs i a 4eek( T"e tea$"er sele$ted a a#t"eti$ readi! )ook(
T"is )ook 4as S( Ma#!"amFs 1T"e moo ad t"e si. /e$e2( T"e assi!met 4as to read t"e
assi!ed <B: $"a/ters at "ome ad lear t"em i order to retell i t"e 'ollo4i! lesso( T"e st#dets
4ere asked to look #/ #ko4 4ords i a di$tioar%3 4rite t"em do4 i t"eir *o$a)#lar%3 ad
memorize t"em( T"e tea$"er tested e4l% a$A#ired *o$a)#lar% i t"e 'ollo4i! lesso( T4i$e a
mot" t"e tea$"er !a*e a 4ritte assi!met3 'or e.am/le3 $om/re"esio A#estios related to t"e
readi! material(
3n the experimental group the instructor ga(e extensi(e reading course/ ,hich ,as so-called
experimental teaching+ T"e st#dets "ad t4o a$ademi$ "o#rs i a 4eek( T"e tea$"er /reseted t"e
)ooks at t"e li)rar%( St#dets sele$ted t"eir readi! materials t"emsel*es( T"ese readi! )ooks 4ere
!raded readers( T"e% 4orked idi*id#all%( T"e% $"ose t"e )ooks a$$ordi! to t"eir la!#a!e le*els(
St#dets 4ere e$o#ra!ed to read 'rom :, to ;, /a!es i a 4eek( T"e aim o' readi! 4as !eeral
#derstadi! ad /leas#re3 istead o' detailed aal%sis( T"e tea$"er e./laied to t"e st#dets t"at
t"e readi! s/eed s"o#ld "a*e )ee $om'orta)le 'or t"em( T"e tea$"er did ot re$ommed t"e
o*er#se o' di$tioaries( Dis$#ssio 4as a 'orm o' tea$"er ad st#detsF itera$tio( St#dets
/reseted t"eir )ooks #si! t"e re$ords i t"eir 4orks"eets C&R9B dis$#ssed i t"e se$od $"a/terD
ad t"e% $"ose o/tioal a$ti*ities C$'( $"a/t( 83 se$t( 8(=D(
T"e e./erimet 4as desi!ed to o)ser*e t"e /ositi*e attit#de3 moti*atio ad !eeral
la!#a!e $om/ete$e i )ot" !ro#/s )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tioH t"ere'ore3 m% *aria)les 'or t"ese
!ro#/s 4ere moti*atio3 /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis"3 ad t"e st#detsF o*erall
la!#a!e $om/ete$e( E#estioaire 'orms 4ere s/e$iall% desi!ed to o)ser*e moti*atio ad
/ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis" i )ot" !ro#/s( T"e 'ormer A#estioaire 'orm #sed i
t"e s#r*e% o' /arti$i/ats A 4as ela)orated( T4o A#estioaire 'orms 4ere desi!ated to $olle$t
i'ormatio )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio( T"e A#estioaires are dis$#ssed )elo4( To o)ser*e
$"a!es i t"e st#detsF o*erall la!#a!e $om/ete$e I de$ided to test t"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s
ad $om/are t"eir s$ores(
-,,
Table 4.11. Di''ere$es )et4ee $otrol ad e./erimetal !ro#/sF istr#$tios C/arti$i/ats BD(
Gro#/s 6otrol !ro#/ N Home readi! E./erimetal !ro#/ N E.tesi*e
readi!
9"o sele$ts readi!
materials
A tea$"er sele$ts readi!
material
St#dets sele$t )ooks
Readi! material T"e readi! material is a
#a)rid!ed )ook
Books #s#all% $orres/od 4it"
st#detsF la!#a!e le*el(
A$ti*ities Retelli! t"e s#mmar% o' t"e
$"a/ters3 4orki! o #ko4
4ords
&resetatio o' t"e )ooks3 &R93
o/tioal a$ti*ities
ReA#ired amo#t o'
readi!
<B: $"a/ters o' t"e assi!ed
)ook Ca//ro.imatel% -,B-:
/a!esD
:,B;, /a!es o' sel'Bsele$ted
readi! materials
9(0(8( The que%tionnire% nd te%t form%
I t"e 'irst 4eek t"e st#dets 'illed i t"e 'irst A#estioaire 'orm C$'( A//edi. =D3 4"i$"
$osisted o' t4o /arts( A'ter istr#$tio t"e st#dets 'illed i t"e se$od A#estioaire3 4"i$"
re/eated some A#estios o' t"e 'irst A#estioaire( C$'( A//edi. >D( T"e A#estioaires %ielded
t"ree t%/es o' data a)o#t t"e /arti$i/atsG 'a$t#al3 )e"a*ioral3 ad attit#dial(
-( ?a$t#al A#estios 4ere i$l#ded i E#estioaire N-( T"e% $o*ered demo!ra/"i$
$"ara$teristi$s3 s#$" as a!e3 !eder3 atioalit%3 so$ioBe$oomi$ stat#s o' t"e 'amil%3 le*el o'
ed#$atio( It also i$l#ded t"e 'a$ts a)o#t t"e learersF la!#a!e leari! "istor%3 amo#t o'
time s/ed a)road(
+( Be"a*ioral A#estios $om/rised3 )ot"3 A#estioaire N- ad A#estioaire N+( T"e% asked t"e
learersF /ast ad /reset readi! "a)its( T"e A#estios asked a)o#t learersF a$tios3 li'eB
st%les3 readi! "a)its( E#estioaire N- $otaied la!#a!e leari! strate!% i*etories t"at
asked a)o#t t"e 'reA#e$% a learer #sed readi! strate!ies i t"e /ast( I A#estioaire N+ t"e
same A#estios asked a)o#t t"e 'reA#e$% a learer "as #sed readi! strate!ies i t"e /reset(
8( Attit#dial A#estios i$l#ded t"e A#estios related to attit#des3 o/iios3 )elie's3 iterests ad
*al#es( T"e A#estios o' t"is $ate!or% 4ere $ommo 'or )ot" A#estioaires(
T"e ma.im#m le!t" o' time t"at t"e $om/letio o' t"e A#estioaires $o#ld take 4as 8,
mi#tes( E#estioaire N+ 4as ao%mo#s )e$a#se I 4ated to a*oid t"e rel#$ta$e o' t"e st#dets
-,-
i !i*i! "oest as4ers to sesiti*e A#estios3 s#$" as3 t"e A#estios a)o#t e*al#atio o' t"e
readi! /ro!rams(
T"e A#estioaires i$l#ded $loseBeded A#estios e(!( rati! s$ales s#$" as Likert s$ale3
m#lti/leB$"oi$e items3 rak order items3 ad $"e$klists( T"e ot"er t%/es o' A#estios 4ere o/eB
eded( T"e res/odets "ad to 'ill i t"e )lak s/a$e istead o' $"oosi! 'rom res/ose o/tios(
6lari'i$atio A#estios ad sete$e $om/letio items 4ere made #/(
T"e A#estioaires 4ere /iloted i +,-, amo! t"e st#dets 'rom di''eret 'a$#lties( &ilot
test "i!"li!"ted some /ro)lemsG am)i!#o#s 4ordi!3 t"e s$ori! ad /ro$essi! o' t"e as4ers3 ad
t"e $larit% o' istr#$tios( T"e /ro)lems 4ere treated $orres/odi!l%(
T"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s 4ere tested t4i$e C$'( A//edi. ;DH t"e% 4ere !i*e t"e 'irst test
i t"e 'irst 4eek3 ad t"e se$od test B i t"e -:
t"
4eek( T"e met"odolo!% o' desi!i! a $loze test
4as ado/ted 'rom Maso J &eder!ast C-7783 as $ited i Da% J Bam'ord3 +,,:3 /( ;;D( T"e% o''er
a "olisti$ meas o' e*al#ati! itermediate ad ad*a$ed st#detsF *o$a)#lar%3 !rammar3 ad
!eeral readi! a)ilit%( T"e $loze te$"iA#e is re$ommeded as a meas o' meas#ri! readi!
a)ilit% CH#!"es3 -7;7H Alderso3 +,,,D( A te.t 4as $"ose Co' a)o#t -:,, 4ordsD o' t"e t%/e o'
di''i$#lt% t"at t"e st#dets to )e a)le to read at t"e ed o' t"e %ear( T"e 'irst /ara!ra/" 4as le't
ita$t3 ad t"e e*er% tet" o' t"e rest o' t"e te.t 'or a total o' -8: deleted items( Se*eral ati*e
s/eakers took t"e test( A master list o' a$$e/ta)le 4ords 'or ea$" deletio 4as $om/iled( T"e
'ollo4i! ti/s dire$ted t"e $reatio o' t"e test /assa!e CH#!"es3 -7;73 /( =8DG t"e te.t 4as o' a st%le
a//ro/riate to t"e kid o' la!#a!e a)ilit% )ei! tested( 6lear istr#$tios 4ere de*ised( I
/arti$#lar3 it 4as made $lear t"at is to )e re!arded as a 4ord C4it" e.am/les o' isFt3 et$D( T"e
St#dets 4ere ass#red t"at o oe $a /ossi)l% re/la$e all t"e ori!ial 4ords e.a$tl%( T"e% 4ere
e$o#ra!ed to )e!i )% readi! t"e /assa!e ri!"t t"ro#!" to !et a idea o' 4"at is )ei! $o*e%ed(
T"e tea$"er o$e e./laied to t"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s t"e te$"iA#es o' $om/leti! $loze tests
)et4ee t"e /retest ad t"e /osttest( T"e st#dets 4ere !i*e t"is test at t"e )e!ii! o' t"e
/ro!ram( T"e test 4as $om/leted i a "o#r( T"e st#dets 4ere ot told t"at t"e% "ad to do t"e same
test at t"e ed o' t"e /ro!ram(
9(0(9( Re%ult%
-,+
)esting . t"e ma.im#m s$ore 'or t"e 6loze test 4as -8:( T"e s$ores 4ere iter/reted )% t"e
measure of central tendency B t"e mea CMD3 or arit"meti$ a*era!e( T"e mea o' t"e $otrol !ro#/
i t"e /retest is ^8-(83 ad i t"e /osttest ^::(+H T"e mea o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ i t"e /retest
is ^<>(+3 ad i t"e /osttest ^--=(=( T"e i$rease i t"e $otrol !ro#/ is )% >:Q3 ad i t"e
e./erimetal B )% -<>Q(
D#ri! t"e istr#$tio t"e miim#m /a!es read )% t"e st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ is
8;, /a!es ad t"e ma.im#m ;7, /a!es( T"e 'i!#res are )ased o t"e st#detsF otes 'illed i &R9(
T"e st#dets i t"e "ome readi! ro#/ iitiall% iteded to read t"e )ook o' ++, /a!es3 )#t t"e% did
ot 'iis" it )% t"e ed o' t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! 4"i$" lasted -, 4eeks(
I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ t"e st#detsF res/oses !i*e )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio are
/reseted )elo4 i t"e ta)le @@(
Table 4.12. T"e $otrol !ro#/Fs res/oses )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio(
Statemets Res/oses Be'ore A'ter
-( M% E!lis" readi! material is
ol% 'rom t"e te.t)ooks
Stro!l% disa!ree ,Q -;(+Q
disa!ree
<:(:Q :<(:Q
A!ree
:<(:Q +>(8Q
<( I like readi! i E!lis"( A!ree 7,(-Q :<(:Q
Stro!l% a!ree 7(-Q <:(:Q
=( Readi! i E!lis" is im/ortat( A!ree
-;(+Q 7(-Q
Stro!l% a!ree
;-(+Q 7,(-Q
;( I 'eel "a//% to 'id e4 4ords
4"ile readi! i E!lis"
A!ree
-,,Q 8=(<Q
Stro!l% a!ree
,Q =8(=Q
-,( 9"ile readi! I #se di$tioar% to
look #/ e4 4ords(
Disa!ree ,Q 7(-Q
A!ree
<:(:Q 8=(<Q
Stro!l% a!ree
:<(:Q :<(:Q
-8( I re$ommed t"e )ooks t"at I
"a*e read to m% 'rieds(
Disa!ree
<:(:Q -;(+Q
A!ree
<:(:Q =8(=Q
Stro!l% a!ree
7(-Q -;(+Q
-=( I remem)er t"e /lot o' t"e last
)ook t"at I read i E!lis"(
Disa!ree
8=(<Q 7(-Q
A!ree
<:(:Q :<(:Q
Stro!l% a!ree
-;(+Q 8=(<Q
-7( M% E!lis" tea$"ers read a lot i
E!lis"(
A!ree
>+(>Q <:(:Q
Stro!l% a!ree
+>(8Q :<(:Q
-,8
+-( I $"oose t"e E!lis" readi!
material 'or me(
Disa!ree -;(+Q -;(+Q
A!ree 7(-Q =8(=Q
Stro!l% a!ree
>+(>Q -;(+Q
+<( I 'eel #$om'orta)le 4"ile
readi! i E!lis"(
Stro!l% disa!ree =8(=Q 8=(<Q
Disa!ree 8=(<Q <:(:Q
A!ree ,Q 7(-Q
Stro!l% a!ree
,Q 7(-Q
+;( I lear a lot o' t"i!s 4"ile
readi! i E!lis"
A!ree 8=(<Q <:(:Q
Stro!l% a!ree
=8(=Q :<(:Q
8,( 9"ile readi! i E!lis" "o4 o'te
do %o# de'ie %o# readi! !oal ad
t"e read i a$$orda$e to %o#r
!oalL
Ne*er ,Q -;(+Q
Rarel% 8=(<Q 7(-Q
O$$asioall% 8=(<Q :<(:Q
O'te
+>(8Q -;(+Q
88( Ho4 o'te do %o# t"ik 4"at
%o# ko4 a)o#t t"e !i*e to/i$
)e'ore )e!ii! to readL
Ne*er -;(+Q +>(8Q
Rarel% +>(8Q 7(-Q
O$$asioall%
,Q 8=(<Q
O'te :<(:Q +>(8Q
8>( Ho4 o'te do %o# #se $ote.t3
'amiliar 4ords3 ill#stratios3 ad
/lot to !#ess t"e meai!s o' t"e
#ko4 4ordsL
Ne*er -;(+Q ,Q
Rarel% 7(-Q :<(:Q
O$$asioall% <:(:Q -;(+Q
O'te +>(8Q +>(8Q
<-( Ho4 o'te do %o# dra4 ima!es i
%o#r ima!iatio 4"ile readi!L
Ne*er ,Q ,Q
Rarel%
,Q +>(8Q
O$$asioall%
<:(:Q +>(8Q
O'te
:<(:Q <:(:Q
<:( Ho4 o'te do %o# s#mmarize
im/ortat i'ormatio 4"ile
readi!L
Rarel%
,Q 7(-Q
O$$asioall%
+>(8Q -;(+Q
O'te >+(8Q >+(>Q
<;( Ho4 o'te do %o# talk 4it" %o#r
'rieds a)o#t somet"i! %o# are
readi!L
Ne*er 7(-Q ,Q
Rarel% 8=(<Q :<(:Q
O$$asioall% <:(:Q +>(8Q
O'te 7(-Q -;(+Q
:+( Ho4 o'te do %o# read 'or '#L Ne*er or "ardl% e*er -;(+Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek -;(+Q -;(+Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" :<(:Q =8(=Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% 7(-Q -;(+Q
:=( Ho4 o'te do %o# )orro4 )ooks
'rom t"e #i*ersit% li)rar% or t"e
/#)li$ li)rar%L
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er
:<(:Q :<(:Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
7(-Q -;(+Q
-,<
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
8=(<Q +>(8Q
:7( Ho4 o'te does %o#r $lass read
alo#dL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er ,Q =8(=Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
7(-Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
:<(:Q 7(-Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da%
8=(<Q +>(8Q
=8( Ho4 o'te does %o#r $lass read
siletl%L
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er +>(8Q -;(+Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
,Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
8=(<Q 8=(<Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da%
8=(<Q <:(:Q
=>( Ho4 o'te do %o# read )ooks %o#
"a*e $"oseL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er -;(+Q 7(-Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek <:(:Q 8=(<Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" +>(8Q :<(:Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% 7(-Q ,Q
>-( Ho4 o'te do %o# 4rite a)o#t 4"at
%o# "a*e readL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er =8(=Q 8=(<Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek ,Q +>(8Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" +>(8Q 8=(<Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% 7(-Q ,Q
>:( Ho4 o'te do %o# do a /resetatio
a)o#t 4"at %o# "a*e readL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er <:(:Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
8=(<Q <:(:Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" -;(+Q <:(:Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% ,Q 7(-Q
I t"e $otrol !ro#/ 'ollo4i! $"a!es are o)ser*ed C$'( ta)le <(-+(DG
-D A'ter istr#$tio more st#dets started to read readi! materials )esides t"eir te.t)ooks(
+D T"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets 4"o stro!l% a!ree t"at t"e% like readi! 4as i$reased a'ter
istr#$tio(
8D A'ter istr#$tio 7,(-Q o' t"e st#dets $osider t"at readi! i E!lis" is im/ortat(
<D Be'ore istr#$tio all t"e st#dets 4ere "a//% to meet e4 4ords 4"ile readi! i E!lis"(
A'ter istr#$tio ol% =8(=Q o' t"e st#dets stro!l% a!reed 4it" t"is statemet(
:D A'ter istr#$tio 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets disa!ree t"at t"e% #se di$tioaries(
=D Be'ore istr#$tio <:(:Q o' t"e st#dets did ot re$ommed to t"eir 'rieds 4"at t"e%
read( T"is #m)er 'ell to -;(+Q a'ter istr#$tio(
>D Be'ore istr#$tio 8=(<Q o' t"e st#dets did ot remem)er t"e last )ook t"e% read( A'ter
istr#$tio ol% 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets did ot remem)er 4"at t"e% read(
-,:
;D T"e st#detsF o/iio a)o#t t"eir E!lis" tea$"ersF readi! "a)it $"a!es a'ter istr#$tio(
More st#dets stro!l% )elie*e t"at t"eir E!lis" tea$"ers read a lot i E!lis"(
7D Be'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio t"e same #m)er o' t"e st#dets stated t"at t"e% did ot $"oose
t"eir readi! materials(
-,D Be'ore istr#$tio =8Q o' t"e st#dets stro!l% disa!ree t"at t"e% 'elt #$om'orta)le 4"ile
readi! i E!lis"( Ho4e*er3 a'ter istr#$tio -;(+Q o' t"e st#dets admitted t"at readi!
i E!lis" $a#sed some a.iet% to t"em( T"ose st#detsF $o'ide$e 4"o 'elt $om'orta)le
4"ile readi! i E!lis" dro//ed to 8=(<Q(
--D T"e st#dets )elie*e t"at t"e% lear a lot 4"ile readi! i E!lis"(
-+D -;(+Q o' t"e st#dets seemed to lose t"e /#r/ose i readi! a'ter treatmet ad t"eir
readi! !oal *ais"ed(
-8D A'ter istr#$tio more st#dets !a*e #/ t"iki! a)o#t t"e !i*e to/i$ )e'ore )e!ii! to
read(
-<D -;(+Q o' t"e st#detsF a)ilit% to !#ess t"e #ko4 4ords "as )ee de*elo/ed ad t"ose
st#dets 4"o o$$asioall% a//lied t"is skill 4"ile readi!3 t"e% seemed to re'er t"is skill
rarel%(
-:D A'ter treatmet more st#dets are rel#$tat to dra4 ima!es i t"eir ima!iatio 4"ile
readi! i E!lis"(
-=D T"e eA#al #m)er B >+ (>Q o' t"e st#dets o'te s#mmarized t"e im/ortat i'ormatio
)e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio( 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets teded to #se t"is strate!% rarel% a'ter
istr#$tio(
->D A'ter istr#$tio all st#dets started to talk to t"eir 'rieds a)o#t 4"at t"e% read(
-;D Be'ore istr#$tio most o' t"e st#dets read 'or '# o$e or t4i$e a mot"( A'ter
istr#$tio all st#dets 4ere i*ol*ed i readi! 'or '#
-7D T"e #m)ers o' t"e st#dets 4"o )orro4ed )ooks 'rom t"e #i*ersit% or /#)li$ li)rar% 4as
ot $"a!ed a lot3 )#t t"e itesit% 4as $"a!ed( More st#dets )orro4ed t"e )ooks o$e
or t4i$e a 4eek(
+,D Be'ore istr#$tio t"e $lass read alo#d3 )#t a'ter istr#$tio =8(=Q o' t"e st#dets admitted
t"at readi! alo#d 4as ot /ra$tised(
+-D A'ter istr#$tio more st#dets admitted t"at t"eir $lass read siletl% e*er% da%Ialmost
e*er% da%(
-,=
++D Be'ore istr#$tio t"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets 4"o did ot read t"e )ooks t"e% $"ose 4as
-;(+Q( A'ter istr#$tio t"is #m)er dro//ed to 7(-Q ad :<(:Q o' t"e st#dets read t"e
)ooks t"e% $"ose o$e or t4i$e a mot"(
+8D Be'ore treatmet =8(=Q o' t"e st#dets did ot 4rite a)o#t 4"at t"e% read3 t"is #m)er
dimiis"ed to 8=(<Q a'ter istr#$tio( ?#rt"ermore3 t"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets 4"o 4rote
a)o#t 4"at t"e% read o$e or t4i$e a 4eek i$reased )% +>(8Q(
+<D A'ter istr#$tio all st#dets /reseted 4"at t"e% read( T"e #m)ers o' t"e st#dets 4"o
/reseted 4"at t"e% read o$e or t4i$e a 4eek ad o$e or t4i$e a mot" 4ere rise to
<:(:Q(
Table 4.13. T"e e./erimetal !ro#/Fs res/oses )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio(
Statemets Res/oses Be'ore A'ter
-( M% E!lis" readi! material is
ol% 'rom t"e te.t)ooks
Stro!l% disa!ree 7(-Q -;(+Q
disa!ree
;-(;Q ;-(;Q
A!ree
7(-Q ,Q
<( I like readi! i E!lis"( A!ree ;-(;Q >+(>Q
Stro!l% a!ree -;(+Q +>(8Q
=( Readi! i E!lis" is im/ortat( A!ree
+>(8Q +>(8Q
Stro!l% a!ree
>+(>Q >+(>Q
;( I 'eel "a//% to 'id e4 4ords
4"ile readi! i E!lis"
A!ree
;-(;Q ;-(;Q
Stro!l% a!ree
-;(+Q -;(+Q
-,( 9"ile readi! I #se a di$tioar% to
look #/ e4 4ords(
A!ree +>(8Q :<(:Q
Stro!l% a!ree
>+(>Q <:(:Q
-+( I re$ommed t"e )ooks t"at I "a*e
read to m% 'rieds(
Disa!ree
8=(<Q ,Q
A!ree
<:(:Q >+(>Q
Stro!l% a!ree
-;(+Q +>(8Q
-:( I remem)er t"e /lot o' t"e last )ook
t"at I read i E!lis"(
A!ree
<:(:Q 7(-Q
Stro!l% a!ree
:<(:Q 7,(7Q
->( M% E!lis" tea$"ers read a lot i
E!lis"(
A!ree
8=(<Q >+(>Q
Stro!l% a!ree
=8(=Q +>(8Q
-7( I $"oose t"e E!lis" readi!
material 'or me(
A!ree =8(=Q -;(+Q
Stro!l% a!ree
8=(<Q ;-(;Q
+-( I 'eel #$om'orta)le 4"ile readi!
i E!lis"(
Stro!l% disa!ree 8=(<Q ;-(;Q
Disa!ree
=8(=Q -;(+Q
-,>
+8( I lear a lot o' t"i!s 4"ile readi!
i E!lis"
A!ree =8(=Q =8(=Q
Stro!l% a!ree
8=(<Q 8=(<Q
+:( 9"ile readi! i E!lis" "o4 o'te do
%o# de'ie %o# readi! !oal ad t"e
read i a$$orda$e to %o#r !oalL
Rarel% 7(-Q 8=(<Q
O$$asioall% 8=(<Q :<(:Q
O'te
:<(:Q 7(-Q
+;( Ho4 o'te do %o# t"ik 4"at %o#
ko4 a)o#t t"e !i*e to/i$ )e'ore
)e!ii! to readL
Rarel% <:(:Q 8=(<Q
O$$asioall%
7(-Q <:(:Q
O'te <:(:Q -;(+Q
8-( Ho4 o'te do %o# #se $ote.t3
'amiliar 4ords3 ill#stratios3 ad /lot to
!#ess t"e meai!s o' t"e #ko4
4ordsL
Ne*er -;(+Q ,Q
O$$asioall% -;(+Q -;(+Q
O'te
=8(=Q ;-(;Q
8<( Ho4 o'te do %o# dra4 ima!es i %o#r
ima!iatio 4"ile readi!L
Ne*er 7(-Q ,Q
Rarel%
,Q 8=(<Q
O$$asioall%
+>(8Q -;(+Q
O'te
=8(=Q <:(:Q
8;( Ho4 o'te do %o# s#mmarize
im/ortat i'ormatio 4"ile readi!L
O$$asioall%
8=(<Q 7(-Q
O'te =8(=Q 7,(7Q
<,( Ho4 o'te do %o# talk 4it" %o#r
'rieds a)o#t somet"i! %o# are readi!L
Ne*er 7(-Q ,Q
Rarel% -;(+Q 7(-Q
O$$asioall% 8=(<Q ;-(;Q
O'te 8=(<Q 7(-Q
<<( Ho4 o'te do %o# read 'or '#L Ne*er or "ardl% e*er 7(-Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek +>(8Q +>(8Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" <:(:Q <:(:Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% -;(+Q +>(8Q
<;( Ho4 o'te do %o# )orro4 )ooks 'rom
t"e #i*ersit% li)rar% or t"e /#)li$
li)rar%L
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er
7(-Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
:<(:Q <:(:Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
8=(<Q :<(:Q
:-( Ho4 o'te does %o#r $lass read alo#dL Ne*er or "ardl% e*er ,Q -;(+Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
7(-Q 7(-Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
8=(<Q <:(:Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da%
:<(:Q +>(8Q
::( Ho4 o'te does %o#r $lass read
siletl%L
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er 7(-Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
-;(+Q +>(8Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
>+(>Q >+(>Q
:;( Ho4 o'te do %o# read )ooks %o# "a*e
$"oseL
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek <:(:Q -;(+Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" 8=(<Q 8=(<Q
-,;
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% -;(+Q <:(:Q
=-( Ho4 o'te do %o# 4rite a)o#t 4"at
%o# "a*e readL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er =8(=Q 7(-Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek 7(-Q :<(:Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" -;(+Q +>(8Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% 7(-Q 7(-Q
=:( Ho4 o'te do %o# do a /resetatio
a)o#t 4"at %o# "a*e readL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er -;(+Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
:<(:Q >+(>Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" +>(+Q +>(8Q
T"e s#)0e$ts o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ !a*e more "omo!eo#s as4ers )e'ore ad a'ter
treatmet t"a t"ose o' t"e $otrol !ro#/( T"e 'ollo4i! $"a!es 4ere o)ser*ed i t"e e./erimetal
!ro#/ C$'( ta)le <(-8(D
-D T"e small amo#t B 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets )e'ore istr#$tio a$ko4led!ed t"at t"e% read ol%
'rom t"eir te.t)ooks( A'ter istr#$tio all st#dets disa!ree t"at t"eir readi! material is
restri$ted to t"eir te.t)ooks(
+D Be'ore istr#$tio all st#dets liked readi! i E!lis"( Moreo*er3 a'ter istr#$tio t"e
#m)er o' t"e st#dets 4"o stro!l% a!reed t"at t"e% like readi! i E!lis" )oosted to
+>(8Q(
8D T"e attit#de to4ard t"e im/orta$e o' readi! i E!lis" is ot $"a!ed )e'ore ad a'ter
istr#$tio( It is e*idet t"at t"e st#dets *al#e readi! i E!lis" "i!"l%(
<D T"e st#dets 4ere eA#all% !lad to deal 4it" e4 4ords )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio(
:D Be'ore istr#$tio >+(>Q o' t"e st#dets stro!l% a!reed 4it" t"e statemet t"at t"e% #sed a
di$tioar% to look #/ e4 4ords3 )#t a'ter treatmet t"is 'i!#re lesseed to <:(:Q
=D Be'ore istr#$tio 8=(<Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts did ot re$ommed t"e )ook t"e% read to t"eir
'rieds3 alt"o#!" a'ter istr#$tio all st#dets 4ere a$ti*el% i*ol*ed i s"ari! t"eir )ooks
4it" t"eir 'rieds(
>D All st#dets remem)ered t"e last )ook t"e% "ad read )e'ore istr#$tio3 )#t a'ter istr#$tio
t"eir as4ers are more $o'idet as 7,(-Q o' t"em stro!l% a!reed 4it" t"is statemet(
;D T"e st#detsF )elie' t"at t"eir E!lis" tea$"ers read a lot i E!lis" is sli!"tl% di''eret
)e'ore istr#$tioH =8(=Q o' t"e st#dets stro!l% a!reed 4it" t"is statemet )#t a'ter
istr#$tio ol% +>Q o' t"e st#dets stro!l% )elie*ed i t"eir E!lis" tea$"ersF readi!
"a)it(
-,7
7D Be'ore istr#$tio t"e s#)0e$ts i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ sele$ted )ooks to read 'or
t"emsel*esH e*ert"eless3 a'ter treatmet ;-(;Q stro!l% a!reed t"at t"e% $"ose )ooks 'or
readi!
-,D A'ter istr#$tio t"e st#dets 4ere more $o'idet a)o#t )ei! $om'orta)le 4"ile readi! i
E!lis"( Be'ore istr#$tio ol% 8=(<Q o' t"e st#dets stro!l% disa!ree t"at t"e% 'elt
#$om'orta)le 4"ile readi! i E!lis"3 )#t a'ter istr#$tio t"is #m)er rea$"ed ;-(;Q(
--D T"e st#detsF attit#de to4ard readi! )ee'its did ot $"a!e )e'ore ad a'ter istr#$tio(
-+D A'ter istr#$tio t"e st#dets3 4"o o'te de'ied a readi! !oal )e'ore )e!ii! to read
)e$ame /assi*e #sers o' t"is readi! strate!%( :<(:Q o' t"e st#dets3 4"o o'te de'ied a
readi! !oal3 dimiis"ed to 7(-Q
-8D T"e st#detsF as4ers to "o4 o'te t"e% t"o#!"t 4"at t"e% ke4 a)o#t t"e !i*e to/i$
)e'ore )e!ii! to read sli!"tl% $"a!ed a'ter istr#$tio(
-<D Be'ore treatmet -;(+Q o' t"e st#dets e*er !#essed t"e meai!s o' t"e 4ords ad =8(=Q
B did it o'te( A'ter istr#$tio t"e im/ro*emets 4ere o)ser*ed i de*elo/i! t"is strate!%H
;-(;Q o' t"e st#dets o'te !#essed t"e meai!s o' t"e 4ords(
-:D Be'ore istr#$tio 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets e*er dre4 ima!es i t"eir ima!iatio 4"ile
readi!( A'ter istr#$tio all st#dets dre4 ima!es )#t t"e etire !ro#/Fs itesit% 'ell(
-=D Aot"er im/ro*emet is dete$ted 4it" t"e strate!% o' s#mmarizi! t"e im/ortat
i'ormatio 4"ile readi!( Be'ore istr#$tio ol% =8(=Q o' t"e st#dets a//lied t"is
strate!% )#t a'ter treatmet t"is #m)er a#!meted to 7,(7Q(
->D Be'ore istr#$tio 7(-Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts e*er talked 4it" t"eir 'rieds a)o#t 4"at t"e% read3
)#t a'ter treatmet ;-(;Q o' t"e st#dets o$$asioall% did so(
-;D Be'ore istr#$tio 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets e*er read 'or '# ad -;(+Q read 'or '# e*er% da%(
A'ter istr#$tio all st#dets read 'or '#3 ad +>Q did so e*er% da%(
-7D T"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets3 4"o )orro4ed )ooks 'rom a #i*ersit%I/#)li$ li)rar% o$e or
t4i$e a mot"3 i$reased 'rom 8=(<Q to :<(:Q(
+,D Be'ore istr#$tio :<(:Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts admitted t"at t"eir $lass read alo#d e*er% da%( T"is
#m)er dro//ed to +>(8Q a'ter istr#$tio(
+-D Be'ore istr#$tio 7(-Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts res/oded t"at t"eir $lass e*er read siletl% )#t a'ter
istr#$tio all st#dets stated t"at t"eir $lass read siletl%(
--,
++D Oe o' t"e im/ortat $"a!es is i t"e itesit% o' sel'Bsele$ted readi! materials )% t"e
st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/( Be'ore istr#$tio e*er% da%Ialmost e*er% da% -;(+Q
read 4"at t"e% $"ose )#t a'ter istr#$tio <:(:Q did so(
+8D =8(=Q o' t"e st#dets e*er 4rote a)o#t 4"at t"e% read( Ho4e*er3 a'ter treatmet ol% 7(-Q
,' t"e st#dets did ot 4rite a)o#t 4"at t"e% read( T"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets3 4"o 4rote
a)o#t 4"at t"e% read o$e or t4i$e a 4eek3 )oosted 'rom 7(-Q to :<(:Q(
+<D T"e 'reA#e$% o' t"e /resetatios3 doe i a 4eek3 a)o#t 4"at t"e st#dets "ad read3 4et
#/ 'rom :<(:Q to >+(>Q( A'ter istr#$tio all st#dets /reseted 4"at t"e% "ad read at a
di''eret time iter*al o a re!#lar )asis(
T"e $om/ariso o' t"e as4ers o' )ot" !ro#/s a'ter treatmet is t"e e.t ste/ i /reseti! t"e
res#lts( T"e $om/ariso 4ill ea)le me to o)ser*e t"e le*el o' moti*atio ad /ositi*e attit#de
to4ard readi! i )ot" !ro#/s( B% $otrasti! t"ese res#lts i )ot" !ro#/s a'ter treatmet I $o#ld
aal%ze t"e i'l#e$e o' t"e /ro!rams o t"e s#)0e$ts(
Ma0orit% o' t"e s#)0e$ts i )ot" !ro#/sF admitted t"at t"e readi! /ro!rams $"a!ed t"eir
attit#de to4ard readi! i E!lis"( I t"e $otrol !ro#/ -;(+Q o' t"e st#dets said t"at t"e
/ro!ram C"ome readi!D did ot $"a!e t"eir /ositio to4ard readi!3 4"ile t"e rest C;-(;QD
a$ko4led!ed t"at it tras'ormed t"eir #derstadi! o' readi!( I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/
+>(8Q o' t"e st#dets re0e$ted t"e i'l#e$e o' t"e /ro!ram Ce.tesi*e readi!D o t"em3 )#t
>+(>Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts !a*e /ositi*e as4er t"at t"e /ro!ram altered t"eir attit#de to4ard
readi!(
T"e st#dets !a*e t"eir 'eed)a$k o t"e /ro!rams )% dire$tl% e./ressi! t"eir o/iio a)o#t
t"eir /ro!rams( St#dets "ad to $"oose amo! 'o#r o/tiosG t"eir /ro!ram 4as *er% !ood3
!ood3 soBso3 ad *er% )ad( I t"e $otrol !ro#/ 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets liked t"e readi!
/ro!ram *er% m#$"3 >+(>Q t"o#!"t it 4as !ood3 ad -;(+Q $osidered it 4as soBso( I t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ 8=(<Q )elie*ed it 4as *er% !ood3 <:(:Q ass#med it as !ood3 ad -;(+Q
re!arded t"e readi! /ro!ram as soBso(
T"e amo#t o' /a!es idi$ated at 4"at e.tet t"e s#)0e$ts 4ere i*ol*ed i readi!( I t"e
$otrol !ro#/ 8=(<Q read 'rom < to 7 /a!es3 +>(8Q B 'rom -, to +, /a!es3 ad 8=(<Q B more
t"a +, /a!es( I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 7,(7Q o' t"e st#dets read more t"a +, /a!es3 ad
7(-Q B 'rom -, to +, /a!es(
---
T"e /ositi*e emotioal state o' t"e st#dets a'ter treatmet 4as t"e /re$oditio o' t"e
/ro!ramsF s#$$ess( I t"e A#estioaire t"e st#dets $o#ld ti$k more t"a oe as4er( I t"e
$otrol !ro#/ :<(:Q 4ere iterested i t"e /ro!ram3 +>(8Q 'elt irritatio ad -;(+Q
e./erie$ed e0o%met( I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 7,(7Q 4ere iterested i t"e /ro!ram3
;+(;Q 'elt e0o%met ad <:(:Q B satis'a$tio(
T"e e*al#atio is doe a$$ordi! to t"e as4ers !i*e to t"e statemets !i*e i t"e ta)le <(-8(-(
Table 4.13.1. T"e as4ers o' t"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s a'ter treatmet(
Statemets Res/oses 6otr( E./r(
>=( M% E!lis" readi! material is
ol% 'rom t"e te.t)ooks
Stro!l% disa!ree -;(+Q -;(+Q
disa!ree
:<(:Q ;-(;Q
A!ree
+>(8Q ,Q
>7( I like readi! i E!lis"( A!ree :<(:Q >+(>Q
Stro!l% a!ree <:(:Q +>(8Q
;-( Readi! i E!lis" is im/ortat( A!ree
7(-Q +>(8Q
Stro!l% a!ree
7,(-Q >+(>Q
;8( I 'eel "a//% to 'id e4 4ords
4"ile readi! i E!lis"
A!ree
8=(<Q ;-(;Q
Stro!l% a!ree
=8(=Q -;(+Q
;:( 9"ile readi! I #se di$tioar% to
look #/ e4 4ords(
Disa!ree 7(-Q ,Q
A!ree
8=(<Q :<(:Q
Stro!l% a!ree
:<(:Q <:(:Q
;;( I re$ommed t"e )ooks t"at I
"a*e read to m% 'rieds(
Disa!ree
-;(+Q ,Q
A!ree
=8(=Q >+(>Q
Stro!l% a!ree
-;(+Q +>(8Q
7-( I remem)er t"e /lot o' t"e last
)ook t"at I read i E!lis"(
Disa!ree 7(-Q ,Q
A!ree
:<(:Q 7(-Q
Stro!l% a!ree
8=(<Q 7,(7Q
7<( M% E!lis" tea$"ers read a lot i
E!lis"(
A!ree
<:(:Q >+(>Q
Stro!l% a!ree
:<(:Q +>(8Q
7=( I $"oose t"e E!lis" readi!
material 'or me(
Disa!ree -;(+Q ,Q
A!ree =8(=Q -;(+Q
Stro!l% a!ree
-;(+Q ;-(;Q
77( I 'eel #$om'orta)le 4"ile
readi! i E!lis"(
Stro!l% disa!ree 8=(<Q ,Q
Disa!ree <:(:Q ,Q
A!ree 7(-Q ;-(;Q
--+
Stro!l% a!ree
7(-Q -;(+Q
-,8( I lear a lot o' t"i!s
4"ile readi! i E!lis"
A!ree <:(:Q =8(=Q
Stro!l% a!ree
:<(:Q 8=(<Q
-,:( 9"ile readi! i E!lis"
"o4 o'te do %o# de'ie %o#
readi! !oal ad t"e read i
a$$orda$e to %o#r !oalL
Ne*er -;(+Q ,Q
Rarel% 7(-Q 8=(<Q
O$$asioall% :<(:Q :<(:Q
O'te
-;(+Q 7(-Q
-,;( Ho4 o'te do %o# t"ik
4"at %o# ko4 a)o#t t"e !i*e
to/i$ )e'ore )e!ii! to readL
Ne*er +>(8Q ,Q
Rarel%
7(-Q 8=(<Q
O$$asioall%
8=(<Q <:(:Q
O'te +>(8Q -;(+Q
--+( Ho4 o'te do %o# #se
$ote.t3 'amiliar 4ords3
ill#stratios3 ad /lot to !#ess t"e
meai!s o' t"e #ko4 4ordsL
Ne*er ,Q ,Q
Rarel% :<(:Q ,Q
O$$asioall% -;(+Q -;(+Q
O'te +>(8Q ;-(;Q
--=( Ho4 o'te do %o# dra4
ima!es i %o#r ima!iatio 4"ile
readi!L
Ne*er ,Q ,Q
Rarel%
+>(8Q 8=(<Q
O$$asioall%
+>(8Q -;(+Q
O'te
<:(:Q <:(:Q
-+,( Ho4 o'te do %o#
s#mmarize im/ortat i'ormatio
4"ile readi!L
Rarel%
7(-Q
,Q
O$$asioall%
-;(+Q 7(-Q
O'te >+(>Q 7,(7Q
-+8( Ho4 o'te do %o# talk 4it"
%o#r 'rieds a)o#t somet"i! %o#
are readi!L
Ne*er ,Q ,Q
Rarel% :<(:Q 7(-Q
O$$asioall% +>(8Q ;-(;Q
O'te -;(+Q 7(-Q
-+>( Ho4 o'te do %o# read 'or
'#L
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er ,Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek -;(+Q +>(8Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" =8(=Q <:(:Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% -;(+Q +>(8Q
-8-( Ho4 o'te do %o# )orro4
)ooks 'rom t"e #i*ersit% li)rar% or
t"e /#)li$ li)rar%L
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er
:<(:Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
-;(+Q <:(:Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
+>(8Q :<(:Q
-8<( Ho4 o'te does %o#r $lass
read alo#dL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er =8(=Q -;(+Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
,Q 7(-Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
7(-Q <:(:Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da%
+>(8Q +>(8Q
--8
-8;( Ho4 o'te does %o#r $lass
read siletl%L
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er -;(+Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
,Q +>(8Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot"
8=(<Q >+(>Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da%
<:(:Q
,Q
-<+( Ho4 o'te do %o# read
)ooks %o# "a*e $"oseL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er 7(-Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek 8=(<Q -;(+Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" :<(:Q 8=(<Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% ,Q <:(:Q
-<=( Ho4 o'te do %o# 4rite
a)o#t 4"at %o# "a*e readL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er 8=(<Q 7(-Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek +>(8Q :<(:Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" 8=(<Q +>(8Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% ,Q 7(-Q
-:,( Ho4 o'te do %o# do a
/resetatio a)o#t 4"at %o# "a*e
readL
Ne*er or "ardl% e*er ,Q ,Q
O$e or t4i$e a 4eek
<:(:Q >+(>Q
O$e or t4i$e a mot" <:(:Q +>(8Q
E*er% da%I almost e*er% da% 7(-Q ,Q
-( A'ter treatmet some st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ still $osidered t"at t"eir readi! material
is ol% 'rom t"eir te.t)ooks( All t"e st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ disa!ree 4it" t"is
statemet( T"#s3 t"e% all read readi! materials 'rom di''eret so#r$es(
+( <:(:Q i t"e $otrol !ro#/ stro!l% a!reed t"at t"e% like readi! more t"a t"e st#dets
'rom t"e e./erimetal !ro#/( T"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ 4"o stro!l%
a!reed t"at t"e% like readi! e.$eeded t"ose o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/3 4"i$" is +>(8Q(
8( T"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ em/"asized t"e im/orta$e i readi!( 7,(-Q o' t"ese
st#dets stro!l% a!reed 4it" t"is statemet( T"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets C>+(>QD i t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ la!!ed )e"id(
<( T"e s#)0e$ts i t"e $otrol !ro#/ seem to )e more et"#siasti$ a)o#t meeti! #ko4
4ords 4"ile readi!( =8(=Q o' t"em stro!l% a!reed t"at t"e% 'eel "a//% to 'id e4 4ords
4"ile readi!( T"e st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ are less e.$ited a)o#t 'idi! e4
4ords 4"ile readi!(
:( T"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s #sed di$tioar% ad /ositi*el% res/oded to t"is statemet
e.$e/t 7(-Q i t"e $otrol !ro#/ 4"o disa!reed 4it" t"e #se o' di$tioaries 4"ile readi!(
=( A'ter istr#$tio all t"e st#dets o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ re$ommeded t"e )ooks t"e%
read to t"eir 'rieds3 )#t -;(+Q o' t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ do ot talk 4it" t"eir
'rieds a)o#t t"e )ooks t"e% read(
--<
>( T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4ere more $o'idet i res/odi! to t"e statemet i'
t"e% remem)ered t"e /lot o' t"e last )ook t"at t"e% read i E!lis"( T"e stra!e as4er 4as
!i*e )% 7(-Q o' t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ 4"o did ot remem)er t"e last )ook t"e%
read(
;( :<(:Q o' t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ a'ter istr#$tio stro!l% )elie*ed t"at t"eir
E!lis" tea$"ers read a lot3 )#t t"is #m)er3 4"o stro!l% )elie*e i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/3
4as +>(8Q(
7( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ o#t#m)ered t"e $otrol oe )% readi! t"e materials 4"i$" t"e%
$"ose( -;(+Q o' t"e $otrol !ro#/ did ot $"oose readi! materials
-,( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 'elt *er% $om'orta)le 4"ile readi! i E!lis"( B#t i t"e $otrol
!ro#/ -;(+Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts 'elt #$om'orta)le 4"ile readi! i E!lis"(
--( :<(:Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts i t"e $otrol !ro#/ stro!l% )elie*ed t"at t"e% lear a lot 4"ile
readi! i E!lis"3 4"ereas i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ t"is #m)er is 8=(<Q(
-+( All st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ de'ied t"eir readi! !oal ad t"e read a$$orda$e to
t"eir !oal )#t i t"e $otrol !ro#/ -;(+Q e*er de'ied t"is !oal(
-8( All st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ at di''eret time iter*als t"o#!"t a)o#t t"e !i*e
to/i$ )e'ore )e!ii! to read( +>(8Q o' t"e $otrol !ro#/ e*er /ra$tised t"is strate!%(
-<( All st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ a$ti*el% #sed $ote.t3 'amiliar 4ords3 ill#stratios3
ad /lot to !#ess t"e meai!s o' t"e #ko4 4ords( ;-(;Q o' t"em o'te a//lied t"is
strate!% ad -;(+Q o' t"em did it o$$asioall%( Ho4e*er3 i t"e $otrol !ro#/ :<(:Q o' t"e
s#)0e$ts rarel% #sed it( T"e% 4ere less a$ti*e(
-:( T"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ demostrated sli!"tl% )etter ima!iatio 4"ile readi! i
E!lis"( I )ot" !ro#/s <:Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts eA#all% a//lied t"is strate!%3 alt"o#!" t"e
st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ "ad "i!"er #m)er o' t"ose 4"o rarel% dre4 ima!es i
t"eir ima!iatio 4"ile readi!(
-=( T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ e./ressed )etter res#lts i #si! s#mmarizi!
strate!%G 7,(7Q o' t"em did it o'te ad 7(-Q o$$asioall%( I t"e $otrol !ro#/ 7(-Q
/ra$tised rarel% ad >+(>Q B o'te( T"e res#lts o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s#r/assed t"ose o'
t"e $otrol !ro#/(
--:
->( T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4ere more ea!er to talk a)o#t 4"at t"e% read 4it"
t"eir 'rieds( ;-(;Q o' t"em o'te talked to t"eir 'rieds a)o#t 4"at t"e% read 4it" t"eir
'rieds(
-;( T"e s#)0e$ts o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ a$ti*el% read 'or '#( +>(8Q read e*er% da% or almost
e*er% da%H +>(8Q B o$e or t4i$e a 4eek3 ad <:(:Q o$e or t4i$e a mot"( T"e #m)ers i
t"e $otrol !ro#/ are lessG -;(+Q B e*er% da%Ialmost e*er% da%H =8(=Q B o$e or t4i$e a
mot"( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ is more i*ol*ed i readi! 'or '#(
-7( :<(:Q o' t"e $otrol !ro#/ e*er )orro4ed )ooks 'rom t"e li)rar%( <:(:Q o' t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ o'te )orro4ed )ooks3 :<(:Q did it o$e or t4i$e a mot"(
+,( I t"e $otrol !ro#/ =8(=Q o' t"e s#)0e$ts said t"at t"eir $lass e*er or "ardl% e*er read
alo#d )#t t"e s#)0e$ts i e./erimetal !ro#/ res/oded i s#$" 4a% t"at t"eir $lass more
o'te /ra$ti$ed readi! alo#d(
+-( <:(:Q o' t"e $otrol !ro#/ e.er$ised readi! siletl% e*er% da% ad 8=(<Q did o$e or t4i$e
a mot"( I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ +>(8Q read siletl% o$e or t4i$e a 4eek ad >+(>Q B
o$e or t4i$e a mot"( ItFs o)*io#s t"at t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ read siletl% more
re!#larl%(
++( T"e #m)er o' t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4"o read sel'Bsele$ted )ooks e*er%
da% is <:(:Q ad i t"e $otrol !ro#/ o)od% read e*er% da% t"is kid o' )ooks( :<(:Q o'
t"e $otrol !ro#/ read t"e )ooks t"e% $"ose o$e or t4i$e a mot"( T"e st#dets o' t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ re!#larl% read sel'Bsele$ted readi! materials(
+8( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ st#dets 4rote more a)o#t 4"at t"e% read( ?or e.am/le3 i t"e
$otrol !ro#/ +>(8Q 4rote a)o#t 4"at t"e% read o$e or t4i$e a 4eek3 ad i t"e
e./erimetal :<(:Q 4rote a)o#t 4"at t"e% read o$e or t4i$e a 4eek(
+<( Ma0orit% o' t"e st#dets3 >+(>Q3 i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ did a /resetatio a)o#t 4"at
t"e% read more o'te t"a t"ose i t"e $otrol !ro#/ C<:(:QD( T"e% /reseted o$e or t4i$e a
4eek a)o#t 4"at t"e% read( +>(8Q o' t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ did t"e
/resetatio o$e or t4i$e a mot"3 4"ile :<(:Q i t"e $otrol !ro#/ did it o$e or t4i$e a
mot"(
I t"e A#estioaire t"e st#dets 4ere asked to idi$ate t"e amo#t o' E!lis" )ooks t"e% o4ed( I
t"e $otrol !ro#/ =8(=Q o' t"e st#dets "ad 'rom , to -, )ooks3 +>(8Q o4ed 'rom -- to +: )ooks3
--=
ad 7(-Q "ad 'rom += to -,, )ooks( I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ :<(:Q o' t"e st#dets o4ed 'rom ,
to -, )ooks3 8=(<Q o4ed 'rom -- to +: )ooks3 7(-Q "ad 'rom += to -,, )ooks(
Most o' t"e s#)0e$ts i t"e $otrol !ro#/ did ot #derstad t"e A#estio a)o#t t"e
s"ort$omi!s o' t"e /ro!ram( Istead t"e% metioed t"e /ro)lems t"at t"e% /ersoall% e./erie$ed
i t"e /ro!ram3 alt"o#!" t4o o' t"e st#dets i t"e !ro#/ metioed t"e /ro)lem o' too ma% e4
4ords( T"e% !a*e a sol#tio to t"is /ro)lem )% itrod#$i! a idea o' e./laii! e4 *o$a)#lar% i
t"e $lassroom( I t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ most o' t"e st#dets also did ot !et t"e meai! o' t"e
A#estio $orre$tl%( T"e% $osidered t"at t"is A#estio asked a)o#t t"eir /ro)lems i t"e /ro!ram(
Some o' t"em des$ri)ed t"e di''i$#lties t"at t"e% "ad 4"ile /reseti! 4"at t"e% "ad read( Oe o'
t"e st#dets idi$ated a /redi$amet o' $"oosi! iteresti! readi! materials(
9(8(/( Prti!i#nt% 6'7( Student% t forei"n ln"u"e !enter
?rom t"e se$od semester N s/ri!3 +,,7B+,-, alo! 4it" t"e t4o !ro#/s3 t"e ot"er !ro#/s
4ere $"ose at t"e 'orei! la!#a!e $eter o' Tela*i State Ui*ersit%( At 'orei! la!#a!e $eter
t"e st#dets o' *ario#s s/e$ialties Ce.$e/t la!#a!e s/e$ialtiesD are ta#!"t E!lis"( T"e% start
'orei! la!#a!es 'rom t"e 'irst semester o' t"eir BA st#dies( St#detsF 'orei! la!#a!e le*el
s"o#ld )e at a)o#t B- le*el o' t"e 6ommo E#ro/ea ?rame4ork o' Re'ere$e 'or La!#a!es as
t"e% /ass t"e Uited Natioal E.ams i E!lis" at t"is le*el(
T"e sam/le 'or m% e./erimet3 ?irstB%ear :: st#dets3 4as $"ose 'rom t"e 'a$#lt% o'
)#siess3 la4 ad so$ial s$ie$es( T"e st#dets "ad t"ree a$ademi$ "o#rs o' E!lis" i a 4eek( T"e%
took t"e !eeral E!lis" $o#rse 4it" t"e "olisti$ a//roa$" to all la!#a!e skills3 !rammar ad
*o$a)#lar%( T"e e./erimetal tea$"i! started 'rom t"e se$od semester o' t"eir #i*ersit% st#dies
ad lasted oe semester C-: 4eeksD( T"e s#)0e$ts 4ere 8= !irls ad -7 )o%s(
9(8(0( Pro!edure
T"e !ro#/s at t"e 'a$#lt% o' )#siess3 la4 ad so$ial s$ie$es 4ere $"ose as $otrol ad
e./erimetal )% de'a#lt( T"e e./erimetal tea$"i! 4as desi!ed to e$o#ra!e st#det to read more
at "ome( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4as istr#$ted to read more additioall% )esides t"e la!#a!e
leari! material !i*e i t"e s%lla)#s( T"e sam/le 4as e./laied 4"at3 4"ere3 ad "o4 t"e% $o#ld
read( ?or t"is reaso e.tesi*e readi! /ri$i/les 4ere itrod#$ed i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/( T"e
tea$"er !a*e a &R9 C$'( $"a/ter 83 se$t( 8(=D to t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/( T"e% 4ere
-->
asked to 'ill i 4"at t"e% read( T"e tea$"er did ot do a% 'ollo4B#/ a$ti*ities( Itermittetl% s"e
$"e$ked 4"at t"e st#dets read ad led )rie' dis$#ssios( T"e tea$"er stim#lated st#dets readi!
/ro$ess3 )#t s"e did ot allot time 'or silet readi! i t"e $lassroom or t"e st#detsF /resetatios
a)o#t 4"at t"e% read(
T"e $otrol !ro#/ 'ollo4ed t"e s%lla)#s ad t"e tea$"er did ot !i*e a% additioal readi!
assi!mets at "ome or i t"e $lassroom(
T"e st#dets 4ere tested t4i$eG ?irst3 i t"e )e!ii! o' t"e semester Ci t"e t"ird 4eek o'
t"e semesterD ad se$od3 i t"e ed o' t"e semester Ci t"e 'o#rteet" 4eek o' t"e semesterD(
Geeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad !rammar i t"ese !ro#/s 4ere m% 'o$iH t"#s3 t"e% 4ere *aria)les
i t"ese !ro#/s( T"e "%/ot"esis 'or t"is !ro#/ 4as t4oBtailedG
B I t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! at 'orei! la!#a!e $eter t"e !ro#/ t"at e.tesi*el% read
)ooks 4it"o#t dire$t istr#$tio ad 'ollo4B#/ a$ti*ities 4ill $otri)#te to di''eret res#lts3
i de*elo/i! !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e ad !rammar3 'rom t"e !ro#/ t"at did ot read
s#//lemet material(
I ot"er 4ords t"e res#lts o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4ill di''er 'rom t"ose o' t"e $otrol( To test t"e
/er'orma$e ad ko4led!e o' )ot" !ro#/s 6Btest C$'( A//edi. 7D ad m#lti/leB$"oi$e !rammar
test 4ere #sed C$'( $"a/ter <3 se$tio <(-(<(D
Table 4.14. Di''ere$e i e./erimetal ad $otrol !ro#/sF istr#$tios C/arti$i/ats 6D(
Gro#/s 6otrol !ro#/ B la!#a!e
leari! /ro!ram
E./erimetal !ro#/ N la!#a!e
leari! /ro!ram ad e.tesi*e
readi!
9"o sele$ts readi!
materials
No readi! assi!metsH
A tea$"er 'ollo4ed t"e
la!#a!e /ro!ram assi!ed )%
s%lla)#s
A tea$"er 'ollo4ed t"e la!#a!e
/ro!ram assi!ed )% s%lla)#s
ad st#dets sele$ted )ooks ad
read t"em(
Readi! material T"e st#dets ol% read t"e
materials !i*e i t"e te.t)ook(
St#dets read t"e materials !i*e
i a te.t)ook ad t"e% read
!raded readers 4"i$" #s#all%
$orres/oded 4it" t"eir la!#a!e
le*els(
--;
A$ti*ities St#dets did t"e a$ti*ities 'rom
t"e te.t)ook
St#dets did t"e a$ti*ities 'rom
t"e te.t)ook3 ad t"e% ke/t a
re$ord o' )ooks i &R9
9(0(9( Re%ult%
Scoring procedure 'or a !rammar se$tio o' 8, m#lti/le $"oi$e tasks3 oe /oit 4as
a4arded to ea$" $orre$t as4er3 ad o /oits to i$orre$t as4ers( ?or a total N 8, /oits i a
!rammar se$tio( T"e 6Btest se$tio 4as s$ored i t"e 'ollo4i! maerG ?or all $orre$t $om/letio
o' a 4ord oe /oit ad zero 'or a% i$orre$t letters i $om/letio( I a 6Btest se$tio ma.im#m
s$ore 4as <: /oits C$'( $"a/ter IV3 se$t( )esting in the experimental teachingD
T"e 'ollo4i! statisti$al te$"iA#es 4ere #sed 'or data aal%sisG
Measure of central tendency B t"e mea CMD3 or arit"meti$ a*era!e( It is t"e )asis 'or ma%
ad*a$ed meas#res Cad statisti$sD )ased o !ro#/ )e"a*ior(
Measures of dispersion- t"e stadard de*iatio CStd De*iatioD is a #m)er t"at s"o4s "o4
s$ores are s/read aro#d t"e mea( T"e lar!er t"e stadard de*iatio3 t"e more *aria)ilit% t"ere is a
/arti$#lar !ro#/ o' s$ores( 6o*ersel%3 a smaller stadard de*iatio idi$ates t"at t"e !ro#/ is more
"omo!eo#s i terms o' a /arti$#lar )e"a*ior( Be$a#se t"e mea does ot /ro*ide i'ormatio a)o#t
"o4 s$ores are dis/ersed aro#d t"e mea3 t"e stadard de*iatio is al4a%s re/orted i
'orei!Ise$od la!#a!e resear$"( I t"e ta)le <(-: t"e ra4 s$ores o' )ot" !ro#/s are !i*e i t"e
/retests ad t"e /osttests(
Table 4.15. E./erimetal ad $otrol !ro#/s ra4 s$ores(
N
Geeral
/ro'i$ie$%
C&retestD
6otrol
Grammar
C&retestD
6otrol
Geeral
/ro'i$ie$%
C&osttestD
6otrol
Grammar
C&osttestD
6otrol
Geeral
/ro'i$ie$%
C&retestD
E./erimet(
Grammar
C&retestD
6otrol
E./erimet(
Geeral
/ro'i$ie$%
C&osttestD
E./erimet(
Grammar
C&osttestD
6otrol
E./erimet(
-
-< -, -+ 7 -< -- -> -,
+
++ 7 -8 -- -7 7 -7 -+
8
7 -- -, = -; -, -+ -+
<
+= -+ -> -< -; -< -< -8
:
-8 > -8 : +- -; -< --
--7
=
-= > -< -, +> +, +, +-
>
-< -- -= > -= -: -8 --
;
-+ ; -8 -- -= -+ -- ;
7
+, ; -- > -> > -8 -;
-,
+- -+ -> -< -< 7 -+ ;
--
-> -- -8 7 -< -+ -: -=
-+
-, ; -8 -8 -; -: -; -+
-8
-7 = -= -: -; -8 -> -,
-<
-= > <, -8 8- -< 8: +8
-:
-= -, +- -, 8: -= 8+ +:
-=
++ ; +< 7 8, -> 88 -:
->
+7 -+ += -- -> 7 +; -8
-;
8- -= 8< -> += -, 8, --
-7
8- -= +> -7 +7 -, 8- -8
+,
8- -: += +< 8, 7 8+ --
+-
8: -= 88 -< +, 7 +; -:
++
8- -; +; 7 -; ; +< ->
+8
8, -, 8: ++ +< -7 +7 -+
+<
+> 7 +: -- ++ -; +7 -=
+:
+: -8 8- -= -7 -, +7 -8
+=
-; -> +; -8 +7 -> 8- -8
+>
+8 -7 +; +, += +, +7 ->
-+,
+;
-< -: +> -- 8- -> 8= -:
T"e meas o' t"e /retests o' 6Btest o' )ot" !ro#/s are ideti$al( T"e mea o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/
i 6Btest /retest is ++(,<( T"e mea o' t"e $otrol !ro#/ i t"is /retest is +-(-<( T"e di''ere$e
)et4ee meas is ot "i!"( T"e )e"a*ior o' t"e !ro#/sF )e"a*ior is "omo!eo#s ad similar(
Table 4.16. Gro#/sF res#lts i 6BTest /retest(
6BTest &retest Mea Std( De*iatio Std( Error Mea
E./erimetal ++(,< =(-7- -(->,
6otrol +-(-< >(<-> -(<,+
I t"e /osttest o' 6Btest t"e mea o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ is +8(+:3 ad t"e $otrolFs is +-(;+( T"e
s$ores s"o4ed t"at t"at )ot" !ro#/s "a*e /ro!ressedH "o4e*er3 i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ t"e
i$rease is sli!"tl% "i!"er(
Table 4.17. Gro#/sF res#lts i 6BTest /osttest(
6BTest &osttest Mea Std( De*iatio Std( Error Mea
E./erimetal +8(+: ;(8<8 -(:>>
6otrol +-(;+ ;(=,8 -(=+=
T"e meas i t"e !rammar /retests i )ot" !ro#/s are $lose( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/Fs mea is
-8(-<3 ad t"e $otrol !ro#/Fs --(<=( T"e meas are $lose( I t"e /osttests )ot" !ro#/sF meas "a*e
rise( T"e mea o' t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ is -8(7= ad t"e $otrol !ro#/Fs is -+(:,( Alt"o#!" t"e
im/ro*emets are o)ser*ed i )ot" !ro#/s3 t"ese i$reases are aalo!o#s(
Table 4.18. Gro#/sF res#lts i !rammar /retest(
Grammar
&retest
Mea Std( De*iatio Std( Error Mea
E./erimetal -8(-< <(,,> (>:>
6otrol --(<= 8(>8> (>,=
-+-
Table 4.19. Gro#/sF res#lts i !rammar /osttest(
Grammar
&osttest
Mea Std( De*iatio
Std( Error Mea
E./erimetal -8(7= <(--< (>>>
6otrol -+(:, <(>-, (;7,
9(9( Di%!u%%ion%
I t"is se$tio t"e res#lts o' /arti$i/ats A3 B ad /arti$i/ats 6 are dis$#ssed se/aratel%( T"e
o#t$ome o' /arti$i/ats A is aal%zed a$$ordi! to t"e /retest ad /osttest res#lts ad /ro!ram
e*al#ati*e 'orms( T"e res#lts are st#died i t"e terms o' t"e *aria)les o' e./erimetal istr#$tio o'
/arti$i/ats A( T"ese *aria)les are !rammar3 ad !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e CGL6D( T"e res#lts
o' /arti$i/at B is e.amied a$$ordi! to t"e res#lts o)taied 'rom t"e A#estioaires ad t"e res#lts
o' /retest ad /osttest( T"e *aria)les 'or t"ese /arti$i/ats are GL63 moti*atio ad /ositi*e attit#de
to4ard readi!( T"e res#lts o' /arti$i/ats 6 is aal%zed a$$ordi! to t"e /retests ad /osttests( T"e
*aria)les 'or t"ese !ro#/s 4ere !rammar ad GL6(
Participants A B i t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e $otrol !ro#/ 4it" "ome readi! istr#$tio
"as more "omo!eo#s )e"a*ior( As 'or t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ t"e dis/ersio 4as 4ider ad t"e
!ro#/Fs )e"a*ior 4as less "omo!eo#s( I /aired tBtest o' !rammar /osttest s"o4ed t"at t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ e.$eeded t"e $otrol !ro#/3 alt"o#!" t"is di''ere$e 4as ot si!i'i$at( T"is
isi!i'i$a$e o' t"e data i !rammar /osttest $a )e e./laied )% some reasosG -D t"e d#ratio o'
e./erimet 4as s"ort to de*elo/ !rammar skills( De*elo/i! !rammar skills reA#ires lo!er time
ad m#$" /ra$ti$e3 +D t"e ass#m/tio is t"at t"e !rammar test did ot $o'orm to t"e la!#a!e le*el
o' t"e st#dets( T"e !rammar test 4as itermediate le*el ad t"e st#dets mail% read /reB
itermediate le*el3 8D t"e !rammar test 4as ot sesiti*e ad moder eo#!" to meas#re t"e !ais
/ro/erl%( Alt"o#!" t"e di''ere$e i t"e /osttest !rammar is isi!i'i$at3 t"e 'idi! is /ositi*e(
T"e !ro#/ 4it" e.tesi*e readi! istr#$tio o#tdid t"e $otrol !ro#/H t"is data leads to t"e
s#!!estio t"at e.tesi*e readi! $otri)#tes to !rammar de*elo/met more t"a "ome readi!
/ro!ram amo! Geor!ia learers(
I t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed )etter res#lts i GL6( T"e
!ro#/ )e"a*ior i 6Btest /osttest 4as more "omo!eo#s t"a i t"e /retest( I /osttest o' GL6 o'
-++
t"e /aired tBtest t"e di''ere$e 4as statisti$all% si!i'i$at( T"is data is a )asis 'or a /ro/ositio t"at
e.tesi*e readi! im/ro*es !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e(
A$$ordi! to t"e data o)taied 'rom t"e /ro!ram e*al#ati*e 'orm t"e 'ollo4i! as/e$ts 4ere
im/ro*ed i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ more t"a i t"e $otrolG s/eaki!3 readi!3 ad readi!
'l#e$%( T"e $otrol !ro#/ o#tdid i t"e 'ollo4i! as/e$tsG *o$a)#lar%3 litera$%3 la!#a!e str#$t#re
ad s%ta.( T"e !oals o' ER 4ere rea$"ed i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/( I t"e $otrol !ro#/ a tea$"er
em/"asized t"e *o$a)#lar% a$A#isitioH $oseA#etl%3 t"e *o$a)#lar% 4as de*elo/ed i t"is !ro#/(
Alt"o#!" t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ leared t"e $"a/ters ad retold3 t"e% did ot "a*e "i!"er
res#lts i s/eaki!( T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4"o /reseted i ea$" lesso 4"at t"e%
read3 t"eir s/eaki! skill de*elo/ed m#$" more( T"ese im/ro*emets are )ased o t"e st#detsF
sel'Bre/ort(
T"e ER /ro!ram 4as a//ro*ed )% t"e st#dets( Oe t"ird o' t"e !ro#/ liked t"is /ro!ram
*er% m#$"H more t"a "al' liked it A#ite a lot3 ad t"e rest said t"at it 4as soBso( I t"e $otrol !ro#/
4it" "ome readi! istr#$tio t"e #m)ers are re*erse( T"e st#detsF a//ro*al o' ER $a )e
e./laied )% t"e /ri$i/les o' ER a//lied d#ri! t"e istr#$tio( T"e st#dets 4ere im/ressed 4it"
t"e 'ollo4i! /ri$i/lesG t"e readi! material s"o#ld )e eas%H st#dets sele$t readi! materialsH
readi! s"o#ld )e e0o%a)le( T"e e*ide$e o' st#detsF a//ro*al o' ER is t"e #m)er o' st#dets
4"o e0o%ed t"is /ro!ram(
I t"e $otrol !ro#/ t"e st#dets read t"e )ook sele$ted )% t"e tea$"er ad t"e% 'o#d it
)ori!3 ad t"e% $osidered it as a /ro)lem i t"e /ro!ram( T"e st#dets also re/orted t"at t"ere
4ere too ma% e4 4ords i t"e readi! material( More st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ e0o%ed
readi! t"a i t"e $otrol !ro#/( Moreo*er i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/3 more st#dets 4ated to read
more i E!lis"( I ot"er 4ords3 t"e% liked readi! ad t"e% 'elt t"e e$essit% to read more( Bot"
!ro#/s "ad t"e eA#al #m)ers o' t"e as4ers t"at t"e /ro!ram "el/ed to de*elo/ readi! skills(
All t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ 4ere a$ti*e readersH "al' o' t"em read -,, /a!es3
a)o#t oe A#arter N 7, /a!es3 ad t"e rest 'rom +, /a!es to ;, /a!es d#ri! t"e e./erimetal
tea$"i!( St#dets 4"o re!#larl% 'illed i &R9 4ere a4are o' t"e #m)er o' /a!es read )% t"em i
a 4eek(
T"e st#dets i t"e ER /ro!ram 'elt satis'a$tio 4"i$" 4as $oe$ted to t"e $om/letio o' a
)ook 'or t"e 'irst time( T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed e.$itemet 'or $om/leti! a
)ook )e$a#se it 4as a ##s#al e./erie$e 'or t"em( I t"e des$ri/tio o' t"e !ro#/s C$'( $"a/t(<
-+8
se$tio ( /arti$i/at AD it 4as metioed t"at t"e st#dets "ad t"e de'i$iet o' iterest i E!lis"(
T"e st#detsF a$ademi$ !rades 4ere lo4(
Participants B B I t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e 'ollo4i! $"a!es "a*e )ee o)ser*ed( T"e
/osttest i t"e GL6 s"o4ed a striki! di''ere$e )et4ee t"e $otrol ad t"e e./erimetal !ro#/s(
T"e $otrol !ro#/Fs /er'orma$e i /osttest i$reased )% >:Q ad t"e e./erimetal !ro#/Fs o*erall
la!#a!e $om/ete$e )oosted )% -<>Q3 almost t4i$e as m#$" as t"e $otrol !ro#/Fs( I t"e /osttest
t"e im/ro*emets are o)ser*ed i )ot" !ro#/s( T"e "ome readi! /ro!ram im/ro*ed t"e st#detsF
GL6 )% >:Q3 )#t t"e e.tesi*e /ro!ram is more s#$$ess'#l i a$"ie*i! t"is !oal( T"is "#!e
dis$re/a$% )et4ee t"e /osttest /er'orma$es $a )e e./laied )% t"e 'ollo4i! as/e$ts o' ERG
'irstl%3 t"e tea$"er istr#$ted t"e st#dets i )ot" !ro#/s o 'illi! t"is t%/e o' tests )et4ee /retest
ad /osttestH se$odl%3 t"e st#dets i t"e ER /ro!ram 4ere a$ti*el% i*ol*ed i readi! Cmi( 8;,
/a!es I ma.( ;7, /a!esDH 'iall%3 t"e st#dets re!#larl% 'illed i &R9 ad /reseted orall% 4"at t"e%
read( T"e st#dets mail% read t"e !raded readers o' /reBitermediate3 itermediate3 #//erB
itermediate le*els( T"ro#!" readi! t"e st#dets a$A#ired e4 *o$a)#lar% ad de*elo/ed si!"t
*o$a)#lar%( T"#s3 all a)o*emetioed as/e$ts /romoted t"e st#detsF )etter /osttest /er'orma$e i
t"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram( T"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ read i t"e semester a)o#t +,,
/a!es( T"e% did ot $om/lete readi! o' t"e )ook( T"e tea$"er em/"asized *o$a)#lar% leari!( T"e
st#dets retold t"e $"a/ters i ea$" lesso( T"e $om/ariso o' t"e /ro!ramsF /e$#liarities $o'irm
t"at ER as a a//roa$" o' 'orei! la!#a!e readi! istr#$tio is s#/erior(
T"e res#lts o' t"e A#estioaires are aal%zed 'or )ot" !ro#/s(
B I t"e $otrol !ro#/ t"e st#dets read mail% t"e readi! material 'rom t"eir te.t)ooks )#t
a'ter e./erimetal tea$"i! t"e% started readi! o' t"e materials 'rom ot"er so#r$es( I t"e $otrol
!ro#/ t"e st#dets 4ere #moti*ated to 'iis" t"e o/eBeded statemets to e./ress t"eir emotio( A
'e4 st#dets $om/leted t"ese statemets(
B T"e st#dets o*erstated t"eir attit#de to4ard #ko4 4ords i t"e te.t )e'ore t"e
e./erimetal tea$"i!( A'ter t"e istr#$tio t"e st#dets /artl% admit t"at t"e% 4ere ot "a//% 4it"
meeti! e4 4ords( It is e*idet t"at t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/ )elie*ed i t"e statemet 1o
/ai3 o !ai2( B#t a'ter "a*i! e./erie$ed 4orki! 4it" lots o' e4 4ords i t"e "ome readi!
/ro!ram3 some o' t"em idi$ated t"at t"e s"ort$omi! o' t"e /ro!ram is too ma% e4 4ords(
B I )ot" !ro#/s t"e #se o' t"e strate!% o' de'ii! t"e /#r/ose )e'ore readi! a'ter treatmet
dimiis"ed( ?or t"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram it is at#ral3 )e$a#se t"e st#dets s"o#ld read 'or
-+<
!eeral #derstadi!3 /leas#re3 ad i'ormatio( T"e !oals o' "ome readi! are m#$" more
s/e$i'i$ C$' $"a/ter -3 /(D( T"e same 4as o)ser*ed 4it" t"e strate!% o' t"iki! a)o#t t"e !i*e to/i$
)e'ore )e!ii! to read(
B T"e strate!% o' !#essi! #ko4 4ords is de*elo/ed more i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ t"a
i t"e $otrol( Readi! o' t"e !raded readers 4"i$" $orres/od 4it" t"e st#detsF la!#a!e le*el3
4"ere t"e #m)er o' e4 4ords is limited o a /a!e3 "el/ed t"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/
to start a//l%i! t"is strate!% ad 'iall% t"e% )e$ame s#$$ess'#l #sers( As 'or t"e $otrol !ro#/ t"e
#m)er o' #ko4 4ords 4as "i!"H st#dets str#!!led to !et a idea ad !#ess t"e meai! o'
4ords( St#dets 4o#ld ot )e $om'orta)le 4it" !#essi! #less t"e% $"e$ked meai!s o' #ko4
4ords i t"e di$tioar%( T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram "el/s to de*elo/ t"e strate!% o' !#essi!
#ko4 4ords(
B I )ot" !ro#/s a'ter treatmet t"e itesit% i #si! t"e strate!% o' dra4i! ima!es i t"eir
ima!iatio 'ell( ?or t"e "ome readi! /ro!ram it $a )e e./laied )% t"e di''i$#lt readi! material
t"at /re*eted t"em 'rom ima!i!3 as t"e 4"ole 'o$#s o' t"e readers 4as o #derstadi! o' t"e
material(
B E.tesi*e readi! $otri)#ted to t"e de*elo/met o' t"e strate!% o' s#mmarizatio( T"e
ass#m/tio is t"at t"e readers i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s#mmarized 4"at t"e% read re!#larl% i
t"eir &R9 ad t"e t"e% s#mmarized *er)all% 4"at t"e% read i ea$" lesso(
B T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram $oe$ted t"e readers ad raised $omm#i$atio )et4ee
t"e learers3 it $reated liks t"ro#!" t"e $ommo to/i$s3 s#$" as3 t"e )ooks t"e% read3 a#t"ors3
'a*orite $"ara$ters3 e./erie$es 4"ile readi!( T"ese $"a!es i t"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram
!ro#/ are more o)*io#s t"a i t"e "ome readi! /ro!ram !ro#/( T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram
$oe$ted readers ad 'ormed $ommo s/irit(
B T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram i*ol*ed t"e st#dets ito t"e readi! 'or '#( I t"e
e./erimetal !ro#/ "al' o' t"e !ro#/ itesi*el% read 'or '# i a 4eek ad t"e ot"er "al' did it i a
mot"( T"ese #m)ers ad*a$ed t"ose i t"e $otrol !ro#/( T"e "ome readi! /ro!ram also "el/ed
st#dets to treat readi! i a di''eret 4a% )#t toil( T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram !a*e more
o//ort#it% to learers to e0o% readi! 'or '#(
B T"e e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram altered t"e st#dets ito a$ti*e readers ad i'l#e$ed t"em
to !o ad )orro4 )ooks 'rom t"e li)rar%( T"e "ome readi! /ro!ram seemed to $"a!e also st#dets
-+:
i t"e $otrol !ro#/ ad t"e% also )orro4ed t"e )ooks 'rom t"e li)rar%3 "o4e*er t"e res#lts o' t"e
e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram e.$eeds o' t"ose i t"e "ome readi! /ro!ram(
B T"e $lassroom a$ti*ities related to readi! alo#d ad siletl% di''er i )ot" !ro#/s( T"e
st#dets i t"e "ome readi! /ro!ram /ra$tised readi! alo#d Isiletl% more o'te t"a i t"e
e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram(
Participants C - T"e res#lts o' t"e /arti$i/ats 6 are di''eret( T"e t4oBtailed "%/ot"esis 4as
as4ered /ositi*el%( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed )etter res#lts )#t t"e di''ere$e )et4ee t"e
!ro#/sF meas 4ere ot si!i'i$at( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ s"o4ed )etter res#lts i t"e 6Btest t"a
i !rammar( T"e st#dets i t"e e./erimetal !ro#/ read di''eret !radedBreaders o' elemetar% ad
/reBitermediate le*els 4"i$" $o#ld "el/ t"e st#dets to de*elo/ si!"t *o$a)#lar% ad "a*e )etter
/er'orma$e t"a t"e st#dets i t"e $otrol !ro#/( I t"e !rammar /retests ad /osttests t"e !ro#/s
similarl% s"o4ed t"e !ro4t"(
T"e di''ere$e i istr#$tios o' e.tesi*e readi! )et4ee /arti$i/ats A3 B ad /arti$i/ats
6 emer!ed ito t"e di''eret res#lts( T"e e./erimetal !ro#/ o' t"e /arti$i/at 6 did ot /rod#$e
si!i'i$at i$rease( T"ese res#lts o' /arti$i/at 6 led to t"e 'ollo4i! $o$l#sio t"at
im/lemetatio o' ER reA#ires /ro/er istr#$tio 'rom t"e tea$"er( ER $a ot )e e''i$iet i'
learers are asked to do additioal readi! at "ome 4it"o#t '#rt"er istr#$tio ad dis$#ssios(
T"e /arti$i/ats A ad B3 )ot" 4ere ea!er to talk a)o#t 4"at t"e% read ad t"e% 'illed i
&R9 o a re!#lar )asis( T"e st#dets "ad res/osi)ilit% 'or t"eir readi!3 ad t"e tea$"er )%
s"o4i! dee/ iterest i t"eir readi! a$ti*ities em/"asized t"e im/orta$e o' readi!(
Im/lemetatio o' e.tesi*e readi! at 'orei! la!#a!e $eters s"o#ld )e desi!ed $are'#ll%(
-+=
6ON6LUSION AND IM&LI6ATIONS ?OR TEA6HING
Ob%t!le% in te!hin" e4ten%i$e redin" nd limittion% of the %tudie%
E./erimetal i$or/oratio o' e.tesi*e readi! at t"e 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmet ad t"e
'orei! la!#a!e $eter di*#l!ed some o)sta$les( T"ese o)sta$les are also dis$#ssed i Da% J
Bam'ord C+,,:D( T"e% s#!!ested *ario#s reasosG $ost o' t"e /ro!ramH t"e 4ork reA#ired to set #/ a
/ro!ramH t"e di''i$#lt% i i$or/orati! ER i alread%B$ro4ded $#rri$#l#mH t"e tea$"erFs roleH t"e
eas%Bat#re o' readi! materialH t"e /re*ailed readi! skills a//roa$" i E?LH t"e )elie' t"at readi!
s"o#ld )e dela%ed #til st#dets $a s/eak ad #derstad t"e ?LH $o'#sio )et4ee e.tesi*e
readi! ad $lass readers( Gra)e C+,,73 /( 8--D idi$ated 'ollo4i! /ro)lems i im/lemeti! ER(
He ar!#es t"at 'irstl%3 i L+3 'l#et readi! is ot o'te reall% t"e !oal 'or a readi! $lass or a
readi! $#rri$#l#mH rat"er t"e !oal is t"e de*elo/met o' la!#a!e skills3 *o$a)#lar%3 !rammar3
traslatio3 or st#d% skills( Se$od3 tea$"i! ER reA#ires lots o' reso#r$es( T"ird3 t"e 'o$#s o' ma%
readi! $#rri$#la is o a$$#rate $om/re"esio ad 1t"e ass#m/tio t"at a !ood $om/re"eder 4ill
e*et#all% )e$ome a 'l#et reader o' e.teded te.ts o "is or "er o42( ?o#rt"3 Gra)e $osiders oe
o' t"e reasos o' o /o/#larit% o' ER is t"e tea$"erFs role ad #readiess to tea$" it( A$$ordi! to
"im e*e admiistrators are #$om'orta)le 4it" tea$"ers ot tea$"i! ad st#dets ot /re/ari! 'or
"i!"Bstakes e.ams 4"ile i $lasses( T"e *isio o' tea$"ers tea$"i! somet"i! to st#dets is take
a4a% )% ER ad tea$"ers 'eel disem/o4ered( I took ito $osideratios t"e /ro)lems idi$ated )%
Gra)e C+,,7D3 ad Da% J Bam'ord C+,,:D ad I desi!ed t"e e./erimetal im/lemetatio o' ER i
s#$" 4a% t"at I $o#ld de$rease t"e /ossi)ilit% o' mai'estatio o' all a)o*e metioed o)sta$les3
"o4e*er3 'ollo4i! !a/s ad o)sta$les 4ere met 4"ile e./erimetal i$or/oratio o' ERG t"e
tea$"erFs roleH t"e m%t"B o readi! /ai3 o readi! !aiH /oor /rit e*iromet(
12 A teacher as the crucial factor of successful '$ program - )e'ore im/lemeti! ER it is
im/ortat to istr#$t tea$"ers o t"e )ee'its readi! ad ER( Most tea$"ers are ot a4are "o4
readi! is 'a*ora)le to 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio( 9"e t"e tea$"er is eA#i//ed 4it" t"e
e$essar% ko4led!e a)o#t ER3 t"e e.t ste/ is to make t"e tea$"er )elie*e t"at ER is t"e oe o' t"e
)est 4a%s o' tea$"i! a 'orei! la!#a!e ad de*elo/i! readi! skill ad readi! "a)it( At t"e
)e!ii! t"e tea$"er $ostatl% eeds e$o#ra!emet )e$a#se t"e tea$"er ma% 'eel do#)t a)o#t "er
role i t"e /ro!ram as it di''ers 'rom ot"er role 4"ere s"e tras'ers ko4led!e to learers( T"e
tea$"er ma% )e $o'#sed 4it" "er role ad re!ard it as /assi*e ad 'iall% 'eel #$om'orta)le( To
sol*e t"is /ro)lem t"e tea$"er s"o#ld /ermaetl% read di''eret )ooks ad /er$ei*e t"e at#re o'
-+>
e.tesi*e readi! "ersel'I"imsel'( It 4ill )e "el/'#l 'or tea$"ers to )e$ome 'amiliar 4it" learerFs
a#toom% ad /eriodi$all% "a*e traii!s o a#toomo#s leari!( It 4ill ea)le tea$"ers to look at
t"eir res/osi)ilities 'rom di''eret /oit o' *ie4 ad #derstad t"e si!i'i$a$e o' learerFs
ide/ede$e i st#d%i! /ro$ess(
*2 )he myth- 5o reading pain/ no reading gain+ St#dets a$$#stomed to 4adi! t"ro#!"
di''i$#lt 'orei! la!#a!e te.ts mi!"t dro4 4"e s#ddel% /l#!ed ito a sea o' sim/le ad
stim#lati! material( Serio#sBmided st#dets3 'or e.am/le3 some /arti$i/ats A )elie*ed i B no
reading pain/ no reading gain( T"e% did ot #derstad "o4 readi! eas% ad iteresti! material
$a "el/ t"em )e$ome )etter readers( T"e% admitted t"at oe o' t"e limitatios o' t"e ER /ro!ram
4as eas% readi! materials( It 4as moitored t"at t"ese serio#sBmided st#dets3 4"o )elie*ed t"at
t"e% "ad to memorize ma% e4 4ords ad read di''i$#lt te.ts3 $om/laied o'te a)o#t t"e easiess
o' materials d#ri! t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! ad $om/ared t"eir a$"ie*emets 4it" t"e !ro#/ o'
t"e "ome readi! /ro!ram3 4"ere t"e 'o$#s 4as o *o$a)#lar% ad t"e #a)rid!ed )ook 4as read(
T"is mi!"t )e serio#s /ro)lem 'or !ood readers ad t"e sol#tio is t"e tea$"erFs orietatio( T"is
m%t" or 'alse )elie' 'or ER 1no reading pain/ no reading gain6 $a )e dis/ersed )% t"e tea$"erFs
e./laatio o' t"e )ee'its o' readi! eas% materials( At t"e )e!ii! o' t"e /ro!ram t"e tea$"er
el#$idates t"e !oals3 t"e )ee'its ad t"e o*elt% o' t"e /ro!ram( T"e tea$"er $a $lari'% t"at
st#dets i$rease t"eir *o$a)#lar% o a re!#lar )asis t"ro#!" ot"er la!#a!e /ro!rams( I' t"e
tea$"erFs orietatio is doe /ro/erl% !ood readers 4ill )e ea!erl% i*ol*ed i t"e ER /ro!ram(
9"e 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#irers read 'or /leas#re3 t"e% de*elo/ t"e $om/ete$e t"e% eed to mo*e
'rom t"e )e!ii! 1ordiar% $o*ersatioal2 le*el to a le*el 4"ere t"e% $a #se t"e 'orei!
la!#a!e 'or more demadi! /#r/oses s#$" as t"e serio#s st#d% o' literat#re 3 )#siess3 ad so o(
72 Print en(ironment in 8eorgian "ni(ersities- oe o' t"e serio#s o)sta$les 'or t"e
im/lemetatio o' ER is t"e /oor /rit e*iromet or i some $ases e*e t"e a)se$e o' /rit
e*iromet( Kras"e C-778D "i!"li!"ted t"e im/orta$e o' /rit e*irometH 19"e t"e /rit
e*iromet is ri$"3 more readi! is doe(2 I' ot ETAG 4"i$" /ro*ided !raded readers 'or t"e
e./erimetal istr#$tio o' t"e ER /ro!ram3 it 4o#ld )e di''i$#lt to t"ik a)o#t im/lemetatio o'
ER at Tela*i State Ui*ersit%( I order to r# s#$$ess'#l ER /ro!rams it is im/ortat t"at
#i*ersities )e eA#i//ed 4it" !raded readers3 di''eret readi! materials3 e4s/a/ers3 ad
ma!azies(
-+;
9e /la to $oti#e t"e s#r*e% o' t"e !rad#ates i order to !et a more $om/lete /i$t#re o' t"e
readi! /ro!rams at 'orei! la!#a!e de/artmets o' Geor!ia Ui*ersities( Oe o' t"e di''i$#lties
o' t"e s#r*e% 4as to "a*e a$$ess to t"e !rad#ates( Ol% t"e s/e$i'i$ !ro#/ o' !rad#ates 4as a*aila)le
'or t"is time( T"is !ro#/ mail% $om/rises E!lis" tea$"ers ad MA st#dets( 9e admit t"at some
res/oses ma% )e i'l#e$ed )% /ro'essioal o/iios or memories $o#ld )e )iased(
Im#li!tion%3Re!ommendtion%
T"e o#t/#ts o' m% resear$" !a*e me eo#!" data to s#!!est t"at e.tesi*e readi! is )etter
t"a "ome readi!( T"e e.tesi*e readi! is a e''e$ti*e ad /leas#ra)le 4a% 'or st#dets to lear to
read E!lis" as a 'orei! la!#a!e as a alterati*e to traslatio or skill $o#rses i 4"i$" st#dets
are ot 'ree to $"oose readi! material t"at iterests t"em( E.tesi*e readi! raised st#detsF
moti*atio to read more ad e0o% t"eir "ome4ork3 de*elo/ed $o'ide$e i st#dets 4it"i
readi!H also it /romoted 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio(
E./erimetal tea$"i! o' e.tesi*e readi! e./aded tea$"ersF a4areess a)o#t t"e e4
a//roa$" ad e$o#ra!ed t"em to ste/ aside 'rom t"e traditioal 4a%s o' tea$"i! readi!(
E.tesi*e readi! !a*e a i$eti*e to Geor!ia tea$"ers to read more 4"i$" is $r#$ial 'or tea$"ers
too( I additio3 Geor!ia #i*ersit% li)raries 4ill $reate 'orei! la!#a!e ri$"B/rit e*iromet3
4"i$" is oe o' t"e im/ortat iss#es( Ri$"B/rit e*iromet 4ill $a#se )etter res#lts i readi! ad
$oseA#etl% i a 'orei! la!#a!e a$A#isitio(
T"e im/li$atios o' t"is st#d% areG
E.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams s"o#ld )e im/lemeted as t"e e''i$iet readi! de*elo/met
/ro!rams i Geor!ia #i*ersities( A e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 4ill 4ide st#detsF
ed#$atio le*el(
9it"i t"is /ro!ram st#dets 4ill )e$ome a4are o' di''eret $#lt#res3 $o#tries3 4riters3
otios3 )ooks3 /eo/le ad /eo/leFs li'est%les( T"is readi! /ro!ram 4ill raise t"eir
a$ti*eess as st#dets ad as readers(
E.tesi*e readi! tea$"i! met"odolo!% is adeA#atel% desi!ed to 'it t"e reA#iremets o'
a$ademi$ /ro!rams(
It 4ill $otri)#te to t"e 'ollo4i! im/ro*emets ad )ee'its amo! t"e st#dets o' t"e
'orei! la!#a!e de/artmetG /ositi*e attit#de to4ard readi!3 !eeral la!#a!e
-+7
$om/ete$e3 ad moti*atio( A e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 4ill i$#l$ate amo! st#dets
t"e lo*e o' readi!3 ad it 4ill i$rease iterest to4ard 'orei! la!#a!e st#d%(
E.tesi*e readi! /ro!rams 4ill /o/#larize $om/arati*el% lessB/ra$ti$ed tea$"i! model
i Geor!ia B learer a#toom%( T"e relatios"i/ o' a tea$"er ad a st#det )ased o
learer a#toom%3 i e.tesi*e readi!3 4ill $reate a )ee'i$ial )a$k!ro#d 'or a st#det to
take res/osi)ilit% 'or o4 leari!3 ad to e./erie$e real li'e readi!Ileari!( O t"e
ot"er "ad3 a tea$"er 4ill res/e$t st#detsF e''ort3 s"o4 dee/ iterest i ea$" st#detFs
s#$$ess( Testi! ad !radi! 4ill take se$odar% /art i t"is e*iromet(
E.tesi*e readi! 4ill em/"asize meai!'#l itera$tio )et4ee st#dets( T"is
$omm#i$atio 4ill take 'ollo4i! 'ormsG li*el% dis$#ssios3 aal%ses3 ad readi!
re$ommedatios(
It is essetial to $oti#e '#rt"er resear$" to dis$#ss e.tesi*e readi! i terms o' )ook
sele$tio3 $o#rse admiistratio3 /eda!o!i$ /ro$ed#re3 et$( Se*eral s#!!estios 'or '#rt"er resear$"
s"o#ld )e /reseted( ?irstl%3 t"e e./erimetal tea$"i! lasted oe semester3 )#t it $a also )e
desi!ed 'or lo!er /eriods o' time so its 4ider a//li$a)ilit% ad #se'#less $a )e '#rt"er
s#)statiated( Se$odl%3 t"e *aria)les i m% st#d% 4ere moti*atio3 /ositi*e attit#de3 !rammar3 ad
!eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e3 )#t it $o#ld )e '#rt"er e.amied t"e i'l#e$e o' ER o readi!
$om/re"esio3 *o$a)#lar%3 ad 4riti! as 4ell( T"irdl%3 '#t#re resear$" $o#ld allot a a$ademi$
"o#r 'or 'orei! la!#a!e $eter st#dets 'or ER ad o)ser*e t"e im/ro*emets )et4ee oe !ro#/
o' st#dets readi! e.tesi*el% ad aot"er la$ki! t"is a$ti*it% ad t"e assess t"e t4o !ro#/sF
/er'orma$e i readi! $om/re"esio ad !eeral la!#a!e $om/ete$e(
-8,
RE*EREN'ES
, . (2008). . , 8
.
, . (2005).
. g ,
. . ,

, . (200-). (
). , . g
, . & , . (2005). . h g g
. 2002-2004. ( . ! 1-73)
, . (2002). . : g
.
, . (2001). . .
, . & , . (2008). g o . .
. 8g g
, ., , ., , ., , ., , . go go 8
(2008). . 8g
. . g
, . (19!!). o . VI. . .
ggo, . (1987).
/ .
/. ,
.
, ., , ., , ., , . (2004). 15- o
. . 1 (5), 4. 35-3!.
_`a`bcdef`3 g( C-77;D( hijkalmkf`nce bncoc paq rsencq n` tdkb`u `noacvibkok qmwb`(
9:;<=>?@=> ABC@3 D E3 isd( -:
-8-
>?@ABCDEFG, H. I. (1983). ! "! #$
%&$' ()*. JEKDFG, ILM. NOPEKFQRQBCQS, + ,8,, KTP. -0--2.
>EPCGDUQFG, V. W. (198!). XQDKT DGD YGTQPCG? M?Z E[\AQBCZ ]PCQYGY ^C?E?E_CAQKDE_E.
-& $* &./, + ,8,, KTP. 5-14.
`DGLDCF, a. a. (1982). OPCQY@ ]PEFQPDC MEYGbBQ_E ATQBCZ F 8-Y D?GKKQ,
%(0, 12, KTP. 13-14
WGMQQF, c.J. (19!9). dEYGbBQQ ATQBCQ F KTGPbCe D?GKKGe, Q_E EP_GBCLGUCZ C ]PCQY@
DEBTPE?Z, %(0, 13, KTP. 28-30.
x`ayb3 z( {( C-7;>D( |ebis b`b k}trencq rsency C~ tiakfcqu i`kiskqsealnkv d`}ksw
istpenskf B m`krncbkfD( FGHI:=@ :JKL:CM NIKOHP3 5 *E*/ isd( +<B8+(
Alderso3 O( 6( C+,,,D( Assessing $eading+ 6am)rid!e( 6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress(
Alderso3 O( 6( J UrA#"art3 A( H( C-7;<D( $eading in a %oreign .anguage( Lo!ma limited(
Asra'3 R( M( J A"mad3 I( S( C+,,8D( &romoti! E!lis" la!#a!e de*elo/met ad t"e readi! "a)it
amo! st#dets i r#ral s$"ools t"ro#!" t"e G#ided E.tesi*e Readi! /ro!ram( $eading in
a %oreign .anguage( *ol( -:3 No( +(
Bail%stok3 E C+,,-D( Bilingualism in e(elopment+ .anguage/ .iteracy Q Cognition( 6am)rid!e
Ui*ersit% &ress(
Bee)e3 L( M( C-7;;D( 3ssues in #econd .anguage AcRuisition+ Multiple Perspecti(es+ Bosto3 USA(
HeileJHeile &#)lis"ers(
Bell3 T( C+,,-D( E.tesi*e Readi!G S/eed ad 6om/re"esio( T"e Readi! Matri.( *ol( -3 No( -(
Retrie*ed o Ma% -:3 +,-,3 'romG "tt/GII444(readi!matri.($omIarti$lesI)ellIarti$le(/d'
Ber"ardt3 E( B( C-77-D( A /s%$"oli!#isti$ /ers/e$ti*e o se$od la!#a!e litera$%( $eading in
),o languages( A3.A $e(ie,/ ;3 /( 8-B<<(
Bro43 O( D(3 J Rod!ers3 T( S( C+,,+D( oing #econd .anguage $esearch( O.'ordG O.'ord
Ui*ersit% &ress3 //( -<+B-<8(
6ald4ell3 O( S( C+,,+D( $eading assessment+ A primer for teachers and tutors+ Ne4BYork( T"e
G#il'ord &ress( /(>-(
6al'o!lo#3 6(3 J Si'akis3 N( C+,,<D( .earning and teaching in an '%. context( Hellei$ O/e
Ui*ersit%( $"a/ter ;3 /( <-(
-8+
6"o3 K( NS(3 J Kras"e3 S( D( C-77<D( A$A#isitio o' *o$a)#lar% 'rom t"e S4eet Valle% Kids seriesG
Ad#lts ESL a$A#isitio( Sournal of reading3 7TC;D3 ==+B==>(
6larit%3 M( C+,,>D( A e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram 'or %o#r ESL /ro!ram( )he 3nternet )'#.
Sournal/ &ol+ 17/ 5o+ E+ Retrie*ed o Oa#ar% +,3 +,-- 'romG
"tt/GIIitesl0(or!ITe$"iA#esI6larit%BE.tesi*eReadi!("tml
6oo/er3 M( C-7;<D( Li!#isti$ $om/ete$e o' /ra$tised ad #/ra$tised oBmat#re readers o'
E!lis"( I O(6( Alderso ad A(H( Ur!#"art Ceds(D3 $eading in a %oreign .anguage+
LodoG Lo!ma( //( -++B-8:
6#mmis3 O( C+,,,D( .anguage/ po,er/ and pedagogyU Bilingual children in the crossfire( 6le*edo3
E!ladG M#ltili!#al Matters(
Dam3 L( C+,,8D( De*elo/i! Learer A#toom%G T"e tea$"erFs res/osi)ilit%( I D( Little3 O( Ridle%
J E( Us"ioda3 .earner Autonomy in the foreign .anguage Classroom C//(-8=B -<,D( D#)li3
A#t"etik La!#a!e Leari! reso#r$es(
Da*is3 6( C-77:D( E.tesi*e readi!G a e./esi*e e.tra*a!a$eL '.) Sournal/ VW/ //( 8+7B88:(
Da%3 R( R( J Bam'ord3 O( C+,,+D( To/ te /ri$i/les 'or tea$"i! e.tesi*e readi!( $eading in a
%oreign .anguage3 1V3-8=N-<-(
Da%3 R( R( J Bam'ord3 O( C+,,<D( 'xtensi(e $eading Acti(ities for )eaching .anguage( 6am)rid!eG
6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress(
Da%3 R( R( J Bam'ord3 O( C+,,:D( 'xtensi(e $eading in the #econd .anguage Classroom(
6am)rid!eG 6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress(
Elle%3 9( B( J Ma!#)"ai3 ?( C-7;8D( T"e Im/a$t o' readi! o se$od la!#a!e leari!( $eading
$esearch Xuarterly( *ol( -73 No( -3 //( :8B=>(
Elle%3 9( B( C-77-D( A$A#iri! litera$% i a se$od la!#a!eG T"e e''e$t o' )ookB)ased /ro!rams(
.anguage learning/ V1C8D3 8>:B<--(
?rasso3 A( C-7;<D( 6rammi! or #derstadi!L E''e$ts o' itrisi$ ad e.trisi$ moti*atio o
a//roa$" to leari! ad test /er'orma$e( I O(6( Alderso ad A(H( Ur!#"art Ceds(D3
$eading in a %oreign .anguage+ LodoG Lo!ma
Gra)e3 9( J Stoller3 ?( S( C+,,+D( )eaching and $esearching $eading( Esse.G &earso Ed#$atio(
Gra)e3 9( C+,,<D( Resear$" o tea$"i! readi!( Annual $e(ie, of Applied .inguistics/ +<3 <<B=7/
6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress( DOIG -,(-,->IS,+=>-7,:,<,,,,8,
-88
Gra)e3 9( C+,,7D( $eading in a #econd language+ Mo(ing from )heory to Practice( 6am)rid!eG
6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress(
Gra)e3 9( C+,-,D( ?l#e$% i readi! B T"irt%B'i*e %ears later( $eading in a %oreign .anguage3
A/ril +,-,3 Vol#me ++3 No( - //( >-N;8(
Grellet3 ?( C-7;-D( e(eloping $eading #0ills( 6am)rid!eG 6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress(
G#t"rie3 O( 9i!'ield3 A(3 Metsala3 O( ad 6o.3 K( C-777D( Moti*atioal ad $oiti*e/redi$tors o' te.t
$om/re"esio ad readi! amo#t( #cientific #tudies of $eading3 8(
Ha'iz3 ?( M(3 J T#dor3 I( C-77,D( Graded readers as a i/#t medi#m i L+ leari!( #ystem/ 1EC-D3
/( 8-B<+(
Hatzit"eodoro#3 A( M( C+,,;D( Comprehension and Production of 1ritten iscourse in a "ni(ersity
'%. Context+ T"essaloiki( Witi &#)li$atios
Herrel3 A( L( J Oorda3 M( C+,,;D( %ifty #trategies for )eaching 'nglish .anguage .earners+ C8
rd
ed(D( Ne4 Oerse%G &earso Merrill &reti$e Hall( /( +:-(
H#!"es3 A( C-7;7D( )esting for .anguage )eachers( 6am)rid!eG 6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress
Ir4i3 O( 9( C-77-D( )eaching $eading Comprehension Processes( +d editio( E!le4ood 6li''s3
NOG &reti$eBHall(
I4a"ori3 Y( C+,,;D( De*elo/i! readi! 'l#e$%G A st#d% o' e.tesi*e readi! i E?L( $eading in a
%oreign .anguage/ *ol( +,3 No( -( //( >,N7-
Oao/olo#s3 M( C-7;=D( T"e relatios"i/ o' /leas#re readi! ad se$od la!#a!e 4riti!
/ro'i$ie$%( )'#O. Xuarterly/ *YC<D3 /( >=8B>=;(
Koda3 K( C+,,:D( 3nsights into #econd .anguage reading+ A Cross-linguistic Approach+ 6am)rid!eG
6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress(
Koda3 K( C+,,>D( Readi! ad la!#a!e leari!G 6rossli!#isti$ $ostraits o se$od la!#a!e
readi! de*elo/met( I K( Koda CEd(D3 $eading and .anguage .earning C/( -B<<D( S/e$ial
iss#e o' .anguage .earning #upplement :>3 /( -B<<(
Kras"e3 S( D C-778D( )he po,er of readingU insights from the research( Li)raries Ulimited3 I$(
El!e4ood3 6olorado(
Kras"e3 S( D( C-7;+D( Principles and practice in second language acRuisition( Ne4 YorkG &reti$eB
Hall(
Kras"e3 S( D( C-7;7D( 9e a$A#ire *o$a)#lar% ad s/elli! )% readi!G Additioal e*ide$e 'or t"e
i/#t "%/ot"esis( )he Modern .anguage Sournal3 T73 //( <<,N<=<(
-8<
Kras"e3 S(D C+,,=D( &leas#re readi!( Young Learners Special IssueC S#rin"(
Lai3 ?( NK( C-778aD( E''e$t o' e.tesi*e readi! o E!lis" leari! i Ho! Ko!( 6HUK ZChinese
"ni(ersity of 4ong [ong2 'ducation Sournal/ *1C-D3 //( +8B8=(
Lai3 ?( NK( C-778)D( T"e e''e$t o' a s#mmer readi! $o#rse o readi! ad 4riti! skills( #ystem/
*1C-D3 //( ;>B-,,
Leed%3 &( D( C-7=;D( A [ey to Better $eading+ Ne4BYork( M$Gra4 B Hill )ook $om/a%(
Le#!3 6( Y( C+,,+D( E.tesi*e readi! ad la!#a!e leari!G A diar% st#d% o' a )e!ii! learer
o' Oa/aese( $%.3 *ol(-<3 No(-
Ma$alister3 O( C+,-,D( I*esti!ati! Tea$"er Attit#des to E.tesi*e Readi! &ra$ti$es i Hi!"er
Ed#$atioG 9"% IsFt E*er%oe Doi! ItL $'.C Sournal. (ol+ V1/ no+1+ //( :7B>:(
DOIG -,(-->>I,,88=;;+-,8=+=,7
Maso3 B(3 J Kras"e3 S( C-77>D( E.tesi*e readi! i E!lis" as a 'orei! la!#a!e( #ystem/ *\C-D3
//( 7-B-,+
Natio3 &( C-77>D( T"e La!#a!e Leari! Bee'its o' E.tesi*e Readi!( )he .anguage )eacher(
+- C:D //(-8B-=
N#ttall3 6( C+,,,D( )eaching reading s0ills in a foreign language( Ho! Ko!( Ma$milla &#)lis"ers
Limited(
&a!3 O( C+,,;D( Resear$" o !ood ad /oor reader $"ara$teristi$sG Im/li$atios 'or L+ readi!
resear$" i 6"ia( $eading in a %oreign .anguage3 *ol( +,3 No( -3 //( -N-;(
&earso3 &( D( J ?ieldi!3 L( C-77-D( 6om/re"esio istr#$tio( 4and-oo0 of $eading $esearch/
(ol+ *+ R( Barr3 M( L( Kamil3 &( Moset"al3 ad &(D( &earso CedsD( Ne4BYorkG Lo!ma(
;-:B;=,
&itts3 M(3 9"ite3 H(3 J Kras"e3 S( C-7;7D( A$A#iri! se$od la!#a!e *o$a)#lar% t"ro#!" readi!G
A re/li$atio o' t"e 6lo$k4ork Ora!e st#d% #si! se$od la!#a!e a$A#irers( $eading in a
%oreign .anguage3 :C+D3 //( +>-B+>:(
&ro4se3 &( C+,,+D( To/ te /ri$i/les 'or tea$"i! e.tesi*e readi!G A res/ose( $eading in a
%oreign .anguage+ (ol+1V/ 5+ *
Radall3 M( C+,,>D( Memory/ Psychology and #econd .anguage .earning+ &"iladel/"ia( Oo"
Be0amis &#)lis"i! 6om/a%
Ri$"ards3 O( 6(3 J Ro!ers3 T( S( C+,,-D( Approaches and Methods in .anguage )eaching C+d ed(D
6am)rid!eG 6am)rid!e Ui*ersit% &ress(
-8:
Ri$"ards3 O( 6(3 &latt3 O(3 J &latt3 H( C-77+D( .ongman dictionary of language teaching and applied
linguistics C+d ed(D( Harlo43 Esse.G Lo!ma(
Rodri!o3 V( C-77:3 Mar$"D( Does a readi! /ro!ram 4ork i a 'orei! la!#a!e $lassroomL &a/er
/reseted at t"e E.tesi*e Readi! 6olloA#i#m3 Ameri$a Asso$iatio o' A//lied
Li!#isti$s3 Lo! Bea$"3 6A(
Rodri!o3 V(3 Gree)er!3 D(3 B#rke3 V(3 Hall3 R(3 Berr%3 A(3 Bri$k3 T(3 Oose/"3 H(3 O)%3 M( C+,,>D(
Im/lemeti! a e.tesi*e readi! /ro!ram ad li)rar% 'or ad#lt litera$% learers( $eading
in a %oreign .anguage( Vol#me -73 No( +3 //( -,=N--7(
S$"midt3 K( C+,,>D( ?i*e 'a$tors to $osider i im/lemeti! a #i*ersit% e.tesi*e readi!
/ro!ram( T"e Language )eacher/ 8-C:D3 //( --B-<( Retrie*ed Se/tem)er +,3 +,-, 'romG
"tt/GIIe.tesi*ereadi!(etIerIs$"midtY#iYerIide.("tml
S$"mitt3 N( C+,,;D( Istr#$ted se$od la!#a!e *o$a)#lar% leari!( .anguage )eaching $esearch/
1*3 8+7N8=8(
S$"Urk"#)er3 V( C+,,;D( 'xtensi(e $eading( GRIN Verla!(
S"erris3 A( C+,,;D( Ite!rated 6otet ad La!#a!e Istr#$tio( Center for Applied .inguistics+
igest+ Retrie*ed o De$em)er -:3 +,-, 'romG
"tt/GII444($al(or!Ireso#r$esIdi!estIdi!estY/d'sIIte!ratedDi!est9e)(/d'
S"e#3 S( &BH( C+,,<D( T"e e''e$ts o' e.tesi*e readi! o learersF readi! a)ilit% de*elo/met(
Sournal of 5ational )aipei College/ (ol+ 1T/ 5o+ *+ //( +-8B++;(
Smit"3 ?( C-77<aD( 1riting and the ,riter+ C+
t"
ed(D( N(O(G Erl)a#m(
Smit"3 ?( C-77<)D( "nderstanding readingU A psycholinguistic analysis of reading and learning to
read C:
t"
ed(D( Hillsdale3 N(O(G Erl)a#m(
Smit"3 R(6( C+,,8D( )eaching 'nglish as a %oreign .anguage/ 1W1*-1W7]/ (ol+* 4arold Palmer+
Ro#tled!e( Lodo(
Sta"l3 S(3 J Na!%3 9( C+,,=D( )eaching ,ord meanings( Ma"4a"3 NOG L( Erl)a#m(
Steier3 O( C-77:D( Readi! 'or /leas#re( #tate of 3srael Ministry of 'ducation/ Culture and #port+
'nglish 3nspectorate+
S#sser3 B J Ro))3 T( N( C-7;7D( E.tesi*e readi! *s( skills )#ildi! i a E?L 6ote.t( $eading
in a %oreign .anguage/ *ol( :3 No( +3 //( +87B+:-(
S#sser3 B( J Ro))3 T( N( C-77,D( E?L e.tesi*e readi! istr#$tioG Resear$" ad /ro$ed#re( SA.)
Sournal/ *ol(-+3 No(+(
-8=
Tsitsis"*ili3 R(3 Ni0aradze3 N(3 Dar$"ia3 M(3 Te*zia3 M(3 Tka*as"*ili3 E( C+,,;D( Becoming an
'nglish )eacherU )heory and Practice of )eaching 'nglish in 8eorgia+ A Pre-ser(ice
)eacher )raining Course+ T)ilisiG Nekeri+ pp+ 17-1\+
9alla$e3 6( C-77+D( $eading( O.'ord( O.'ord Ui*ersit% &ress(
9ai4ri!"t3 G( C+,,>D( 4o, to $ead %aster and $ecall More( 8rd ed( O.'ordG Ho4 To
Books Ltd(
9eir3 6( O( C-778D( "nderstanding and e(eloping .anguage )ests+ Hert'ords"ireG &reti$e
Hall E#ro/e(
9est3 M( C-7::D( Sim/li'ied ad a)rid!ed( I 9(R( Lee CEds(D C-7=>D3 '.) selection C//(
-;;B-7+D( LodoG O.'ord Ui*ersit% /ress(
9illiams3 E( C-7;<D( $eading in the .anguage Classroom( Essetial la!#a!e tea$"i!
series( ed( Ro!er H(?la*ell( Ho! Ko!( Ma$milla &#)lis"ers(
9ood3 N( C-77=D( College reading and study s0ills C:
t"
ed(D ?ort 9ort"3 T@G Har$o#rt Bra$e(
Yamas"ita3 O( C+,,<D( Readi! attit#des i L- ad L+3 ad t"eir i'l#e$e o L+ e.tesi*e
readi!( $eading in a %oreign .anguage/ *ol( -=3 No( -3 //( -B-7(
-8>
APPENDI'ES
A##endi4 /( E#estioaire 'orms 'or tea$"ers o' t"e readi! de*elo/met /ro!rams i Geor!ia
#i*ersities&
/( 1ht i% the nme of the #ro"rmE
0( 5o, often in ,ee+ i% thi% #ro"rm tu"ht t -our uni$er%it-E
8( 5o, mn- %eme%ter% i% thi% #ro"rm tu"htE
9( At ,ht le$el i% the %ub2e!t tu"htE
:( 1ho !hoo%e% redin" mteril% in the #ro"rmE
<( 5o, mn- #"e% of redin" i% "i$en to %tudent% % n %%i"nmentE
=( 1ht "enre% re u%ull- "i$en to %tudent%E
>( De%!ribe the ,or+in" #ro!e%%
?( 5o, mn- ne, ,ord% doe% %tudent lern for e!h %%i"nmentE
/@( 5o, doe% %tudent #re#re for redin" !l%%E
//( 1ht re !l%%room !ti$itie% of the #ro"rmE
/0( Do the %tudent% li+e thi% #ro"rmE
/8( If the #re$iou% que%tion i% n%,ered F-e%GC #le%e "i$e the re%on% ,h- do the- li+e thi%
#ro"rmE
/9( 1ht ,ill -ou !hn"e in te!hin" of thi% %ub2e!tE 5o, ,ill -ou im#ro$e itE
/:( Do -ou !!e#t the te!hin" ##ro!h of thi% #ro"rmE 1ht benefit% ,ill %tudent% "in
fter !om#letin" thi% #ro"rmE
-8;
A##endi4 0( E#estioaire 'or t"e !rad#ates&
/( A"eHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
0( Grdution AerHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
8( Nme of the uni$er%it- -ou "rduted fromHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
9( Durtion of the #ro"rm in -er%HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
:( A!!ordin" to ,ht !riterion did the te!her %ele!t the redin" mteril% in the #ro"rm&
St#detsF la!#a!e le*el
Di''i$#lt% o' t"e material
LearersF iterests
Tea$"erFs o/iio
ot"er C/lease idi$ateDYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
<( De%!ribe the lernin" #ro!e%% in the #ro"rmEHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
=( De%!ribe the !ti$itie% in !l%%HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
>( 5o, mn- #"e% did -ou red in ,ee+ in thi% #ro"rm&
+B8 <B7 -,B+, more t"a +,
?( 1ht emotion% did -ou e4#erien!e in thi% #ro"rmE
iterest 'ear
irritatio er*o#sess
satis'a$tio tesio
/leas#re
ot"er C/lease3 s/e$i'%DYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
/@( Ple%eC ti!+ the #roblem% tht -ou e4#erien!ed in thi% #ro"rm&
-87
Too m#$" readi! assi!mets
Too ma% e4 4ords
T"e role o' t"e tea$"er
La$k o' $reati*it%
Not adeA#ate ad iteresti! material
Mootoo#s le$t#re
La$k o' a$ti*ities
Limited 'reedom i leari!
Di''i$#lt% o' readi! materials
No /ro)lem
//( 5o, ,ill -ou define -our ttitude to,rd% thi% #ro"rmE 6!ir!le the !orre%#ondin"
number /.%tron"l- di%"reeC 0. di%"reeC 8. no o#inionC 9. "reeC :. %tron"l- "ree7
I "a*e /ositi*e attit#de to4ards t"is /ro!ram - + 8 < :
T"is /ro!ram /ositi*el% i'l#e$ed m% attit#de to4ards readi! - + 8 < :
-<,
A##endi4 8( &ost readi! 4orks"eet 'or idi*id#al 4ork C&R9DG
/( AuthorC title of the boo+&
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
0( Indi!te the mount of #"e% in the boo+&
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
8( 5our% %#ent on redin"&
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
9( Gi$e the informtion bout the 'hr!ter% in the boo+&
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
:( 1ht I h$e lernt from the boo+&
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
<( Ne, ,ord% nd ,ord !ombintion%&
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
=( Rte the boo+&
aD )ori! )D ok $D !ood dD *er% !ood
>( 1rite the %ummr- of the boo+
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
?( Mr+ the diffi!ult- of the redin" mteril
aD It 4as eas% )D It 4as $"alle!i!
-<-
A##endi4 9( E#estioaire 'or t"e st#dets i e./erimetal tea$"i!G
I( Iue%tionnire form bout #er%onl informtion nd ln"u"e b!+"round&
/( A"eHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
+( Gender * M
8( Ple%e indi!te -our ntionlit-HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
<( Indi!te the uni$er%it- -er -ou re tHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
:( 1ht i% -our %#e!iliJtionE
<( 1here did -ou fini%h %!hool 6#le%eC indi!te if -ou fini%hed #ri$te %!hool7E
=( Do the #rent% ,or+EHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
>( 5o, lon" h$e -ou been %tud-in" En"li%hE
at s$"ool YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
4it" t#torsYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
la!#a!e $o#rsesYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
i #i*ersit%YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
?( 5$e -ou been brodE In ,ht !ountr-E Did -ou u%e En"li%h in !ommuni!tion ,ith the
lo!l #eo#leE
YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
/@( 5o, mn- #"e% did -ou red in En"li%h in ,ee+ in the #%t&
+B8 <B7 -,B+, more t"a +,
//( 5o, mn- #"e% do -ou red in En"li%h in ,ee+ no,&
+B8 <B7 -,B+, more t"a +,
/0( 1ht +ind of redin" mteril% do -ou u%ull- redE
-<+
e4s/a/ersIiteret arti$les 'i$tio /o/#lar s$ie$e te.ts i t"e te.t)ooks
ot"er C/lease s/e$i'%DYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
/8( 1ht i% the #ur#o%e of -our redin"E
!etti! i'ormatio /leas#re !etti! ko4led!e
ot"erYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
/9( Do -ou li+e redin" in En"li%hE 6'ir!le the !orre%#ondin" number /.%tron"l- di%"reeC 0.
di%"reeC 8. "reeC 9. %tron"l- "ree7
I like readi! i E!lis" - + 8 <
/:( 1ht +ind of redin" mteril ,ould -ou li+e to red in En"li%hE
-<8
A##endi4 :( Readi! /ro!ram e*al#atio A#estioaireG
&lease as4er t"e 'ollo4i! A#estios3 4"i$" are a)o#t %o#r readi! /ro!ram i E!lis"(
&lease as4er si$erel% as ol% t"is 4ill !#aratee t"e s#$$ess o' t"e i*esti!atio( T"ak %o# *er%
m#$" 'or %o#r "el/
/( Ple%e underline the redin" #ro"rm -ou follo,ed&
Home readi! E.tesi*e readi!
0( After !om#letin" thi% redin" #ro"rm I h$e noti!ed %ome im#ro$ement% in
the follo,in" %#e!t% &
4riti!
S/eaki!
I$rease i Vo$a)#lar%
Readi! skills
?l#et readi!
La!#a!e str#$t#re ad !rammar
Itrod#$tio to 'orei! literat#re
I'ormatio a)o#t 'orei! $#lt#re
8( About ho, mn- #"e% do -ou red in En"li%h in ,ee+&
+B8 <B7 -,B+, more t"a +,
9( Ple%e ,rite ,ht !ti$itie% -ou u%ull- did in !l%% in -our redin" #ro"rm
YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
:( Do -ou !on%ider tht thi% redin" #ro"rm !hn"ed -our ttitude to,rd Redin" in
En"li%hE Ae% No
-<<
<( Did -ou li+e -our redin" #ro"rmE 6'ir!le the !orre%#ondin" number /.%tron"l-
di%"reeC 0. di%"reeC 8. "reeC 9. %tron"l- "ree7
I liked t"is readi! /ro!ram *er% m#$" - + 8 <
=( After !om#letin" thi% redin" #ro"rm ,ht i% -our ttitude to,rd redin" in En"li%h 6-ou !n
ti!+ more thn one7
T"e readi! /ro!ram "el/ed me to 'orm a "a)it o' readi! i E!lis"
I 4at to read i E!lis" more
I !et /leas#re 4"ile readi! i E!lis"
I doFt like readi! i E!lis"
IFm ot !oi! to read i E!lis"
Not"i! 4as $"a!ed
>( 1ht #roblem% did -ou meet in -our #ro"rmE
?( Gi$e %olution to #roblem ri%ed in que%tion >
-<:
A##endi4 <. inglisur enaze kiTxvis mimarT studentTa damokidebulebis gamosavleni kiTxvari
gTxovT upasuxeT mocemu kTxvebs, romebc ngsur enaze kTxvas exeba. gamokTxvas atarebs Teavs
saxemwfo unverstets pedagogks fakutet. es araa test da ar arsebobs swor da araswor pasuxeb.
gTxovT upasuxeT guwrfead, radgan mxood Tqven guaxd pasux kvevs warmatebs garantaa.
gmadobT daxmarebsaTvs!
1. ramden gverds kiTxulobT inglisur enaze kviris ganmavlobaSi?
2-3 4-9 10-20 20-ze met
2. ra tipis sakiTxav masalas kiTxulobT inglisur enaze?
|urna-gazeTeb nternets masaa
mxatvru t. samecnero t.
sxva (muTTeT) YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
3. ra mizniT kiTxulobT inglisur enaze?
nformacs mRebs samovnebs mRebs
ens daufebs axa masas moZebs
sxva (muTTeT) YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
4. gTxovT moniSnoT mocemuli mtkicebulebebi inglisur enaze kiTxvis mimarT Tqveni
damokidebulebidan gamomdinare:
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1. sakTxav masaa, romesac me ngsur enaze vkTxuob,
-<=
mxood saswavo saxemZRvaneoebdanaa.
2. myvars ngsur enaze wgnebs kTxva.
3. ngsur enaze kTxva mnSvneovana.
4. msamovnebs ngsur enaze kTxvsas axa styvebs
aRmoCena.
5. kTxvsas axa styvebs vamuSaveb eqskondan.
6. wakTxu wgnebs vuwev rekomendacas Cems
megobrebTan.
7. maxsovs ngsur enaze boos wakTxu wgns Snaars.
8. Cem ngsur ens pedagogeb kTxuoben bevrs ngsur
enaze.
9. me Tavad vrCev wasakTxad ngsur enaze sakTxav
teraturas.
10. ngsur enaze kTxva mqmns dskomforts.
11. ngsur enaze kTxvsas bevr rames vswavob
. daaxlovebiT ramdeni sakiTxavi !igni gaqvT saxlSi inglisur enaze?
0 - 10-mde 11 - 25-mde 26 - 100-mde
6. gTxovT daamTavroT mocemuli !inadadebebi "me-3 wnadadebaS xaz gausvT TqvenTvs
msaReb varants da daamTavreT#:
a) Tu ngsur enaze ar vkTxuob maSn me . . .G
b) me ufro mets wavkTxavd ngsur enaze Tu . . .
g) sakTxav wgnebs ngsur enaze vsesxuob/ varTmev/ vyduob . . .
$. inglisur enaze kiTxvisas ramdenad xSirad
a# gansaz%vravT !inas!ar Tqveni kiTxvis mizans da Semdeg am miznis Tanaxmad kiTxulobT
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
b# sanam dai!&ebdeT kiTxvas 'iqrobT imaze Tu ra iciT mocemuli sakiTxis Sesaxeb
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
g# i&enebT konteqsts( nacnob sit&vebs( ilustraciebs da Sinaarss rom mixvdeT ucxo sit&vis
mniSvnelobas
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
d#!armosaxvaSi xatavT suraTs
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
e# akeTebT mniSvnelovani in'ormaciis Se)amebas "gonebaSi an !eriT#
-<>
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
v# !akiTxuls *ems megobrebs vuziareb
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
+. ramdenad xSirad kiTxulobT siamovnebisaTvis inglisur enaze?
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
,. ramdenad xSirad sesxulobT inglisur enaze sakiTxav !igns universitetis an sa)aro biblioTekidan?
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
1-. ramdenad xSirad akeTebT mocemul aqtivobas auditoriaSi inglisuri enis leqciaze
a# kiTxulobT xmama%la
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
b# kiTxulobT *umad
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
g# kiTxulobT Tqvens mier Ser*eul !igns
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
d# !erT imis Sesaxeb rac !aikiTxeT
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
e# akeTebT prezentacias imis Sesaxeb Tu ra !aikiTxeT
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe

da boos, Tqven pasuxebs ukeT SefasebsaTvs gTxovT mogvawodoT prad nformaca Tqvens Sesaxeb.
--( saxeli( gvari YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
-+( asaki YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
-8( miuTiTeT Tqveni sqesi mdedr. mamar.
-<( erovneba YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
-:( kursi YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY )gu'i YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
-=( specialoba YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
1$. saSualo skola davamTavre
"monSneT orve mxares#:
qaaqS kerZo skoa
sofeS sa|aro skoa
-;( muSaoben Tu ara mSoblebi? deda mama orve ar muSaoben
-<;
19. ramdeni !elia rac inglisur enas s!avlobT "skolaSi, 'asian kursebze( universitetSi#?
+,( emzadebodiT Tu ara inglisur enaSi ke.od/mas!avlebelTan? dax ara
+-( nam&o'i xarT Tu ara saz%vargareT? dax ara
++( "Tu me021 SekiTxvas upasuxeT uar&o'iTad( maSin gamotoveT 22024 SekiTxvebi# romel qve&anaSi
im&o'ebodiT? YYYYYYYYYYYYYY
+8( ramden xans im&o'ebodiT saz%vargareT? YYYYYYY
24. SediodiT Tu ara kontaqtSi adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan inglisur enaze?
dax ara

gmadobT daxmarebsaTvs!
A##endi4 =( kiTxvis programis Se'asebis kiTxvari.
gTxovT guaxdad upasuxoT mocemu kTxvebs, vnadan Tqven guaxdoba yveaze
mnSvneovana mocemu kTxvs programebs efeqturobs gamosavenad. Tqven pasuxeb
dagvexmareba mocemu kTxvs programs gaum|obesebaS. gmadobT daxmarebsaTvs!
-<7
1. gausviT xazi romel kiTxvis kurss misdevdiT:
eqstensur kTxva (E.tesi*e readi!) saSnao kTxva (Home readi!)

2. rogor moge!onaT Tqveni ganvlili kiTxvis kursi:
Zaan momewona karga se ra cuda Zaan cuda
3. ganvlili kiTxvis kursis Sedegad Sevam*nie sakuTar Tavs mocemul aspeqtSi gaum)obeseba "ganalageT
10dan +0mde imis mixedviT Tu romelSi u'ro meti progresi gaqvT# :
werT unar-Cvevebs daxvewa
zepr metyveebs gaum|obeseba
styvaTa marags gamddreba
kTxvs unar-Cvevs ganvTareba
swraf kTxvs teqnks daufeba
enobrv struqturebs da gramatku wyobs aTvseba

ucxour teraturs gacnoba


ucxour kuturs\\ Sesaxeb
nformacs mReba
4. ramden gverds kiTxulobT inglisur enaze kviris ganmavlobaSi?
2-3 4-9 10-20 20-ze met
. ra tipis sakiTxav masalas kiTxulobT inglisur enaze?
|urna-gazeTeb nternets masaa mxatvru t. samecnero t.
sxva (muTTeT)YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYY
1. romeli davalebis Sesruleba mog!ondaT mocemul programaSi?
YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYY YYYYYYYYYY YYY
$. ra emociebi geu'lebodaT mocemuli kiTxvis programaSi muSaobisas? Segi.liaT moniSnoT
ramodenime
nteres
gaRzaneba
samovneba
kmayofeba
-:,
SS
nervuoba daZabuoba


sxva(muTTeT)__________________
;( TvliT Tu ara rom mocemulma kiTxvis programam Secvala Tqveni damokidebuleba inglisur enaze
kiTxvis mimarT? dax ara
9. gTxovT daamTavroT mocemuli !inadadebebi "me-3 wnadadebaS xaz gausvT TqvenTvs
msaReb varants da daamTavreT#:
c) Tu ngsur enaze ar vkTxuob, maSn me . . .G
d) me ufro mets wavkTxavd ngsur enaze Tu . . .
g) sakTxav wgnebs ngsur enaze vsesxuob/ varTmev/ vyduob . . .
1-. gTxovT moniSneT mocemuli mtkicebulebebi inglisur enaze kiTxvis mimarT Tqveni
damokidebulebidan gamomdinare:
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12. sakTxav masaa, romesac me ngsur enaze vkTxuob,
mxood saswavo saxemZRvaneoebdanaa.
13. myvars ngsur enaze wgnebs kTxva.
14. ngsur enaze kTxva mnSvneovana.
15. msamovnebs ngsur enaze kTxvsas axa styvebs
aRmoCena.
16. kTxvsas axa styvebs vamuSaveb eqskondan.
17. wakTxu wgnebs vuwev rekomendacas Cems
megobrebTan.
18. maxsovs ngsur enaze boos wakTxu wgns Snaars.
19. Cem ngsur ens pedagogeb kTxuoben bevrs ngsur
enaze.
-:-
20. me Tavad vrCev wasakTxad ngsur enaze sakTxav
teraturas.
21. ngsur enaze kTxva mqmns dskomforts.
22. ngsur enaze kTxvsas bevr rames vswavob
11. inglisur enaze kiTxvisas( ramdenad xSirad
a# gansaz%vravT !inas!ar Tqveni kiTxvis mizans da Semdeg am miznis Tanaxmad kiTxulobT
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
c# sanam dai!&ebdeT kiTxvas 'iqrobT imaze Tu ra iciT mocemuli sakiTxis Sesaxeb
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
g# i&enebT konteqsts( nacnob sit&vebs( ilustraciebs da Sinaarss rom mixvdeT ucxo sit&vis
mniSvnelobas
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
d#!armosaxvaSi xatavT suraTs
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
e# akeTebT mniSvnelovani in'ormaciis Se)amebas "gonebaSi an !eriT#
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
v# !akiTxuls *ems megobrebs vuziareb.
arasodes SvaTad xandaxan xSrad
12. ramdenad xSirad kiTxulobT siamovnebisaTvis inglisur enaze?
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
13. ramdenad xSirad sesxulobT inglisur enaze sakiTxav !igns universitetis an sa)aro biblioTekidan?
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
14. ramdenad xSirad akeTebT mocemul aqtivobas auditoriaSi inglisuri enis leqciaze
c# kiTxulobT xmama%la
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
d# kiTxulobT *umad
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
g# kiTxulobT Tqvens mier Ser*eul !igns
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
d# !erT imis Sesaxeb( rac !aikiTxeT
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
e# akeTebT prezentacias imis Sesaxeb Tu ra !aikiTxeT
-:+
arasodes/TTqms arasodes erTxe-or|er TveS erTxe-or|er kvraS yove dRe
1. Tqveni kiTxvis kursis gavlis Semdeg ra damokidebuleba gaqvT inglisur enaze kiTxvis mimarT?
"SegZaT monSnoT ramodenme)
Camomyabda ngsur enaze kTxvs Cveva
maqvs surv kdev vkTxo ngsur enaze
msamovnebs ngsur enaze kTxva
ar msamovnebs ngsur enaze kTxva
ar vapreb ngsur enaze kTxvas
arafer Secva
11. miuTiTeT ra xarvezebi arsebobda Tqvens kiTxvis programaSi
1$. rogor !armogidgeniaT mocemuli xarvezebis gada2ra?
gmadlobT daxmarebisaTvis
A##endi4 >( 6loze test #sed i t"e e./erimetal tea$"i!G
NmeHHHHHHHHHHHHH SurnmeHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH Grou# HHHHH DteHHHHHHHH
TimeG =, mi(
Ple%eC fir%t red the te4t to "et the ide( *ill in the "#% ,ith the ##ro#rite ,ord%( U%e onl- one ,ord to
fill e!h "#(
A &RISONER AGAIN
Ma.im#s rode 'ast t"ro#!" t"e Germa 'orests o 6oreli#sFs "orse( He 4as leadi! oe o' t"e ot"er "orses )e"id
"im( He "ad /#t a $lot" aro#d t"e $#t i "is s"o#lder3 )#t it 4as )ad ad !a*e "im a lot o' /ai( Blood ra do4 "is arm
as "e rode3 )#t "e did ot "a*e time to sto/( B% t"e middle o' t"e da% "e "ad $rossed ito t"e east o' ?ra$e( He rode "is
"orse as "ard as "e $o#ld N "e "ad to !et "ome )e'ore it 4as too late(
Ito t"e i!"t "e $oti#ed ridi!3 ot sto//i! 'or 4ater3 'ood3 or rest( He sa4 ot"i! as "e /assed t"ro#!" t"e
$o#tr% ad "e remem)ered ot"i!3 He $o#ld ol% t"ik t"at time 4as /assi! so A#i$kl%( He )e$ame "ot ad tired ad
de$ided to t"ro4 o'' "is armor( His "orse 4as also tired3 ad "e ke4 it $o#ld ot !o m#$" '#rt"er( He $"a!ed "orses
ad $oti#ed "is #r!et 'li!"t to4ard S/ai ad t"e 'ara4a% "ills a)o*e Tr#0illo(
YYYY t"e li!"t o' earl% da%3 t"e S/ais" "ills aro#d YYYY 'arm ad "o#se 4ere #)elie*a)l% )ea#ti'#l( A ei!"tB
%earBold )o% YYYY dark "air 4as i a 'ield )eside t"e /ik YYYYY "o#se(
-:8
He 4as traii! a 4ild "orse3 maki! it YYYYY aro#d t"e 'ield( A )ea#ti'#l3 )la$kB"aired 4oma 4at$"ed "er YYYY
4orki! 4it" t"e "orse ad smiled( He 4o#ld "a*e YYYYY 'ie ridi! "orse )% t"e time "is 'at"er ret#red( YYYYY )o%
sto//edBB "e sa4 somet"i!( O*er a "ill "e YYYYY 0#st see a )attle 'la!3 $omi! i t"eir dire$tio( YYYYY s"o#ted 4it"
e.$itemet ad "a//iess ad ra o#t o' YYYYYY 'ield( He ra to4ard t"e 'la!3 $alli!3 1?at"er ?at"er2
YYYYY 4oma3 too3 looked to4ard t"e 'la!( B#t t"ere 4as YYYYYYYYY a)o#t it t"at 4orried "er( Somet"i! 4as
ot ri!"t YYYYY s"e s#ddel% 'elt a.io#s( T"e )o% $oti#ed to YYYYY alo! t"e road( Soo soldiers a//eared o*er t"e
"ill( YYYYY t"e% 4ere ot t"e Roma soldiers "e e./e$ted to YYYYYY( He slo4ed do43 t"e sto//ed3 $o'#sed( T4et%
ro%al !#ards YYYYYY ridi! do4 t"e road3 ad "is 'at"er 4as ot YYYYY t"em( He sear$"ed t"eir 'a$es a!ai3 looki! 'or
"is YYYYYY3 "o/i!( Be"id "im "is mot"er started s"o#ti! o#t "is YYYYYY( T"e "orses s#ddel% $ame 'aster3 ridi!
o*er t"e small YYYYYY ad $ras"i! "im ito t"e dirt o' t"e road( YYYYYY t"e% rode strai!"t to4ard "is s$reami! mot"er(
As YYYYY "ills t#red /ik ad !old 4it" s#set3 a rider YYYYY 'or "is li'e3 killi! t"e "orse #der "im( His
YYYYYYYY 4as )leedi! )adl%( He $ame to t"e to/ o' YYYYY lo!3 lo4 "ill ad sto//ed( T"ere 4as a lie YYYYY t"i$k3
)la$k smoke i t"e dista$e ad "e tried YYYYYY see 4"ere it 4as $omi! 'rom( 9it" a $r% YYYYY /ai "e 'or$ed t"e
"orse 'or4ard3 ra$i! do4 t"e YYYYYY side o' t"e "ill( 9o#ld "e arri*e i timeL
YYYYYYYY 4orst dream did ot eA#al t"e si!"t i 'rot YYYYYY "im( His 'amil% ad 'arm 4ere )#ri!3
$om/letel% destro%ed( YYYYY 4"eat ad t"e a//le trees 4ere )#rt )la$k3 ad YYYYY still $#r*ed #/4ard 'rom t"e last
stoes o' "is YYYYY( He sto//ed t"e "orse *ioletl%( It 'ell o*er oto YYYY side ad Ma.im#s 4as t"ro4 o''( His
stoma$" 4as YYYYYY 4it" 'ear( He ke4 o4 4"at "e 4o#ld 'id( He sto//ed )e'ore t"e 'ield o' *e!eta)les3 looked #/3
YYYYY 'or$ed "imsel' to )reat"e( T"ere3 "a!i! o ro/es3 4ere YYYYY )#rt )odies o' "is 4i'e ad so( T"ere 4as
YYYYYYY le't o' t"em( He rea$"ed #/ 4it" )ot" "ads YY to#$" "is 4i'eFs 'eet( A terri)le s$ream $ame 'rom YYYYYY3 ad
sak to t"e eart"( His 4orld 4as o4 YYYYYYY(
Ma.im#s d#! oe dee/ "ole i t"e )la$k eart" YYYYY t"e "illside 'or "is 4i'e ad so( He /#s"ed YYY eart"
)a$k o*er t"eir )roke3 )#rt )odies ad $ried( YYYYY looked do4 to4ard t"e r#i o' t"e "o#se "e "ad YYYYY3 to t"e
dead a//le trees( He s/oke to "is YYYYY oes t"ro#!" "is tears( 1Lie i t"e s"ado4 o' YYYYYY trees3 m% lo*es3 ad 4ait
'or me t"ere(2 He YYYY oto t"e eart" )eside t"em( T"e% $ame )e$a#se t"e% YYYYYYY t"e smoke i t"e air( ?ire meat
t"ere 4as YYYYYYYYY to )e 'o#d ad take(
T"ese 4ere S/ais" t"ie*es3 YYYYYYY t"eir $"ie' 4as a )i! mo#tai ma 4it" a YYYYY )eard( T"e% 'o#d t"e
ma l%i! dead o t"e YYYYY eart"( Hads to#$"ed "is s"oes 5 e./esi*e3 leat"er s"oes( YYYYY "ads mo*ed o*er "is
soldiers $lot"es5 'ie dark YYYYY $lot"( S#ddel% t"e dead ma mo*ed( T"e "ads YYYYYY "is )od% sto//ed(
Somet"i! 4as said i a stra!e YYYYYYYY( E*er%oe 4aited(
T"e )i! ma o t"e !ro#d did YYYYYY mo*e a!ai( T"e $"ie' made a si! to "is me3 YYYYYYY t"e "ads
ro#!"l% took "old o' Ma.im#s ad /#lled YYYYYYY a4a%( Da%s ad i!"ts /assed3 ad 'or Ma.im#s YYYYYY 4as like a
e*er edi! 'e*eris" dream( Terri)le /i$t#res YYYYYYY "is mid as "e la% $lose to deat" i YYYYYY o/e $arria!e t"e%
"ad t"ro4 "im ito( He dreamed YYYYY 4ild aimals3 $lose to "is 'a$e 5 t"e "e YYYYYY o a s"i/3 tra*eli! a$ross
4ater( A lar!e A'ri$a YYYYYY smiled do4 at "im5 "e sa4 *ie4s o' YYYYYY dessert5 'arBa4a% mo#tais5 "eard
s"o#ts i a stra!e YYYYYYYY( It 4as "ot3 too "ot to )reat"e(
-:<
Ma.im#sFs e%es YYYYYY slo4l%( 6etimeters a4a% 'rom "is 'a$e 4as a 4ild YYYYY ad t"is oe did ot !o
a4a% 4"e YYYYYY $losed "is e%es ad o/eed t"em a!ai( He YYYYYY aro#d ad realized t"at "e 4as oe o' t"e
YYYYYYY me $"aied to!et"er i a dirt% sla*e $arria!e( T"ere YYYYYY small 4ido4s at t"e 'rot ad )a$k ad o
YYYYYY sides( He looked t"ro#!" oe o' t"e 4ido4s ad YYYYYY ot"er $arria!es tra*eli! 4it" t"em( 9ild aimals i
$"ais YYYY 4alki! alo! 4it" t"em3 some $lose to t"e 4ido4 YYYYYY "e 4as looki! t"ro#!"( He 'ell )a$k oto t"e
YYYYY3 t"iki!3 1T"is m#st all )e a terri)le dream(2 9"e YYYYYYY 4oke a!ai3 "e sa4 t4el*e sla*es3 all $"aied
to!et"er3 YYYYYY looki! at "im( O#tside t"e $arria!e "e $o#ld "ear YYYYYY talki! i a la!#a!e "e did ot #derstad(
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