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MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 1
OBJECT AND SCOPE
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 1
OBJECT AND SCOPE
1.1. PREFACE.............................................................................................................................. 2
1.2. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 3
1.3. OBJECT OF THE RULES..................................................................................................... 5
1.4 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................. 6
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS .......................................................................................... 7
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1.1. PREFACE
The Rules for the Design of Hoisting Appliances set up by the Technical Committee of the Section I
of the F.E.M., which have been published so far in two Editions, the first one in 1962 and the
second in 1970, have been increasingly widely used in many countries all over the world.
Taking accourt of this enlarged audience, Section I of the FEM decided to change the format of
these Design Rules and to facilitate updating by abandoning the single volume form and dividing
the work into a number of separate booklets as follows :
Booklet 1  Object and Scope
Booklet 2  Classification and loading on structures and mechanisms
Booklet 3  Calculating the stresses in the structure
Booklet 4  Checking for fatigue and choice of mechanism components
Booklet 5  Electrical equipment
Booklet 6  Stability and safety against movement by the wind
Booklet 7  Safety rules
Booklet 8  Test loads and tolerances
Although not directly a part of these Design Rules, the opportunity is taken to draw attention to the
new Terminology of Section I.
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1.2. INTRODUCTION
To facilitate the use of these Rules by the purchasers, manufacturers and safety organizations
concerned, it is necessary to give some explanation in regard to the two following questions.
1. How should these Rules be applied in practice to the different types of appliance whose
construction they cover ?
2. How should a purchaser use these Rules to define this requirements in relation to an
appliance which he desires to order and what conditions should he specify in this enquiry to
ensure that the manufacturers can submit a proposal in accordance with tris requirements ?
1. It is necessary first to recognize the great variety of appliances covered by the Design Rules. It
is obvious that a crane having very high speeds and a rapid working cycle is not designed in the
same manner as a small overhead crane for infrequent duty. For such a machine there can be
no question of making all the verifications which would appear to be required, from reading
through the Rules, because one would clearly finish with a volume of calculations which would
be totally out of proportion to the objective in view. The manufacturer must therefore decide in
each particular case which parts of the machine, which he is designing, should be analysed and
those for which calculation is unnecessary, not because he must accept that the results for the
latter would not be in accordance with the requirements of the Rules, but because on the
contrary he is certain in advance that the calculations for the latter would only confirm a
favourable outcome. This may be because a standard compornent is being used which has
been verified once and for all or because it has been established that some of the verifications
imposed by the Rules cannot in certain cases have an unfavourable result and therefore serve
no purpose.
If one takes, for exemple, the fatigue calculations, it is very easy to see that certain verifications
are unnecessary for appliances of light or moderate duty because they always lead to the
conclusions that the most unfavourable cases are those resulting from checking safety in
relation to the elastic limit.
These considerations show that calculations made in accordance with the Rules can take a very
different form according to the type of appliance which is being considered, and may in the case
of a simple machine or a machine embodying standard components be in the form of a brief
summary without prejudicing the compliance of the machine with the principles set out by the
Design Rules.
2. As far as the second question is concerned, some explanation is first desirable for the
purchaser, who may be somewhat bewildered by the extent of the document and confused
when faced with the variety of choice which it presents, a variety which is, however, necessary if
one wishes to take account of the great diversity of problems to be resolved.
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In fact, the only important matter for the purchaser is to define the duty which he expects from his
appliance and if possible to give some indication of the duty of the various motions.
As regards the service to be performed by the appliance, two factors must be specified, i.e. :
 the class of utilization, as defined in 2.1.2.2 ;
 the load spectrum, as defined in 2.1.2.3.
In order to arrive at the number of hoisting cycles determining the class of utilization, the purchaser
may, for instance, find the product of :
 the number of hoisting cycles which the appliance will have to average each day on which it is
used ;
 the average number of days of use per year ;
 the number of years after which the appliance may be considered as having to be replaced.
Similarly, the load spectrum may be calculated by means of the simplified formula set out in the
above mentioned paragraph.
In neither case do the calculations call for a high degree of accuracy, being more in the nature of
estimates than of precise calculations. Moreover, the numbers of hoisting cycles determining the
classes of utilization do not constitute guaranteed values : they are merely guide values, serving as
a basis for the fatigue calculations and corresponding to an average life which can be expected
with a reasonable degree of safety, provided the appliance, designed in accordance with the
present design rules, is used under the conditions specified by the customer in his call for tender
and also that it is operated and maintained regularly in compliance with the manufacturer's
instructions.
If he is unable to determine the class of utilization and the load spectrum, the purchaser may
confine himself to stating the group in which the appliance is to be classified. A guide as to the
choice of group is provided by Table 2.1.2.5., which is not binding but gives simple exemples
which, by way of comparison, may facilitate selection.
In the case of mecanisms, the following should also be specified :
 the class of utilization, as specified in 2.1.3.2. :
 the load spectrum, as defined in 2.1.3.3. :
the same observation apply as were made concerning the appliance as a whole.
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The tables in Appendix A.2.1.1. may be used to facilitate determination of the class of utilization.
On the basis of the class of utilization of the appliance, they make it possible to determine a total
number of working hours for the mechanism, according to the average duration of a working cycle
and the ratio between the operating time of the mechanism and the duration of the complete cycle.
Table T.2.1.3.5. may be used as a guide by a purchaser wishing simply to choose a group for each
of the mechanisms with which the appliance he wants to order is to be fitted.
As a general rule, the purchaser has no other information to supply in connection with the design of
the appliance, except in certain cases :
 the area of hoisted loads presented to the wind, if this area is larger than those defined in
2.2.4.1.2. ;
 the value of the outofservice wind, where local conditions are considered to necessitate
design for an outofservice wind greater than that defined in 2.2.4.1.2.
1.3. OBJECT OF THE RULES
The purpose of these rules is to determine the loads and combinations of loads which must be
taken into account when designing hoisting appliances, and also to establish the strength and
stability conditions to be observed for the various load combinations.
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1.4 SCOPE
The Rules apply to the design of lifting appliances or parts of lifting appliances which appear in the
illustrated terminology for cranes and heavy lifting appliances of Section I of the FEM.
Appliances not covered by Section I
1) Lifting appliances included in Section V, for exemple :
 mobile jib cranes on pneumatic or solid rubber tyres, crawler tracks, lorries, trailers and
brackets.
2) Lifting equipment which according to the internal regulations of FEM, are included in Section IX,
that is to say :
 various items of series lifting equipment,
 electric hoists,
 pneumatic hoists,
 accessories for lifting,
 hand operated chain blocks,
 elevating platforms, work platforms, dock levellers,
 winches,
 jacks, tripods, combined apparatus for pulling and lifting,
 stacker cranes.
For series lifting equipment, those chapters of the Design Rules of Section I which have been
accepted by Section IX should be used.
These rules comprise eight booklets. In addition some booklets contain appendices which give
further information on the method of application.
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LIST OF SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS
Symbol Unit Désignation Paragraphe
A m
2
Area exposed to wind 2.2.4.1.
A  Combined influence of residual tensile stresses with dead weight
stresses 3.1
A1 à A8  Crane groups 2.1.2
Ae m
2
Enveloped area of lattice 2.2.4.1.4
a mm Wheelbase of crane :
Dimension of lattice in wind load calculation :
Length of strip of plate in buckling calculation :
Size of fillet weld in notch case 2.33
2.2.2.3
2.2.4.1.4
A3.4
T.A.3.6.2.33
a m/s
2
Acceleration 5.8.3.1
B  Influence of thickness of structural member 3.1.1.2
B mm Width of lattice in wind load calculation 2.2.4.1.4
B0 à B10  Classes of utilization of structural members 2.1.4.2
b mm Breadth of section across wind front :
Largest dimension of rectangular steel section :
Length of plate in buckling calculation :
Useful width of rail in wheel calculation
2.2.4.1.4
3.1.1.2
A3.4
4.2.4.1
C  Influence of cold :
Coefficient used to calculate the tightening torque of bolts :
Selection coefficient for choice of running steel wire ropes
3.1.1.3
A3.2.2.2.2.3
4.2.2.1.3.1
Cf  Shape coefficient in wind load calculation 2 2.4.1.4
c, c'  Factors characterising the slope of Wöhler curves 4.1.3.5
c
1
, c
1max
 Rotation speed coefficients for wheel calculation 4.2.4.1
c
2
, c
2max
 Group coefficient for wheel calculation 4.2.4.1
cos ϕϕϕ ϕ  Power factor 5.2.3.3.2
D  Symbol used in plate inspection for lamination defects T.A.3.6
D m Section diameter in shape factor determination 2.2.4.1.4
D mm Rope winding diameter :
Wheel diameter :
Shaft diameter in fatigue verification of mechanism parts .
4.2.3.1
4.2.4.1
A4.1.3
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D
t
mm Diameter of bolt holes 3.2.2.2.1
d mm Depth of section parallel to wind direction in wind load calculation :
Nominal diameter of bolt :
Nominal diameter of rope :
Shaft diameter in fatigue verification of mechanism parts
2.2.4.1.4
A3.2 .2 .2 .3
4.2.2.1.3
A4.1.3
d
2
mm Bolt diameter at thread root 3.2.2.2.1
d
c
 Number of completed starts per hour 5.8.1.4
d
i
 Number of impulses or incomplete starts per hour 5.8.1.4
d
min
mm Minimum rope diameter A4.2.2
d
t
mm Nominal bolt diameter 3.2.2.2.1
E N/mm
2
Elastic modulus of steel A3.4
E1 à E8  Groups of components 2.1.4.1
ED % Duty factor 5.8.1.4
e mm Thickness of strip of plate in buckling calculation :
Thickness of plate in welded joints
A3.4
T.A3.62.31
e
1
, e
2
mm Plate thicknesses in welded joints A3.4
F N Wind force :
Horizontal force during acceleration :
Tensile load in bolts :
Compressive force on member in crippling calculation
2.2.4.1.2
A2.2.3
3.2.2.2.2
A3.3
F
0
N Minimum breaking load of rope 4.2.2.1.2
F
1
N Permissible working load on bolts 3.2.2.2.1
F
c
N Projection of rope load on the x axis during travelling A2.2.3
F
cm
N Inertia force due to the load during travelling A2.2.3
F
cmax
N Maximum value of F
c
A2.2.3
f  Fill factor of rope 4.2.2.1.3
f
cy
Number of electrical brakings 5.8.1.4
g m/s
2
Acceleration due to gravity. according to ISO 9.80665 m/S2 A2.2.3
H  Coefficient depending on group for choice of rope drums and
pulleys 4.2.3.1.1
I kgm
2
Moment of inertia of mass in slewing motion A2.2.3.3
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I
1
, I
2
mm
4
Moment of inertia of stiffeners A3.4
I
D
A Starting current of motor 5.2.3.3.2
I
N
A Nominal current of motor 5.2.3.3.1
I
tot
A Sum of currents I
A
and I
N
5.2.3.3.2
I
Z
mm
4
Moment of inertia of stiffeners A3.4
I
i
kgm
2
Moment of inertia of mass of a part in rotation A2.2.3
I
m
kgm
2
Moment of inertia of mass of all parts in rotation A2.2.3.2.1
J
M
kgm
2
Moment of inertia of mass of motor and brake 5.8.1.4
j  Group number in component groups E1 to E8 4.1.3.6
j
0
m/s
2
Acceleration in horizontal motions A2.2.3.2.2
j
m
m/s
2
Average acceleration/deceleration in horizontal motions A  2.2.3
K’  Empirical coefficient for determining minimum breaking strength of
rope 4.2.2.1.3
K0 à K4  Stress concentration classes for welded parts A3.6
K
2
 Coefficient for calculating force in the direction of the wind for
lattice girders and towers 2.2.4.1.4.4
K
L
N/mm
2
Pressure of wheel on rail 4.2.4.2
K
m
 Mn med / M max 4.2.1.2
k  Spinning loss coefficient 4.2.2.1.3
k
c
 Corrosion coefficient in fatigue verification of mechanism parts A4.1.3
k
d
 Size coefficient in fatigue verification of mechanism parts A4.1.3
k
m
 Spectrum coefficient for mechanisms 2.1.3.3
k
p
 Spectrum coefficient for cranes 2.1.2.3
k
s
 Shape coefficient in fatigue verification of mechanism parts 4.1.3.3
k
sp
 Spectrum coefficient for components 2.1.4.3
k’
sp
 Spectrum coefficient for mechanism parts 4.1.3.5
k
u
 Surface finish (machining) coefficient in fatigue verification of
mechanism parts 4.1.3.3
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K
σσσ σ
K
τττ τ
 Buckling coefficients used in buckling calculations A3.4
L N Maximum permissible lifting force 5.8.2.1
L1 à L4  Spectrum classes for mechanisms 2.1.3.3
l m Length of suspension/length of load pendulum A2.2.3.2
l m Equivalent length of fine 5.2.3.3.2
l m Length of members in wind force calculations :
Overall width or rail head
2.2.4.1.4.1
4.2.4.1.2
lk m Length of parts tightened in bolted joints 3.2.2.2.1
M N.m External moment in bolted joints 3.2.2.2.2
M1 à M8  Mechanism groups ; 2.1.3.1
M1,M2, M3  Motor torques required during a cycle of operations 5.8.1.3.1
M
F
N.m Braking torque of motor 5.8.2.1
M
Nmax
N.m Maximum running torque required to lift the load 5.8.2.1
M
a
N.m Torque required to tighten bolts A3.2.2.2.2.3
M
F
N.m Bending moment in member in crippling calculation A3.3
M
max
N.m Maximum value of motor torque 5.8.2.1
M
med
N.m
Mean value of torque M during motor running time fiT
5.8.2.1
M
min
N.m Minimum motor torque during starting 5.8.2.1
m  Number of friction surfaces in bolted joints 3.2.2.2.2
m kg Equivalent mass for calculating loads due to horizontal motions :
Total mass of crane
A2.2.3.1
A2.2.3.2
m
0
kg Mass of crane without load A2.2 .3.1
m
l
kg Mass of the load A2.2 .3.1
m
L
kg Mass of the hook load 5.8 .3.1
m
e
kg Equivalent mass in calculation of loads due to horizontal motion A2.2.3.2.1
m kg Load 2.1.2.3
m
lmax
kg Safe working load 2.1.2.3
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N  Number of hoisting cycles A2.1.1
N N Force perpendicular to joint plane in bolted joints 3.2.2.2.2
N
G
 Ordinary quality in welding 357 $$$$$
N
M
N Tensile force due to external moment in bolted joints 3.2.2.2.2
n  Number of hoisting cycles :
Number of stress cycles
2.1.2.3
4.1.3.5
n min
1
Nominal rotation speed of motors in rpm 5.8.1.4
n
max
 Number of hoisting cycles determining the total duration of use 2.1.2.3
P N Load on wheel 4.2.4.2
P1 à P4  Spectrum classes for components 2.1.4.3
P10, P100  Symbols indicating welding tests T.A3.6
P
L
N/mm
2
Limiting pressure in wheel calculation 4.2.4.1
P
N
W Nominal power of motor 5.8.1.4
P
Nmax
W Maximum power requirement of motor 5.8.2.1
P
moy I, II
N Mean load on wheel in loading cases I and II 4.2.4.1
P
moy III
N Mean load on wheel in loading case III 4.2.4.1
P
min I, II, III
N Minimum load on wheel in loading cases I, II and III 4.2.4.1
P
max I, II,III
N Maximum load on wheel in loading cases I, II and III 4.2.4.1
P
med
kW Equivalent mean power 5.8.1.3.2
p mm Span of crane 2.2.3.3
p
a
mm Pitch of thread 3.2.2.2.1
Q1 à Q4  Spectrum classes for cranes 2.1.2.3
q  Correction factor for shape coefficient k
s
A4.1.3
q N/mm
2
Dynamic pressure of the wind 2.2.4.1.1
R
0
N/mm
2
Minimum ultimate tensile strength of the wire of a rope 4.2.2.1.3
R
E
N/mm
2
Apparent elastic limit σ
E
according to ISO 3800/1 3.2.2.2.1
r  Number of levers of loading :
Ratio of stresses for large deformations
2.1.3.3
3.5
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r mm Radius of cylindrical shells in buckling calculations :
Radius of rope groove :
Radius of rail head :
Blending radius
A3.4
4.2.3.2
4.2.4.1.2
A4.1.3
r Ω/km Ohmic resistance per unit length 5.3.2
S N Stress :
Maximum tensile force in rope
2.1.3.3
4.2.2.1.1.2
S m
2
Area of all members of lattice girders and towers 2.2.4.1.4.4
S mm
2
Cross sectional area of conductor 5.2.3.3.2
S
1
mm Bearing diameter under bolt head 3.2.2.2.1
S
G
N Load due to dead weight. constant load . 2.2.1 & 3.5
S
H
N Load due to horizontal motions 2.2.3
S
L
N Load due to working load 2.2.1
S
M
N Load due to torques 2.5
S
Mmoy
N Mean type M load in bearing calculation 4.2.1.2
S
Mmin
N Minimum type M load in bearing calculation 4.2.1.2
S
Mmax I
N Maximum type M load in load case I 2.6.1.1
S
Mmax II
N Maximum type M load in load case II 2.6.2.1
S
Mmax III
N Maximum type M load in load case III 2.6.3.1
S
MA
N Load due to acceleration or braking 2.5.1
S
MCmax
N Load due to maximum motor torque 2.6.4.3
S
MF
N Load due to frictional forces 2.5.1
S
MG
N Load due to vertical displacement of moveable parts of a lifting
appliance. excluding the working load 2.5.1
S
ML
N Load due to vertical displacement of the working load 2.5.1
S
MW
N Load due to the effect of limiting wind for appliance in service
2.5.1
S
MW 8
N Load due to wind effect for q  80 N/mm
2
2.6.2.1
S
MW 25
N Load due to wind effect for q  250 N/m
2
2.6.2.1
S
R
N Load due to forces not reacted by torques 2.5
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S
Rmax I
N Maximum type R load in loading case I 2.6.1.1
S
Rmax II
N Maximum type R load in loading case II 2.6.2.1
S
Rmax III
N Maximum type R load in loading case III 2.6.3.1
S
Rmin
N Minimum type R load in bearing calculation 4.2.1.3
S
Rmoy
N Mean type R load in bearing calculation 4.2.1.3
S
RA
N Load due to accelerations/decelerations 2.5.2
S
RG
N Load due to self weight of crane parts 2.5.2
S
RL
N Load due to working load 2.5.2
S
RW
N Load due to wind 2.5.2
S
RWmax
N Load due to out of service wind 2.5.2
S
RW25
N Wind load for q  250 N/m2 2.6.2.2
S
T
N Load due to buffer effect 2.3.3
S
V
N Variable load when calculating structural members subject to large
deformations 3.5
S
W
N Load due to in service wind 2.3.2
S
Wmax
N Load due to out of service wind 2.3.3
S
b
mm
2
Root sectional area of bolt 3.2.2.2.1
S
eq
mm
2
Equivalent sectional area of tightened bolt 3.2.2.2.1
S
p
mm
2
Area of members of lattice girders and towers 2.2.4.1.4.4
s m Span of lifting appliance :
Rail centres of crab :
Distance between travel rails of lifting appliance
8.2.2.1
8.2.2.4
8.2.3
T h Total duration of use of lifting appliance 2.1.3.3
T J Total kinetic energy in luffing motion A2.2.3.4
T °C Ambient temperature at place of erection 3.1.1.3
T N Force parallel to joint plane in bolted joint
3.2.2.2.2
T s Duration of cycle 5.8.1.4
T0 à T9  Classes of utilization of mechanisms 2.1.3.2
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T
1
s Period of oscillation A2.2.3.2
T
a
N Permissible load per bolt which can be transmitted by friction
3.2.2.2.2
T
c
°C Test temperature for impact test 3.1.3
T
i
h Total duration of use of mechanism A2.1.1
T
m
s Mean duration of acceleration or deceleration A2.2.32
t s Time when calculating loads due to horizontal motion
A2.2.3.2.1
t mm Thickness of structural member when choosing steel quality :
Thickness of cylindrical shell wall in buckling analysis :
Thickness of web of trolley rail girder
3.1.1.2
A3.4
8.2.2.7
t
1
, t
2
...
t
i
, t
r
s Duration of different levers of loading 2.1.3.3
t
1
, t
2
, t
3
s Duration of action of couples M1, M2 and M3 5.8.1.3.1
t* mm Ideal section thickness when choosing steel quality 3.1.1.2
t
d
s Duration of deceleration when calculating loads due to horizontal
motion 2.2
t
mc
s Average duration of a hoisting cycle A2.1.1
U0 à U9  Classes of utilization of lifting appliances 2.1.2.2
∆∆∆ ∆u V Permissible voltage drop 5.3.2
V
L
m/s Hoisting speed : 2.2.2.1.1
5.8.2 .1
V
s
m/s Theoretical wind speed 2.2.4.1.1
V
t
m/s Nominal travel speed of appliance 2.2.3.4.1
v m/s Steady horizontal speed of point of suspension of load A2.2.3.2
v mm Distance of extreme fibre from centre of gravity of section in
crippling calculation A3.3
v m/s Travel speed 5.8.3.1
W
0
, W
1
, W
2
 Notch cases of unwelded members A3.6
W
i
s
1
Angular velocity of a mechanism part about its centre of rotation
when calculating loads due
to horizontal motion A2.2.3
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x Ω/km Reactance per unit length 5.3.2
x m Coordinate of point of suspension of hoist rope along an axis
parallel to the direction of travel 2.1
x
1
m Coordinate of position of centre of gravity of suspended load along
an axis having the same direction. sense and origin as the axis of
x 2.1
Z
A
 Assessing coefficient for influence A 3.1.1.1
Z
B
 Assessing coefficient for influence B 3.1.1.2
Z
C
 Assessing coefficient for influence C 3.1.1.3
Z
p
 Minimum practical factor of safety for choice of steel wire ropes
4.2.2.1
z m Coordinate expressing horizontal displacement of load relative to
crane A2.2.3.2.1
zd m Displacement of load during travel motion of crane
A2.2.3.2.2
zm m Displacement of load during travel motion of crane
A2.2.3.2.2
ααα α
 Ratio of sides of panel in buckling calculation T.A3.4.1
ααα α
i
 Ratio of duration of use of mechanism during a hoisting cycle to
average duration of cycle A2.1.1
ααα α
m
° Angle of inclination of rope during acceleration of crane
A2.2.3.2.1
βββ β
 Time coefficient relating to acceleration of crane
A2.2.3
βββ β
crit
 Critical value of β A2.2.3.2.2
γγγ γ
c
 Amplifying coefficient of loading depending on crane group
2.3
γγγ γ
m
 Amplifying coefficient of loading depending on mechanism group
2.6
∆∆∆ ∆l
1
mm Shortening of joined elements under the tightening force in bolted
joints 3.2.2.2.1
∆∆∆ ∆l
2
mm Extension of bolt under tightening force 3.2.2.2.1
∆∆∆ ∆
s
mm Divergence in span of crane :
Divergence in crane rail centres
8.2.2.1
8.2.3
δδδ δ
b
 Elastic coefficient of bolted joints 3.2.2.2.1
ηηη η
 Shielding coefficient in calculation of wind force :
Poisson's ratio :
Overall efficiency of mechanism
2.2.4.1.4.2
A3.4
5.8.3.1
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θθθ θ
° Angle of wind relative to longitudinal axis of member 2.2.4.1.4.4
κκκ κ, κκκ κ’, κκκ κ’’  Safety coefficients applying to bolted joints 3.2.2.2.1
κκκ κ
 Ratio of the extreme stress values in fatigue calculation
3.6
κκκ κ
m/Ωmm
2
Electric conductivity 5.2.3.3.2
κκκ κ
x
, κκκ κ
y
, κκκ κ
xy
 Ratio of extreme individual stresses σ
x
, σ
y ,
τ
xy
in fatigue
calculation A3.6
λλλ λ
 Coefficient applied to horizontal forces in travel motions :
Slenderness of column in crippling calculation
2.2.3.3
A3.3
µµµ µ
 Mass constant in calculation of loads due to acceleration of
horizontal motion :
Coefficient of friction in threads :
Coefficient of friction of contact surfaces in bolted joints
A2.2.3.2
3.2.2.2.1
3.2.2.2.2.3
ννν ν
 Safety coefficient for critical stresses in structural members 3.Intro]
ννν ν‘  Dead weight coefficient in calculation of structural members
subjected to significant deformation 3.5
ννν ν
E
 Safety coefficient for calculation of structural members depending
on case of loading 3.2.1.1
ννν ν
R
 Safety coefficient for calculation of mechanism parts depending on
case of loading 4.1.1.1
ννν ν
T
 = ν
E
, safety coefficient for calculation of bolted joints depending on
case of loading 3.2.2.2.2
ννν ν
V
 Safety coefficient for buckling 3.4
ννν ν
K
 Safety coefficient for verification of fatigue strength of mechanism
parts 4.1.3.7
ξξξ ξ
 Experimentally determined coefficient depending on crane type for
calculating dynamic coefficient 2.2.2.1.1
ρρρ ρ
 Reducing coefficient applied to critical stresses in buckling
calculation A3.4
ρρρ ρ
1
 Coefficient used to determine the dynamic test load 2.3.3
ρρρ ρ
2 
Coefficient used to determine the static test load 2.3.3
σσσ σ
N/mm
2
Calculated stress in structures in general 3.2.1.1
σσσ σ
0
N/mm
2
Tensile stress for κ =0 in calculation of fatigue strength
A3.6
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σσσ σ
1
N/mm
2
Working stress in the root section of bolts 3.2.2.1
σσσ σ‘
1
N/mm
2
Equivalent stresses permissible for bolts 3.2.2.1
σσσ σ
+1
N/mm
2
Permissible tensile stress for κ =+1 in fatigue calculation
A3.6
σσσ σ
A
N/mm
2
Amplitude of the permissible maximum stress in bolts for fatigue
calculations 3.2.2.1
σσσ σ
E
N/mm
2
Apparent elastic limit of steel 3.2.2.1
σσσ σ
G
N/mm
2
Tensile stress due to permanent load :
Stress due to dead weight
3.1.1.1
3.5
σσσ σ
R
N/mm
2
Ultimate tensile strength 3.2.2.1
σσσ σ
E
R
N/mm
2
The EULER Stress A3.4
σσσ σ
V
N/mm
2
Stress due to variable loads 3.5
σσσ σ
a
N/mm
2
Permissible tensile stress for structural members :
Permissible stress for mechanism parts
3.1.1.1
4.1.1.1
σσσ σ
af
N/mm
2
Permissible normal stress for verification of fatigue strength of
mechanism parts 4.1.3.7
σσσ σ
b
N/mm
2
Initial stress in calculating bolted joints 3.2.2.2.1
σσσ σ
bw
N/mm
2
Endurance limit of materials of mechanism parts under alternating
bending 4.1.3.2
σσσ σ
c
N/mm
2
Permissible fatigue strength in compression for structural members
:
Calculated compressive stress for mechanism parts
A3.6
4.1.1.3
σσσ σ
cg
N/mm
2
Compression stress in wheel and rail 4.2.4.2
σσσ σ
cp
N/mm
2
Equivalent stress used in calculating structural members 3.2.1.3
σσσ σ
cr
N/mm
2
Critical stress used in calculating structural members subjected to
large deformations 3.5
σσσ σ
v
cr
N/mm
2
Critical buckling stress A3.4
σσσ σ
v
cr.c
N/mm
2
Critical comparison stress used in buckling calculation A3.4
σσσ σ
d
N/mm
2
Endurance limit of materials of mechanism parts 4.1.3.4
σσσ σ
f
N/mm
2
Calculated bending stress in mechanism parts 4.1.1.3
σσσ σ
v
i
N/mm
2
Ideal buckling stress for thin walled circular cylinders A3.4
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σσσ σ
inf
N/mm
2
Lower stress in determination of stress spectrum 2.1.4.3
σσσ σ
k
N/mm
2
Fatigue strength of mechanism parts 4.1.3.6
σσσ σ
kx
N/mm
2
Fatigue strength for normal stresses in the x direction 4.1.3.7
σσσ σ
ky
N/mm
2
Fatigue strength for normal stresses in the y direction 4.1.3.7
σσσ σ
m
N/mm
2
Arithmetic mean of all upper and lower stresses during the total
duration of use :
Permissible stress in conformity tests to ISO 3600/1
2.1.4.3
3.2.2.2.1
σσσ σ
max
N/mm
2
Maximum stress in fatigue calculation for structural members 3.6
σσσ σ
min
N/mm
2
Minimum stress in fatigue calculation for structural members 3.6.4
σσσ σ
n
N/mm
2
Bearing pressure in riveted joints 3.2.2.1
σσσ σ
p
N/mm
2
Theoretical tensile stress in bolt due to tightening 3.2.2.2.1
σσσ σ
sup
N/mm
2
Upper stress in determination of stress spectrum 2.1.4.3
σσσ σ
sup max
N/mm
2
Maximum upper stress in determination f
o
stress spectrum 2.1.4.3
σσσ σ
sup min
N/mm
2
Minimum upper stress in determination of stress spectrum 2.1.4.3
σσσ σ
t
N/mm
2
Permissible tensile stress in fatigue verification of structural
members :
Calculated tensile stress in mechanism parts :
Tensile stress in rope
A3.6
4.1.1.3
A4.2.2
σσσ σ
v
N/mm
2
Reduced buckling stress of thin walled circular cylinders A3.4
σσσ σ
w
N/mm
2
Permissible stress in alternating tension/compression in fatigue
verification of mechanism parts A3.6
σσσ σ
wk
N/mm
2
Permissible alternating stress in fatigue verification of mechanism
parts 4.1.1.3
σσσ σ
x
N/mm
2
Normal stress in the x direction when calculating structural
members 3.2.1.3
σσσ σ
xa
N/mm
2
Permissible stress in fatigue verification of structural members A3.6
σσσ σ
x max
N/mm
2
Maximum stress in fatigue verification of structural members A3.6
σσσ σ
x min
N/mm
2
Minimum stress in fatigue verification of structural members A3.6
σσσ σ
y
N/mm
2
Normal stress in the y direction when calculating structural
members 3.2.1.3
σσσ σ
ya
N/mm
2
Permissible stress in fatigue verification of structural members A3.6
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σσσ σ
y max
N/mm
2
Maximum stress in fatigue verification of structural members
A3.6
σσσ σ
y min
N/mm
2
Minimum stress in fatigue verification of structural members A3.6
τττ τ
N/mm
2
Shear stress in general :
Calculated shear stress for mechanism parts
3.2.1.3
4.1.1.3
τττ τ
a
N/mm
2
Permissible shear stress when calculating structural members 3.2.1.2
τττ τ
af
N/mm
2
Permissible shear stress in fatigue verification of mechanism parts 4.1.3.7
τττ τ
b
N/mm
2
Torsional stress in bolts due to tightening 3.2.2.2.1
τττ τ
v
cr
N/mm
2
Critical buckling shear stress A3.4
τττ τ
d
N/mm
2
Endurance limit of materials of mechanism parts 4.1.3.4
τττ τ
k
N/mm
2
Fatigue strength of mechanism parts 4.1.3.6
τττ τ
max
N/mm
2
Maximum shear stress in fatigue verification of mechanism parts 3.6.4
τττ τ
min
N/mm
2
Minimum shear stress in fatigue verification of mechanism parts 3.6.4
τττ τ
w
N/mm
2
Endurance limit under alternating shear of materials of mechanism
parts 4.1.3.2
τττ τ
wk
N/mm
2
Endurance limit under alternating shear in fatigue verification of
mechanism parts 4.1.3.3
τττ τ
xy
N/mm
2
Shear stress when calculating structural members 3.2.1.3
τττ τ
xya
N/mm
2
Permissible shear stress in fatigue verification of structural
members A3.6
τττ τ
xy max
N/mm
2
Maximum shear stress in fatigue verification of structural members A3.6
τττ τ
xy min
N/mm
2
Minimum shear stress in fatigue verification of structural members A3.6
ϕϕϕ ϕ, ϕϕϕ ϕ‘  Slope of Wöhler curve 4.1.3.5
ψψψ ψ
 Dynamic coefficient for hoist motion :
Ratio of stresses at plate edges in buckling calculation
2.2 .2.1.1
3.4
ψψψ ψ
h
 Dynamic coefficient when calculating loads due to acceleration of
horizontal motions A2.2.3.2
ΩΩΩ Ω
 Tolerance factor in bolted joints 3.2.2.2.1
ωωω ω
 Crippling coefficient 3.3
ωωω ω
s
1
Angular velocity of shaft when calculating loads due to horizontal
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motion A2.2.3.3
ωωω ω
1
, ωωω ω
2
, ωωω ω
r
s
1
Frequencies of oscillation during load swing A2.2.3.2.2
ωωω ω
m
s
1
Angular velocity of motor A2.2.3.2.1
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA
MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 2
CLASSIFICATION AND LOADING
ON STRUCTURES AND MECHANISMS
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 2
CLASSIFICATION AND LOADING
ON STRUCTURES AND MECHANISMS
2.1 GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF HOISTING APPLIANCES AND THEIR COMPONENT PARTS
.......................................................................................................................................................................4
2.1.1. GENERAL PLAN OF CLASSIFICATION.................................................................................4
2.1.2. CLASSIFICATION OF HOISTING APPLIANCES AS A WHOLE..........................................4
2.1.2.1. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM...................................................................................................... 4
2.1.2.2. CLASSES OF UTILIZATION...................................................................................................... 4
2.1.2.3. LOAD SPECTRUM.................................................................................................................... 5
2.1.2.4. GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF HOISTING APPLIANCES............................................................ 7
2.1.2.5. GUIDANCE ON GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF AN APPLIANCE................................................. 7
2.1.3. CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL MECHANISMS AS A WHOLE.....................................7
2.1.3.1. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM...................................................................................................... 7
2.1.3.2. CLASSES OF UTILIZATION...................................................................................................... 9
2.1.3.3. LOADING SPECTRUM............................................................................................................... 9
2.1.3.4. GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL MECHANISMS AS A WHOLE............................... 10
2.1.3.5. GUIDANCE FOR GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL MECHANISMS AS A WHOLE.... 10
2.1.4. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPONENTS.................................................................................12
2.1.4.1. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM.................................................................................................... 12
2.1.4.2. CLASSES OF UTILIZATION.................................................................................................... 12
2.1.4.3. STRESS SPECTRUM............................................................................................................... 13
2.1.4.4. GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF COMPONENTS........................................................................ 14
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2  2
2.2. LOADS ENTERING INTO THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES..........................................................15
2.2.1. PRINCIPAL LOADS...................................................................................................................15
2.2.2. LOADS DUE TO VERTICAL MOTIONS..................................................................................16
2.2.2.1. LOADS DUE TO HOISTING OF THE WORKING LOAD............................................................. 16
2.2.2.1.1. VALUES OF THE DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT ψ................................................................... 16
2.2.2.2. LOADS DUE TO ACCELERATION (OR DECELERATION) OF THE HOISTING MOTION AND TO
VERTICAL SHOCK LOADINGS WHEN TRAVELLING ALONG RAIL TRACKS...................................... 17
2.2.2.3. SPECIAL CASE........................................................................................................................ 17
2.2.3. LOADS DUE TO HORIZONTAL MOTIONS S
H
......................................................................19
2.2.3.1. HORIZONTAL EFFECTS DUE TO ACCELERATION (OR DECELERATION)........................ 19
2.2.3.1.1. TRAVERSE AND TRAVEL MOTIONS................................................................................ 19
2.2.3.1.2. SLEWING AND LUFFING (DERRICKING) MOTIONS......................................................... 20
2.2.3.2. EFFECTS OF CENTRIFUGAL FORCE....................................................................................... 20
2.2.3.3. TRANSVERSE REACTIONS DUE TO ROLLING ACTION.......................................................... 21
2.2.3.4. BUFFER EFFECTS S
T
............................................................................................................... 21
2.2.3.4.1. BUFFER EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE........................................................................ 21
2.2.3.4.2. BUFFER EFFECTS ON THE SUSPENDED LOAD............................................................. 22
2.2.4. LOADS DUE TO CLIMATIC EFFECTS...................................................................................22
2.2.4.1 WIND ACTION........................................................................................................................... 22
2.2.4.1.1. WIND PRESSURE......................................................................................................... 22
2.2.4.1.2. DESIGN WIND CONDITIONS............................................................................................ 23
2.2.4.1.2.1. Inservice wind ................................................................................................................ 23
2.2.4.1.2.2. Wind out of service .......................................................................................................... 24
2.2.4.1.3. WIND LOAD CALCULATIONS........................................................................................... 25
2.2.4.1.4. SHAPE COEFFICIENTS.................................................................................................... 25
2.2.4.1.4.1. Individual members, frames, etc. ........................................................................................ 25
2.2.4.1.4.2. Multiple frames of members : shielding factors...................................................................... 28
2.2.4.1.4.3. Lattice towers.................................................................................................................. 29
2.2.4.1.4.4. Parts inclined in relation to the wind direction ....................................................................... 29
2.2.4.2. SNOW LOAD........................................................................................................................... 30
2.2.4.3. TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS.................................................................................................. 30
2.2.5 MISCELLANEOUS LOADS.......................................................................................................30
2.2.5.1. LOADS CARRIED BY PLATFORMS......................................................................................... 30
2.3. CASES OF LOADING........................................................................................................................31
2.3.1. CASE I : APPLIANCE WORKING WITHOUT WIND.............................................................31
2.3.2. CASE II : APPLIANCE WORKING WITH WIND....................................................................31
2.3.3. CASE III : APPLIANCE SUBJECTED TO EXCEPTIONAL LOADINGS.............................32
2.3.4. CHOOSING THE AMPLIFYING COEFFICIENT γ
C
...............................................................33
2.4. SEISMIC EFFECTS............................................................................................................................33
2.5. LOADS ENTERING INTO THE DESIGN OF MECHANISMS..........................................................34
2.5.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS........................................................................................................................34
2.5.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS........................................................................................................................34
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2.6. CASES OF LOADING........................................................................................................................35
2.6.1. CASE I  NORMAL SERVICE WITHOUT WIND....................................................................35
2.6.1.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS..................................................................................................................... 35
2.6.1.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS..................................................................................................................... 35
2.6.2. CASE II  NORMAL SERVICE WITH WIND...........................................................................36
2.6.2.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS..................................................................................................................... 36
2.6.2.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS..................................................................................................................... 36
2.6.3. CASE III  EXCEPTIONAL LOADS..........................................................................................37
2.6.3.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS..................................................................................................................... 37
2.6.3.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS..................................................................................................................... 37
2.6.4. APPLICATION OF THE ABOVE CONSIDERATIONS FOR CALCULATING S
M
..............37
2.6.4.1. HOISTING MOTIONS................................................................................................................ 38
2.6.4.2. HORIZONTAL MOTIONS.......................................................................................................... 38
2.6.4.3. COMBINED MOTIONS.............................................................................................................. 39
.....................................................................................................................................................................39
APPENDIX..................................................................................................................................................40
A.2.1.1.  HARMONISATION OF THE CLASSES OF UTILIZATION OF APPLIANCES AND
MECHANISMS.......................................................................................................................................40
A.2.2.3.  CALCULATION OF LOADS DUE TO ACCELERATIONS OF HORIZONTAL MOTIONS
.................................................................................................................................................................45
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2  4
2.1 GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF HOISTING APPLIANCES
AND THEIR COMPONENT PARTS
2.1.1. GENERAL PLAN OF CLASSIFICATION
In the design of a hoisting appliance and its component parts, account must be taken of the duty
which they will be required to perform during their duration of use ; for this purpose group
classification is employed of :
 the appliance as a whole ;
 the individual mechanisms as a whole ;
 the structural and mechanical components.
This classification is based on two criteria, namely :
 the total duration of use of the item considered ;
 the hook load, loading or stress spectra to which the item is subjected.
2.1.2. CLASSIFICATION OF HOISTING APPLIANCES AS A WHOLE
2.1.2.1. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Appliances as a whole are classified in eight groups, designated by the symbol A1, A2, ..., A8
respectively (see section 2.1.2.4.), on the basis of ten classes of utilization and four load spectra.
2.1.2.2. CLASSES OF UTILIZATION
By duration of use of a hoisting appliance is meant the number of hoisting cycles which the
appliance performs. A hoisting cycle is the entire sequence of operations commencing when a
load is hoisted and ending at the moment when the appliance is ready to hoist the next load.
The total duration of use is a computed duration of use, considered as a guide value,
commencing when the appliance is put into service and ending when it is finally taken out of
service.
On the basis of the total duration of use, we have ten classes of utilization, designated by the
symbol U0, U1, ..., U9. They are defined in table T.2.1.2.2.
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Table T.2.1.2.2.  Classes of utilization
Symbol
Total duration of use
(number n
max
of hoisting cycles)
U0
U1
U2
U3
U4
U5
U6
U7
U8
U9
16 000
32 000
63 000
125 000
250 000
500 000
1 000 000
2 000 000
4 000 000
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
n
max
n
max
n
max
n
max
n
max
n
max
n
max
n
max
n
max
n
max
≤
≤
≤
≤
≤
≤
≤
≤
≤
16 000
32 000
63 000
125 000
250 000
500 000
1 000 000
2 000 000
4 000 000
2.1.2.3. LOAD SPECTRUM
The load spectrum characterises the total number of loads hoisted during the total duration of
use (see 2.1.2.2.) of an appliance. It is a distribution function (summed) y = f(x), expressing the
fraction x (O ≤ x ≤ 1) of the total duration of use, during which the ratio of the hoisted load to the
safe working load attains at least a given value y (O ≤ y ≤ 1).
Examples of a load spectrum are given in figs. 2.1.2.3.1.  a and b.
Figure 2.1.2.3.1.  a Figure 2.1.2.3.1.  b
m
l
= loads ; m
l max
= safe working load ;
n = number of hoisting cycles in respect of which the hoisted load is greater
than or equal to m
l
;
n
max
= number of hoisting cycles determining the total duration of use.
Each spectrum is assigned a spectrum factor k
p
, defined by :
K
P
=
0
1
∫
y
d
dx
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For the purposes of group classification the exponent d is taken by convention as equal to 3.
In many applications the function f(x) may be approximated by a function consisting of a certain
number r of steps (see fig. 2.1.2.3.2.), comprising respectively n
1
, n
2
, ..., n
r
hoisting cycles, the
load may be considered as practically constant and equal to m
li
during the n
i
cycles of the i
th
step.
If n
max
represents the total duration of use and m
l max
the greatest among the m
li
loads, there
exists a relation :
n
1
+ n
2
+ ..... + n
r
=
i
r
=
∑
1
n
i
= n
max
or in approximated form :
k
p
= ( m
l1
/m
lmax
)
3
.(n
1
/n
max
) + ( m
l2
/m
lmax
)
3
.(n
2
/n
max
) + .....+ ( m
lr
/m
lmax
)
3
.(n
r
/n
max
)
k
p
=
i
r
=
∑
1
[ ( m
li
/m
lmax
)
3
.(n
i
/n
max
) ]
Figure 2.1.2.3.2.
According to its load spectrum, a hoisting appliance is placed in one of the four spectrum
classes Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 defined in table T.2.1.2.3.
Table T.2.1.2.3.  Spectrum classes
Symbol Spectrum factor k
p
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
k
p
≤ 0,125
0,125 < k
p
≤ 0,250
0,250 < k
p
≤ 0,500
0,500 < k
p
≤ 1,000
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2.1.2.4. GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF HOISTING APPLIANCES
Group classification of hoisting appliances as a whole is determined from table T.2.1.2.4.
Table T.2.1.2.4.  Appliance groups
Load Class of utilization
spectrum
class U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
A1
A1
A1
A2
A1
A1
A2
A3
A1
A2
A3
A4
A2
A3
A4
A5
A3
A4
A5
A6
A4
A5
A6
A7
A5
A6
A7
A8
A6
A7
A8
A8
A7
A8
A8
A8
A8
A8
A8
A8
2.1.2.5. GUIDANCE ON GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF AN APPLIANCE
Directions concerning the classification of hoisting appliances are given in table T.2.1.2.5.
Since appliances of the same type may be used in a wide variety of ways, the grouping shown in
this table can only be taken as a model. In particular, where several groups are shown as
appropriate to an appliance of a given type, it is necessary to ascertain, on the basis of the
appliance's computed total duration of use and load spectrum, in which classes of utilization and
load spectrum it has to be placed, and consequently in which group.
2.1.3. CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL MECHANISMS AS A WHOLE
2.1.3.1. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Individual mechanisms as a whole are classified in eight groups, designated respectively by the
symbol M1, M2, ..., M8 (see 2.1.3.4.), on the basis of ten classes of utilization and four classes of
loading spectrum.
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Table T.2.1.2.5.  Guidance for group classification of appliances
Type of appliance Particulars concerning Appliance
Refe
rence Designation
nature of use
(1)
group
(see 2.1.2.4.)
1 Handoperated appliances A1  A2
2 Erection cranes A1  A2
3 Erection and dismantling cranes for power
stations, machine shops, etc. A2  A4
4 Stocking and reclaiming transporters Hook duty A5
5
Stocking and reclaiming transporters Grab or magnet
A6  A8
6 Workshop cranes A3  A5
7 Overhead travelling cranes, pigbreaking
cranes, scrapyard cranes
Grab or magnet
A6  A8
8 Ladle cranes A6  A8
9 Soakingpit cranes A8
10 Stripper cranes, openhearth furnace
charging cranes
A8
11 Forge cranes A6  A8
12.a
12.b
Bridge cranes for unloading, bridge cranes
for containers
Other bridge cranes (with crab and/or
slewing jib crane)
Hook or spreader duty
Hook duty
A5  A6
A4
13 Bridge cranes for unloading, bridge cranes
(with crab and/or slewing jib crane)
Grab or magnet
A6  A8
14 Drydock cranes, shipyard jib cranes, jib
cranes for dismantling Hook duty A3  A5
15 Dockside cranes (slewing, on gantry),
floating cranes and pontoon derricks Hook duty A5  A6
16 Dockside cranes (slewing, on gantry),
floating cranes and pontoon derricks
Grab or magnet
A6  A8
17 Floating cranes and pontoon derricks for
very heavy loads (usually greater than 100
t) A2  A3
18 Deck cranes Hook duty A3  A4
19
Deck cranes Grab or magnet
A4  A5
20 Tower cranes for building A3  A4
21 Derricks A2  A3
22 Railway cranes allowed to run in train
A4
(1) Only a few typical cases of use are shown, by way of guidance, in this column.
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2.1.3.2. CLASSES OF UTILIZATION
By duration of use of a mechanism is meant the time during which the mechanism is actually in
motion.
The total duration of use is a calculated duration of use, considered as a guide value, applying
up to the time of replacement of the mechanism. It is expressed in terms of hours.
On the basis of this total duration of use, we have ten classes of utilization, TO, T1, T2, ..., T9.
They are defined in table T.2.1.3.2.
Table T.2.1.3.2.  Classes of utilization
Symbol Total duration of use T (h)
T0
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T ≤ 200
200 < T ≤ 400
400 < T ≤ 800
800 < T ≤ 1600
1 600 < T ≤ 3200
3 200 < T ≤ 6300
6 300 < T ≤ 12 500
12 500 < T ≤ 25 000
25 000 < T ≤ 50 000
50 000 < T
2.1.3.3. LOADING SPECTRUM
The loading spectrum characterizes the magnitude of the loads acting on a mechanism during
its total duration of use. It is a distribution function (summed) y = f(x), expressing the fraction x (0
≤ x ≤ 1) of the total duration of use, during which the mechanism is subjected to a loading
attaining at least a fraction y (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) of the maximum loading (see figure 2.1.2.3.1.).
Each spectrum is assigned a spectrum factor k
m
defined by :
k
m
=
0
1
∫
y
d
dx
For the purposes of group classification, d is taken by convention as equal to 3.
In many applications the function f(x) may be approximated by a function consisting of a certain
number r of steps (see fig. 2.1.2.3.2.), of respective durations t
l
, t
2
, ..., t
r
, the loadings S may be
considered as practically constant and equal to S
i
during the duration t
i
. If T represents the total
duration of use and S
max
the greatest of the loadings S
1
, S
2
, ..., S
r
, there exists a relation :
t
1
+ t
2
+ ... + t
r
=
i
r
=
∑
1
ti = T
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and in approximated form :
k
m
= (S
1
/S
max
)
3
( t
1
/T) + (S
2
/S
max
)
3
( t
2
/T) + ..... +(S
r
/S
max
)
3
( t
r
/T) =
i
r
=
∑
1
[ (S
i
/S
max
)
3
( t
i
/T) ]
Depending on its loading spectrum, a mechanism is placed in one of the four spectrum classes
L1, L2, L3, L4, defined in table T.2.1.3.3.
Table T.2.1.3.3.  Spectrum classes
Symbol Spectrum factor k
m
L1
L2
L3
L4
km ≤ 0,125
0,125 < km ≤ 0,250
0,250 < km ≤ 0,500
0,500 < km ≤ 1,000
2.1.3.4. GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL MECHANISMS AS A WHOLE
On the basis of their class of utilization and their spectrum class, individual mechanisms as a
whole are classified in one of the eight groups M1, M2, ..., M8, defined in table T.2.1.3.4.
Table T.2.1.3.4.  Mechanism groups
Class of Class of utilization
load
spectrum T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9
L1
L2
L3
L4
M1
M1
M1
M2
M1
M1
M2
M3
M1
M2
M3
M4
M2
M3
M4
M5
M3
M4
M5
M6
M4
M5
M6
M7
M5
M6
M7
M8
M6
M7
M8
M8
M7
M8
M8
M8
M8
M8
M8
M8
2.1.3.5. GUIDANCE FOR GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL MECHANISMS AS A WHOLE
Guidance for group classification of an individual mechanism as a whole is given in table
T.2.1.3.5.
Since appliances of the same type may be used in a wide variety of ways, the grouping directions
in this table can only be taken as a model. In particular, where several groups are shown as
appropriate to a mechanism of a given type, it is necessary to ascertain, on the basis of the
mechanism's calculated total duration of use and loading spectrum, in which class of utilization
(see 2.1.3.2.) and spectrum (see 2.1.3.3.) it has to be placed, and consequently in which group
of mechanisms (see 2.1.3.4.).
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Table T.2.1.3.5.  Guidance for group classification of a mechanism
Type of appliance Particulars Type of mechanism
Refe
rence Designation
concerning
nature of use (1)
Hoisting Sle
wing
Luffing Traver
se
Travel
1 Handoperated appliances M1   M1 M1
2 Erection cranes M2M3 M2M3 M1M2 M1M3 M2M3
3 Erection and dismantling cranes for
power stations, machine shops, etc. M2   M2 M2
4 Stocking and reclaiming transporters Hook duty
M5M6 M4  M4M5 M5M6
5 Stocking and reclaiming transporters Grab or magnet
M7M8 M6  M6M7 M7M8
6 Workshop cranes M6 M4  M4 M5
7 Overhead travelling cranes,
pigbreaking cranes, scrapyard
cranes
Grab or magnet
M8 M6  M6M7
M7M8
8 Ladle cranes M7M8   M4M5 M6M7
9 Soakingpit cranes M8 M6  M7 M8
10 Stripper cranes, openhearth
furnacecharging cranes M8 M6

M7 M8
11 Forge cranes M8   M5 M6
12a
12b
Bridge cranes for unloading, bridge
cranes for containers
Other bridge cranes (with crab
and/or slewing jib crane)
a  Hook or
spreader duty
b  Hook duty
M6M7
M4M5
M5M6
M4M5
M3M4

M6M7
M4M5
M4M5
M4M5
13 Bridge cranes for unloading, bridge
cranes (with crab and/or slewing jib
crane)
Grab or magnet
M8 M5M6 M3M4 M7M8 M4M5
14 Drydock cranes, shipyard jib cranes,
jib cranes for dismantling
Hook duty
M5M6 M4M5 M4M5 M4M5 M5M6
15 Dockside cranes (slewing, on gantry,
etc.), floating cranes and pontoon
derricks
Hook duty
M6M7 M5M6 M5M6  M3M4
16 Dockside cranes (slewing, on gantry,
etc.), floating cranes and pontoon
derricks
Grab or magnet
M7M8 M6M7 M6M7  M4M5
17 Floating cranes and pontoon
derricks for very heavy loads (usually
greater than 100 t)
M3M4 M3M4 M3M4  
18 Deck cranes Hook duty M4 M3M4 M3M4 M2 M3
19 Deck cranes Grab or magnet
M5M6 M3M4 M3M4 M4M5 M3M4
20 Tower cranes for building M4 M5 M4 M3 M3
21 Derricks M2M3 M1M2 M1M2  
22 Railway cranes allowed to run in
train M3M4 M2M3 M2M3  
(1) Only a few typical cases of use are shown, by way of guidance, in this column.
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2.1.4. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPONENTS
2.1.4.1. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Components, both structural and mechanical, are classified in eight groups, designed
respectively by the symbol E1, E2, ..., E8, on the basis of eleven classes of utilization and four
classes of stress spectrum.
2.1.4.2. CLASSES OF UTILIZATION
By duration of use of a component is meant the number of stress cycles to which the component
is subjected.
A stress cycle is a complete set of successive stresses, commencing at the moment when the
stress under consideration exceeds the stress σ
m
defined in fig. 2.1.4.3. and ending at the
moment when this stress is, for the first time, about to exceed again σ
m
in the same direction.
Fig. 2.1.4.3. therefore represents the trend of the stress σ over a duration of use equal to five
stress cycles.
The total duration of use is a computed duration of use, considered as a guide value, applying
up to the time of replacement of the component.
In the case of structural components the number of stress cycles is in a constant ratio with the
number of hoisting cycles of the appliance. Certain components may be subjected to several
stress cycles during a hoisting cycle depending on their position in the structure. Hence the ratio
in question may differ from one component to another. Once this ratio is known, the total duration
of use of the component is derived from the total duration of use which determined the class of
utilization of the appliance.
As regards mechanical components, the total duration of use is derived from the total duration of
use of the mechanism to which the component under consideration belongs, account being
taken of its speed of rotation and/or other circumstances affecting its operation.
On the basis of the total duration of use, we have eleven classes of utilization, designated
respectively by the symbol BO, B1, ..., B10. They are defined in table T.2.1.4.2.
Table T.2.1.4.2.  Classes of utilization
Symbol
Total duration of use
(number n of stress cycles)
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
n ≤ 16 000
16 000 < n ≤ 32 000
32 000 < n ≤ 63 000
63 000 < n ≤ 125 000
125 000 < n ≤ 250 000
250 000 < n ≤ 500 000
500 000 < n ≤ 1 000 000
1 000 000 < n ≤ 2 000 000
2 000 000 < n ≤ 4 000 000
4 000 000 < n ≤ 8 000 000
8 000 000 < n
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2.1.4.3. STRESS SPECTRUM
The stress spectrum characterizes the magnitude of the load acting on the component during its
total duration of use. It is a distribution function (summed) y = f(x), expressing the fraction x (O ≤ x
≤ 1) of the total duration of use (see 2.1.4.2.), during which the component is subjected to a
stress attaining at least a fraction y (O ≤ x ≤ 1) of the maximum stress.
Each stress spectrum is assigned a spectrum factor k
sp
, defined
by
k
sp
=
0
1
∫
y
c
dx
Where c is an exponent depending on the properties of the material concerned, the shape and
size of the component in question, its surface roughness and its degree of corrosion (see
booklet 4).
In many applications the function f(x) may be approximated by a function consisting of a certain
number r of steps, comprising respectively n
1
, n
2
, ..., n
r
stress cycles ; the stress σ may be
considered as practically constant and equal to σ
i
during n
i
cycles. If n represents the total
duration of use and σ
max
the greatest of the stresses σ
1
, σ
2
, ..., σ
r
there exists a relation :
n
1
+ n
2
+ ..... + n
r
=
i
r
=
∑
1
n
i
= n
and in approximated form :
k
sp
= (σ
1
/ σ
max
)
c
(n
1
/ n) + (σ
2
/ σ
max
)
c
(n
2
/ n) + ..... +(σ
r
/ σ
max
)
c
(n
r
/ n) =
i
r
=
∑
1
[ (σ
i
/ σ
max
)
c
(n
i
/ n) ]
Depending on its stress spectrum, a component is placed in one of the spectrum classes P1,
P2, P3, P4, defined in table T.2.1.4.3.
1
Table T.2.1.4.3.  Spectrum classes
Symbol Spectrum factor k
sp
P1
P2
P3
P4
k
sp
≤ 0,125
0,125 < k
sp
≤ 0,250
0,250 < k
sp
≤ 0,500
0,500 < k
sp
≤ 1,000
1
There are components, both structural and mechanical, such as spring loaded components,
which are subjected to loading that is quite or almost independent of the working load. Special
care shall be taken in classifying such components. In most cases k
sp
= 1 and they belong to
class P4.
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For structural components, the stresses to be taken into consideration for determination of the
spectrum factor are the differences σ
sup
 σ
m
between the upper stresses σ
sup
and the average
stress σ
m
, these concepts being defined by fig. 2.1.4.3. representing the variation of the stress
over time during five stress cycles.
Fig. 2.1.4.3.  Variation of stress as a function of time during a five stress cycles
σ
sup
= upper stress σ
sup max
= maximum upper stress
σ
sup min
= minimum upper stress σ
inf
= longer stress
σ
m
= arithmetic mean of all upper and lower stresses during the total duration of use
In the case of mechanical components, we can put σ
m
= 0 the stresses to be introduced into the
calculation of the spectrum factor then being the total stresses occurring in the relevant section
of the component.
2.1.4.4. GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF COMPONENTS
On the basis of their class of utilization and their stress spectrum class, components are
classified in one of the eight groups E1, E2, ..., E8, defined in table T.2.1.4.4.
Table T.2.1.4.4.  Component groups
Stress
Spectrum
Class of utilization
class B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10
P1
P2
P3
P4
E1
E1
E1
E1
E1
E1
E1
E2
E1
E1
E2
E2
E1
E2
E3
E4
E2
E3
E4
E5
E3
E4
E5
E6
E4
E5
E6
E7
E5
E6
E7
E8
E6
E7
E8
E8
E7
E8
E8
E8
E8
E8
E8
E8
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2.2. LOADS ENTERING INTO THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
The structural calculations shall be conducted by determining the stresses developed in an
appliance during its operation. These stresses shall be calculated on the basis of the loads
defined below :
a) The principal loads exerted on the structure of the appliance, assumed to be stationary, in
the most unfavourable state of loading ;
b) Loads due to vertical motions ;
c) Loads due to horizontal motions ;
d) Loads due to climatic effects.
The various loads, the factors to be applied, and the practical method of conducting the
calculations are examined below. In what follows, the definitions given below are used :
Working load : Weight of the useful load lifted, plus the weight of the accessories (sheaves
blocks, hooks, lifting beams, grab, etc.).
Dead load : Dead weight of components acting on a given member, excluding the working
load.
2.2.1. PRINCIPAL LOADS
The principal loads include :
 the loads due to the dead weight of the components : S
G
 the loads due to the working load : S
L
all movable parts being assumed to be in their most unfavourable position.
Each structural member shall be designed for the position of the appliance and magnitude of the
working load (between zero and the safe working load) which gives rise to the maximum
stresses
2
in the member in question.
2
(1) In certain cases, the maximum stress may be obtained with no working load.
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2.2.2. LOADS DUE TO VERTICAL MOTIONS
These loads stem from picking up the working load more or less suddenly from accelerations
(or decelerations) of the hoisting motion, and from vertical shock loadings due to travelling along
rails tracks.
2.2.2.1. LOADS DUE TO HOISTING OF THE WORKING LOAD
Account shall be taken of the oscillations caused when lifting the load by multiplying the loads
due to the working load by a factor called the "dynamic coefficient" ψ.
2.2.2.1.1. VALUES OF THE DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT ψψψ ψ
The value of the dynamic coefficient ψto be applied to the load arising from the working load is
given by the expression :
ψ = 1 + ξ V
L
Where :
V
L
is the hoisting speed in m/s, and ξ an experimentally determined coefficient
3
The following values shall be adopted :
ξ = 0,6 for overhead travelling cranes and bridge cranes ξ = 0,3 for jib cranes.
The maximum figure to be taken for the hoisting speed when applying this formula is 1 m/s. For
higher speeds, the dynamic coefficient ψ is not further increased.
The value to be applied for the coefficient ψ in the calculations shall in no case be less than 1,15.
The values of ψ are given in the curves of figure 2.2.2.1.1. in terms of hoisting speeds V
L
.
A : Overhead travelling cranes, Bridge cranes B : Jib cranes
Figure 2.2.2.1.1.  Values of dynamic coefficient ψψψ ψ
3
In certain cases, the maximum stress may be obtained with no working load.
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Note  The above mentioned coefficient ξ is not the same for "overhead travelling cranes and
bridge cranes" and for "jib cranes".
The difference arises from the fact that the dynamic coefficient ψ is, other things being equal,
smaller when the hoisting load is carried by a member having some flexibility, as in jib cranes
where the jib is never rigid.
In a similar way, use of the coefficient ψ as indicated for jib cranes may be extended to certain
other appliances such as, for example, transporters for the design case corresponding to load
on the cantilever boom ; the value of ψ indicated for overhead travelling cranes should, of course,
be used for the design cases where the load is applied between the legs of the machine as the
rigidity of the structure at this point is comparable with that one of an overhead travelling crane
girder.
2.2.2.2. LOADS DUE TO ACCELERATION (OR DECELERATION) OF THE HOISTING MOTION AND
TO VERTICAL SHOCK LOADINGS WHEN TRAVELLING ALONG RAIL TRACKS
Since the coefficient ψ takes account of the degree of snatch on the working load which is the
largest shock loading, loads due to acceleration (or deceleration) of the hoisting motion and the
vertical reactions due to travelling along tracks, assumed to be properly laid, shall be neglected
4
2.2.2.3. SPECIAL CASE
In the case of certain appliances, the loads due to the dead loads are of opposite sign to those
due to the working load, in which case a comparison must be made between the loading figure
obtained in the "appliance under load" condition, with the dynamic coefficient ψ applied to the
working load, and the loading figure obtained in the "noload" condition, taking into account the
oscillations resulting from setting clown the load, as follows :
Let :
S
G
be the algebraic value of the loads due to the dead load
S
L
be the algebraic value of the loads due to the working load.
S
G
 S
L
(ψ1)/2
Which is compared with the load for the "appliance under load" condition determined by the
expression :
4
This assumes that the rail joints are in good condition. The detrimental effect on hoisting appliances of rail
tracks in poor condition is so great, both for the structure and the machinery, that it is necessary to stipulate
that the rail joints must be maintained in good condition : no shock loading coefficient can allow for the
damage caused by faulty joints. In so far as high speed appliances are concerned, the best solution is to
buttweld the rails, in order to eliminate entirely the shock loadings which occur when an appliance runs over
joints.
The amplified total load, when setting clown the load is obtained by the expression :
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S
G
+ ψ S
L
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the component being finally designed on the basis of the more unfavourable of these two values.
Note  This formula is based on the fact that the dynamic coefficient determines the maximum
amplitude of the oscillations set up in the structure when the load is picked up. The amplitude of
the oscillation is given by :
S
L
(ψ1)
It is assumed that the amplitude of the oscillation set up in the structure when the load is set
clown is half that of the oscillation caused when hoisting takes place.
The ultimate state of loading is therefore :
S
G
 S
L
(ψ1)/2
which must be compared with the state of loading given by :
S
G
+ ψ S
L
Hoisting and lowering curve when S
L
and S
G
are of opposite sign
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2.2.3. LOADS DUE TO HORIZONTAL MOTIONS S
H
The loads due to horizontal motions are as follows :
1) The inertia effects due to acceleration (or deceleration) of the traverse, travel, slewing or
luffing motions. These effects can be calculated in terms of the value of the acceleration (or
deceleration).
2) The effects of centrifugal force.
3) Transverse horizontal reactions resulting from rolling action.
4) Buffer effects.
2.2.3.1. HORIZONTAL EFFECTS DUE TO ACCELERATION (OR DECELERATION)
The loads due to the accelerations (or decelerations) imparted to the movable elements when
starting or braking are calculated for the various structural members.
2.2.3.1.1. TRAVERSE AND TRAVEL MOTIONS
For these motions the calculation is made by considering a horizontal force applied at the tread
of the driven wheels parallel to the rail.
The loads shall be calculated in terms of the acceleration (or deceleration) time assumed
according to the working conditions and the speeds to be attained.
From it is deduced the value (in m/s
2
) of the acceleration to be used for calculating the horizontal
force according to the masses to be set in motion.
Note  If the speed and acceleration values are not specified by the user, acceleration times
corresponding to the speeds to be reached may be chosen according to the three following
working conditions :
a) Appliances of low and moderate speed with a great length of travel ;
b) Appliances of moderate and high speed for normal applications ;
c) High speed appliances with high acceleration.
In the latter case, it is almost always necessary to drive all the rail wheels.
Table T.2.2.3.1.1. gives the values of acceleration times and accelerations for the three
conditions.
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Table T.2.2.3.1.1.  Acceleration time and acceleration value
Speed
(a)
low and moderate speed
with long travel
(b)
moderate and high speed
(normal applications)
(c)
high speed with high
accelerations
to be reached
m/s
Acceleration
time
s
Acceleration
m/s
2
Acceleration
time
s
Acceleration
m/s
2
Acceleration
time
s
Acceleration
m/s
2
4,00
3,15
2,5
2
1,60
1,00
0,63
0,40
0,25
0,16
9,1
8,3
6,6
5,2
4,1
3,2
2,5
0,22
0,19
0,15
0,12
0,098
0,078
0,064
8,0
7,1
6,3
5,6
5,0
4,0
3,2
2,5
0,50
0,44
0,39
0,35
0,32
0,25
0,19
0,16
6,0
5,4
4,8
4,2
3,7
3,0
0,67
0,58
0,52
0,47
0,43
0,33
The horizontal force to be taken into account shall be not less than 1/30th nor more than 1/4 of
the load on the driven or braked wheels.
2.2.3.1.2. SLEWING AND LUFFING (DERRICKING) MOTIONS
For slewing and luffing motions the calculations shall be based on the accelerating (or
decelerating) torque applied to the motor shaft of the mechanisms.
The rates of acceleration will depend upon the appliance ; for a normal crane a value between
0.1 m/s
2
and 0.6 m/s
2
, according to the speed and radius, may be chosen for the acceleration at
the jib head so that an acceleration time of from 5 to 10 s is achieved.
Note  A method for calculating the effects of acceleration of horizontal motions is given in
appendix A.2.2.3.
2.2.3.2. EFFECTS OF CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
In the case of jib cranes, account shall be taken of the centrifugal force due to slewing. In
practice, it is sufficient to determine the horizontal force exerted at the jib head as a result of the
inclination of the rope carrying the load and in general to neglect the effects of centrifugal force on
the other elements of the crane.
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2  22
2.2.3.3. TRANSVERSE REACTIONS DUE TO ROLLING ACTION
When two wheels (or two bogies) roll along a rail, the couple formed by the horizontal forces
normal to the rail shall be taken into consideration. The components of this couple are obtained
by multiplying the vertical load exerted on the wheels (or bogies) by a coefficient λ which
depends upon the ratio of the span p to the wheel base a
5
.
As shown in the graph, this coefficient lies between 0.05 and 0.2 for ratios p/a between 2 and 8.
2.2.3.4. BUFFER EFFECTS S
T
The case must be considered when the impact due to collision with buffers is applied to the
structure, and the case when it is applied to the suspended load.
2.2.3.4.1. BUFFER EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE
A distinction must be drawn between :
1) the case in which the suspended load can swing.
2) that in which rigid guides prevent swing.
In the first case the following rules shall be applied :
For horizontal speeds below 0.7 m/sec, no account shall be taken of buffer effects.
For speeds in excess of 0.7 m/sec, account must be taken of the reactions set up in the
structure by collisions with buffers.
It shall be assumed that a buffer is capable of absorbing the kinetic energy of the appliance
(without the working load) at a fraction of the rated speed V
t
fixed at 0.7 V
t
.
5
By "wheelbase" is understood the centre distance between the outermost pairs of wheels, or, in the case
of bogies, the centre distance between the fulcrum pins on the crane structure of the two bogies or bogie
systems. Where horizontal guilding wheels are provided, the wheelbase shall be the distance between the
rail contact points of two horizontal wheels.
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The resulting loads set up in the structure shall be calculated on the basis of the retardation
imparted to the appliance by the buffer in use.
However, for higher speeds (greater than 1 m/sec), the use of decelerating devices which act
upon approach to the ends of the track is permitted provided the action of these devices is
automatic and they produce an effective deceleration of the appliance which always reduces the
speed to the predetermined lower value before the buffers are reached.
In this case the reduced speed obtained after slowing down is used for the value of V
t
when
calculating the buffer effect
6
.
In the second case where the load cannot swing the buffer effect is calculated in the same
manner but taking account of the value of the working load.
(1) It must be emphasised that a sure and effective device must be fitted. A mere endoftravel limit switch
cutting off the power supply to the motor is not sufficient reason to assume reduced speed for the buffer
effect.
2.2.3.4.2. BUFFER EFFECTS ON THE SUSPENDED LOAD
Impacts due to collision between the load and fixed obstructions are taken into account only for
appliances where the load is rigidly guided. In that case, the loads generated by such a collision
are to be taken into consideration.
The loads can be computed by considering that horizontal force applied at the lever of the load
which is capable of causing two of the crab wheels to lift.
2.2.4. LOADS DUE TO CLIMATIC EFFECTS
The loads due to climatic effects are those resulting from the action of the wind, from snow loads
and from temperature variations.
2.2.4.1 WIND ACTION
INTRODUCTION
This clause relates to wind loads on crane structure.
It gives a simplified method of calculation and assumes that the wind can blow horizontally from
any direction, that the wind blows at a constant velocity and that there is a static reaction to the
loadings it applies to the crane structure.
2.2.4.1.1. WIND PRESSURE
The dynamic wind pressure is given by : q = 0.613 V
s
2
Where q is the dynamic pressure N/m
2
., and V
s
is the design wind speed in m/s.
6
Where a wind speed measuring device is to be attached to an appliance it shall normally be placed at the
maximum height of the appliance. In cases where the wind speed at a different lever is more significant to
the safety of the appliance, the manufacturer shall state the height at which the device shall be placed.
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2.2.4.1.2. DESIGN WIND CONDITIONS
Two design wind conditions are taken into account in calculating wind loads on cranes.
2.2.4.1.2.1. Inservice wind
This is the maximum wind in which the crane is designed to operate. The wind loads are
assumed to be applied in the least favourable direction in combination with the appropriate
service loads. Inservice design wind pressures and corresponding speeds are given in table
T.2.2.4.1.2.1. They are assumed to be constant over the height of the appliance
7
.
It is assumed that the operating speeds and nominal accelerations are not necessarily reached
under extreme wind conditions.
Table T.2.2.4.1.2.1.  Inservice design wind pressure
Type of appliance
Wind pressure
in service
N/m
2
Wind speed
in service
m/s
Lifting appliance easily protected
against wind action or designed
for use exclusively in light wind.
Erection operations.
125 14
All normal types of crane
installed in the open
250 20
* Appliances which must
continue to work in high winds
500 28
* For example appliances of type 12a in table T.2.1.2.5.
Action of wind on the load
The action of the wind on the hook load for a crane which handles miscellaneous loads shall be
determined from the relationship :
F = 2,5 . A . q
where :
F is the force exerted by the wind on the hook load in N,
7
(1) Where, exceptionally, a crane is required to handle loads of large surface area, it is admissible for the
manufacturer to determine a wind speed less than that specified in table T.2.2.4.1.2.1. above which such
loads shall not be handled.
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q is the inservice wind pressure from table 2.2.4.1.2.1. in N/m
2
,
A is the maximum area of the solid parts of the hook load in m
2
8
. Where this area is not
known, a minimum value of 0.5 m
2
per tonne of safe working load shall be used.
Where a crane is designed to handle loads of a specific size and shape only, the wind loading
shall be calculated for the appropriate dimensions and configurations.
2.2.4.1.2.2. Wind out of service
This is a maximum (storm) wind for which the lifting machine is designed to remain stable in out
of service conditions, as indicated, by the manufacturer. The speed varies with the height of the
apparatus above the surrounding ground lever, the geographical location and the degree of
exposure to the prevailing winds.
For lifting appliances used in the open air, the normal theoretical wind pressure and the
corresponding speed, for "out of service" conditions are indicated in the table T.2.2.4.1.2.2.
Table T.2.2.4.1.2.2.  Out of service wind
Height above ground lever
m
Out of service design
wind pressure
N/m
2
Approximate equivalent
out of service design
wind speed m/s
0 to 20
20 to 100
More than 100
800
1 100
1 300
36
42
46
When calculating wind loads for out of service conditions the wind pressure may be taken as
constant over the vertical height intervals in table T.2.2.4.1.2.2. Alternatively, the design wind
pressure at the top of the crane may be assumed constant over its entire height.
Where cranes are to be permanently installed or used for extended periods in areas where wind
conditions are exceptionally severe, the above figures may be modified by agreement between
the manufacturer and purchaser in the light of local meteorological data.
For certain types of appliance of which the jib can be quickly lowered, (such as a tower crane
which can be easily lowered by a builtin mechanism) the out of service wind need not be taken
into consideration provided the machine is intended for lowering after each working day.
8
Where, execptionnally, a crane is required to handle loads of large surface area, it is
admissible for the manufacturer to détermine a wind speed less than that spécifie in table
T.2.2.4.1.2.1. above wich such loads shall not be handled.
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2.2.4.1.3. WIND LOAD CALCULATIONS
For most complete and part structures, and individual members used in crane structures the
wind load is calculated from :
F = A . q . Cf
Where :
F is the wind load in N,
A is the effective frontal area of the part under consideration in m
2
,
q is the wind pressure corresponding to the appropriate design condition in N/m
2
,
Cf is the shape coefficient in the direction of the wind for the part under consideration.
The total wind load on the structure is taken as the sum of the loads on its component parts.
In determining strength and stability requirements of the appliance the total wind load shall be
considered.
The magnitude of the wind load to be allowed for in the design of a mechanism, in determining
the motor and brake requirements for the mechanism and to provide for the safety of the
appliance in the wind, are given in the chapter dealing with the design of mechanisms.
2.2.4.1.4. SHAPE COEFFICIENTS
2.2.4.1.4.1. Individual members, frames, etc.
Shape coefficients for individual members, single lattice frames and machinery houses are
given in table T.2.2.4.1.4.1. The values for individual members vary according to the aerodynamic
slenderness and, in the case of large box sections, with the section ratio. Aerodynamic
slenderness and section ratio are defined in figure 2.2.4.1.4.1.
The wind load on single lattice frames may be calculated on the basis of the coefficients for the
individual members given in the top part of table T.2.2.4.1.4.1. In this case the aerodynamic
slenderness of each member shall be taken into account. Alternatively the overall coefficients for
lattice frames constructed of flat sided and circular sections given in the middle part of the table
may be used.
Where a lattice frame is made up of flatsided and circular sections, or of circular sections in
both flow regimes (D.V
S
< 6 m
2
/s and D.V
S
≥ 6 m
2
/s) the appropriate shape coefficients are
applied to the corresponding frontal areas.
Where gusset plates of normal size are used in welded lattice construction no allowance for the
additional area presented by the plates is necessary, provided the lengths of individual
members are taken between the centres of node points.
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Shape coefficients obtained from windtunnel or fullscale tests may also be used.
Table T.2.2.4.1.4.1.  Force coefficients
Aerodynamic Slenderness l/b or l/D (1)
Type Description ≤ 5 10 20 30 40 50 > 50
Rolled sections [ ]
Rectangular hollow
sections up to
356 mm square
and 254 x 457 mm
rectangular
1,15
1,4
1,05
1,15
1,45
1,05
1,3
1,5
1,2
1,4
1,55
1,3
1,45
1,55
1,4
1,5
1,55
1,5
1,6
1,6
1,6
Other sections 1,30 1,35 1,60 1,65 1,70 1,80 1,80
Individual
members
Circular sections where :
D.Vs < 6 m
2
/s
D.Vs ≥ 6 m
2
/s
0,60
0,60
0,70
0,65
0,80
0,70
0,85
0,70
0,90
0,75
0,90
0,80
0,90
0,80
Rectangular
hollow sections
over 356 mm
square and
254 x 457 mm
rectangular
Wind
→
b/d
2
1
0,5
0,25
1,55
1,40
1,0
0,80
1,75
1,55
1,20
0,90
1,95
1,75
1,30
0,90
2,10
1,85
1,35
1,0
2,20
1,90
1,40
1,0
Flatsided sections 1,70
Single
lattice
frames
Circular sections where :
D.Vs < 6 m
2
/s
D.Vs ≥ 6 m
2
/s
1,10
0.80
Machinery
houses
etc.
Rectangular clad
structures on ground
or solid base
1,10
(1) See figure 2.2.4.1.4.1.
b
d
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(I) Aerodynamic slenderness :
( length of member ) / ( breadth of section across wind front ) = l/b * or l/D *
* In lattice construction the lengths of individual members are taken between the centres of
adjacent node points. See diagram below
(II) Solidity ratio : (area of solid parts) / (enclosed area) = A /A
e
=
1
n
∑
[(li . bi)/(L . B)]
(III) Spacing ratio :
(distance between facing sides) / (breadth of members across wind front ) = a/b or a/B
for "a" take the smallest possible value in the geometry of the exposed face.
(IV) Section ratio :
(breadth of section across wind front) / (depth of section parallel to wind flow)= b/d
Figure 2.2.4.1.4.1.  Definitions : Aerodynamic Slenderness, Solidity Ratio,
Spacing Ratio, and Section Ratio
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2.2.4.1.4.2. Multiple frames of members : shielding factors
Where parallel frames or members are positioned so that shielding takes place, the wind loads
on the windward frame or member and on the unsheltered parts of those behind it are calculated
using the appropriate shape coefficients. The wind load on the sheltered parts is multiplied by a
shielding factor η given in table T.2.2.4.1.4.2. Values of η vary with the solidity and spacing ratios
as defined in figure 2.2.4.1.4.1.
Table T.2.2.4.1.4.2.  Shielding coefficients
Spacing ratio Solidity ratio A/A
e
a/b 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 ≥0,6
0,5
1,0
2,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
0,75
0,92
0,95
1,0
1,0
1,0
0,40
0,75
0,80
0,88
0,95
1,0
0,32
0,59
0,63
0,76
0,88
1,0
0,21
0,43
0,50
0,66
0,81
1,0
0,15
0,25
0,33
0,55
0,75
1,0
0,10
0,10
0,20
0,45
0,68
1,0
Where a number of identical frames or members are spaced equidistantly behind each other in
such a way that each frame shields those behind it, the shielding effect is assumed to increase
up to the ninth frame and to remain constant thereafter.
The wind loads are calculated as follows :
On the 1st. frame F
1
= A.q.C
f
in N
On the 2nd. frame F
2
= η.A.q.C
f
in N
On the n.th frame F
n
= η
(n1)
.A.q.C
f
(where n is from 3 to 8) in N
On the 9th and subsequent F
9
= η
8
.A.q.C
f
in N
frames
The total wind load is thus :
Where there are up to 9 frames F
total
= [1 + η + η
2
+ η
3
+ .... + η
(n1)
].A.q.C
f
= [(1  η
n
) / (1  η)].A.q.C
f
in N
Where there are more than F
total
= [1 + η + η
2
+ η
3
+ .... + n
8
+ (η  9)
8
].A.q.C
f
9 frames = [(1  η
9
) / (1  η) + (n  9) η
8
].A.q.C
f
in N
Note  The term η
x
used in the above formula is assumed to have a longer limit of 0.10. It is taken
as 0.10 whenever η
x
< 0.10.
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2.2.4.1.4.3. Lattice towers
In calculating the "faceon" wind load on square towers, in the absence of a detailed calculation,
the solid area of the windward face is multiplied by the following overall force coefficient :
For towers composed of flat sided sections 1,7 (1 + η)
For towers composed of circular sections
where D.V
s
< 6 m
2
/s 1,1 (1 + η)
where D.V
s
≥ 6 m
2
/s 1,4
The value of η is taken from table 2.2.4.1.4.2. for a/b = 1 according to the solidity ratio of the
windward face.
The maximum wind load on a square tower occurs when the wind blows on to a corner. In the
absence of a detailed calculation, this load can be considered as 1.2 times that developed with
"faceon" wind on one side.
2.2.4.1.4.4. Parts inclined in relation to the wind direction
Individual members. frames, etc.
Where the wind blows at an angle to the longitudinal axis of a member or to the surface of a
frame, the wind load in the direction of the wind is obtained from :
F = A.q.C
f
sin
2
θ in N
where F, A, q and C
f
are as defined in 2.2.4.1.3.
and θ is the angle of the wind (θ < 90°) to the longitudinal axis or face.
Lattice trusses and towers
Where the wind blows at an angle to the longitudinal axis of a lattice truss or tower, the wind load
in the direction of the wind is obtained from :
F = A.q.C
f
.K
2
in N
where :
F, A, q and C
f
are as defined in 2.2.4.1.3. and K
2
= θ / [50 (1,7  S
p
/S)]
which cannot be less than 0,35 or greater than 1.
θ is the angle of the wind in degrees (θ < 90°) to the longitudinal axis of the truss or tower.
S
p
is the area in m
2
of the bracing members of the truss or tower projected on to its windward
plane.
S is the area in m
2
of all (bracing and main) members of the truss or tower projected on to its
windward plane.
The value of K
2
is assumed to have lower and upper limits of 0.35 and 1.0 respectively. It is taken
as 0.35 whenever the calculated value < 0.35 and as 1.0 whenever the calculated value > 1.0.
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2.2.4.2. SNOW LOAD
Snow loads shall be neglected in the design calculations for overhead travelling cranes, bridge
cranes and jib cranes.
2.2.4.3. TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS
Stresses due to temperature variations shall be considered only in special cases such as when
members are not free to expand.
In such cases, the maximum temperature fluctuation shall be taken to be :
 20° C to + 45° C.
2.2.5 MISCELLANEOUS LOADS
2.2.5.1. LOADS CARRIED BY PLATFORMS
Access gangways, driver 's cabine and platforms shall be designed to carry the following
concentrated loads :
3000 N for maintenance gangways and platforms where materials may be placed,
1500 N for gangways and platforms intended only for access of personnel,
300 N as the horizontal force which may be exerted on handrails and toeguards.
These loads are not to be used in the calculations for girders.
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2.3. CASES OF LOADING
Three different cases of loading are to be considered for the purpose of the calculations :
 the working case without wind,
 the working case with limiting working wind,
 the case of exceptional loadings.
Having determined the various loads in accordance with section 2.2, account is taken of a certain
probability of exceeding the calculated stress, which results from imperfect methods of
calculation and unforeseen contingencies, by applying an amplifying coefficient γ
C
, which varies
according to the group classification of the appliance.
The values of this coefficient γ
C
are indicated in clause 2.3.4.
2.3.1. CASE I : APPLIANCE WORKING WITHOUT WIND
The following shall be taken into consideration : the static loads due to the dead weight S
G
, the
loads due to the working load S
L
multiplied by the dynamic coefficient ψ, and the two most
unfavourable horizontal effects S
H
among those defined in clause 2.2.3., excluding buffer forces.
All these loads must then be multiplied by the amplifying coefficient γ
C
specified in clause 2.3.4.,
viz :
γ
C
(S
G
+ ψ S
L
+ S
H
)
In cases where travel motion takes place only for positioning the appliance and is not normally
used for moving loads the effect of this motion shall not be combined with another horizontal
motion. This is the case for example with a dockside crane which, once it has been positioned,
handles a series of loads at a fixed point.
2.3.2. CASE II : APPLIANCE WORKING WITH WIND
The loads of case I are taken to which are added the effects of the limiting working wind S
W
defined under 2.2.4.1.2.1. (table T.2.2.4.1.2.1.) and, where, applicable the load due to
temperature variation, viz :
γ
C
(S
G
+ ψ S
L
+ S
H
) + S
W
Note  The dynamic effects of acceleration and retardation do not have the same values in case II
as in case I, for when a wind is blowing the accelerating or braking times are not the same as
when still conditions prevail.
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2.3.3. CASE III : APPLIANCE SUBJECTED TO EXCEPTIONAL LOADINGS
Exceptional loadings occur in the following cases :
 appliance out of service with maximum wind
 appliance working and subjected to a buffer effect
 appliance undergoing the tests indicated in booklet 8.
The highest of the following combinations shall be considered :
a) The loads S
G
due to the dead weight, plus the load S
w max
due to the maximum wind as
mentioned under clause 2.2.4.1.2.2. (including the reactions of the anchorages)
b) the loads S
G
due to the dead weight and S
L
due to the working load plus the greatest buffer
effect S
T
as envisaged in clause 2.2.3.4.
c) the loads S
G
due to the dead weight plus the highest of the two loads ψρ
1
S
L
and ρ
2
S
L
; ρ
1
and ρ
2
being the coefficients by which the safe working load is multiplied for the dynamic
test (ρ
1
) and for the static test (ρ
2
) as in clauses 8.1.1. and 8.1.2.
These three cases are expressed by the formulae :
a) S
G
+ S
w max
b) S
G
+ S
L
+ S
T
9
c) S
G
+ ψρ
1
S
L
or S
G
+ ρ
2
S
L
Note 1  It should be noted that the checks under (c) are only to be made in cases where the
working load, when assumed to act alone, produces stresses opposed in direction to those
caused by the dead weight up to the point at which the static test load does not exceed 1,5 times
the safe working load.
Note 2  When using decelerating devices in advance of buffer impact under the conditions
mentioned in clause 2.2.3.4.1. S
T
will be taken to be the highest load resulting either from the
retardation previously caused by the decelerating device or from that finally caused by the buffer.
9
Loadings resulting from the working load are taken into account but the effects of load swing
resulting from the stock are neglected because this swing only loads the structure when the
other effects have been practically absorbed. This comment does not apply to rigidly guide loads
which cannot swing.
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2.3.4. CHOOSING THE AMPLIFYING COEFFICIENT γγγ γ
C
The value of the amplifying coefficient γc depends upon the group classification of the appliance.
Table T.2.3.4.  Values of amplifying coefficient γγγ γ
C
Appliance
group A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8
γc
1,00 1,02 1,05 1,08 1,11 1,14 1,17 1,20
2.4. SEISMIC EFFECTS
In general the structures of lifting appliances do not have to be checked for European seismic
effects.
However, if official regulations or particular specifications so prescribe, special rules or
recommendations can be applied in areas subject to earthquakes.
This requirement shall be advised to the supplier by the user of the installation who shall also
provide the corresponding seismic spectra.
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2.5. LOADS ENTERING INTO THE DESIGN OF MECHANISMS
Mechanisms are subjected to two kinds of loading :
a) The loads, represented by the symbol S
M
, which are directly dependent upon the torques
exerted on the mechanisms by the motors or the brakes.
b) The loads, represented by the symbol S
R
, which are independent of motor or brake action
but which are determined by the reactions which act upon the mechanical parts and which
are not balanced by a torque acting on the drive shafts
10
.
2.5.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS
The loads of this type to be considered are :
a) S
MG
loads, corresponding to a vertical displacement of the centre of gravity of moving parts
of the appliance other than the working load.
b) S
ML
loads, corresponding to a vertical displacement of the working load as defined in
clause 2.2. for structures.
c) S
MF
loads, corresponding to frictional forces which have not been allowed for in calculating
the efficiency of the mechanism (see clause 4.2.6.1.1., booklet 4).
d) S
MA
loads, associated with acceleration (or braking) of the motion.
e) S
MW
loads, corresponding to the effect of the working wind assumed for the appliance.
2.5.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS
The loads of this type to be considered are :
a) S
RG
loads due to the weights of components which act on the part under consideration ;
b) S
RL
loads due to the working load as defined in clause 2.2., for structures.
c) S
RA
loads due to the accelerations or decelerations of the various motions of the
appliance or its parts, as calculated according to clause 2. 2.3.1. for structures, insofar as
the order of magnitude of these loads is not negligible compared to the S
RG
and S
RL
loads.
d) S
RW
loads due to the limiting working wind S
W
or to the maximum wind S
W max
(see clause
2.2.4.1.), insofar as the order of magnitude of these loads is not negligible.
10
In a travel motion, for instance, the loads due to the vertical reaction on the rail wheels and the
transverse loads that stress the wheel axle but are not transmitted to the components of the
driving mechanism.
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2.6. CASES OF LOADING
Three cases of loading are to be considered in the calculations :
Case I : Normal service without wind
Case II : Normal service with wind
Case III : Exceptional loadings.
A maximum load must be determined for each case of loading which serves as the basis for the
calculations.
Note  Clearly, case I and II are one and the same in the case of appliances which are not
exposed to wind.
The various loadings being determined as indicated in paragraph 2.5., account is taken of a
certain probability of exceeding the calculated stress, which results from imperfect methods of
calculation and unforeseen contingencies, by applying an amplifying coefficient γ
m
depending on
the group in which the mechanism is classified. The values of this coefficient γ
m
are indicated in
table T.2.6.
Table T.2.6.  Values of amplifying coefficient γγγ γ
m
Mechanism
group M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8
γ
m
1,00 1,04 1,08 1,12 1,16 1,20 1,25 1,30
2.6.1. CASE I  NORMAL SERVICE WITHOUT WIND
2.6.1.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS
The maximum load S
M max I
of the S
M
type (see clause 2.5.) is determined by combining the loads
S
MG
, S
ML
, S
MF
, and S
MA
defined in clause 2.5.1. which can be expressed by the relation :
S
M max I
= ( S
MG
+ S
ML
+ S
MF
+ S
MA
) γ
m
Note  It must be pointed out that it is not the combination of the maximum values of each of the
terms in this relation that must be considered, but the value resulting from the most unfavourable
combination that could actually occur in practice.
2.6.1.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS
The maximum load S
R max I
of the S
R
type (see clause 2.5.) is determined by combining the loads
S
RG
, S
RL
, S
RA
, defined in clause 2.5.2. which can be expressed by the relation :
S
R max I
= ( S
RG
+ S
RL
+ S
RA
) γ
m
The note in clause 2.6.1.1. above applies here also.
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2.6.2. CASE II  NORMAL SERVICE WITH WIND
2.6.2.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS
The maximum load S
M max II
of the S
M
type (see clause 2.5.) is determined by combining the loads
S
MG
, S
ML
and S
MF
defined in clause 2.5.1. with one of the following two combinations :
a) the load S
MA
and the load S
MW 8
corresponding to a 80 N/m
2
wind.
b) the load S
MW 25
corresponding to a 250 N/m
2
wind.
The higher of the two values expressed by the relations set out below is taken :
S
M max II
= ( S
MG
+ S
ML
+ S
MF
+ S
MA
+ S
MW 8
) γ
m
or
S
M max II
= ( S
MG
+ S
ML
+ S
MF
+ S
MW 25
) γ
m
The note in clause 2.6.1.1. applies here also.
2.6.2.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS
The maximum load S
R max II
of the S
R
type (see clause 2.5.) is determined by combining the loads
S
RG
, S
RL
and S
RA
defined in clause 2.5.2. with S
RW 25
which corresponds to a 250 N/m
2
wind, as
expressed by the relation :
S
R max II
= ( S
RG
+ S
RL
+ S
RA
+ S
RW 25
) γ
m
The note in clause 2.6.1.1. applies here also.
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2.6.3. CASE III  EXCEPTIONAL LOADS
2.6.3.1. TYPE S
M
LOADS
The maximum load S
M max III
of the S
M
type defined under clause 2.5. is determined by
considering the maximum load that the motor can actually transmit to the mechanism, allowing
for limitations due to practical operating conditions.
The values of S
M max III
are specified in clause 2.6.4.
2.6.3.2. TYPE S
R
LOADS
Since the consequences of an overload due to collision with a buffer or fouling are far less
serious for a mechanism than for the structure, the exceptional loading to be taken is that given
under paragraph a) of clause 2.3.3. in the structures chapter.
This gives : S
R max III
= ( S
RG
+ S
RW max
)
In cases where additional mooring or guying means are used to ensure immobility or stability
under maximum wind, the effect of these devices on the mechanism must be taken into account
where applicable.
2.6.4. APPLICATION OF THE ABOVE CONSIDERATIONS FOR CALCULATING
S
M
The mechanisms of hoisting appliances perform one of the following functions :
 Purely vertical displacements of the centre of gravity of moving masses (e.g. hoisting
motions).
 Purely horizontal displacements in which the centre of gravity of the moving masses as a
whole shifts horizontally (e.g. traverse, travel, slewing or counterbalanced luffing motions).
 Movements combining an elevation of the centre of gravity of the moving masses with a
horizontal displacement (e.g. noncounterbalanced luffing).
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2.6.4.1. HOISTING MOTIONS
For type S
M
loads, the formula reduces to the following :
Case I and II : S
M max I
= ( S
ML
+ S
MF
) γ
m
In this case the load due to the hoisting acceleration is neglected because it is small compared
to S
ML
.
Case III : S
M max III
= 1,6 ( S
ML
+ S
MF
)
Bearing in mind the general rules of clause 2.6.3.1., it is assumed that the maximum loads that
can be transmitted to hoisting mechanisms are limited in practice to 1,6 times the S
M max I
load
11
.
2.6.4.2. HORIZONTAL MOTIONS
Case I  The formula reduces to :
S
M max I
= ( S
MF
+ S
MA
) γ
m
Case II  The higher of the following two values is taken :
S
M max II
= ( S
MF
+ S
MA
+ S
MW 8
) γ
m
or
S
M max II
= ( S
MF
+ S
MW 25
) γ
m
Case III  For S
M max III
the load corresponding to the maximum torque of the motor (or the brake)
is taken unless operating conditions limit the torque actually transmitted, through wheel slip on
the rails, or through the use of suitable limiting means (e.g. hydraulic coupling, torque limiter,
etc.). In this case the value actually transmitted must be taken
12
.
11
In a hoisting motion it is impossible under normal working conditions to transmit to the mechanism loads
greater than those due to the hoisting of the working load, as the effects of acceleration are negligible.
A greater load could result only from mishandling (poor judgement of the load, etc.).
On the basis of experience gained over many years of practice with widely differing hoisting
appliances it is now accepted that a coefficient of 1,6 gives adequate safety. It must be stressed
that the use of excessively powerful motors should be avoided.
12
Whereas in the case of hoisting motions the loads normally transmitted to the mechanism are limited by the
load lifted, in horizontal motions the maximum torque of the motor can always be transmitted to the
mechanism if no mechanical limitation exists. This is why a different way of evaluating S
M max III
has been
specified according to whether a hoist motion or other motion is being considered.
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2.6.4.3. COMBINED MOTIONS
Case I and II :
For cases I and II, the load S
M max II
13
is determined by applying the general formula defined in
clauses 2.6.1.1. and 2.6.2.1.
Case III :
The load caused by applying the maximum motor torque S
MC max III
can be taken for the maximum
value S
M max III
This often unduly high value is always acceptable since it enhances safety.
It must be used when the power involved for raising the centres of gravity of the moving masses
is negligible compared to the power needed to overcome accelerations or wind effects.
Conversely, when the effect of the accelerations or the wind is negligible in comparison with the
effect of displacing the centres of gravity of the moving masses vertically, this value is too high
and S
M max III
can be calculated from the formula :
S
M max III
= 1,6 S
M max II
Between these two limiting values, each individual case should be examined according to the
motor chosen, the method of starting and the relative magnitudes of the loads due to inertia and
wind effects on the one hand and those due to raising of the centres of gravity on the other.
Without exception, when operating conditions limit the torque actually transmitted to the
mechanism (see clause 2.6.4.2.), this limiting torque will be taken as the value of S
MC max
if it is
less than the values defined above.
.
13
or S
M max I
in the case of appliances not subjected to wind.
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APPENDIX
A.2.1.1.  HARMONISATION OF THE CLASSES OF UTILIZATION OF
APPLIANCES AND MECHANISMS
The present appendix sets out to demonstrate a method by which it is possible in many cases to
derive the class of utilization of mechanisms from that of appliances as a whole and from certain
parameters characterising the duty to be performed.
The starting point is the average duration t
mc
(in seconds) of a hoisting cycle as defined in clause
2.1.2.2. This is therefore the time necessary to perform all the operations in such a cycle.
The total duration of use T of the appliance, expressed in hours, is then given by the relation :
T = N.t
mc
/ 3600
Where N represents the number of hoisting cycles determining the class of utilization of the
appliance.
Table T.A.2.1.1.1. gives the values of T for cycle durations of 30  480 s in accordance with the
class of utilization of the appliance. The number of hoisting cycles is the maximum number for
this class of utilization ; these values are, however, adjusted to 15 625, 31 250 and 62 500
respectively for class U0, U1 and U2, in order to reduce the number of different values for T.
The next step is to determine for each mechanism the ratio α
i
between the duration of use of the
mechanism during a hoisting cycle and the average duration t
mc
of the cycle.
Table T.A.2.1.1.2. gives the total durations of use T
i
of the mechanism depending on the total
duration of use of the appliance, and for various conventional values of the ratio α
i
. This table
also shows the class of utilization of the mechanism. The various classes are represented by
the stepped areas.
It is thus sufficient to determine the class of utilization of the appliance by reference to table
T.2.1.2.2., the average duration of the hoisting cycle and the values of α
i
in order to obtain the
classes of utilization of the mechanisms.
From the curves of the nomogram T.A.2.1.1.3. the classes of utilization for the mechanisms in
terms of these three parameters can be found directly.
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Table T.A.2.1.1.1.  Total duration of use (T) of lifting appliances in hours
Average
duration
of a
Class of utilization of appliances
hoisting
cycle
t
mc
(s)
U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9
30
45
60
75
90
120
150
180
240
300
360
420
480
130
195
260
325
390
520
650
780
1 040
1 300
1 565
1 825
2 085
260
390
520
650
780
1 040
1 300
1 565
2 085
2 605
3 125
3 645
4 165
520
780
1 040
1 300
1 565
2 085
2 605
3 125
4 165
5 210
6 250
7 290
8 335
1 040
1 565
2 085
2 605
3 125
4 165
5 210
6 250
8 335
10 415
12 500
14 585
16 665
2 085
3 125
4 165
5 210
6 250
8 335
10 415
12 500
16 665
20 835
25 000
29 165
33 335
4 165
6 250
8 335
10 415
12 500
16 665
20 835
25 000
33 335
41 665
50 000
58 335
66 665
8 335
12 500
16 665
20 835
25 000
33 335
41 665
50 000
66 665
83 335
100 000
116 665
133 335
16 665
25 000
33 335
41 665
50 000
66 665
83 335
100 000
133 335
166 665
200 000
________
> 200 000
> 200 000
33 335
50 000
66 665
83 335
100 000
133 335
166 665
200 000
________
> 200 000
> 200 000
> 200 000
> 33 335
> 50 000
> 66 665
> 83 335
> 100 000
> 133 335
> 166 665
________
> 200 000
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Table T.A.2.1.1.2.  Total duration of use T
i
(in hours) of mechanisms in terms of T and ααα α
i
T Values of α
i
Class of
utilization for
(h) 1,00 0,63 0,40 0,25 0,16 0,10 mechanism
130 130 82 52 33 21 13
195 195 123 78 49 31 20
260 260 164 104 65 42 26
325 325 205 130 81 52 33
390 390 246 156 98 62 39
520 520 328 208 130 83 52 T0
650 650 410 260 163 104 65
780 780 491 312 195 125 78
1 040 1 040 655 416 260 166 104
1 300 1 300 819 520 325 208 130
1 565 1 565 986 626 391 250 157
1 825 1 825 1 150 730 456 292 183
2 085 2 085 1 314 834 521 334 209
2 605 2 605 1 641 1 042 651 417 261 T1
3 125 3 125 1 969 1 250 781 500 313
3 645 3 645 2 296 1 458 911 583 365
4 165 4 165 2 624 1 666 1 041 666 417
5 210 5 210 3 282 2 084 1 303 834 521 T2
6 250 6 250 3 938 2 500 1 563 1 000 625
7 290 7 290 4 593 2 916 1 823 1 166 729
8 335 8 335 5 251 3 334 2 084 1 334 834
10 415 10 415 6 561 4 166 2 604 1 666 1 042 T3
12 500 12 500 7 875 5 000 3 125 2 000 1 250
14 585 14 585 9 189 5 834 3 646 2 334 1 459
16 665 16 665 10 499 6 666 4 166 2 666 1 667
20 835 20 835 13 126 8 334 5 209 3 334 2 084 T4
25 000 25 000 15 750 10 000 6 250 4 000 2 500
29 165 29 165 18 374 11 666 7 291 4 666 2 917
33 335 33 335 21 001 13 334 8 334 5 334 3 334
41 665 41 665 26 249 16 666 10 416 6 666 4 167 T5
50 000 50 000 31 500 20 000 12 500 8 000 5 000
58 335 58 335 36 751 23 334 14 584 9 334 5 834
66 665 66 665 41 999 26 666 16 666 10 666 6 667
83 335 83 335 52 501 33 334 20 834 13 334 8 334 T6
100 000 100 000 63 000 40 000 25 000 16 000 10 000
116 665 116 665 73 499 46 666 29 166 18 666 11 667
133 335 133 335 84 001 53 334 33 334 21 334 13 334
166 665 166 665 104 999 66 666 41 666 26 666 16 667 T7
200 000 200 000 126 000 80 000 50 000 32 000 20 000
> 200 000 > 200 000 > 126 000 > 80 000 > 50 000 > 32 000 > 20 000
T8
T9
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Table T.A.2.1.1.3.  Classes of utilization for appliances and mechanisms
U  Class of utilization for appliances T  Class of utilization for mechanisms
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EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION
Dockside cargo crane.
The class of utilization for the appliance will be U5.
A hoisting cycle comprises the following operations :
 hoisting of load ;
 travelling ;
 slewing ;
 lowering ;
 unhooking of load ;
 hoisting empty ;
 slewing ;
 travelling ;
 lowering empty ;
 hooking on of new load.
The average time for completion of the cycle will be estimated at 150 s.
The ratios α
i
will be estimated as follows :
 hoisting (hoisting and lowering) : α
i
= 0.63
 slewing (2 directions) : α
i
= 0.25
 travelling (do.) : α
i
= 0.10
Table T.A.2.1.1.1. gives us for class U5 and t
mc
= 150 s :
T = 20 835 h
For the various mechanisms, table T.A.2.1.1.2. gives us, for T = 20 835 h, the following total
durations T
i
and classes of utilization :
 hoisting (α
i
= 0.63) : Ti = 13 126 h T7
 slewing (α
i
= 0.25) : Ti = 5 209 h T5
 travelling (α
i
= 0.10) : Ti = 2 084 h T4
From the curves in table T.A.2.1.1.3. the same conclusions are drawn on the basis of the
ordinate t
mc
= 150 s (broken line).
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A.2.2.3.  CALCULATION OF LOADS DUE TO ACCELERATIONS OF
HORIZONTAL MOTIONS
PART 1  METHOD
1.  BASIC DATA
Let
v be the steady horizontal velocity of the point of suspension of the load, either at the end of
the acceleration period, or at the beginning of the braking period, according to whether an
acceleration or a braking process is being considered, and
F an imaginary horizontal force in the same direction as v, applied at the point of suspension
of the load and producing the same effect on the motion under consideration as the
accelerating or decelerating torque applied by the motor or the brake.
2.  PROCEDURE
The different quantities set out below must be calculated in succession.
Equivalent mass (m)
The inertia of all moving parts other than the load, in the motion under consideration, is replaced
by a single equivalent mass m assumed to be concentrated at the point of suspension of the
load and given by the relation :
m = m
0
+
i
∑
[ ( I
i
. w
i
2
) / v
2
]
Where :
m
0
is the total mass of all elements, other than the load, undergoing the same pure linear
motion as the point of suspension of the load ;
I
i
the moment of inertia of a part undergoing a rotation during the motion under consideration,
this moment of inertia being considered about the axis of rotation, and
w
i
the angular velocity of the part referred to, about its axis of rotation, corresponding to the
linear velocity v of the point of suspension of the load.
The sum Σ covers all parts in rotation (structure, mechanisms, motor) during the motion
considered. However, in the case of mechanisms, the inertia of components other than those
directly coupled to the motor shaft can be ignored.
Mean acceleration or deceleration ( J
m
) :
J
m
= F / (m + m
1
)
where m
1
is the mass of the load.
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Mean duration of acceleration or deceleration ( T
m
) :
T
m
= v / J
m
Mean inertia forces :
The acceleration corresponding to the acceleration J
m
at the point of suspension of the load is
calculated for each component part in motion. Multiplying this acceleration by the mass of the
component considered gives the mean inertia force it sustains.
In the particular case of the load itself, this force of inertia F
cm
will be given by :
F
cm
= m
1
. J
m
Period of oscillation : T
l
T
1
= 2 . π . ( l / g )
0,5
l = the length of suspension of the load when it is in its uppermost position (values of l below
2,00 m need not be taken into consideration) and,
g = the acceleration due to gravity.
Value of µ : µ = m
1
/ m
When the system driving the motion controls the acceleration and the deceleration and
maintains it at a constant value, µ is taken equal to 0 irrespective of the masses m and m
1
.
Value of β : β = T
m
/ T
1
Value of ψ
h
:
With the values obtained for µ and β, the graph in figure A.2.2.1. is used to find the corresponding
value ψ
h
.
Inertia forces to be considered in the design of the structure :
The forces of inertia which take account of dynamic effects and which must therefore be
considered in the structural calculations are obtained as follows :
 Inertia force due to the load : ψ
h
. F
cm
 Inertia force on moving parts other than the load : twice the mean inertia forces.
3.  JUSTIFICATION
A justification of the method given above follows in part 2 of this appendix.
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PART 2  EXPLANATION OF THE METHOD
1.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A hoisting appliance is a physical system consisting essentially of :
 concentrated masses (hook load, counterweights, ...) and distributed masses (girders,
ropes, ...),
 elastic connections between these masses (girders, ropes, ...).
If such a system, originally in a state of equilibrium, is subjected to a varying load, it does not
tend progressively towards a new state of equilibrium even if the new load applied is itself
constant. On the contrary, it is set in a more or less complex oscillating motion about this new
state of equilibrium. During this motion, the various internal loads and stresses of the system
can exceed sometimes to a marked extent  the values they would have assumed had the
system been in static equilibrium under the influence of the new load.
Such a situation arises during acceleration or deceleration (braking) of a horizontal motion of a
hoisting appliance. Thus if, starting from a position of rest, an appliance or part of an appliance
begins a motion of translation or rotation, the component parts of the system undergo
accelerations and are therefore subjected to inertia forces. Once a steady speed is attained, the
acceleration ceases, the inertia forces disappear and the external load undergoes a new
variation.
The angle through which a rotating system turns (e.g. the rotating part of a crane) during the time
for which inertia forces are applied is generally relatively small. This being so, no appreciable
error will be involved if one assumes that each point in the system follows a straight path during
this time. Since, moreover, there is no difference of principle between the treatment used for
linear motions and motions of rotation, in what follows the linear motion will be considered in
greater detail (chapter 2), whereas only a short note (chapter 3) will cover rotation.
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2.  CALCULATING THE LOADS IN THE CASE OF A LINEAR MOTION
2.1.  GENERAL DATA
It is now proposed to examine the particular case of braking of the travel motion of a complete
overhead travelling crane when it is carrying a load suspended from its hoisting rope. Other
cases encountered in practice can be dealt with in similar fashion.
Considering figure A.2.1. let :
m
1
be the mass of the suspended load,
m the total mass of the overhead travelling crane including the crab (see note below
concerning the inertia of the motor and of the machinery driving the motion),
x a coordinate defining the position of the crane along its track (more precisely, x represents
the coordinate of the point of suspension of the hoisting rope along an axis parallel to the
direction of travel),
x
1
a coordinate defining the position of the centre of gravity of the suspended load along an
axis of the same direction, sense and origin as the axis of x ,
z = x
1
 x a coordinate expressing the horizontal displacement of the load relative to the crane.
Let us assume that at the instant t = 0 the overhead travelling crane is moving in the positive
sense of the x axis at a velocity v, and that the load is at rest relative to the crane.
( z = z' = 0, with : z' = dz / dt )
If the brake is applied to the travel mechanism at the instant t = 0, it will give rise from that instant
to a horizontal braking force parallel to, but of opposite sense to, the x axis at each point where a
driving wheel is in contact with its rail. To simplify masters, let us assume that the crab is located
at midspan of the main girders of the overhead travelling crane. It follows by symmetry that the
total force at each rail is the same. Let us designate its projection on the x axis by F/2 (with F > 0),
so that the total braking force acting on the system in motion 2 (crane plus load) is equal to F in
absolute value.
If the system were composed of rigidly interconnected masses, this would result in a
deceleration of absolute value J
m
given by the relation : J
m
= F / ( m +m
1
) (2.1.1)
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Figure A.2.1.
It must not be forgotten however that F originates in the braking torque applied to the travel
mechanism which must not only brake the travel inertia of the crane and the load but also the
rotational inertia of the driving motor and the intervening machinery. Generally speaking, one can
neglect the rotating inertia of all components other than those integral with the motor shaft. In
many cases, however, the inertia of the latter must be taken into account and the relation (2.1.1.)
holds good only provided that m incorporates an equivalent mass m
e
given by the relation :
m
e
. v
2
= I
m
. ω
m
2
(2.1.2.)
where :
I
m
is the moment of inertia of all the components integral with the motor shaft (including the
motor itself, of course) and
ω
m
the angular velocity of the motor corresponding to the travelling speed v of the crane.
Under the effect of the deceleration J
m
, the suspension rope cannot retain its vertical position. Its
new position of equilibrium is inclined to the vertical at an angle α
m
given by the relation :
α
m
= arctg( J
m
/ g ) (2.1.3.)
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. In this case the rope exerts a horizontal force on the
crane whose projection F
cm
on the x axis is given by :
F
cm
= m
1
. J
m
(2.1.4.)
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In point of fact, the system is not rigid, the deceleration is not constant and is not therefore given
by (2.1.1.), the load and its suspension rope adopt an oscillating motion, and the horizontal force
developed by the rope on the crane can assume values differing greatly from (2.1.4.).
By a similar reasoning, one may conclude that the deceleration of the system gives rise to inertia
forces which act on each component part of the crane and the crab, but that because of the
elasticity of the girders the system will undergo an oscillating motion in the course of which the
stresses will be subject to fluctuations which must be estimated.
The next two paragraphs deal in succession with the effect of the inertia forces on the load and
on the girders.
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2.2.  EFFECT OF INERTIA FORCES ON THE LOAD
In determining the motion which the load executes after the brake is applied, one can neglect the
movement of the point of suspension due to girder flexibility in a horizontal plane. The amplitude
of this movement is, in fact, very small compared with the amplitude of swinging of the load.
Calculations can therefore be carried out with the crane considered as a system which is not
subject to deformation.
The projection F
C
on the x axis of the force exerted by the rope on the crane is given by the
relation :
F
C
= m
1
. g [( x
1
 x ) / l] = m
1
. g . z / l (2.2.1)
where l is the suspension length of the load. It will be noted that F
C
is proportional to the
displacement z of the load with respect to its position of initial equilibrium, just as if it were an
elastic restoring force.
The equations of motion can be written :
m
l
. x’’
1
= m
1
. g [( x
1
 x ) / l] (2.2.2.)
m . x’’ = m
1
. g [( x
1
 x ) / l]  F (2.2.3.)
while, assuming x = 0, for t = 0, the initial conditions are as follows :
for t = 0, x
1
= x = 0 (2.2.4.)
x'
1
= x' = v (2.2.5.)
z = x
1
 x = 0 (2.2.6.)
z’ = x’
1
 x’ = 0 (2.2.7.)
Let :
g / l = ω
1
2
(2.2.8.)
(m
1
/ m) . (g / l) = ω
2
2
(2.2.9.)
ω
1
2
+ ω
2
2
= ω
r
2
(2.2.10.)
F / m = J
0
(2.2.11.)
Equations (2.2.2.) and (2.2.3.) then become :
x" + z" + ω
1
2
. z = 0 (2.2.12.)
x"  ω
2
2
. z =  J
0
(2.2.13.)
whence
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z’’ + ω
r
2
. z = J
0
(2.2.14.)
With the initial conditions of (2.2.4.) to (2.2.7.), the solution to these equations is given by :
z = ( J
0
/ ω
r
2
) . [1  cos( ω
r
. t)] (2.2.15.)
x' = v [ ( ω
1
2
./ ω
r
2
) . J
0
. t ]  [ ( ω
2
2
./ ω
r
2
) . ( J
0
/ ω
r
) ] . sin(ω
r
. t) (2.2.16.)
The complete expression for x is of no direct interest to us.
Let : J
0
/ ω
r
2
= z
m
(2.2.17.)
it can then be seen without difficulty that z
m
is the position of equilibrium that can be assumed by
the load during a constant deceleration of the crane equal to the value J
m
defined by (2.1.1.), i.e.
during the deceleration that would be obtained by applying the braking force F to the total mass
(crane plus load) in motion, this mass being assumed to constitute a rigid system. The value z =
z
m
defining the load displacement corresponds to the horizontal force F
cm
, defined by (2.1.4.)
exerted by the rope on the crane. Comparison between (2.2.1.), (2.2.15.) and (2.2.17.) then
shows that :
F
c
= F
cm
. [ 1  cos(ω
r
. t) ] (2.2.18.)
If the deceleration period of the crane lasts for a time t
d
such that :
ω
r
. t
d
≥ π (2.2.19.)
it will be seen that F
c
momentarily becomes twice F
cm
, or in other words, that its maximum value
F
c max
is given by the relation :
F
c max
= 2 . F
cm
(2.2.20.)
If the condition (2.2.19.) is not satisfied, this means that the crane has stopped before the load
has reached its maximum displacement z = 2 z
m
. However, after the crane stops, the load will
usually continue to oscillate, so the rope will continue to exert a varying horizontal force on the
crane, and the maximum value which this can attain must be sought.
It is easy to verify that after the crane has stopped, the motion of the load is defined by the
expression :
z = z
d
. cos[ ω
1
. (t  t
d
) ] + (z’
d
/ ω
1
) . sin[ ω
1
. (t  t
d
) ] (2.2.21.)
with
z
d
= z
m
. [ 1  cos(ω
r
. t
d
) ] (2.2.22.)
z'
d
= ω
r
. z
m
. sin(ω
r
. t
d
) (2.2.23.)
where t
d
is the smallest positive value of t that makes the expression (2.2.16.) for x' equal to zero.
The maximum value F
c max
assumed by F
c
is then given by the relation :
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F
c max
= F
cm
. { [ 1  cos( ω
r
. t
d
) ]
2
+ ( ω
r
2
/ ω
1
2
) . sin
2
( ω
r
. t
d
) }
0,5
(2.2.24.)
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2  55
Generally speaking, we may take :
F
c max
/ F
cm
= ψ
h
(2.2.25.)
The determination of ψ
h
is simplified by introducing the following quantifies :
T
m
= v / J
m
the time for which the slowingdown phase of the crane would last if the
deceleration were constant and the system in motion not subject to deformation.
T
1
= 2 π / ω
1
the period of oscillation of the pendulum system formed by the suspended load
(crane stopped).
T
1
= 2 π . ( l / g )
0,5
It can be verified without difficulty that ψ
h
depends only on two nondimensional parameters µ
and β defined by the ratios :
µ = m
1
/ m (2.2.26.)
β = T
m
/ T
1
(2.2.27.)
which can be obtained very easily. It will be noted that (2.2.16.) can be written :
x’ = v . { 1  [ ω
r
. t + µ . sin( ω
r
. t ) ] / [ 2 π . β ( 1 + µ )
0,5
] } (2.2.28.)
and therefore :
[ ω
r
. t
d
+ µ . sin( ω
r
. t
d
) ] / [ 2 π . β ( 1 + µ )
0,5
] = 1 (2.2.29.)
this equation makes it possible to determine the value of ω
r
. t
d
to be introduced into (2.2.24.).
The graph in figure (2.2.1.) plots the values of ψ
h
against β for various values of µ. (The curve
µ = 0 will be explained later in Chapter 5).
If µ < 1 (which is generally the case with overhead travelling crane travel motions, such as that in
the example dealt with), an analysis of the problem shows that ψ
h
can in no case exceed 2. This
value is reached during the crane deceleration phase if the condition (2.2.19.) is satisfied or,
which is the same thing, if β reaches or exceeds a certain critical value, β
crit
dependent upon µ.
Above this critical value, ψ
h
therefore remains constant and equal to 2, whatever the value of β.
If µ > 1 (which could be the case with traverse motions, in which m essentially represents only
the mass of the crab, or with slewing motions), the same analysis shows that, again provided β
reaches or exceeds a certain critical value β
crit
dependent upon µ, ψ
h
can exceed 2 and reach a
maximum given by :
ψ
h
= [ 2 + µ + ( 1 / µ ) ]
0,5
(2.2.30.)
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This maximum can actually be reached only during the swinging motion of the load subsequent
to the bringing to rest of its point of suspension. The critical value β
crit
is such that the crane is
halted before the condition (2.2.19.) is satisfied, or before F
c
reaches 2 F
cm
. However, any value
of β greater than β
crit
leads to the condition (2.2.19.) being satisfied and F
c
necessarily passes
the value 2 F
cm
, whence ψ
h
> 2. It will also be noted that if β > β
crit
has been calculated taking v
equal to the maximum steady speed of the motion, braking applied starting from the initial speed
v . β
crit
/ β
will necessarily lead to the maximum value of ψ
h
given by (2.2.30.). This is the reason why, in the
graph of figure A.2.2.1., the values of ψ
h
have been maintained for all values of β greater than β
crit
.
Figure A.2.2.1.
As regards the choice of T
1
, it should be noted that the danger of reaching high values of ψ
h
is all
the greater as the suspension length l of the load becomes shorter, because β then attains its
critical value more rapidly. The calculations must therefore be made assuming that the load is
near its uppermost position. In practice l will generally lie between 2 and 8 m. The table below
gives the values of T
1
for a few values of l.
l (m) T
1
(s)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2,84
3.47
4.01
4.49
4.91
5.31
5.67
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2  58
It remains for us to examine the effect of the horizontal force F
c max
on the loading conditions
sustained by the structure.
This force actually exist, so that any components such as the crab which transmit it directly must
be designed to withstand it. The configuration of the load acting on the girder as a whole
therefore deserves some attention.
Let us first consider the case where F
c max
occurs before the crane has come to halt. It would be
incorrect to consider the latter as a beam supported at both ends and subjected at its centre to
the force F
c max
. One must not lose sight of the fact that each of the two supporting points can
transmit only a reaction F/2. The successive diagrams in figure A.2.2.2. illustrate how the
problem must be considered. Diagram "a" represents the ideal state of equilibrium, in which the
system as a whole is subjected to a deceleration J
m
(or an acceleration
x" =  J
m
) and in which the rope develops a force F
cm
. Each material element dm of the system
therefore sustains an inertia force J
m
dm. Diagram "a" is a superimposition of diagram "b" and
diagram "c". Diagram "b" relates to the load due to the inertia forces on the crane proper (this is
dealt with in paragraph 2.3.), while diagram "c" shows the effect of the load due to the rope. In
point of fact, the actual force developed by the rope is not the force F
cm
represented in diagram "c"
but the force :
F
c max
= ψ
h
. F
cm
(2.2.31.)
Since the supporting points (braked wheels) are not capable of increasing their
reaction, the excess force (ψ
h
 1)F
cm
can only result in a supplementary acceleration x"
expressed by :
x" = ( ψ
h
 1) . F
cm
/ m (2.2.32.)
which is translated into a distributed load  x" dm on all material elements of the crane. Diagram
"d" consequently represents the loading configuration to be taken into account when designing
the girders.
Let us consider the case in which F
c max
arises after the crane has halted. This time, the braked
wheels no longer have to devote part of the reaction of which they are capable to taking up the
inertia forces on the crane, and in general, must be regarded as being fixed. This being so, the
girder must be designed as if it were supported at each end and subjected to the force F
c max
at
its centre. This latter case is in point of fact the only one which needs to be considered, because
when F
c
reaches its maximum value 2 F
cm
before the crane comes to a standstill this force can
still arise in the course of the pendulum motion which follows after it has stopped.
All the preceding considerations still hold good if, instead of considering a braking phase, one is
dealing with an acceleration phase of the crane, in the course of which it is speeded up, by a
constant driving torque, from rest to a given steady speed.
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2.3.  EFFECT OF INERTIA FORCES ON THE STRUCTURAL STEELWORK
In the previous chapter, the structure was assumed to be perfectly rigid. In fact, however, it
possesses a degree of elasticity and consequently also assumes an oscillating motion during
the braking period and after coming to rest. Because the structure is composed essentially of
distributed rather than simple concentrated masses, it is usually very difficult to determine the
motion theoretically, and such calculations would be justified only in the case of very large
appliances in which the inertia forces play an appreciable part.
LOADING ACCELERATION
Figure A.2.2.2.
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In almost all cases, it will suffice to represent a structure as being a simple oscillating system
having restoring forces proportional to the extension and subjected to the overall acceleration of
the reference system to which it is referred. In view of the note following expression (2.2.1.) the
considerations developed in paragraph 2.2. can be applied here also. However, the natural
period of the oscillations (comparable to the period T
1
of paragraph 2.2.) is always appreciably
shorter than that of a suspended load, not exceeding a few tenths of a second in most cases.
The result of this is that the parameter corresponding to β always exceeds the critical value β
crit
,
so that ψ
h
must always be taken equal to 2, this being the coefficient applicable to inertia loads
calculated with the mean deceleration J
m
. The only exception that could be made to this rule
would be for extremely brief retardation phases, such as those resulting from braking a low
speed travel motion, with the wheels slipping on the rails.
Because the oscillating motions of the structure have a high frequency, the maximum resulting
loadings are superimposed momentarily upon those due to the load.
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3.  CALCULATING THE LOADS IN THE CASE OF A SLEWING MOTION
In the case of a slewing motion, considerations similar to those of chapter 2 can be developed.
To calculate the effects of the inertia forces on the load, it is only necessary to determine m from
the relation :
m v
2
= I ω
2
(3.1.)
where
v is the horizontal linear velocity of the suspension point of the load ;
I is the moment of inertia of all parts in motion (structure, machinery, motor) referred to a
particular shaft,
ω is the angular velocity of that shaft corresponding to the velocity v above.
4.  CALCULATING THE LOADS IN THE CASE OF A LUFFING MOTION
In the case of a luffing motion, considerations similar to those of chapter 2 can be developed. It
will suffice to determine m from the relation :
m v
2
= 2 T (4.1.)
where
v is the horizontal linear velocity of the suspension point of the load.
T is the total kinetic energy of the masses in motion when the horizontal linear velocity of the
suspension point of the load is equal to v.
5.  SYSTEMS WITH REGULATED ACCELERATION
In some control systems, such as certain WardLeonard or hydraulically actuated systems, the
magnitudes of the accelerations and decelerations are dictated by the characteristics of the
system and are maintained constant regardless of external conditions. For this reason, load
swing does not disturb the acceleration or deceleration conditions of the appliance or part of the
appliance in motion.
In the exempla dealt with in paragraph 2.2., this would be tantamount to assuming that x" is a
given constant. Using equation (2.2.12.) and its derivations, it is easy to show that in this case
ψ
h
= 2 sinβ π for β ≤ 0,5 (5.1.)
ψ
h
= 2 for β > 0,5 (5.1.)
Such a situation would also obtain if one assumed the mass m
1
to be infinitely small compared
with m and therefore unable to disturb its motion. This being so, (5.1.) is the limiting curve
obtained by making µ tend to zero, and is represented on diagram 2.2.1. by the curve µ = 0.
The considerations in paragraph 2.3. are in no way modified.
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6.  GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
Knowing the torque or the braking or accelerating force, the first step is to calculate the mean
deceleration or acceleration J
m
, obtained on the assumption that the various parts of the
structure are perfectly rigid and the load is concentrated at its point of suspension. Using this
acceleration, one calculates the inertia forces acting on both the load and the various elements
of the structure. These forces are thenmultiplied by a certain coefficient ψ
h
in order to take
account of the elasticity of the various connections.
For the inertia forces acting on the structure ψ
h
is always taken equal to 2, except possibly in the
special case mentioned in the penultimate paragraph of 2.3., provided justification can be
provided for the reduction.
In the case of the inertia forces acting on the load, the mass m is calculated (incorporating,
where necessary, the mass equivalent to the inertia of the motor and the mechanism) and the
mean deceleration or acceleration time T
m
is then determined on the basis of the maximum
steady speed of the motion. The value of T
1
depends on the suspension length of the load in its
uppermost position, and is therefore known. Hence one can determine the parameters µ and β
(µ = 0 in the case of a regulatedacceleration system), and figure A.2.2.1. furnishes the
corresponding value ψ
h
. In almost all cases, the maximum force appears or can appear after
completion of the braking or starting phase under consideration. Its effects on the structure can
be ascertained by applying the ordinary laws of statics.
It will be noted that the calculations developed in Chapter 2 assume the load to be relatively at
rest (z = z' = 0) at the initial time t = 0. If this is not so, the motion of the system is affected and ψ
h
can reach values considerably higher than those we have fixed. Such a situation could arise for
instance when a motion is braked by repeated intermittent applications of the brake, or when
successive motions take place at fairly short intervals. The method of calculation indicated above
is therefore not excessive in any way, and special cases exist in which it would be well to
exercise some caution in applying it.
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA
MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 3
CALCULATING THE STRESSES IN STRUCTURES
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 3
CALCULATING THE STRESSES IN STRUCTURES
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... 3
3.1. THE CHOICE OF STEEL QUALITIES................................................................................. 4
3.1.1. ASSESSMENT OF THE FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE BRITTLE FRACTURE........ 4
3.1.1.1. INFLUENCE A : COMBINED EFFECT OF LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL TENSILE
STRESSES WITH STRESSES FROM DEAD WEIGHT .....................................................................4
3.1.1.2. INFLUENCE B : THICKNESS OF MEMBER t........................................................................6
3.1.1.3. INFLUENCE C : INFLUENCE OF COLD...............................................................................7
3.1.2. DETERMINATION OF THE REQUIRED STEEL QUALITY GROUP............................. 7
3.1.3. QUALITY OF STEELS................................................................................................... 8
3.1.4. SPECIAL RULES......................................................................................................... 10
3.2. CHECKING WITH RESPECT TO THE ELASTIC LIMIT.................................................... 11
3.2.1. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OTHER THAN JOINTS.................................................... 11
3.2.1.1. MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO SIMPLE TENSION OR COMPRESSION...............................11
3.2.1.2. MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR.................................................................................12
3.2.1.3. MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO COMBINED LOADS  EQUIVALENT STRESS......................12
3.2.2. CASE OF JOINTS........................................................................................................ 13
3.2.2.1 RIVETED JOINTS................................................................................................................13
1  Rivets in shear.................................................................................................................................................13
2  Rivets in tension..............................................................................................................................................13
3  Rivets loaded in tension and shear ................................................................................................................14
4  Limit of bearing pressure ................................................................................................................................14
5  Notes concerning riveted joints ......................................................................................................................14
3.2.2.2. BOLTED JOINTS................................................................................................................14
3.2.2.2.0. GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................14
3.2.2.2.1. JOINTS MADE WITH TENSION BOLTS WITH CONTROLLED TIGHTENING...............................14
3.2.2.2.2. BOLTED JOINTS SUBJECTED TO FORCES ACTING PARALLEL TO THE JOINT PLANE........18
3.2.2.3. WELDED JOINTS...............................................................................................................21
3.3. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO CRIPPLING......................................................... 23
3.4. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BUCKLING.......................................................... 24
3.5. CASE OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO SIGNIFICANT DEFORMATION.................. 25
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3.6. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE........................................................ 26
3.6.1. CONVENTIONAL NUMBER OF CYCLES AND STRESS SPECTRUM...................... 26
3.6.2. MATERIAL USED AND NOTCH EFFECT................................................................... 26
3.6.3. DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM STRESS σ
max
................................................ 26
3.6.4. THE RATIO κ BETWEEN THE EXTREME STRESSES.............................................. 27
3.6.5. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE .................................................. 27
.APPENDIX............................................................................................................................... 28
A  3.2.2.2.2.3. DESIGN OF JOINTS USING HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS WITH
CONTROLLED TIGHTENING ............................................................................................... 28
A 3.2.2.3.  STRESSES IN WELDED JOINTS...................................................................... 32
A  3.3.  CHECKING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SUBJECT TO CRIPPLING...................... 34
A  3.6.  CHECKING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FATIGUE.......................... 46
1  VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS..........................................................................47
2  VERIFICATION OF THE JOINING MEANS (welds, bolts, rivets).................................................54
EXAMPLES OF CALCULATING CHECKS.............................................................................. 67
EXAMPLES OF FATIGUE CHECKS FOR A WELDED WEB TO FLANGE JOINT STEEL
St 37....................................................................................................................................... 67
CHECKING FOR FATIGUE AND ELASTIC LIMIT................................................................. 68
FIRST EXAMPLE  COMPONENT IN GROUP E4 WITH FILLET WELD (O Q )................................68
SECOND EXAMPLE  COMPONENT IN GROUP E6  K WELD (S.Q.) ............................................71
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INTRODUCTION
The stresses set up in the various structural members are determined for the three cases of
loading defined under section 2.3., and a check is made to ensure that there is a sufficient
safety coefficient ν in respect of the critical stresses, considering the following three possible
causes of failure :
 exceeding the elastic limit ;
 exceeding the critical crippling or buckling load ;
 exceeding the limit of endurance to fatigue.
The quality of the steels used must be stated and the physical properties, chemical composition
and welding qualities must be guaranteed by the manufacturer of the material.
The permissible stresses for the materials used are determined as stipulated in clauses 3.2.,
3.3., 3.4. and 3.6. thereunder, with reference to the critical stresses for the material.
These critical stresses are those which correspond either to the elastic limit (which in practice,
involves establishing the stress corresponding to a critical limit for elongation), or to the critical
stress for crippling or buckling, or, in the case of fatigue, to the stress for which the probability of
survival, under tests, is 90 %.
The stresses in the structural members shall be calculated on the basis of the different cases of
loading envisaged under section 2.3. by applying conventional strength of materials calculation
procedures.
The sections of metal to be considered shall be the gross sections (i.e. without deducting the
areas of holes) for all parts which are subjected to compression loads
1
, and the net sections
(i.e. with the areas of holes deducted) for all parts subjected to tensile loads.
In the case of a member subjected to bending, a halfnet section should be assumed, taking the
net section in parts under tension and the gross section in parts under compression. To simplify
the calculations, however, one may use either the section modulus of the net section or the
section modulus computed for the halfnet section, using as centre of gravity of the section that
of the gross section.
1
The area of the holes shall be included in the crosssectional area only when they are filled by a rivet
or a bolt.
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3.1. THE CHOICE OF STEEL QUALITIES
The verifications required in the design rules for the safety of the structure against yielding,
instability and fatigue failure do not guarantee safety against brittle fracture.
In order to obtain sufficient safety against brittle fracture, a steel quality has to be chosen
depending on the conditions influencing brittle fracture.
The most important influences on the sensitivity to brittle fracture in steel structures are :
A. Combined effect of longitudinal residual tensile stresses with tensile stresses from dead
load.
B. Thickness of the member.
C. Influence of cold.
Influences A, B, and C are valued with points. The required steel quality depends on the sum of
these points.
3.1.1. ASSESSMENT OF THE FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE BRITTLE FRACTURE
In the following, influences A, B, and C in paragraph 3.1. are described and quantified.
3.1.1.1. INFLUENCE A : COMBINED EFFECT OF LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL TENSILE
STRESSES WITH STRESSES FROM DEAD WEIGHT
σ
a
= permissible tensile stress with respect
to the elastic limit, loading case I.
σ
G
= tensile stress from permanent load,
e.g. from dead weight
Z
A
= assessing coefficient for influence A
Equations for lines I, II and III in figure 3.1.1.1.
Line I : no welds, or only transverse welds
Z
A
= σ
G
/ ( 0,5 . σ
a
)  1
valid only for σ
G
≥ 0,5 . σ
a
Line II : longitudinal welds
Z
A
= σ
G
/ ( 0,5 . σ
a
)
Line III : accumulation of welds
Z
A
= σ
G
/ ( 0,5 . σ
a
) + 1
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The danger of brittle fracture is increased by high stress concentrations, in particular by
3axial tensile stresses, as is the case with an accumulation of welds.
If members with lowstresses are stress relieved after welding (approx. 600650° C) line I can
be used for all types of welds.
Assessing coefficient
I : No welds or only tranverse welds
II : Longitudinal welds
III : Weld accumulation
Figure 3.1.1.1.  Z
A
in terms of stresses and welds
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3.1.1.2. INFLUENCE B : THICKNESS OF MEMBER t
t = Thickness of member in mm
Z
B
= Assessing coefficient
for influence B
from t = 5 to t = 20 mm
Z
B
= 9 . t
2
/ 2500.
from t = 20 to t = 100 mm
Z
B
= 0,65 . ( t  14,81 )
0,5
0,05
Thickness of member
Figure 3.1.1.2.  Assessing coefficient Z
B
= f (t)
t
mm
Z
B
t
mm
Z
B
t
mm
Z
B
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
15
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,40
0,50
0,80
16
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
0,9
1,45
2,0
2,5
2,9
3,2
3,5
3,8
4,0
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
4,3
4,55
4,8
5,0
5,2
5,4
5,6
5,8
6,0
For rolled sections an idealised thickness t* is to be used. This is :
for round sections : t* = d / 1,8
for square sections : t* = t / 1,8
for rectangular sections : t* = b / 1,8
where b represents the larger side of the rectangle and the ratio of the sides b / t ≤ 1,8
For b / t > 1,8 then t* = t.
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3.1.1.3. INFLUENCE C : INFLUENCE OF COLD
The lowest temperature at the place of erection of the crane determines the classification. This
temperature is generally lower than the working temperature.
T = Temperature at the place of erection in °C
Z
C
= Assessing coefft. for influence C
from T = 0°C to T =  30°C take
Z
C
= 6 . T
2
/ 1600
from T =  30°C to T =  55°C take
Z
C
= [ (  2,25 . T ) 33,75 ] / 10
T
en ° C
Z
C
T
en ° C
Z
C
0
 5
 10
 15
 20
 25
0,0
0,1
0,4
0,8
1,5
2,3
 30
 35
 40
 45
 50
 55
3,4
4,5
5,6
6,7
7,9
9,0
Temperature T in °C
Figure 3.1.1.3.  Assessing coefft. Z
C
= f (T)
3.1.2. DETERMINATION OF THE REQUIRED STEEL QUALITY GROUP
It is the sum of assessing coefficients from paragraph 3.1.1. which determines the minimum
required quality for the steel structure.
Table T. 3.1.2. shows the classification of the quality group in relation to the sum of the
assessing coefficients.
If the sum of the assessing coefficients is higher than 16 or if the required steel quality cannot
be obtained, special measures will be necessary to obtain the steel quality necessary for safety
against brittle fracture which will have to be determined with material experts.
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Table T.3.1.2.
Classification of quality groups in relation to the sum of the assessing coefficients
Sum of the assessing coefficients
from paragraph 3.1.1.
ΣZ = Z
A
+ Z
B
+ Z
C
Quality group corresponding
in table T.3.1.3
≤ 2
≤ 4
≤ 8
≤ 16
1
2
3
4
3.1.3. QUALITY OF STEELS
The quality of steels in these design rules is the property of steel to exhibit a ductile behaviour
at determined temperatures.
The steels are divided into four quality groups. The group in which the steel is classified, is
obtained from its notch ductility in a given test and temperature.
Table T.3.1.3. comprises the notch ductility values and test temperatures for the four quality
groups.
The indicated notch ductilities are minimum values, being the mean values from three tests,
where no value must be below 20 Nm/cm
2
.
The notch ductility is to be determined in accordance with Vnotch impact tests to ISO R 148
and Euronorm 4563.
Steels of different quality groups can be welded together.
T
C
is the test temperature for the Vnotch impact test.
T is the temperature at the place of erection of the crane.
T
C
and T are not directly comparable as the Vnotch impact test imposes a more unfavourable
condition than the loading on the crane in or out of service.
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Table T.3.1.3.  Quality groups
Quality
group
Notch ductility
measured in
ISO sharp notch
test ISO R 148
in Nm/cm
2
Test temperature
Tc °C
Steels, corresponding
to the quality group
Designation of steels
Standard
Fe 360  A
Fe 430  A
Euronorm 25
1  
St 37  2
St 44  2
DIN 17100
E 24  1 NF A 35501
43 A 50 B * BS 4360 1972
Fe 360  B
Fe 430  B
Fe 510  B
Euronorm 25
2 35 + 20
R St 372
St 442
DIN 17100
E 24 (A37)  2
E 26 (A42)  2
E 36 (A52)  2
NF A 35501
40 B 43 B * BS 4360 1972
Fe 360  C
Fe 430  C
Fe 510  C
Euronorm 25
3 35 0
St 37  3U
St 44  3U
St 52  3U
DIN 17100
E 24 (A37)  3
E 26 (A42)  3
E 36 (A52)  3
NF A 35501
40 C 43 C *
50 C 55 C
BS 4360 1972
Fe 360  D
Fe 410  D
Fe 510  D
Euronorm 25
4 35 20
St 37  3N
St 44  3N
St 52  3N
DIN 17100
E 24 (A37)  4
E 26 (A42)  4
E 36 (A52)  4
NF A 35501
40 D 43 D *
50 D 55 E
BS 4360 1972
* The test requirements of steels to BS.4360 do not in all cases agree with the Euronorm and
other national standards, and the guaranteed impact test properties for steels to BS.4360 may
be different to other steels in the same quality group. Impact test properties are stated in BS.
4360 and where the requirements are different from those guaranteed in BS. 4360, agreement
must be obtained from the steel suppliers.
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3.1.4. SPECIAL RULES
In addition to the above provisions for the choice of the steel quality, the following rules are to
be observed :
1  Non killed steels of group 1 shall be used for load carrying structures only in case of rolled
sections and tubes not exceeding 6 mm thickness.
2  Members of more than 50 mm thickness, shall not be used for welded load carrying
structures unless the manufacturer has a comprehensive experience in the welding of
thick plates. The steel quality and its testing has in this case to be determined by
specialists.
3  If parts are cold bent with a radius/plate thickness ratio < 10 the steel quality has to be
suitable for folding or cold flanging.
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3.2. CHECKING WITH RESPECT TO THE ELASTIC LIMIT
For this check, a distinction is made between the actual members of the structure and the
riveted, bolted or welded joints.
3.2.1. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OTHER THAN JOINTS
3.2.1.1. MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO SIMPLE TENSION OR COMPRESSION
1) Case of steels for which the ratio between the elastic limit σ
E
and the ultimate tensile strength
σ
R
is < 0,7.
The computed stress σ must not exceed the maximum permissible stress σ
a
obtained by
dividing the elastic limit stress σ
E
by a coefficient ν
E
which depends upon the case of loading as
defined under section 2.3.
The values of ν
E
and the permissible stresses are :
Values of ν
E
Case I
1,5
Case II
1,33
Case III
1,1
Permissible stresses σ
a
σ
E
/ 1,5 σ
E
/ 1,33 σ
E
/ 1,1
For carbon steels of current manufacture A.37  A.42  A.52 (also called E.24  E.26  E.36 or Fe
360  Fe 510) the critical stress σ
E
is conventionally taken as that which corresponds to an
elongation of 0,2 %.
Table T.3.2.1.1.  Values of σσσ σ
E
and σσσ σ
a
for steels A.37  A.42  A.52
Elastic limit Maximum permissible stresses : σ
a
STEELS σ
E
Case I Case II Case III
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
E.24 (A.37, Fe 360)
E 26 (A.42)
E.36 (A.52, Fe 510)
240
260
360
160
175
240
180
195
270
215
240
325
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2) Case of steels with high elastic limit ( σ
E
/ σ
R
> 0,7)
For steels with high elastic limit where the ratio σ
E
/ σ
R
is greater than 0.7, the use of the ν
E
coefficients does not ensure a sufficient margin of safety. In this case a check can be made that
the permissible stress σ
a
given by the formula below is not exceeded :
σ
a
= [ (σ
E
+ σ
R
) / (σ
E.52
+ σ
R.52
) ] . σ
a 52
where :
σ
E
and σ
R
are the elastic limit and the ultimate tensile strength of the steel considered
σ
E.52
and σ
R.52
these same stresses for steel A.52, i.e. 360 N/mm
2
and 510 N/mm
2
σ
a 52
the permissible stress for steel A.52 in the case of loading considered.
3.2.1.2. MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR
The permissible stress in shear τ
a
has the following value :
τ
a
= σ
a
/ 3
0,5
σ
a
being the permissible tensile stress.
3.2.1.3. MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO COMBINED LOADS  EQUIVALENT STRESS
σ
x
, σ
y
and τ
xy
being respectively the two normal stresses and the shear stress at a given point,
a check shall be made :
1  that each of the two stresses σ
x
and σ
y
is less than σ
a
and that τ
xy
is less than τ
a
2  that the equivalent stress σ
cp
is less than σ
a
, i.e. :
σ
cp
= ( σ
x
2
+ σ
y
2
 σ
x
. σ
y
+ 3 . τ
xy
2
)
0,5
≤ σ
a
When using this formula, a simple method is to take the maximum values σ
x
, σ
y
and τ
xy
. But, in
fact, such a calculation leads to too great an equivalent stress if it is impossible for the
maximum values of each of the three stresses to occur simultaneously.
Nevertheless, the simple calculation method, being conservative, is always acceptable.
If it is desired to calculate more precisely, it is necessary to determine the most unfavourable
practical combination that may occur. Three checks must then be made by calculating
successively the equivalent stress resulting from the three following combinations :
σ
x max
and the corresponding stresses σ
y
and τ
xy
σ
y max
and the corresponding stresses σ
x
and τ
xy
τ
xy maw
and the corresponding stresses σ
x
and σ
y
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Note : It should be noted that when two out of the three stresses are approximately of the same
value, and greater than half the permissible stress, the most unfavourable combination of the
three values may occur in different loading cases from those corresponding to the maximum of
each of the three stresses.
Special case :
 Tension (or compression) combined with shear
The following formula should be checked :
( σ
2
+ 3 . τ
2
)
0,5
≤ σ
a
3.2.2. CASE OF JOINTS
3.2.2.1 RIVETED JOINTS
1  Rivets in shear
Taking the effect of the clamping force into account, the calculated shearing stress τ must not
exceed :
τ = 0,6 . σ
a
in the case of single shear
and
τ = 0,8 . σ
a
in the case of double or multiple shear
where σ
a
is the permissible tensile stress of the metal used for the rivet.
single shear double or multiple shear
2  Rivets in tension
The calculated tensile stress σ must not exceed the value :
σ = 0,2 . σ
a
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3  Rivets loaded in tension and shear
The following conditions must be checked : σ ≤ 0,2 . σ
a
and τ ≤ 0,6 . σ
a
for single shear
or τ ≤ 0,8 . σ
a
for double shear
4  Limit of bearing pressure
The bearing pressure in the walls of holes σ
n
must not exceed :
σ
n
≤ 1,5 . σ
a
for single shear
σ
n
≤ 2 . σ
a
for double shear
5  Notes concerning riveted joints
a) Rivets subjected to tension should be avoided, particularly for the main members ;
b) all joints must have at least two rivets aligned in the direction of the force.
3.2.2.2. BOLTED JOINTS
3.2.2.2.0. GENERAL
Bolted joints may be subjected to stresses due to forces acting perpendicular to the joint (joints
by tension bolts), due to forces acting parallel to the joint surfaces, and due to forces acting
simultaneously perpendicular and parallel to the joint surface.
3.2.2.2.1. JOINTS MADE WITH TENSION BOLTS WITH CONTROLLED TIGHTENING
1  General
A joint by tension bolts with controlled tightening is a joint in which the main tension is in the
direction of the axis of the bolt, screw or threaded rod and which has been subject to a
tightening effect, applied in the absence of any external load, which is recommended for all
joints subjected to fatigue.
Care must be taken to ensure that the bolt is not subjected to shear loading. These bolts do not
come into the category of H.S. bolts but may be used if they fulfil the conditions of 3.2.2.2.2.3.
Care should be taken to ensure that the bolts are correctly tightened and that the tightening is
permanent (tolerance +/ 10 %). Factor Ω = 1,1 is introduced to take account of tolerances.
During the application of the initial tightening on the bolt, under the combined effect of tension
and torsional loading the stress should not exceed 80 % of the elastic limit, taking account of
the scatter in applying the initial tightening.
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2  Calculation of the permissible load on joints
A  Calculation of the initial tightening force to be used
a) Tightening with twist
σ
b
= (σ
p
2
+ 3 . τ
b
2
)
0,5
≤ 0,8 σ
E
τ
b
= [ ( 2 . d
2
. σ
p
) / d
t
] . [ p
a
/ ( π . d
2
) + 1,155 . µ]
where :
σ
p
= theoretical tensile stress under the tightening effect
τ
b
= torsional stress under the tightening effect
d
2
= diameter of the root of the thread
d
t
= nominal diameter of the bolt
p
a
= thread pitch
µ = friction coefficient in the threads
σ
E
= elastic limit of the bolt metal
b) Tightening without twist σ
b
≤ 0,8 σ
E
B  Permissible load F
1
on the joint
Two checks are to be made :
a) Under the maximum load, taking into account the safety coefficient κ and κ‘, the elastic limit
of the bolt must not be exceeded.
determine : σ‘
1
= ( σ
b
2
 3 . τ
b
2
)
0,5
check that : F
1
/ S
b
≤ ( σ‘
1
 σ
p
) / ( κ . κ‘ . δ
b
) where :
S
b
= section of the root < section of the shank.
δ
b
= ∆l
1
/ (∆l
1
+ ∆l
2
)
∆l
1
= shortening of the elements to be tightened under the action of the tightening force
∆l
2
= lengthening of bolt under the action of the tightening force.
For assembled steel parts, the section to be considered for ∆l
1
:
Seq = 0,25 . π . [ ( S
1
+ 0,1 . l
k
)
2
 D
t
2
]
where :
S
1
= bearing diameter under head
l
k
= length of tightened parts
D
t
= diameter of bolt holes
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For bolts whose shank diameter differs considerably from the root diameter of the thread and
where there is an appreciable threaded length remaining in the part submitted to stress, a
complete calculation of ∆l
2
should be made.
b) Under the maximum load with application of coefficients Ω, κ' and κ " separation of the parts
should not occur.
σ
1
= F
1
/ S
b
≤ σ
p
/ [ κ' . κ'‘ . ( 1  δ
b
) . Ω ]
Safety coefficients κ , κ' and κ'‘
κ depends on the surface state of the parts to be tightened (machined surface κ = 1 )
κ' corresponds to safety in relation to the elastic limit in accordance with table T.3.2.2.2.
κ'' corresponds to safety against separation of the parts.
Table T.3.2.2.2.
Case I Case II Case III
κ‘ 1,50 1,33 1,1
κ‘’ 1,3 1,0 1,0
Note : The coefficients κ‘ and κ‘’ should be applied to the most unfavourable condition arising
from the scatter in applying the initial tightening effort.
C  Checking for fatigue
Checking bolts for fatigue is carried out solely for case I loads.
Under the effect of the service load F
1
, the true tensile stress varies between the values :
σ
p
and σ
p
+ ( F
1
. δ
b
) / S
b
The following equation must be verified :
σ
1
= F
1
/ S
b
≤ 2 . σ
A
/ δ
b
σ
A
is the amplitude of the maximum permissible stress for fatigue given in the following
graph.
For any other type of bolt or design method the σ
A
value should ensure at least an equivalent
lever of safety against fatigue.
Any conformity tests should be carried out according to ISO specification 3800/1
with σ
m
= 0,8 . R
E
. ( R
E
= σ
E
)
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Amplitude of maximum permissible fatigue stress
Graph for ISO bolts
 standard thread
 classes 8.8, 10.9, 12.9
 cold rolled thread with heat treatment after rolling
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3.2.2.2.2. BOLTED JOINTS SUBJECTED TO FORCES ACTING PARALLEL TO THE JOINT PLANE
1  Bolts subjected to shear (fitted bolts)
Preferably for nonfluctuating stresses with and without preload.
The following checks presuppose that the bolting has been effected under proper conditions,
i.e. using fitted bolts (turned or cold finished) with ISO tolerances and the shanks of which
bear against the full length of holes drilled in the parts being assembled. Holes must be
drilled and reamed with the ISO tolerances.
Black bolts are permitted only for secondary joints which do not transmit heavy loads. They
are prohibited for joints subject to fatigue.
The calculated stress τ on the shank shall not exceed the values given for
rivets in clause 3.2.2.1.1.
The bearing pressure shall not exceed the values indicated in clause 3.2.2.1.4.
2  Bolts subjected to combined tension and shear
A check shall be made that :
σ ≤ 0,65 . σ
a
and τ ≤ 0,6 . σ
a
for single shear
or τ ≤ 0,8 . σ
a
for double shear
and that ( σ
2
+ 3 . τ
2
)
0,5
≤ σ
a
The permissible stress in a bolt is limited to :
σ
a
= 0,7 . σ
E(0,2)
for normal execution
σ
a
= 0,8 . σ
E(0,2)
for a construction which prevents
stripping the thread.
where σ
E(0,2)
is the 0,2 % proof stress of the metal constituting the bolt.
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3  Joints using high strength bolts with controlled tightening (H.S.)
This type of joint is recommended for assemblies subjected to fatigue and whose main loads
are parallel to joint faces. Members joined by H.S. bolts are subjected to the following types
of loads :
A  Loads acting in the plane of the joint (symbol T)
In this case, the loads tend to make the parts in contact slip and the force is transmitted by
friction. To determine the permissible load per bolt T
a
which can be transmitted by friction,
the tensile force F which exists in the bolt after tightening must be considered. This is
multiplied by the coefficient of friction µ of the contact surfaces, and the safety coefficients
ν
T
which are the same as those in clause (3.2.1.1.) are applied to this limiting force, i.e.
ν
T
= 1,5 for case I loading
= 1,33 for case II loading
= 1,1 for case III loading
This may be expressed : T
a
= m . ( µ . F )/ ν
T
m being the number of friction surfaces.
The tension, F, in a bolt depends upon the tightening torque ; the value of µ depends upon
the metal constituting the members, the state of the surfaces in contact, and the method of
preparation. Appendix A 3.2.2.2.2.3. gives information on this subject.
B  Forces perpendicular to the plane of the joint (symbol N)
The checking by calculation of the forces perpendicular to the assembly surface shall be
carried out in accordance with clause 3.2.2.2.1.
If the bolted joint is subjected to an external couple M, the tensile loading has to be
determined at the bolt which is subjected to the maximum loading and, where applicable,
added to the existing tensile load N.
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C  Combined loads of the T, N and M types
Two checks must be made :
a) That, for the most highly stressed bolt, the sum of the tensile forces due to N and M
loadings remains less than the permissible tensile force as defined in 3.2.2.2.2.
b) That the mean load which is transmitted by friction is less than the following value :
T = µ . ( F  N ) . m / ν
T
D  Determination of the stresses in the members joined
For members subject to compression, the stress is calculated on the gross section (cross 
sectional area of the holes not deducted).
For members subjected to tension there are two cases :
1st case : Bolts set in a single row, perpendicular to the direction of the load ; the following
conditions must be checked :
a) the total load on the gross section
b) 60 % of the total load on the net section (crosssectional area of holes deducted)
2nd case : Several rows of bolts perpendicular to the direction of the load.
The most heavily loaded section (corresponding to
row 1 for the member A  see figure) must be
analysed and the following two conditions checked :
a) the total load on the gross section, and
b) on the net section, the total load from rows 2 and 3 (i.e. in the case of the figure, 2/3 of
the total load of the joint) to which 60 % of the load taken by row 1 is added.
This assumes that the load is equally divided amongst all the bolts and that the number of
rows of bolts is small because if there are too many, the last bolts carry little load. It is
therefore recommended that not more than two rows of bolts should be used or
exceptionally three.
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E  Execution of joints with highstrength bolts
It must be emphasised that the above calculations to check the adequacy of joints with
high strength bolts are valid only for joints made in accordance with accepted practice
which requires controlled tightening of the bolts and preparation of the contact surfaces to
obtain suitable coefficients of friction.
See appendix A  3.2.2.2.2.3. for further guidance.
3.2.2.3. WELDED JOINTS
In welded joints, it is assumed that the deposited metal has at least as good characteristics as
the parent metal.
It must be verified that the stresses developed, in the cases of longitudinal tension and
compression, do not exceed the permissible stresses σ
a
given in clause 3.2.1.1.
For shear in the welds, the permissible stress τ
a
is given by :
τ
a
= σ
a
/ 2
0,5
However, for certain types of loading, particularly transverse stresses in the welds, the
maximum permissible equivalent stress is reduced.
Table T. 3.2.2.3. summarises the values not to be exceeded, for certain steels, according to the
type of loading.
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Table T. 3.2.2.3.  Maximum permissible equivalent stresses in welds
(N/mm
2
) : steels A.37 (Fe 360)  A.42  A.52 (Fe 510)
Types of loading A.37 A.42 A.52
Case I Case II Case
III
Case I Case II Case
III
Case I Case II Case
III
Longitudinal equivalent
stresses for all types
of welds
160 180 215 175 195 240 240 270 325
Transverse tensile
stresses
1) Buttwelds and
special
quality K welds
2) Ordinary quality K
welds
3) Fillet welds
160
140
113
180
158
127
215
185
152
175
153
124
195
170
138
240
210
170
240
210
170
270
236
191
325
285
230
Transverse compressive
stresses
1) Buttwelds and K
welds
2) Fillet welds
160
130
180
146
215
175
175
142
195
158
240
195
240
195
270
220
325
265
Shear
All tapes of welds
113 127 152, 124 138 170 170 191 230
Appendix A3.2.2.3. gives some additional information on welded joints.
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3.3. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO CRIPPLING
The guiding principle shall be that parts subject to crippling must be designed with the same
safety margin as that adopted in respect of the elastic limit ; in other words, having determined
the practical crippling stress, the maximum permissible stress shall be the crippling stress
divided by the appropriate coefficient 1,5 or 1,33 or 1,1 specified in 3.2.1.1.
The choice of a practical method of calculation is left to the manufacturer who must state the
origin of the method chosen.
If the method chosen involves multiplying the computed stress by a crippling coefficient ω
depending upon the slenderness ratio of the member and then checking that this amplified
stress remains less than a certain allowable stress, the value to be chosen for this allowable
stress shall be as specified in 3.2.1.1.
Note : Appendix A3.3. shows how to apply various classical methods of calculation in
accordance with the above requirements.
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3.4. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BUCKLING
In determining the new buckling safety coefficients, stated below, it was considered that flat
plates under compressive stresses equally distributed over the plate width, are exposed to a
greater danger of buckling than plates under stresses changing from compression to tension
over the plate width.
In consequence, safety against buckling was made dependent on the ratio ψ of stresses at the
plate edges (appendix A3.4.)
In addition it was found necessary to determine the critical buckling stress for circular cylinders
and the spacing and moment of inertia of the transverse stiffeners in order to avoid too great
divergences in the effective safety due to the use of highly divergent data in technical literature.
It shall be verified that the calculated stress is not higher than the critical buckling stress divided
by the following coefficients ν
V
:
Case Buckling safety ν
V
Buckling of plane members I
II
III
1,70 + 0,175 ( ψ  1)
1,50 + 0,125 (ψ  1)
1,35 + 0,075 (ψ  1)
Buckling of curved members ;
Circular cylinders
(e.g. tubes)
I
II
III
1,70
1,50
1,35
The edgestresses ratio ψ varies between + 1 and  1.
Appendix A.3.4. gives the procedure for determining the critical buckling stress.
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3.5. CASE OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO SIGNIFICANT
DEFORMATION
In this case the stresses in the members may not be proportional to the forces which cause
them due to the deformation of the structure as a result of the application of these forces.
This is the case, for exempla, with the stresses produced in the
column of a crane (illustrated diagrammatically) where it is clear that
the moment in the column is not proportional to the forces applied
because of deformations which increase their moment arm.
In this case the calculation is made as follows :
1  First make the checks required by clauses 3.2.  3.3.  3.4.
calculating the stresses resulting from the various cases of loading
and checking that there is a sufficient safety margin in relation to the
critical stresses (elastic limit, crippling, buckling). In the calculation of
the stresses account is taken of the deformation due to the loads on
the structure.
2  A further check is also carried out by calculating the stresses resulting from the application of
the loads multiplied by the coefficient ν of the case of loading considered and taking into
account the deformations resulting from the application of these increased loads and checking
that the stresses thus calculated remain less than the critical stresses for the elastic limit, for
crippling and for buckling.
However, to take account of the fact that the variable loads S
v
(loads due to the hoisted load
multiplied by ψ, to the wind and to horizontal movements) are more dangerous than the
constant load due to the dead weight S
G
, a check can be made in practice by considering two
cases as follows :
1  When the effects of the dead weight S
G
and of the variable load Sv lead to deformation in
opposite directions :
Determine the stress σ
G
resulting from the application of the dead weight S
G
(without
amplification) and σ
v
resulting from the variable loads S
V
, multiplied by the coefficient ν
corresponding to the case considered (clause 3.2. elastic limit, 3.3. crippling, 3.4. buckling) and
check that this stress is less than the critical value i.e. :
σ resulting from ( S
G
+ ν . S
v
) ≤ σ
cr
2  when the dead weight and the variable load lead to deformations in the same direction :
determine the stress resulting from the application of the variable load multiplied by the
coefficient ν and of the dead weight multiplied by the coefficient :
ν‘ = 1 + ( ν  1 ) . r
where r = σ
G
/ (σ
G
+ σ
V
) calculated in the initial stage of the deformations.
We then have : σ resulting from (ν' . S
G
+ ν . S
v
) ≤ σ
cr
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3.6. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE
Danger of fatigue occurs when a member is subjected to varying and repeated loads.
Fatigue strength is calculated by considering the following parameters :
1  the conventional number of cycles and the stress spectrum to which the member is
subjected ;
2  the material used and the notch effect at the point being considered ;
3  the extreme maximum stress σ
max
which can occur in the member ;
4  the ratio κ between the values of the extreme stresses.
3.6.1. CONVENTIONAL NUMBER OF CYCLES AND STRESS SPECTRUM
The number of cycles of variations of loading and the spectrum of stresses to be taken into
consideration are discussed in clause 2.1.2.2. and in clause 2.1.2.3.
These two parameters are taken into account when considering solely the group in which the
member is classified in accordance with clause 2.1.4.
3.6.2. MATERIAL USED AND NOTCH EFFECT
The fatigue strength of a member depends upon the quality of the material used and upon the
shape and the method of making the joints. The shapes of the parts joined and the means of
doing it have the effect of producing stress concentrations (or notch effects) which considerably
reduce the fatigue strength of the member.
Appendix A3.6. gives a classification of various joints according to their degree of stress
concentration (or notch effect).
3.6.3. DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM STRESS σσσ σ
max
The maximum stress, σ
max
is the highest stress in absolute value (i.e. it may be tension or
compression) which occurs in the member in loading case I referred to in clause 2.3.1. without
the application of the amplifying coefficient γ
C
When checking members in compression for fatigue the crippling coefficient, ω given in clause
3.3. should not be applied.
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3.6.4. THE RATIO κκκ κ BETWEEN THE EXTREME STRESSES
This ratio is determined by calculating the extreme values of the stresses to which the
component is subjected under case I loadings.
The ratio may vary depending upon the operating cycles but it errs on the safe side to
determine this ratio κ by taking the two extreme values which can occur during possible
operations under case I loadings.
If c
max
and c
min
are the algebraic values of these extreme stresses, c
max
being the extreme
stress having the higher absolute value, the ratio κ may be written :
κ = σ
min
/ σ
max
or τ
min
/ τ
max
in the case of shear.
This ratio, which varies from + 1 to  1, is positive if the extreme stresses are both of the same
sense (fluctuating stresses) and negative when the extreme stresses are of opposite sense
(alternating stresses).
3.6.5. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE
Using the parameters defined in clauses 3.6.1. to 3.6.4. the adequacy of the structural members
and of the joints subjected to fatigue is ensured by checking that the stress σ
max
, as defined in
clause 3.6.3. is not greater than the permissible stress for fatigue of the members under
consideration.
This permissible stress for fatigue is derived from the critical stress, defined as being the stress
which, on the basis of tests made with test pieces, corresponds to a 90 % probability of survival
to which a coefficient of safety of 4/3 is applied thus :
σ
a
for fatigue = 0,75 . c at 90 % survival.
The determination of these permissible stresses having regard to all these considerations is a
complex problem and it is generally advisable to refer to specialised books on the subject.
Appendix A3.6. gives practical indications, based on the results of research in this field, on the
determination of permissible stresses for A.37  A.42 and A.52 steels, according to the various
groups in which the components are classified, and the notch effects of the main types of joints
used in the manufacture of hoisting appliances.
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.APPENDIX
A  3.2.2.2.2.3. DESIGN OF JOINTS USING HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS WITH
CONTROLLED TIGHTENING
Clause 3.2.2.2.2.3. determines the general requirements to be observed for the execution of
joints with high strength bolts.
This appendix gives some directions on the preparation of the surfaces to be joined, the friction
coefficients obtained and the tightening methods.
Coefficient of friction µ
The coefficient of friction used for the calculation of the force transmitted by friction depends
upon the joined material and upon the preparation of the surfaces.
A minimum preparation before jointing will consist in removing every trace of dust, rust, oil and
paint by energetic brushing with a clean metallic brush. Oil stains must be removed by flame
cleaning or by the application of suitable chemical products (carbon tetrachloride, for instance).
A more careful preparation will increase the coefficient of friction. This could be sandblasting,
shotblasting or oxyacetylene flame cleaning clone not more than five hours before tightening ;
brushing must be alone just prior to jointing.
The coefficients of friction are given in the following table.
Table T.A.3.2.2.2.2.3.1.  Values of µµµ µ
Joined material Normally prepared surfaces
(degreasing and brushing)
Specially prepared surfaces
(flamecleaned, shot or
sandblasted)
E24 (A.37) Fe 360
E26 (A.42)
E36 (A.52) Fe 510
0,30
0,30
0,30
0,50
0,50
0,55
It is necessary to insert two washers, one under the boit head, the other under the nut. These
washers must have a 45° bevel, at least on the internal rim, and turned towards the boit head or
the nut. They must be heattreated in order that their hardness shall be at least equal to that of
the metal constituting the boit
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Bolt tighteninq
The value of the tension induced in the bolt must reach the value determined by calculation.
This tension, resulting from tightening, can be measured by calculation of the torque to be
applied to the boit and given by the formula :
M
a
= 1,10 . C . d .F
where :
M
a
is the torque to be applied in Nm
d is the nominal diameter of the bolt in mm
F is the nominal tension to be induced in the bolt (kN)
C is a coefficient depending on the thread form,the friction coefficient or the threads and
between the nut and the washer.
With metricthreaded bolts and washers as delivered (slightly oiled, without rust or dust) :
C = 0,18
The tensile stress in the boit must not exceed that defined under clause 3.2.2.2.2.
Value of the tensile stress area of the bolts
When determining the stress in the bolt, the tensile stress area shall be calculated by taking the
arithmetic mean of the core (minor) diameter and the effective thread diameter. These values
are given in the following table :
Nominal
diameter
( mm )
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30
Tensile
stress area
( mm
2
)
36,6 58 84,3 115 157 192 245 303 353 459 561
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Qualitv of the bolts
Bolts used for this type of joint have a high elastic limit.
The ultimate tensile strength σ
R
must be greater than the values given hereunder :
σ
E 0,2
N/mm
2
σ
R
N/mm
2
< 700 > 1,15 . σ
E
700 to 850 > 1,12 . σ
E
> 850 > 1,10 . σ
E
The diameter of holes shall not exceed by more than 2 mm the diameter of the bolt.
The following table gives per bolt and per friction surface, the values of the transmissible forces
in the plane parallel to that of the joint for bolts of 1000  1200 N/mm
2
with an elastic limit of σ
E
=
90O N/mm
2
for various friction coefficients for the steels A. 37, A.42 and A. 52.
To apply these figures, the number of effective friction surfaces as indicated in the drawing
below must be determined.
1 friction surface m = 1
2 friction surfaces m = 2
3 friction surfaces m = 3
Effective friction surfaces
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Table T.A.3.2.2.2.2.3.2.
Transmissible forces in the plane of the joint per bolt and per friction surface
Bolts of 1000/1200 N/mm
2
: σ
E
= 90O N/mm
2
with means of preventing stripping of the threads : σ
a
= 0,8 . σ
E
Bolt Ten
Normally prepared
surfaces
Specially prepared surfaces
dia
me
ter
sile
stress
area
Clam
ping
force
Applied
torque
Steels
A37, A42, A52
µ = 0,30
Steels
A37, A42
µ = 0,50
Steel
A52
µ = 0,55
mm mm
2
kN Nm
Case
I
kN
Case
II
kN
Case
III
kN
Case
I
kN
Case
II
kN
Case
III
kN
Case
I
kN
Case
II
kN
Case
III
kN
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
27
58
84,3
115
157
192
245
303
353
459
41,7
60,6
82,7
113,0
138,0
176,0
218,0
254,0
330,0
82,7
144,0
229,0
358,0
492,0
697,0
950,0
1200,0
1760,0
8,3
12,1
16,5
22,6
27,6
35,2
43,6
50,8
66,0
9,4
13,6
18,6
25,5
31,0
39,7
49,3
57,1
74,2
11,4
16,5
22,5
30,8
37,6
48,0
59,7
69,4
90,0
13,9
20,2
27,5
37,7
46,0
58,5
72,5
84,5
110,0
15,7
22,8
31,0
42,5
51,8
66,1
82,0
95,5
124,0
18,9
27,5
37,6
51,4
62,7
80,0
99,0
115,5
150,0
15,2
22,2
30,2
41,5
50,6
64,5
80,0
93,1
121,0
17,2
25,0
34,2
46,8
57,0
72,7
90,2
105,0
136,0
20,8
30,3
41,4
56,5
69,0
88,0
109,0
127,0
165,0
For a bolt with an elastic limit of σ
E’
the values of the forces and of the torques indicated in this
table are to be multiplied by the ratio σ
E
/9oo.
Where no special measures are taken to avoid stripping of the threads ( σ
a
= 0,7 . σ
E
) these
values are to be divided by 1,14.
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A 3.2.2.3.  STRESSES IN WELDED JOINTS
Determining the stresses in welds is a highly complex problem primarily because of the great
number of possible configurations welded joints can assume.
For this reason it is not possible, as the master stands at present, to lay clown precise directives
in these Rules for the Design of Hoisting Appliances. Indeed, both the volume and the subject
master of rules relating to welding would be difficult to fit into the general context of the present
design rules. It was consequently decided to include only the following general indications :
1  All methods of calculation assume of necessity a properly executed joint, i. e. a weld with
correct penetration and a good shape, so that the joint between the components to be
assembled and the weld seam is free from discontinuity or sudden change of section as well
as from craters or notches due to undercutting.
The design of the weld must be adapted to the forces to be transmitted, and specialised
literature on the subject should be consulted.
It should be noted that the strength of a welded joint is significantly improved if the surface of
the weld is finished by careful grinding.
2  There is no need to take into consideration stress concentrations due to the design of the
joint or residual stresses.
3  The permissible stresses in welds are those determined under clause 3.2.2.3. and the
equivalent stress σ
cp
in the case of combined stresses (tensile or compressive) σ and shear
stress τ is given by the formula :
σ
cp
= ( σ
2
+ 2 . τ
2
)
0,5
In cases involving dual stresses σ
x
and σ
y
and the shearing stress τ
xy
the following formula is
applied :
σ
cp
= ( σ
x
2
+ σ
y
2
 σ
x
. σ
y
+ 2 . τ
xy
2
)
0,5
4  In a fillet weld, the width of the section considered is the depth of the weld to the bottom of
the throat and its length is the effective length of the weld less the end craters.
The length need not be reduced if the joint closes on to itself or if special precautions are
taken to limit the effect of the craters.
Attention is drawn to the fact that it seems to be reliably established that fatigue failures in
welded joints seldom occur in the weld seam itself but usually beside it in the parent metal.
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The stresses σ
min
and σ
max
for the fatigue strength calculations for the parent metal beside
the weld seam, can therefore in general be computed using the classical methods for
calculating the strength of meterials.
In order to verify the fatigue strength of the weld itself, it is generally held that it suffices to
confirm that it is capable of transmitting the same loads as the adjacent parent metal.
This rule is not obligatory however when the parts jointed are generously dimensioned in
relation to the forces actually transmitted. When this is the case it suffices to dimension the
weld seam in accordance with those forces, with the proviso that a fatigue check should then
be performed in accordance with appendix A3.6.
Whatever the case it is emphasised that the size of a weld should invariably be in proportion
to the thickness of the assembled parts.
Special cases
In certain cases of assembly by welding, particularly when there is a transverse load (i.e.
perpendicular to the weld seam), the permissible stresses must be reduced (see clause
3.2.2.3.).
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A  3.3. AND A  3.4.  CHECKING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SUBJECT TO CRIPPLING
AND BUCKLING
The aim of these two appendices is not to adopt any specific stand on the problem but merely to
give some general indications and enable reference to be made to existing works.
A number of different methods are at present in use, among which the following are cited :
1  in Germany, DIN 4114
2  in Belgium, regulation NBN 1
3  in France, the CM 1966 Rules
4  in the United Kingdom, BS 2573.
A  3.3.  CHECKING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SUBJECT TO CRIPPLING
While not wishing to adopt any particular standpoint on this problem, the FEM recommends the
use of a practical method in the simpler cases, consisting in amplifying the calculated stress in
the various loading cases defined in clauses 2.3.1., 2.3.2., and 2.3.3., by a crippling coefficient
ω dependent upon the slenderness ratio of the member, and checking that, in each of these
cases, the stress thus augmented remains less than the stresses given in table T.3.2.1.1.
The values of ω are given in the tables below for the following cases, as a function of the
slenderness ratio λ :
Table T.A.3.3.1. : rolled sections in St 37 steel (Fe 360)
Table T.A.3.3.2. : rolled sections in St 52 steel (Fe 510)
Table T.A.3.3.3. : tubes in St 37 steel (Fe 360)
Table T.A.3.3.4. : tubes in St 52 steel (Fe 510)
Determination of effective lengths for calculating the slenderness ratio λ
1  In the ordinary case of bars hinged at both ends and loaded axially, the effective length is
taken as the length between points of articulation.
2  For an axially loaded bar encastered at one end and free at the other the effective length is
taken as twice the length of the bar.
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3  Because of the uncertainty which exist at present about the effect of fixity on bars in
compression between two connections, the effects of fixity are not taken into consideration
and the bar is designed as if it were hinged at both ends, the effective length therefore being
taken as the length between points of intersection of axes.
The case of bars subjected to compression and bending :
In the case of bars loaded eccentrically or loaded axially with a moment causing bending in the
bar :
 either check the following two formulae :
F / S + ( M
f
. v ) / I ≤ σ
a
and
ω . F / S + 0,9 . M
f
. v / I ≤ σ
a
where :
F is the compressive load applied to the bar,
S is the section area of the bar,
M
f
is the bending moment at the section considered,
v is the distance of the extreme fibre from the neutral axis,
I is the moment of inertia ;
 or perform the precise calculation in terms of the deformations sustained by the bar under the
combined effect of bending and compression, the necessary calculation being effected either
by integration or by successive approximations.
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Table T.A.3.3.1.  Value of the coefficient ωωω ω in terms of the slenderness ratio
for rolled sections in St 37 steel (Fe 360)
λ
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20
30
40
1,04
1,08
1,14
1,04
1,09
1,14
1,04
1,09
1,15
1,05
1,10
1,16
1,05
1,10
1,16
1,06
1,11
1,17
1,06
1,11
1,18
1,07
1,12
1.19
1,07
1,13
1,19
1,08
1,13
1,20
50
60
70
80
90
1,21
1,30
1,41
1,55
1,71
1,22
1,31
1,42
1,56
1,73
1,23
1,32
1,44
1,58
1,74
1,23
1,33
1,45
1,59
1,76
1,24
1,34
1,46
1,61
1,78
1,25
1,35
1,48
1,62
1,80
1,26
1,36
1,49
1,64
1,82
1,27
1,37
1,50
1,66
1,84
1,28
1,39
1,52
1,68
1,86
1,29
1,40
1,53
1,69
1,88
100
110
120
130
140
1,90
2,11
2,43
2,85
3,31
1,92
2,14
2,47
2,90
3,36
1,94
2,16
2,51
2,94
3,41
1,96
2,18
2,55
2,99
3,45
1,98
2,21
2,60
3,03
3,50
2,00
2,23
2,64
3,08
3,55
2,02
2,27
2,68
3,12
3,60
2,05
2,31
2,72
3,17
3,65
2,07
2,35
2,77
3,22
3,70
2,09
2,39
2,81
3,26
3,75
150
160
170
180
190
3,80
4,32
4,88
5,47
6,10
3,85
4,38
4,94
5,53
6,16
3,90
4,43
5,00
5,59
6,23
3.95
4,49
5,05
5,66
6,29
4,00
4,54
5,11
5,72
6,36
4,06
4,60
5,17
5,78
6,42
4,11
4,65
5,23
5,84
6,49
4,16
4,71
5,29
5,91
6,55
4,22
4,77
5,35
5,97
6,62
4,27
4,82
5,41
6,03
6,69
200
210
220
230
240
6,75
7,45
8,17
8,93
9,73
6,82
7,52
8,25
9,01
9,81
6,89
7,59
8,32
9,09
9,89
6,96
7,66
8,40
9,17
9,97
7,03
7,73
8,47
9,25
10,05
7,10
7,81
8,55
9,33
10,14
7,17
7,88
8,63
9,41
10.22
7,24
7,95
8,70
9,49
10,30
7,31
8,03
8,78
9,57
10,39
7,38
8,10
8,86
9,65
10,47
250 10,55
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Table T.A.3.3.2.  Value of the coefficient ωωω ω in terms of the slenderness ratio λλλ λ
for rolled sections in St 52 steel (Fe 510)
λ
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20
30
40
1,06
1,11
1,19
1,06`
1,12
1,19
1,07
1,12
1,20
1,07
1,13
1,21
1,08
1,14
1,22
1,08
1,15
1.23
1,09
1,15
1,24
1,09
1,16
1,25
1,10
1,17
1,26
1,11
1,18
1,27
50
60
70
80
90
1,28
1,41
1,58
1.79
2,05
1,30
1,43
1,60
1,81
2,10
1,31
1,44
1,62
1,83
2,14
1,32
1,46
1,64
1,86
2.19
1,33
1,48
1,66
1,88
2,24
1,35
1,49
1,68
1,91
2,29
1,36
1,51
1,70
1.93
2,33
1,37
1,53
1,72
1,95
2,38
1,39
1,54
1.74
1,98
2,43
1,40
1,56
1,77
2,01
2,48
100
110
120
130
140
2,53
3,06
3,65
4,28
4,96
2,58
3,12
3,71
4,35
5,04
2,64
3,18
3,77
4,41
5,11
2,69
3,23
3,83
4,48
5,18
2,74
3,29
3,89
4,55
5,25
2,79
3,35
3,96
4,62
5,33
2,85
3,41
4,02
4,69
5,40
2,90
3,47
4,09
4,75
5,47
2,95
3.53
4,15
4,82
5.55
3,01
3.59
4,22
4,89
5,62
150
160
170
180
190
5,70
6,48
7,32
8,21
9,14
5,78
6,57
7,41
8,30
9,24
5,85
6,65
7,49
8,39
9,34
5,93
6,73
7,58
8,48
9,44
6,01
6,81
7,67
8,58
9,53
6,09
6,90
7,76
8,67
9,63
6,16
6,98
7,85
8,76
9,73
6,24
7,06
7,94
8,86
9,83
6,32
7,15
8,03
8,95
9.93
6,40
7,21
8,12
9,05
10,03
200
210
220
230
240
10,13
11,17
12,26
13,40
14,59
10,23
11,28
12,37
13,52
14,71
10,34
11,38
12,48
13,63
14,83
10,44
11,49
12,60
13,75
14,96
10,54
11,60
12,71
13,87
15,08
10,65
11,71
12,82
13,99
15,20
10,75
11,82
12,94
14,11
15,33
10,85
11,93
13,05
14,23
15,45
10,96
12,04
13,17
14,35
15,58
11,06
12,15
13,28
14,47
15,71
250 15,83
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Table T.A.3.3.3.  Value of the coefficient ωωω ω in terms of the slenderness ratio λλλ λ
for tubes in St 37 steel (Fe 360)
λ
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20
30
40
1,00
1,03
1,07
1,00
1,03
1,07
1,00
1,04
1,08
1,00
1,04
1,08
1,01
1,04
1,09
1,01
1,05
1,09
1,01
1,05
1,10
1,02
1,05
1,10
1,02
1,06
1,11
1,02
1,06
1,11
50
60
70
80
90
1,12
1,19
1,28
1,39
1,53
1,13
1,20
1,29
1,40
1,54
1,11
1,20
1,30
1,41
1,56
1,14
1,21
1,31
1,42
1,58
1,15
1,22
1,32
1,44
1,59
1,15
1,23
1,33
1,46
1,61
1,16
1,24
1,34
1,47
1,63
1,17
1,25
1,35
1,48
1,64
1,17
1,26
1,36
1,50
1,66
1,18
1,27
1,37
1,51
1,68
100
110
1,70
2,05
1,73
2,08
1,76
2,12
1,79
2,16
1,83
2,20
1,87
2,23
1,90 1,94 1,97 2,01
For λ > 115 take the value of ω in T.A.3.3.1.
Table T.A.3.3.4.  Value of the coefficient ωωω ω in terms of the slenderness λλλ λ ratio
for tubes in St 52 steel (Fe 510)
λ
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
20
30
40
1,02
1,05
1,11
1,02
1,06
1,11
1,02
1,06
1,12
1,03
1,07
1,13
1,03
1,07
1,13
1,03
1,08
1,14
1,04
1,08
1,15
1,04
1,09
1,16
1,05
1,10
1,16
1,05
1,10
1,17
50
60
70
80
90
1,18
1,28
1,42
1,62
2,05
1,19
1,30
1,44
1,66
1,20
1,31
1,46
1,71
1,21
1,32
1,47
1,75
1,22
1,33
1,49
1,79
1,23
1,35
1,51
1,83
1,24
1,36
1,53
1,88
1,25
1,38
1,55
1,92
1,26
1,39
1,57
1,97
1,27
1,41
1,59
2,01
For λ > 90 take the value of ω in T.A.3.3.2.
Note : The values of ω in table T.A.3.3.3. and T.A.3.3.4. are valid for calculating the case of an
axially loaded bar consisting of a single tube whose diameter is equal to at least six times its
thickness.
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A  3.4.  CHECKING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BUCKLING
From the theoretical standpoint, the critical buckling stress σ
v
cr
is regarded as a multiple of the
EULER Stress given by the formula :
σ
E
R
= π
2
. E . ( e / b )
2
/ [ 12 . ( 1  η
2
) ]
representing the critical buckling stress for a strip of thickness e, having a width equal to b, this
being the plate dimension measured in the direction perpendicular to the compression forces
(see sketch below).
In this formula, E is the modulus of elasticity and η Poisson's Ratio.
For normal steels in which E = 210 000N/mm
2
and η = 0,3, the EULER Stress becomes :
σ
E
R
= 189 800 . ( e / b )
2
The critical buckling stress σ
v
cr
must be a multiple of this value, whence :
σ
v
cr
= κ
σ
. σ
E
R
in the case of compression.
In the case of shear the critical stress is :
τ
v
cr
= κ
τ
. σ
E
R
The coefficients κ
σ
and κ
τ
, known as the buckling coefficients, depend on :
 the ratio α = a / b of the two sides of the plate
 the manner in which the plate is supported along the edges
 the type of loading sustained by the plate in its own plane
 any reinforcement of the plate by stiffeners.
Value of coefficients κ
σ
and κ
τ
Without wishing to enter into the details of this problem, which is the subject of specialised
works and of particular standards, we give hereafter values of κ
σ
and κ
τ
for a few simple cases
(see table T.A.3.4.1.).
For more complex cases, reference should be made to specialised literature.
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Combined compression and shear
Taking σ and τ to be calculated stresses in compression and in shear the critical comparison
stress σ
v
cr.c
is determined from the expression :
σ
v
cr.c
= (σ
2
+ 3 τ
2
)
0,5
/ { { [ ( 1 + ψ) / 4 ] . ( σ / σ
v
cr
) + { [ 0,25 . ( 3  ψ ) . σ / σ
v
cr
]
2
. [ τ / τ
v
cr
]
2
}
0,5
}
ψ being defined in the table T.A.3.4.1.
Important note : It is essential to note that the formulae above giving the critical stresses σ
v
cr
and σ
v
cr.c
apply only when the values determined thus are below the limit of proportionality (i.e.
190 N/mm
2
for A.37 steel, 290 N/mm
2
for A.52 steel).
Similarly, the formula giving τ
v
cr
applies only when the value 3
0,5
. τ
v
cr
is below the limit of
proportionality.
Whenever the formulae give values above these limits, it is necessary to adopt a limiting critical
value, obtained by multiplying the calculated critical value by the coefficient ρ given in the table
T.A.3.4.2., which also indicates the reduced values corresponding to various calculated values
of σ
v
cr
and τ
v
cr
.
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Table T.A.3.4.1.
Value of the buckling coefficients κκκ κ
σσσ σ
and κκκ κ
τττ τ
for plates supported at their four edges
No. CASE α = a / b κ
σ
or κ
τ
1 Simple uniform compression α ≥ 1
α ≤ 1
κ
σ
= 4
κ
σ
= (α + 1 / α)
2
2 Nonuniform compression α ≥ 1
α ≤ 1
κ
σ
= 8,4 / ( ψ + 1,1 )
κ
σ
= 2,1 . (α + 1 / α)
2
/ ( ψ + 1,1 )
3 Pure bending ψ =  1 or bending
with tension preponderant
α ≥ 2 / 3
α ≤ 2 / 3
κ
σ
= 23,9
κ
σ
= 15,87 + 1,87 / α
2
+ 8,6 α
2
4 Bending with compression
preponderant  1 < ψ< 0
κ
σ
= ( 1 + ψ ) . κ‘  ψ . κ‘’ + 10 . ψ . ( 1 + ψ )
where :
κ‘ = value of κ
σ
for ψ = 0 in case n° 2
κ‘’ = value of κ
σ
for pure bending (case n°. 3)
5 Pure shear α ≥ 1
α ≤ 1
κ
τ
= 5,34 + 4 / α
2
κ
τ
= 4 + 5,34 / α
2
Table T.A.3.4.2.  Values of ρρρ ρ and the reduced critical stresses σσσ σ
v
cr
, σσσ σ
v
cr.c
and τττ τ
v
cr
(N/mm
2
)
σ
v
cr
or
σ
v
cr.c
calculated
τ
v
cr
calculated
ρ
σ
v
cr
or
σ
v
cr.c
reduced
τ
v
cr
reduced
σ
v
cr
or
σ
v
cr.c
calculated
τ
v
cr
calculated
ρ
σ
v
cr
or
σ
v
cr.c
reduced
τ
v
cr
reduced
Steel St 37 (Fe 360) Steel St 52 (Fe 510)
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
280
300
340
110
116
121
127
133
139
145
150
162
173
197
1,00
0,97
0,94
0,91
0,88
0,85
0,82
0,80
0,76
0,72
0,65
190
194
197
200
202
204
206
208
212
215
221
110
113
114
116
117
118
119
120
122
124
128
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
380
400
440
168
173
179
185
191
196
202
208
220
231
254
1,00
0,98
0,96
0,94
0,92
0,90
0,88
0,86
0,82
0,79
0,73
290
294
297
300
303
306
308
309
312
316
322
168
169
172
174
175
176
177
178
180
182
185
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Determination of permissible buckling stresses
After the critical buckling stresses have been determined as indicated above, the permissible
stress is obtained by dividing the critical stress by the coefficient ν
V
determined in clause 3.4.
The calculations are then performed as follows :
The stresses are determined for each case of loading, in accordance with clause 3.4., after
which a check is made to ensure that these calculated stresses do not exceed the permissible
stresses determined as indicated above.
Note : In the case of combined compression and shear, the critical comparison stress σ
v
cr.c
must
be compared with the comparison stress calculated from the formula in clause 3.2.1.3. :
σ
cp
= ( σ
2
+ 3 . τ
2
)
0,5
Example of checking for buckling
Take the case of a plate girder in St 37 steel, having a span of 10 m, a depth of 1,50 m, a web
thickness of 0,010 m, a uniformly distributed load of 162 kN/m and stiffeners 1,25 m apart.
Reactions on supports : A = B = 810 kN
Moment of inertia of the beam = 1 419 000 cm
4
Checking at section MN, located 0,625 m from A
Bending moment at MN :
M
f
= 810 x 0 625  ( 162 x 0,625
2
) / 2 = 474,7 kNm
Upper stress (compression) :
σ
1
=  ( 474,7 x 10
6
x 0,84 x 10
3
) / ( 1 419 000 . 10
4
) =  28 N/mm
2
Lower stress (tension) :
σ
2
= ( 474,7 x 10
6
x 0,66 x 10
3
) / ( 1 419 000 . 10
4
) = 22 N/mm
2
These stresses are calculated at the upper and longer edges of the web.
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shear stress :
( 810 . 10
3
 162 . 0,625 . 10
3
) / ( 10 . 1500 ) = 47 N/mm
2
Bending (case 4  compression preponderant) :
ψ = 0,22 / 0,28 = 0,79 α = 1,25 / 1,50 = 0,83 (< 1 )
giving κ
σ
= ( 1 + ψ ) . κ‘  ψ . κ‘’ + 10 . ψ . ( 1 + ψ )
in which κ‘ = ( α+ 1 / α )
2
. 2,1 / ( 0 + 1,1 ) = ( 0,83+ 1 / 0,83 )
2
. 2,1 / 1,1 = 7,90
and κ‘’ = 23,9
whence κ
σ =
( 1
0,79 ) . 7,90 + 0.79 . 23,9  10 . 0,79 . ( 1  0,79 ) = 18,88
The Euler Stress :
σ
E
R
= 189 800 . ( e / b )
2
= 189 800 ( 10 / 1500 )
2
= 8,4 N/mm
2
giving a critical buckling stress :
σ
v
cr
= κ
σ
. σ
E
R
= 18,88 . 8,4 = 158,6 N/mm
2
Shear : κ
τ
= 4 + 5,34 / σ
2
= 4 + 5,34 / 0,83
2
= 11,75
and τ
v
cr
= κ
τ
. σ
E
R
=
11,75 . 8,4 = 99 N/mm
2
The critical comparison stress then becomes : σ
v
cr.c
=
( 28
2
+ 3 . 47
2
)
0,5
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
{ [ ( 1  0,79 ) / 4 ] . ( 28 / 158,5 ) + { [ 0,25 . ( 3 + 0,79 ) . 28 / 158,5 ]
2
. [ 47 / 99 ]
2
}
0,5
σ
v
cr.c
= 168 N/mm
2
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Conclusion :
The comparison stress in the case of tension (or compression) combined with shear is given in
clause 3.2.1.3.
( σ
2
+ 3 τ
2
)
0,5
= 86 N/mm
2
.
This value is smaller than the critical buckling stress given in 3.4. (with ν
V
= 1,4)
168 / 1,4 = 120 N/mm
2
for loading case I.
The permissible buckling stress is therefore not exceeded in loading case I.
Naturally, a check must also be made to ensure that the permissible buckling stresses are not
exceeded in loading cases II and III.
Checking of buckling for circular cylinders :
Thin wall circular cylinders such as, for exempla, large tubes, which are subject to central or
eccentric axial compression have to be checked for local buckling if :
t / r ≤ 25 . σ
E
/ E
where :
t = thickness of the wall ;
r = radius from the middle of the wall thickness ;
σ
E
= elastic limit of the steel type, as in table T. 3.2.1.1.
E = modulus of elasticity, see A3.4.
The ideal buckling stress σ
v
i
can be determined from :
σ
v
i
= 0,2 E . t / r
In all cases where σ
v
i
is situated above the limit of proportionality of the structural steel, the ideal
buckling stress σ
v
i
has to be reduced to σ
v
by means of the factor ρ.
At a maximum spacing of 10 . r, transverse stiffeners have to be provided whose moment of
inertia has to be at least :
I = 0,5 . r . t
3
/ ( r / t )
0,5
The moment of inertia is calculated from the following formulae :
1  Central disposition of the stiffener F (centre of gravity of the stiffener section in the median
plane of the wall thickness).
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2  Eccentric disposition of the stiffener F (centre of gravity of the stiffener section F2 outside the
median plane of the wall 1). .
I = I
1
+ I
2
+ F
1
. e
1
2
+ F
2
. e
2
2
It is accepted that this calculation of σ
v
i
and σ
v
respectively takes account of geometrical
divergences between the real and the ideal cylinder surfaces due to local construction defects
up to a dimension of t / 2.
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A  3.6.  CHECKING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FATIGUE
It must be remembered that fatigue is one of the causes of failure envisaged in clause 3.6. and
therefore checking for fatigue is additional to checking in relation to the elastic limit of
permissible crippling or buckling.
If the permissible stresses for fatigue, as determined thereunder, are higher than those allowed
for other conditions then this merely indicates that the dimensions of the components are not
determined by considerations of fatigue.
Clause 3.6. enumerates the parameters which must be considered when checking structural
components for fatigue.
The purpose of this appendix is firstly to classify the various joints according to their notch
effect, as defined in clause 3.6.2. and, then, to determine for these various notch effects and for
each classification group of the component as defined in clause 2.1.4. the permissible stresses
for fatigue as a function of the coefficient κ defined in clause 3.6.4.
These permissible fatigue stresses were determined as a result of tests carried out by the
F.E.M. on test pieces having different notch effects and submitted to various loading spectre.
They were determined on the basis of the stress values which, in the tests, assured 90 %
survival including a factor of safety of 4/3.
In practice, a structure consists of members which are welded, riveted or bolted together and
experience shows that the behaviour of a member differs greatly from one point to another ; the
immediate proximity of a joint invariably constitutes a weakness that will be vulnerable to a
varying extent according to the method of assembly used.
An examination is therefore made in the first sections, of the effect of fatigue on structural
members both away from any joint and in immediate proximity to the usual types of joint.
The second section examines the resistance to fatigue of the means of assembly themselves,
i.e. weld seams, rivets and bolts.
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1  VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
The starting point is the fatigue strength of the continuous metal away from any joint and, in
general, away from any point at which a stress concentration, and hence a lessening of the
fatigue strength, may occur.
In order to make allowance for the reduction in strength near joints, as a result of the presence
of holes or welds producing changes of section, the notch effects in the vicinity of these joints,
which characterize the effects of the stress concentrations caused by the presence of
discontinuities in the metal, are examined.
These notch effects bring about a reduction of the permissible stresses, the extent of which
depends upon the type of discontinuity encountered, i.e. upon the method of assembly used.
In order to classify the importance of these notch effects, the various forms of joint construction
are divided into categories as follows :
Unwelded parts
These members present three cases of construction.
Case W
O
concerns the material itself without notch effect.
Cases W
1
and W
2
concern perforated members (see table T.A.3.6.(1))
Welded parts
These joints are arranged in order of the severity of the notch effect increasing from K
0
to K
4
,
corresponding to structural parts located close to the weld fillets.
The table T.A.3.6. (1) gives some indications as to the quality of the welding and a classification
of the welding and of the various joints that are most often used in the construction of lifting
appliances.
Determination of the permissible stresses for fatigue
Tensile and compressive loads
The basis values which have been used to determine the permissible stresses in tension and
compression are those resulting from the application of a constant alternating stress
± σ
W
(κ =  1 ) giving a survival rate of 90 % in the tests, to which a factor of safety of 4/3 has
been applied.
To take account of the number of cycles and of the stress spectrum, the σ
W
values have been
set for each classification group of the member the latter taking account of these two
parameters.
For unwelded parts, the values σ
W
are identical for steel St 37, and St 44.
They are higher for St 52.
For welded parts, the σ
W
values are identical for the three types of steel.
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Table T.A.3.6.1.
Values of σσσ σ
W
depending on the component group and construction case (N/mm
2
)
Com
Unwelded components
Construction cases
Welded components
Construction cases
(Steels St 37 to St 52, Fe 360 to Fe 510)
ponent W
0
W
1
W
2
group Fe 360
St 37
St 44
St 52
Fe 510
Fe 360
St 37
St 44
St 52
Fe 510
Fe 360
St 37
St 44
St 52
Fe 510
K
0
K
1
K
2
K
3
K
4
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
249,1
224,4
202,2
182,1
164,1
147,8
133,2
120,0
298,0
261,7
229,8
201,8
177,2
155,6
136,6
120,0
211,7
190,7
171,8
154,8
139,5
125,7
113,2
102,0
253,3
222,4
195,3
171,5
150,6
132,3
116,2
102,0
174,4
157,1
141,5
127,5
114,9
103,5
93,2
84,0
208,6
183,2
160,8
141,2
124,0
108,9
95,7
84,0
(361,9)
(293,8)
238,4
193,5
157,1
127,5
103,5
84,0
(323,1)
262,3
212,9
172,8
140,3
113,8
92,4
75,0
(271,4)
220,3
178,8
145,1
117,8
95,6
77,6
63,0
193,9
157,4
127,7
103,7
84,2
68,3
55,4
45,0
116,3
94,4
76,6
62,2
50,5
41,0
33,3
27,0
The values in brackets are greater than 0,75 times the breaking stress and are only theoretical
values (see note 2 at the end of this clause).
The following formulae give for all values of κ the permissible stresses for fatigue
a) κ ≤ 0
 for tension : σ
t
= 5 . σ
w
/ ( 3  2 . κ ) (1)
 for compression : σ
c
= 2 . σ
w
/ ( 1  κ ) (2)
σ
w
is given in table above.
b) κ > o
 for tension σ
t
= σ
O
/ [ 1  κ . (1  σ
O
/ σ
+1
) ] (3)
 for compression σ
c
= 1,2 . σ
t
(4)
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where σ
O
= tensile stress for κ = 0 is given by the formula (1) that is :
σ
O
= 1,66 . σ
w
σ
+1
= tensile stress for κ = + 1 that is the ultimate strength σ
R
divided by the coefficient of safety
4/3 : σ
+1
= 0,75 . σ
R
σ
t
is limited in every case to 0,75 . σ
R
.
By way of illustration, fig. A.3.6.1. shows curves giving the permissible stress as a function of
the ratio κ for the following cases :
 steel A.52 ;
 predominant tensile stress ;
 group E6 ;
 construction cases W
0
, W
1
, W
2
for unwelded components and cases of construction for
joints K
0
to K
4
.
The permissible stresses have been limited to 240 N/mm
2
, i.e. to the permissible stress adopted
for checking for ultimate strength.
[permissible stress)
Ratio between the extreme stresses
Figure A.3.6.1.  (A 52; tension; group E6)
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Shear stresses in the material of structural parts
For each of the group from E1 to E8 the permissible fatigue stress in tension of the case w
O
divided by 3
0,5
is taken :
τ
a
= σ
t
of case w
O
/ 3
0,5
Combined loads in tension (or compression) and shear
In this case the permissible stresses for fatigue for each normal load in tension (or
compression) σ
xa
and σ
ya
and shear τ
xya
are determined by assuming that each acts separately
taking respectively the following values of κ in accordance with clause 3.6.4. :
κ
x
= σ
x min
/ σ
x max
κ
y
= σ
y min
/ σ
y max
κ
xy
= τ
xy min
/ τ
xy max
Then the following three conditions are checked :
σ
x max
< σ
xa
σ
y max
< σ
ya
τ
xy max
< τ
xya
None of the calculated sheares should exceed the permissible value of σ
a
in case I loading (see
table T.3.2.1.1.).
a) If any one stress is markedly greater than the other two in any given case of loading, it will
suffice to check the member for fatigue under the corresponding load, neglecting the effect of
the other two.
b) In the other cases, in addition to checking for each loading assumed to act alone, it is
recommended that the following relationship be checked :
(σ
x max
/ σ
xa
)
2
+ (σ
y max
/ σ
ya
)
2
 σ
x max
. σ
y max
/ (  σ
xa
 .  σ
ya
 ) + ( τ
xy max
/ τ
xya
)
2
≤ 1
2
(5)
where the stress values σ
xa
, σ
ya
and τ
xya
are those resulting from the application of formulae (1),
(2), (3) and (4) limited to 0,75 . σ
R
.
2
As this inequality constitutes a severe requirement, values slightly higher than 1 are acceptable, but in
this case it is necessary to check the relation :
[ (σ
x max
/ σ
xa
)
2
+ (σ
y max
/ σ
ya
)
2
 σ
x max
. σ
y max
/ (  σ
xa
 .  σ
ya
 ) + ( τ
xy max
/ τ
xya
)
2
]
0,5
≤ 1,05
It should also be noted that the values  σ
xa
 and  σ
ya
 in the denominator for the third term should be
taken as absolute values, σ
x max
and σ
y max
being assigned their algebraic values.
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In applying this formula, reference should be made to the directions given in clause 3.2.1.3. In
other words :
 either perform the check by combining the maximum values σ
x max
, σ
y max
and τ
xy max
and
comparing with the permissible stresses σ
xa
, σ
ya
and τ
xya
computed on the basis of the most
unfavourable values of κ.
 or seek the most unfavourable combination actually possible by making the check with the
following values :
a) σ
x max
and κ
x min
with the corresponding values of σ
y
, τ
xy
, κ
y
and κ
xy
b) σ
y max
and κ
y min
with the corresponding values of σ
x
, τ
xy
, κ
x
and κ
xy
c) τ
xy max
and κ
xy min
with the corresponding values of σ
x
, σ
y
, κ
x
and κ
y
In this connection, see note in clause 3.2.1.3.
In order to facilitate the calculations, table T.A.3.6.2. gives the permissible values of :
τ
xy max
/ τ
xya
as a function of σ
x max
/ σ
xa
and of σ
y max
/ σ
ya
In this table, the values of σ
x max
/ σ
xa
are given in the left hand column with the following
convention : the ratio is considered to be positive if σ
x max
and σ
y max
have the same sign,
and negative otherwise.
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Table T.A.3.6.2.  Values of τττ τ
xy max
/ τττ τ
xya
in terms of σσσ σ
x max
/ σσσ σ
xa
and σσσ σ
y max
/ σσσ σ
ya
σ
x max
σ
y max
/ σ
ya
________
σ
xa 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0
+ 1,0
+ 0,9
+ 0,8
+ 0,7
+ 0,6
+ O,5
+ 0,4
+ 0,3
+ 0,2
+ 0,1
0
 0,1
 0,2
 0,3
 0,4
 0,5
 0,6
 0,7
 0,8
 0,9
 1,0
0
0,300
0,400
0,458
0,490
0,500
0,490
0,458
0,400
0,300
0
0,300
0,436
0,520
0,575
0,608
0,625
0,625
C,608
0,575
0,520
0,436
0,300
0,400
0,520
0,600
0,656
0,693
0,714
0,721
0,714
0,693
0,656
0,600
0,520
0,400
0,173
0,458
0,575
0,656
0,714
0,755
0,781
0,794
0,794
0,781
0,755
0,714
0,656
0,575
0,458
0,265
0,490
0,608
0,693
0,755
0,800
0,831
0,849
0,854
0,849
0,831
0,800
0,755
0,693
0,608
0,490
0,300
0,500
0,625
0,714
0,781
0,831
0,866
0,889
0,900
0,900
0,889
0,866
0,831
0,781
0,714
0,625
0,500
0,300
0,490
0,625
0,721
0,794
0,849
0,889
0,917
0,933
0,938
0,933
0,916
0,889
0,849
0,794
0,721
0,625
0,490
0,265
0,458
0,608
0,714
0,781
0,854
0,900
0,933
0,954
0,964
0,964
0,9S4
0,933
0,900
0,854
0,781
0,714
0,608
0,458
0,173
0,400
0,575
0,693
0,781
0,849
0,900
0,938
0,964
0,980
0,985
0,980
0,964
0,938
0,900
0,849
0,781
0,693
0,575
0,400
0,300
0,520
0,656
0,755
0,831
0,889
0,933
0,964
0,985
0,995
0,99S
0,98S
0,964
0,933
0,889
0,831
0,755
0,656
0,520
0,300
0
0,436
0,600
0,714
0,800
0,866
0,917
0,954
0,980
0,995
1,000
0,995
0,980
0,954
0,917
0,866
0,800
0,714
0,600
0,436
0
If σ
x max
and σ
y max
are of opposite sign (tension or compression) read the values of
τ
xy max
/ τ
xya
starting from the negative values of σ
x max
/ σ
xa
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General notes
Note 1  In applying the above considerations, it is essential to take into account the secondary
bending effects which a particular method of assembly may cause in the members of the
structure.
Note 2  If reference is made to the table of values of σ
w
it can be seen that in group E1 and E2
much higher stresses than those usually permitted in structures are quoted. These values are in
fact only theoretical values obtained by extrapolation of the test results on higher group (E3 to
E8) with medium or severe notch cases (K
2
, K
3
and K
4
). Therefore there is no need to attach
any material significance to these values in brackets, consideration of which could in some
cases lead to the conclusion that an assembly of type K
0
or K
1
could resist fatigue better than
the unwelded metal (case W
O
). This apparent anomaly illustrates the well known fact that it is
not always necessary to carry out fatigue checks for the longer group with slight or moderate
notch cases.
With respect to the calculations it must be remembered that these theoretical σ
w
values are
used only to determine the permissible fatigue stresses σ
xa
, σ
ya
and τ
xya
for use in formula (5)
which covers the case of combined loads.
Examples of calculations are given at the end of the Appendix.
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2  VERIFICATION OF THE JOINING MEANS (welds, bolts, rivets)
Welds
a) Tensile and compressive loads in the welds :
Welds subjected to fatigue under tensile and compressive loads are checked using the same
permissible stresses as those of the metal joined.
Note  The limit indicated under 3.2.2.3. for certain particular cases of transverse tension and
compression in weld seams must be observed.
Appendix A3.2.2.3. gives, in addition, some indications for the determination of the stresses
in the weld seams.
b) Shear loads in the welds :
The permissible shear fatigue stresses in the welds are determined by dividing the
permissible stresses in tension for case K
0
by 2
0,5
c) Combined loads :
The method set out above for structural members is used when considering the effect of
fatigue in weld seams subjected to variable combined loads.
Bolts and rivets
a) Tensile loads :
Fatigue due to variable tensile loads in bolts and rivets need not be considered.
In this connection, it should be noted that bolts and, even more important, rivets working in
tension should be avoided as far as possible.
b) Shear loads and bearing pressure :
Single and multiple shear loads as defined under 3.2.2.1.1. must be distinguished.
The permissible shear stresses for fatigue for bolts and rivets are fixed by multiplying the
permissible stresses in tension for case W
2
by :
0,6 for single shear 0,8 for multiple shear
The permissible bearing pressure values are obtained by multiplying the permissible shear
values in the bolts and rivets by 2,5.
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Table T.A.3.6.(1)  Classification of cases of construction for joints
Joints may be riveted, bolted or welded.
The types of weld most commonly used for hoisting appliances are butt welds, double bevel butt
welds (K welds) and fillet welds, of ordinary quality (O.Q.) or special quality (S.Q.) as specified
below.
Weld testing is also stipulated for certain types of joint.
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A  Weld qualities
Type of weld
Weld
quality Execution of weld
3
Symbol Weld testing Symbol
Full depth
butt weld
Special
quality
(S.Q.)
Root of weld scraped
(or trimmed) before
making sealing run.
No end craters.
Weld ground flush
with plate parallel to
direction of forces
Check (e.g. with X
rays)
over 100 % of seam
length
P 100
Ordinary
quality
Root of weld scraped
(or trimmed) before
If the calculated
stress > 80 % times
the permissible stress
P 100
(O.Q.) making sealing run.
No end craters
Otherwise random
check over at least
10 % of seam length
P 10
Kweld in
angle formed
by two parts
with bevel on
Special
quality
(S.Q.)
Root of weld scraped
(or trimmed) before
making weld on other
side. Weld edges
without undercutting
and ground if
necessary.
Full penetration welds
Check that for tensile
loads the plate D
one of the
parts to be
joined at
location of
seam
Ordinary
quality
(O.Q.)
Width clear of weld
penetration between
the two welds < 3 mm
perpendicular to the
direction of the forces
is free from lamination.
Fillet welds
in the angle
formed by
Special
quality
(S.Q.)
Welded edges
without undercutting
and ground if
necessary
Check that for tensile
loads the plate
perpendicular to the
direction of the forces
is free from lamination
D
two parts Ordinary
quality
(O.Q.)
Table T.A.3.6.(1) (continued)
B  Cases of construction for joints
In the tables below the various cases of means of assembly are classified in terms of the
magnitude of the notch effect they produce.
3
It is forecasted that the symbol shall be adapted to the ISO standard 2553 at the next edition
of the Design Rules, when the addition of this standard will be definitively adopted.
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It should be noted that, with a given weld, the notch effect differs according to the type of
loading to which the joint issubjected.
For exempla, a fillet welded joint is classified under case K
0
for longitudinal tension or
compression loads (0,31) or longitudinal shear (0,51), and under cases K
3
or K
4
for transverse
tension or compression loads (3,2 or 4,4).
1  Non welded parts
Case W
O
Reference Description Figure Symbol
W
O
Parent metal, homogeneous surface.
Part without joints or breaks in continuity
(solid bars) and without notch effects
unless the latter can be calculated.
Case W
1
Reference Description Figure Symbol
W
1
Parts drilled. Parts drilled for riveting or
bolting with rivets and bolts loaded up
to 20 % of permissible values. Parts
drilled for joints using high strength
bolts (C1 3.2.2.2.2.3.) loaded up to 100
% of permissible values(C1 3.2.2.2.2.2.)
Case W
2
Reference Description Figure Symbol
W
2.1
Parts drilled for riveting or bolting in
which the rivets or bolts are loaded in
multiple shear
W
2.2
Parts drilled for riveting or bolting, in
which the rivets or bolts are loaded
in single shear (allowing for eccentric
loads), the parts being unsupported
W
2.3
Parts drilled for assembling by means
of rivets or bolts loaded in single shear,
the parts being supported or guided
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2  welded parts
Case K
0
 Slight stress concentration
Reference Description Figure Symbol
0,1 Parts buttwelded (S.Q.) at right
angles to direction of forces P 100
0,11
Parts of different thickness butt
welded (S.Q.) at right angles to
direction of forces.
Asymmetrical slope : 1/4 to 1/5;
Symmetrical slope : 1/3
P 100
0,12
Butt weld (S.Q.) in transverse joint of
web plate P 100
0,13
Gusset secured by buttwelding (S.Q.)
at right angles to the direction of the
forces
P 100
0,3
Parts joined by buttwelding (O.Q.)
parallel to the direction of the forces
P 100
or P10
0,31
Parts joined by fillet welds (O.Q.)
parallel to the direction of the forces
(longitudinal to the joined parts)
0,32
Butt weld (O.Q.) between section
forming flange and web of a beam
P 100
or P 10
0,33
K or fillet weld (O.Q.) between flange
and web of a beam calculated for the
equivalent stress for combined forces
(C1 3.2.1.3.)
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Case K
0
 Slight stress concentration (continued)
Reference Description Figure Symbol
0,5
Butt weld (O.Q.) in the case of
longitudinal shear
P 100
or P10
0,51 Kweld (O.Q.) or fillet weld (O.Q.) in
the case of longitudinal shear
Case K
1
 Moderate stress concentration
Reference Description Figure Symbol
1,1
Parts joined by butt welding (O.Q.) at
right angles to the direction of the
forces
P 100
or P10
1,11
Parts of different thickness butt
welded (O.Q.) at right angles to the
direction of the forces. Asymmetrical
slope : 1 in 4 to 1 in 5 (or symmetrical
slopes : 1 in 3)
P 100
or P10
1,12 Butt weld (O.Q.) executed for
transverse joint of web plate
P 100
or P10
1,13
Gusset joined by butt welding (O.Q.)
at right angles to the direction of the
forces
P 100
or P10
1,2
Continuous main member to which are
joined by continuous Kwelds (S.Q.)
parts at right angles to the direction of
forces
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Case K1  Moderate stress concentration (continued)
Reference Description Figure Symbol
1,21
Web plate to which stiffeners are
joined at right angles to the direction
of the forces by means of fillet welds
(S.Q.) which extend round the corners
of the web stiffeners
1,3
Parts joined by butt welding parallel to
the direction of the forces (without
checking the welding)
1,31
Kweld (S.Q.) between curved flange
and web
Case K2  Medium stress concentration
Reference Description Figure Symbol
2,1
Parts of different thickness butt
welded (O.Q.) at right angles to the
direction of the forces. Asymmetrical
slope : 1 in 3 (or symmetrical slopes :
1 in 2)
2,11
Sections joined by butt welds (S.Q.) at
right angles to the direction of the
forces
P 100
or P10
2,12
Section joined to a gusset by a butt
weld (S.Q.) at right angles to the
direction of the forces
P100
2,13
Butt weld (S.Q.) at right angles to the
direction of the forces, made at
intersection of flats, with welded
auxiliary gussets. The ends of the
welds are ground, avoiding notches
P100
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Case K2  Medium stress concentration (continued)
Reference Description Figure Symbol
2,2
Continuous main member to which
transverse diaphragm, web stiffeners,
rings or hubs are fillet welded (S.Q.) at
right angles to the direction of the
forces
2,21
Web in which fillet welds (S.Q.) are
used to secure transverse web
stiffeners with cut corners, the welds
not extending round the corners
2,22
Transverse diaphragm secured by
fillet welds (S.Q.) with cut corners, in
which the welds do not extend round
the corners
2,3
Continuous main member to the
edges of which are butt welded (S.Q.)
parts parallel to the direction of the
forces. These parts terminal in bevels
or radii. The ends of the welds are
ground avoiding notches
P100
2,31
Continuous main member to which are
welded parts parallel to the direction of
the forces. These parts terminal in
bevels or radii. Valid where the ends
of the welds are Kwelds (S.Q.) over a
length equal to ten times the thickness
provided that the ends of the welds
are ground avoiding notches
2,33
Continuous member to which a flat (1
in 3 bevel) is joined by a fillet weld
(S.Q.), the fillet weld being executed in
the X area, with a = 0,5 e
2,34 Kweld (O.Q.) made between curved
flange and web
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Case K2  Medium stress concentration (continued)
Reference Description Figure Symbol
2,4
Cruciform joint made with Kwelds
(S.Q.) perpendicular to the direction of
the forces
D
2,41
Kweld (S.Q.) between flange and web
in the case of load concentrated in the
plane of the web at right angles to the
weld
2,5 Kweld (S.Q.) joining parts stressed in
bending or shear
Case K
3
 Severe stress concentration
Reference Description Figure Symbol
3,1
Parts of different thickness connected
by butt welds (O.Q.) at right angles to
the direction of the forces. 1 in 2
asymmetrical slope, or symmetrical
position without blend slope
P 100
or P10
3,11
Butt weld with backing strip and no
backing run. Backing strip secured by
intermittent tack welds
3,12
Tubes joined by butt welds whose root
is supported by a backing piece and
not covered by a backing run
3,13
Butt weld (O.Q.) at right angles to the
direction of the forces at the
intersection of flats with welded
auxiliary gussets. The ends of the
welds are ground, avoiding notches
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Case K
3
 Severe stress concentration (continued)
Reference Description Figure Symbol
3,2
Continuous main member to which
parts are fillet welded (O.Q.) at right
angles to the direction of the forces.
These parts take only a small portion
of the loads transmitted by the main
member
3,21
Web and stiffener or transverse
diaphragm secured by uninterrupted
fillet weld (O.Q.)
3,3
Continuous member to the edges of
which are butt welded (O.Q.) parts
parallel to the direction of the forces.
These parts terminal in bevels and
ends of the welds are ground avoiding
notches
3,31
Continuous member to which are
welded parts parallel to the direction of
the forces. These parts terminal in
bevels or radii. Valid where the ends
of the welds are fillet welds (S.Q.) over
a length equal to 10 times the
thickness, provided that the ends of
the welds are ground, avoiding
notches
3,32
Continuous member through which
extends a plate, terminating in bevels
or radii parallel to the direction of the
forces, secured by Kweld (O.Q.) over
a length equal to 10 times the
thickness
3,33
Continuous member to which is
welded a flat parallel to the direction of
the forces, by means of fillet weld
(S.Q.) in the indicated area when
e
1
< 1,5 . e
2
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Case K
3
 Severe stress concentration (continued)
Reference Description Figure Symbol
3,34
Members at the extremity of which
connecting gussets are secured by a
fillet weld (S.Q.) when e
1
≤ e
2
In case
of unilateral gusset allow for eccentric
load
3,35
Continuous member to which
stiffeners parallel to the direction of
the forces are welded. The ends of the
welds are fillet welds (S.Q.) over a
length equal to ten times the thickness
and are ground avoiding notches
3,36
Continuous member to which
stiffeners parallel to the direction of
the forces are secured by fillet welds
(O.Q.) which are intermittent or made
between indentations
3,4
Cruciform joint made with Kweld
(O.Q.) at right angles to the direction
of the forces
D
3,41
Kweld (O.Q.) between flange and
web in case of concentrated load in
the plane of the web at right angles to
the weld
3,5
Kweld (O.Q.) joining parts stressed in
bending and shear
D
3,7
Continuous member to which sections
or tubes are fillet welded (S.Q.)
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Case K
4
 Very severe stress concentration
Reference Description Figure Symbol
4,1
Parts of different thickness butt
welded (O.Q.) at right angles to the
direction of the forces. Asymmetrical
position without blend slope
4,11
Butt welds (O.Q.) at right angles to the
direction of the forces, at the
intersection of flats (no auxiliary
gussets)
4,12
Single bevel weld at right angles to the
direction of the forces, between
intersecting parts (cruciform joint)
D
4,3
Continuous member to the sides of
which are welded parts ending at right
angles, parallel to the direction of the
forces
4,31
Continuous member to which parts,
ending at right angles, parallel to the
direction of the forces, and receiving a
large proportion of the loads
transmitted by the main member, are
secured by fillet weld (O.Q.)
4,32
Continuous member through which
extends a plate ending at right angles
and secured by fillet welding (O.Q.)
4,33
Continuous member on which a flat is
secured by means of a fillet weld
(O.Q.) parallel to the direction of the
forces
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Case K
4
 Very severe stress concentration (continued)
Reference Description Figure Symbol
4,34
Joint plate secured by (O.Q.) fillet
welds (e
1
= e
2
). In case of unilateral
joint plate allow for eccentric loads
4,35
Parts welded one on the other
secured by fillet welds (O.Q.) in a slot
or in holes
4,36
Continuous members between which
connecting gussets are secured by
fillet welds (O.Q.) or butt welds (O.Q.)
4,4
Cruciform joint made with fillet weld
(O.Q.) at right angles to the direction
of the forces
D
4,41
Fillet weld (O.Q.) between flange and
web in the case of concentrated load
in the plane of the web at right angles
to the weld
4,5 Fillet welds (O.Q.) joining parts
stressed in bending and shear 
D
4,7
Continuous member to which sections
or tubes are connected by fillet welds
(O.Q.)
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EXAMPLES OF CALCULATING CHECKS
EXAMPLES OF FATIGUE CHECKS
FOR A WELDED WEB TO FLANGE JOINT STEEL St 37
TOP FLANGE OF GIRDER OF AN OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANE ON WHICH A CRAB
RUNS
(Combined check for fatigue and elastic limit)
The results of stress calculations in the top fringe of the girder are as follows :
Longitudinal compression :
σ
x max
=  140 N/mm
2
σ
x min
=  28 N/mm
2
from which κ = 0,2
Lateral compression when the crab wheel passes :
σ
y max
=  100 N/mm
2
σ
y min
= 0 from
which κ = 0
Shear : changing sign when passing from one side to the other of the section:
τ
xy max
= ± 40 N/mm
2
from which κ = 1
Equivalent stress :
[ ( 140 )
2
+ ( 100 )
2
 140 . 100 + 3 . 40
2
]
0,5
= 144 < 160 N/mm
2
( σ
a
)
acceptable (See clause 3.2.1.3.).
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CHECKING FOR FATIGUE AND ELASTIC LIMIT
FIRST EXAMPLE  COMPONENT IN GROUP E4 WITH FILLET WELD (O Q )
1  CHECKING MATERIAL ADJACENT TO THE WELDING
a) Longitudinal compression : case K
0
(reference 0,31)
Checking for elastic limit :
σ
a
= 160 N/mm
2
(table T.3.2.1.1.)
σ
x max
=  140 N/mm
2
from which
 σ
x max
l < σ
a
Checking for fatigue :
σw = 193,5 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
σ
a
= 5 / 3 . σ
w
= 322,5 N/mm
2
σ
+1
= 0,75 . σ
R
= 270 N/mm
2
σ
t
is limited to 270 N/mm
2
σ
c
=  1,2 . σ
t
=  324 N/mm
2
σ
xa
=  324 N/mm
2
l σ
x max
l < l σ
xa
l
b) Lateral compression : case K
4
(reference 4,41)
Checking for elastic limit :
σ
a
= 160 N/mm
2
(table T. 3.2.1.1.)
σ
y max
=  100 N/mm
2
 σ
y max
 < σ
a
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Checking for fatigue :
σ
w
= 62,2 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
σ
a
= 5 / 3 . σ
w
= 103,7 N/mm
2
σ
t
= σ
0
= 107,7 N/mm
2
(formula (3))
σ
c
= 1,2 . σ
t
= 124,4 N/mm
2
σ
ya
=  124,4 N/mm
2
l σ
y max
l < l σ
ya

c) Shear in the material
Checking for elastic limit :
τ
xya
= 160 / 3
0,5
= 92,4 N/mm
2
(table T. 3.2.1.1.)
τ
xy max
= + 40 N/mm
2
(formula (1))
τ
xy max
< τ
a
Checking for fatigue :
τ
w
= 182,1 / 3
0,5
= 105,1 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
τ
a
= τ
w
= 105,1 N/mm
2
τ
xya
= 105,1 N/mm
2
τ
XY max
= 40 N/mm
2
 τ
XY max
l < τ
a
d) Checking for combined loads :
Use formula (5) :
Condition to be checked :
( 140 / 324 )
2
+ ( 100 / 124,4 )
2
 ( 140 ) . ( 100 ) / ( 324 . 124,4 ) + ( 40 / 92,4 )
2
= 0,672 < 1
therefore satisfied.
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2  CHECKING IN THE WELD
If the thickness of the two welds is equal to the thickness of the web, the stresses σ
x max
, σ
y max
and τ
xy max
have the same values as in 1  above.
The permissible tensile and compressive stresses are the same as for 1 above (in the material),
with respect to both checking for elastic limit and checking for fatigue. It follows that we can
dispense with a check for the cases corresponding to a) and b) above.
The permissible shear stresses, as regards checking for elastic limit, are obtained by dividing
the permissible tensile stress by 2
0,5
, instead of 3
0,5
in the case of the material itself. They are
therefore more favourable than those used in cases c) and d) above.
To sum up, we may confine ourselves to checking for fatigue the cases corresponding to c) and
d) above.
c) Shear in the weld :
τ
xya
= 193,5 / 2
0,5
= 136,8 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
τ
xy max
= 40 N/mm
2
from which
 τ
xy max
l <  τ
xya
l
d) Checking for combined loads :
Using formula (5)
Condition to be checked :
(140 / 324 )
2
+ ( 100 / 124,4 )
2
 ( 140 ) . (100 ) / ( 324 . 124,4 ) + ( 40 / 136,8 )
2
= 0,571 <
1
therefore satisfied.
Note : If the component had been classified in group E6, the stress σ
y max
=  100 N/mm
2
would
be too high, since the permissible fatigue stress for case K
4
and κ = 0 is only :
σ
ya
= 1,2 . 5 / 3 . 41 = 82 N/mm
2
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SECOND EXAMPLE  COMPONENT IN GROUP E6  K WELD (S.Q.)
The loads  and therefore the stresses  will be assumed to be the same as in the first example.
As the permissible stresses for the elastic limit checks are not affected by the change of group,
nor by the type of weld, the calculations in the first example may, in this respect, be reproduced
as they stand. We shall therefore confine ourselves to checking for fatigue.
1  CHECKING MATERIAL ADJACENT OT THE WELD
a) Longitudinal compression, case K
0
(reference 0,33)
σw = 127,5 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
σ
O
= 5 / 3 . σ
w
= 212,5 N/mm
2
σ
+1
= 0,75 . σ
R
= 270 N/mm
2
σ
t
= 212,5 / [ 1  ( 1  212,5 / 270 ) . 0,2] = 222,0 N/mm
2
(formula (3))
σ
c
=  1,2 . σ
t
= 266 N/mm
2
(formula (4))
σ
xa
=  266 N/mm
2
σ
x max
=  140 N/mm
2
from wihch l σ
x max
l < l σ
xa
l
b) Lateral compression : case K
2
(reference 2,41)
σw = 95,6 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
σ
a
= 5 / 3 . σ
w
= 159,3 N/mm
2
σ
t
= σ
O
= 159,3 N/mm
2
(formula (3))
σ
c
=  1,2 . σ
t
= 191,2 N/mm
2
σ
ya
=  191,2 N/mm
2
σ
y max
=  100 N/mm
2
from wihch l σ
y max
l < l σ
ya
l
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c) Shear in the material :
τ
xya
= 147,8 / 3
0,5
= 85,3 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
τ
xy max
= ± 40 N/mm
2
from which  τ
xy max
l <  τ
xya
l
d) Checking for combined loads :
Use formula (5)
Condition to be checked :
(140 / 266 )
2
+ ( 100 / 191,2 )
2
 ( 140 ) . (100 ) / ( 266 . 191,2 ) + ( 40 / 85,3 )
2
= 0,495 < 1
therefore satisfied.
2  CHECKING IN THE WELD
Same reasoning as for first example.
Leaving cases c) and d) to be checked for fatigue.
c) Shear in the weld :
τ
xya
= 127,5 / 2
0,5
= 90,2 N/mm
2
(table T.A.3.6.1.)
τ
xy max
= ± 40 N/mm
2
from which  τ
xy max
l <  τ
xya
l
d) Checking for combined loads :
Use formula (5)
Condition to be checked :
(140 / 266 )
2
+ ( 100 / 191,2 )
2
 ( 140 ) . (100 ) / ( 266 . 191,2 ) + ( 40 / 90,2 )
2
= 0,472 < 1
therefore satisfied.
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA
MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 4
CHECKING FOR FATIGUE AND CHOICE OF
MECHANISM COMPONENTS
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 4
CHECKING FOR FATIGUE AND CHOICE OF
MECHANISM COMPONENTS
4.1. CALCULATION PROCEDURE.....................................................................................................3
4.1.1. CHECKING FOR ULTIMATE STRENGTH .............................................................................3
4.1.1.1. VALUE OF THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS..................................................................................... 3
4.1.1.2. VALUES OF THE COEFFICIENT ν
R
............................................................................................ 4
4.1.1.3. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE CALCULATED STRESSES AND THE PERMISSIBLE STRESSES.... 4
4.1.2. CHECKING FOR CRIPPLING...................................................................................................5
4.1.3. CHECKING FOR FATIGUE........................................................................................................5
4.1.3.1. GENERAL METHOD................................................................................................................... 5
4.1.3.2. ENDURANCE LIMIT UNDER ALTERNATING LOADING OF A POLISHED SPECIMEN................... 6
4.1.3.3. INFLUENCE OF THE SHAPE, SIZE, SURFACE CONDITION AND CORROSION........................... 7
4.1.3.5. WÖHLER CURVE....................................................................................................................... 9
4.1.3.6. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A MECHANICAL COMPONENT........................................................ 11
4.1.3.7. PERMISSIBLE STRESSES AND CALCULATIONS.................................................................... 11
4.1.4. CHECKING FOR WEAR...........................................................................................................13
4.2. DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR PARTICULAR COMPONENTS..................................................14
4.2.1. CHOICE OF ANTIFRICTION BEARINGS.............................................................................14
4.2.1.1. THEORETICAL LIFE................................................................................................................. 14
4.2.1.2. MEAN LOADING OF BEARINGS SUBJECTED TO TYPE S
M
LOADS........................................ 14
4.2.1.2.1. Determination of the mean load S
M mean
on antifriction bearings for combined motions....... 14
4.2.1.3. MEAN LOADING OF BEARINGS SUBJECTED TO TYPE S
R
LOADS........................................ 15
4.2.1.4. MEAN LOADING OF BEARINGS SIMULTANEOUSLY SUBJECTED TO TYPE S
M
AND TYPE
S
R
LOADS............................................................................................................................................ 15
4.2.2. CHOICE OF ROPES.................................................................................................................15
4.2.2.1. CHOICE OF ROPE DIAMETER.................................................................................................. 16
4.2.2.1.1. Common bases for the two methods ................................................................................. 16
4.2.2.1.2. Method using the minimum practical factor of safety Z
p
...................................................... 17
4.2.2.1.3. Cfactor method ................................................................................................................ 18
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4  2
4.2.3. CHOICE OF PULLEYS, DRUMS AND ROPE ATTACHMENT MEANS.............................19
4.2.3.1. MINIMUM WINDING DIAMETER................................................................................................. 19
4.2.3.1.1. Values of H....................................................................................................................... 20
4.2.3.1.2. Note.................................................................................................................................. 20
4.2.3.2. RADIUS OF THE BOTTOM OF THE GROOVE.......................................................................... 20
4.2.3.3. ROPE ATTACHMENT MEANS.................................................................................................. 21
4.2.4. CHOICE OF RAIL WHEELS....................................................................................................21
4.2.4.1. RAIL WHEEL SIZE................................................................................................................... 21
4.2.4.1.1. Determining the mean load ............................................................................................... 22
4.2.4.1.2. Determining the useful rail width b..................................................................................... 22
4.2.4.1.3. Determining the limiting pressure P
L
................................................................................... 23
4.2.4.1.4. Determining the coefficient c
1
............................................................................................ 24
4.2.4.1.5. Determining the coefficient c
2
............................................................................................ 25
4.2.4.2. NOTES..................................................................................................................................... 25
4.2.5. DESIGN OF GEARS..................................................................................................................26
APPENDIX..................................................................................................................................................27
A 4.1.3.  DETERMINATION OF PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN MECHANISM
COMPONENTS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE....................................................................................27
EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION................................................................................................................. 30
LIST OF SOME WORKS DEALING WITH FATIGUE PROBLEMS............................................................ 32
A 4.2.2.  COMMENTS ON THE CHOICE OF ROPES AND ON THE PROBLEM OF THE
FACTOR OF SAFETY...........................................................................................................................33
A 4.2.3.  CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM WINDING
DIAMETERS FOR ROPES..................................................................................................................37
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4  3
4.1. CALCULATION PROCEDURE
Mechanism components are designed by checking that they offer adequate safety against failure
due to fracture, crippling, fatigue or excessive wear.
Other factors must also be taken into consideration and it is particularly important to avoid
overheating or deflection which could interfere with correct functioning of the mechanism.
4.1.1. CHECKING FOR ULTIMATE STRENGTH
1
Mechanism components are checked for ultimate strength by verifying that the calculated stress
does not exceed a permissible stress dependent on the breaking strength of the material used.
4.1.1.1. VALUE OF THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS
The value of the permissible stress σ
a
is given by the following formula :
σ
a =
σ
R /
ν
R
where :
σ
R
is the ultimate stress for the material
ν
R
is a safety coefficient corresponding to each case of loading (clause 2.3.)
1
It might seem logical to check against the elastic limit, in line with the structures booklet, as this figure is, in
principle, the limit not to be exceeded in the use of a material. The steels normally used for structures have a
wide gap between the yield strength and the ultimate strength and this gap affords protection against sudden
failure even when the yield strength is considerably exceeded.
On the other hand, the use in mechanisms of certain steels with a very high, elastic limit as compared to the
ultimate strength would result in fragile parts being produced if the permissible limit stress were to be based
on the elastic limit, and any accidental overstepping of this limit would lead to immediate failure. This explains
why the ultimate strength is chosen as the criterion for verification.
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4  4
4.1.1.2. VALUES OF THE COEFFICIENT ννν ν
R
The values to be adopted for ν
R
are given in table T.4.1.1.2.
Table T.4.1.1.2. Values of ννν ν
R
Cases of loading I and II III
Value of ν
R
2,2 1,8
In the case of grey cast iron, the values of ν
R
are to be amplified by 25 %.
4.1.1.3. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE CALCULATED STRESSES AND THE PERMISSIBLE
STRESSES
According to the type of loading considered, the following relations must be verified in which :
σ
t
is the calculated tensile stress
σ
c
is the calculated compressive stress
σ
f
is the calculated bending stress
τ is the calculated shear stress.
1) Pure tension : 1,25 . σ
t
≤ σ
a
2) Pure compression : σ
c
≤ σ
a
3) Pure bending : σ
f
≤ σ
a
4) Combined bending and tension : 1,25 . σ
t
+ σ
f
≤ σ
a
5) Combined bending and compression : σ
c
+ σ
f
≤ σ
a
6) Pure shear : 3
0,5
τ ≤ σ
a
7) Combined tension, bending and shear : [ ( 1,25 . σ
t
+ σ
f
)
2
+
3 τ
2
]
0,5
≤ σ
a
8) Combined compression, bending and shear : [ ( σ
c
+ σ
f
)
2
+
3 τ
2
]
0,5
≤ σ
a
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4  5
4.1.2. CHECKING FOR CRIPPLING
Parts subject to crippling are designed in compliance with clause 3.3. for booklet 3, checking that
the calculated stress does not exceed a limit stress determined as a function of the critical
stress above which there is a risk of crippling occurring.
For this check, the coefficient γ
m
is taken into account, its value depending on the group in which
the mechanism is classified (see table T.2.6.)
Some general considerations relating to the checking of parts for crippling are given in appendix
A3.3.
4.1.3. CHECKING FOR FATIGUE
4.1.3.1. GENERAL METHOD
The fatigue strength of a given component is mainly determined by :
 the material from which the component is constructed ;
 the shape, surface condition, state of corrosion, size (scale effect) and other factors
producing stress concentration ;
 the ratio κ between the minimum and maximum stresses which occur during the various
stress cycles ;
 the stress spectrum ;
 the number of stress cycles.
The fatigue strength of a mechanical component is known only in exceptional cases. Generally
speaking, it is to be derived from the characteristics of the material and of the component and
from accepted laws concerning their behaviour.
The starting point is provided by the endurance limit under alternating tensile fatigue loading
( κ =  1) of a polished specimen, made from the material under consideration. The diminution of
this fatigue strength as a result of the geometric shape of the piece, its surface condition, its
state of corrosion and its size is allowed for by introducing appropriate factors.
From the endurance limit under alternating loading the corresponding limit with respect to other
ratios κ between extreme stresses is obtained with the aid of a SMITH diagram, in which certain
hypotheses are made as to the shape of the strength curve.
The endurance limit thus determined for the actual component, and with respect to a given ratio
κ between extreme stresses, is taken as the basis for the plotting of the WÖHLER curve,
concerning which certain hypotheses are also made. From this WÖHLER curve (fatigue strength
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4  6
under the effect solely of stress cycles, all having the same ratio κ between extreme stresses),
the PALMGRENMINER hypothesis on fatigue damage accumulation can be used to determine
the fatigue strength of a component according to a group in which the component is classified.
The method described in 4.1.3. for determining the fatigue strength is applicable only to
components in which the structure of the material is homogenous over the entire section being
considered. It cannot, therefore, be used in the case of components which have undergone a
surface treatment (e.g. hardening, nitriding, casehardening). In such cases the fatigue strength
can be derived from the WÖHLER curve only if the latter has itself been determined with respect
to components which have been made from the same material, have a comparable shape and
size and have undergone exactly the same surface treatment.
Checking for fatigue strength only needs to be performed for case of loading I.
Where the number of stress cycles is less than 8 000, such checking is not necessary.
4.1.3.2. ENDURANCE LIMIT UNDER ALTERNATING LOADING OF A POLISHED SPECIMEN
The specialised works on the subject (see also appendix A4.1.3.) provide the endurance limit
value σ
bw
under alternating rotational bending of a polished specimen in the case of materials
used regularly in construction of mechanisms.
By approximation, the same values of σ
bw
may be accepted for the endurance limit under
alternating rotary bending.
To obtain the endurance limit under alternating axial tension and compression, the values of σ
bw
have to be decreased by 20 %
2
.
2
An element of material, when subjected to the same stress as an adjacent element, supports the latter less
effectively than if it were subjected to a lower stress, as is the case with bending. A stress gradient, i.e. :
( difference in stress between two adjacent elementary parts )
( distance between these two elementary parts )
which is higher, produces a strengthening effect.
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4  7
The endurance strength τ
w
under alternating shear (pure shear or torsion) is derived from σ
bw
by
the relation :
τ
w
=
σ
bw
/ 3
0,5
The values given for σ
bw
are generally those corresponding statistically to a 90 % survival
probability. In the case of carbon steels in common use in mechanisms, it is permissible to
adopt :
σ
bw
= 0,5 . σ
R
σ
R
being the minimum ultimate strength.
4.1.3.3. INFLUENCE OF THE SHAPE, SIZE, SURFACE CONDITION AND CORROSION
The shape, size, surface condition (machining) and state of corrosion of the component under
consideration entail a decrease in the endurance limit under alternating loading in relation to the
ideal case of a polished specimen.
This influence is allowed for by introducing factors k
s
, k
d
, k
u
and k
c
respectively, concerning the
determination of which, directions will be found in appendix A4.1.3.
The endurance limit under alternating loading σ
wk
or τ
wk
of the component under consideration is
given for tension, compression, bending and torsional shear by the relation :
σ
wk
=
σ
bw
/ ( k
s
. k
d
. k
u
. k
c
)
or
τ
wk
= τ
w
/ ( k
s
. k
d
. k
u
. k
c
)
In the case of pure shear we take :
τ
wk
= τ
w
4.1.3.4. ENDURANCE LIMIT AS A FUNCTION OF κ, σ
R
AND σ
wk
(or τ
wk
)
Fig. 4.1.3.4. expresses, in the form of a SMITH diagram, the hypotheses made concerning the
relations between the endurance limit σ
d
(or τ
d
), the ratio κ between extreme stresses, the tensile
strength σ
R
and the endurance limit under alternating loading σ
wk
(or τ
wk
)
This gives the following relations :
Normal stresses :
1 ≤ κ < 0 Alternating stresses
σ
d
= 5 . σ
wk
/ ( 3  2 . κ )
0 ≤ κ < 1 Pulsating stresses
σ
d
= [ 5 . σ
wk
/ 3 ] / { 1  [(1  5 . σ
wk
/ ( 3 . σ
R
)) . κ ] }
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4  8
Shear stresses :
1 ≤ κ < 0 Alternating stresses
τ
d
= 5 . τ
wk
/ ( 3  2 . κ )
0 ≤ κ < 1 Pulsating stresses
τ
d
= [ 5 . τ
wk
/ 3 ] / { 1  [(1  5 . 3
0,5
. τ
wk
/ ( 3 . σ
R
)) . κ ]
Tensi on,
Compressi on
Shear
Average
or
or
Figure 4.1.3.4.
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4  9
4.1.3.5. WÖHLER CURVE
"WÖHLER curve" in this context means an endurance curve representing the number n of stress
cycles which can be withstood before fatigue failure, as a function of the maximum stress σ (T),
when all stress cycles present the same amplitude and the same ratio κ between extreme
values.
With regard to this WÖHLER curve, the following hypotheses are made respectively :
 for n = 8 * 10
3
:
σ = σ
R
or
τ = σ
R
/ 3
0,5
 for 8 * 10
3
≤ n ≤ 2 * 10
6
, the area of limited endurance, the function is represented by a straight
fine TD in a reference system comprising two logarithmic scale axes (figure 4.1.3.5.)
The slope of the WÖHLER curve, in the interval considered, is characterised by the factor :
c = tan( ϕ ) = [ log(2 * 10
6
)  log(8 * 10
3
) ] / ( log σ
R
 log σ
d
)
or
c = tan( ϕ ) = [ log(2 * 10
6
)  log(8 * 10
3
) ] / [ ( log ( σ
R
/ 3
0,5
)  log τ
d )
]
 for n = 2 * 10
6
:
σ = σ
d
or
τ = τ
d
 for n > 2 * 10
6
, the socalled region of endurance limit, the function is represented, in the
same reference system as above, by the straight fine DN, bisector of the angle formed by the
extension of TD and a fine parallel to the axis of the n values, passing through D.
The slope of the WÖHLER curve for n > 2 * 10
6
is characterised by the factor :
c’ = tan( ϕ‘ ) = c + ( c
2
+ 1 )
0,5
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4  10
Figure 4.1.3.5.
The spectrum factor k
sp
of the component is determined by means of the above mentioned value
of c. In the case of certain components in group E8 (see 4.1.3.6.), the calculation must also be
performed in exactly the same way, but after replacing c by c'. To distinguish between the two
spectrum factors thus found, the second will be designated k’
sp
.
A c value below 2,5 is an indication of faulty design of the component concerned. Such a
component must not be put into service.
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4  11
4.1.3.6. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A MECHANICAL COMPONENT
The fatigue strength σ
k
or τ
k
of a given mechanical component is determined by the following
expressions respectively :
σ
k
= 2
[ ( 8  j ) / c ]
. σ
d
or
τ
k
= 2
[ ( 8  j ) / c ]
. τ
d
where j is the component's group number.
In the case of group E8 components, of which the total duration of use n and the spectrum factor
k'
sp
(see 4.1.3.5.) satisfy the inequality :
n . k'
sp
> 2 * 10
6
σ
k
or τ
k
must, however, be determined by the expression :
σ
k
= [ (2 * 10
6
/ n ) . ( 1 / k'
sp
) ]
1/c’
. σ
d
or
τ
k
= [ (2 * 10
6
/ n ) . ( 1 / k'
sp
) ]
1/c’
. τ
d
The group classification of components, on the basis of their total duration of use n and their
spectrum factor k
sp
, as well as the critical fatigue stresses associated with each group, are
illustrated in figure 4.1.3.6. where σ
jk
represents the stress applying to group E
j
. For the critical
shear stresses, the letter σ must be replaced by τ.
4.1.3.7. PERMISSIBLE STRESSES AND CALCULATIONS
The permissible stresses σ
af
and τ
af
are obtained by dividing the stresses σ
k
and τ
k
, defined in
4.1.3.6., respectively by a safety factor ν
k
.
One takes :
ν
k
= 3,2
1/c
or
ν
k
= 3,2
1/c’
for group E8 components satisfying
the inequality in the penultimate
paragraph of 4.1.3.6.
σ
af
and τ
af
will therefore be obtained by the relations :
σ
af
= σ
k
/ ν
k
τ
af
= τ
k
/ ν
k
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4  12
and one verifies that :
σ ≤ σ
af
τ ≤ τ
af
with :
σ maximum calculated normal stress ;
τ maximum calculated shear stress.
Figure 4.1.3.6.
In the case of components acted upon simultaneously by normal stresses and shear stresses
with different ratios κ between extreme stresses, the following condition must be satisfied :
( σ
x
/ σ
kx
)
2
+ ( σ
y
/ σ
ky
)
2
 [ σ
x
. σ
y
/ ( σ
kx
. σ
ky
) ] + (τ / τ
k
)
2
≤ 1,1 / ν
k
2
in which :
σx, σy = maximum normal stresses in the directions x and y respectively ;
τ = maximum shear stress ;
σ
kx
, σ
ky
= fatigue strength for normal stresses, in the directions x and y respectively ;
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4  13
τ
k
= shear fatigue strength.
If it is not possible to determine the most unfavourable case of the foregoing relation from the
corresponding stresses σ
x
, σ
y
and τ, calculations must be performed separately for the loads σ
x
max
, σ
y max
and τ
max
and the most unfavourable corresponding stresses.
It should be noted that the checks described above do not guarantee safety against brittle
fracture. Such safety can be ensured only by a suitable choice of material quality.
4.1.4. CHECKING FOR WEAR
In the case of parts subjected to wear, the specific physical quantifies which affect this, such as
the surface pressure or the circumferential velocity must be determined. The figures must be
such that, on the basis of present experience, they will not lead to excessive wear.
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4  14
4.2. DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR PARTICULAR COMPONENTS
4.2.1. CHOICE OF ANTIFRICTION BEARINGS
To select antifriction bearings, it is first necessary to check that the bearing is capable of
withstanding :
 the static load to which it can be subjected under whichever of loading cases I, II or III is the
most unfavourable, and
 the maximum dynamic load in the more unfavourable of loading cases I or II.
4.2.1.1. THEORETICAL LIFE
In addition, antifriction bearings must be selected to give an acceptable theoretical life in hours
(see table T.2.1.3.2.) as a function of the class of operation of the mechanism under a constant
mean load as defined in clauses 4.2.1.2. and 4.2.1.3. below.
4.2.1.2. MEAN LOADING OF BEARINGS SUBJECTED TO TYPE S
M
LOADS
In order to allow for variations in the loads of type S
M
during the cycles of operation, an equivalent
mean loading S
M mean
is determined which is supposed to be applied constantly during the
theoretical life determined by clause 4.2.1.1.
S
M mean
is obtained by multiplying S
M max
II
3
, defined by clause 2.6.4.1. and 2.6.4.2., by the cube
root of the spectrum factor k
m
defined in 2.1.3.3.
S
M mean
= k
m
. S
M max II
(1)
4.2.1.2.1. Determination of the mean load S
M mean
on antifriction bearings for combined motions
In the case of motions which combine an elevation of the centre of gravity of the moving masses
with a horizontal displacement (e.g. unbalanced luffing), the mean load S
M mean
is determined by
combining :
 the mean load due to the accelerations and the effect of the wind, as determined by applying
clause 4.2.1.2. with,
3
or S
M max I
for components not subjected to wind.
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 the mean load due to the vertical displacement of the centre of gravity of the moving masses,
as determined from the expression :
S
M mean
= ( 2 . S
M max
+ S
M min
) / 3
where S
M max
and S
M min
are the maximum and minimum values of the corresponding loads.
4.2.1.3. MEAN LOADING OF BEARINGS SUBJECTED TO TYPE S
R
LOADS
The extreme loads S
R max
and S
R min
developed in loading case I for appliances not subjected to
wind or loading case II for appliances subjected to wind (see clause 2.6.) are considered and
the bearing is designed for a constant mean load given by the expression :
S
R mean
= ( 2 . S
R max
+ S
R min
)
/ 3
and applied for the theoretical life in accordance with clause 4.2.1.1.
4.2.1.4. MEAN LOADING OF BEARINGS SIMULTANEOUSLY SUBJECTED TO TYPE S
M
AND TYPE
S
R
LOADS
On the basis indicated above the equivalent mean loads are determined for each of the type S
M
and S
R
loads, assumed to be acting alone and the bearing is selected for an equivalent mean
load resulting from combination of the two mean loads S
M
and S
R
.
4.2.2. CHOICE OF ROPES
The following rules aim at defining reasonable minimum requirements for the choice of ropes
used on hoisting appliances covered by these Design Rules.
They do not purport to resolve all the problems nor to serve as a substitute for the dialogue which
is essential between the rope manufacturer and the manufacturer of hoisting appliances.
They apply to preferred ropes conforming to ISO Recommendation 2408 : "Steel ropes for
general use  Characteristics".
They do not exclude, however, ropes which are not specified in ISO Recommendation 2408.
For such ropes, it is incumbent upon the rope manufacturer to validate for the user the minimum
values of parameters detailed in the ISO Recommendation.
The terminology of the rope parameters complies with that used in ISO Recommendation 2408.
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The methods stated hereafter assume that the ropes are greased correctly, that the winding
diameters of the pulleys and the drums are suitably selected in compliance with 4.2.3. and that,
when in service, the ropes are properly maintained, inspected and periodically replaced in
conformity with ISO Recommendation 4309 "Rope inspection"
The selection of rope diameter (and winding diameters in 4.2.3.) is based on the group of the
hoisting mechanism. However, for appliances which require frequent dismantling (such as
builders tower cranes), in which ropes have to be changed more frequently, it is permissible to
select a hoist rope from the group immediately below that of the hoisting mechanism but not
inferior to group M3.
Whenever hoisting appliances are used for dangerous handling operations (e.g. molten metal,
highly radioactive or corrosive products, etc.) the choice of the ropes and pulleys must take
account of the mechanism group next above that resulting from the normal classification of the
hoisting appliances.
Group M5 is the minimum group to be used for the handling of dangerous loads for the choice of
rope and pulley diameters.
4.2.2.1. CHOICE OF ROPE DIAMETER
Two methods can be used at the choice of the manufacturer :
 the method using the minimum practical factor of safety Z
p
(see 4.2.2.1.2.) which is valid for
running ropes and static ropes (guy ropes, stays, etc.).
 the C factor method (4.2.2.1.3.) applicable to running ropes only.
4.2.2.1.1. Common bases for the two methods
4.2.2.1.1.1. Definition of the maximum tensile force S in the hoist rope (grab ropes excepted)
This is obtained by taking account of the following factors :
 maximum safe working load of the appliance,
 weight of the pulley block and the hoist accessories, the dead weights of which are added to
the load effect so as to increase the rope tension,
 mechanical demultiplication due to the rope reeving,
 efficiency of the rope reeving,
 loads due to accelerations if they exceed 10 % of the vertical loads,
 rope inclination at the upper extreme position if the angle of the rope with the hoist axis
exceeds 22,5°.
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4.2.2.1.1.2. Definition of the maximum tensile force S in ropes other than hoist ropes
The determination of the maximum tensile force S in the various ropes which are not exclusively
used for the vertical hoisting of loads is based on the loads determined in load cases I or II
taking account of the most unfavourable case which can occur repeatedly in normal use.
For ropes which produce horizontal movement of loads, account must be taken of the loading
resulting from rolling motion and friction, together with the maximum inclination that the support,
on which the load is moved, can assume locally under the influence of the normal loading.
4.2.2.1.1.3. Determination of the maximum tensile force S in the ropes of multirope grabs (holding and closing)
In the case of appliances with grabs, where the weight of the load is not always equally
distributed between the closing ropes and the holding ropes during the whole of a cycle, the
value of S to be applied should be determined as follows :
1) If the system used automatically ensures an equal distribution of the hoisted load between
the closing and holding ropes, or any difference between the loads carried by the ropes is
limited to a short period at the end of closing or at the beginning of opening, S should be
determined as follows :
a) closing ropes : S = 66 % of the weight of the loaded grab, divided by the number of
closing ropes.
b) holding ropes : same pourcentage.
2) If the system used does not automatically secure an equal distribution of the load between
the closing ropes and the holding ropes during the hoisting motion and, in practice, almost
all the load is applied to the closing ropes, S should be determined as follows :
a) closing ropes : S = total weight of the loaded grab divided by the number of closing
ropes.
b) holding ropes : S = 66 % of the total weight of the loaded grab divided by the number of
holding ropes.
4.2.2.1.2. Method using the minimum practical factor of safety Z
p
Definitions
The minimum practical factor of safety Z
p
is the ratio between :
 the minimum breaking load F
0
of the rope (minimum load which must be attained when
carrying out the rope breaking test),
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 and the maximum tensile force S in the rope
Z
p
= F
0
/ S
4.2.2.1.2.1. Rope selection
The chosen rope must have a minimum practical factor of safety at least equal to the minimum
value Z
p
for the mechanism group to which the rope in question belongs (see table T.4.2.2.1.2.).
Table T.4.2.2.1.2.  Factor of safety Z
p
Group of Minimum value Z
p
mechanism Running ropes Static ropes
M 1
M 2
M 3
M 4
M 5
M 6
M 7
M 8
3,15
3,35
3,55
4
4,5
5,6
7,1
9
2,5
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5
4.2.2.1.3. Cfactor method
Definitions :
C = rope selection factor,
S = maximum tensile force exerted on the rope when in use,
d = nominal diameter of the rope (dimension by which the rope is designated),
f = fill factor of the rope,
k = spinning loss factor due to the rope construction,
R
O
= minimum ultimate tensile stress of the wire composing the rope,
K' = empirical factor for the minimum breaking load for a given rope construction such that
k’ = π / 4 .f . k
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4.2.2.1.3.1. Rope selection
For a rope of a given construction, having a given minimum steel strength, and for a given
mechanism group there is a factor C which is expressed by the formula :
C = [ Z
p
/ (π . k . f . R
O
/ 4 ) ]
0,5
= [ Z
p
/ (k’ . R
O
) ]
0,5
where Z
p
is the minimum value for running ropes in table T.4.2.2.1.2., corresponding to the
mechanism group chosen for the rope.
The nominal diameter must be such that : d ≥ C . S
0,5
4.2.2.1.3.2. Calculation of the factor C  guarantees
The values of C are calculated taking account of :
 the factor Z
p
corresponding to the mechanism group,
 the breaking strength under tension of the steel of the rope wires,
 the factor k' (or factors k and f) which can either :
• be taken from ISO Recommendation 2048 for normal ropes covered therein (see
Appendix),
• or be guaranteed by the rope manufacturer if the rope is of a special construction. In this
case, the certificate supplied by the rope manufacturer must clearly state the guaranteed
values of k'.
4.2.3. CHOICE OF PULLEYS, DRUMS AND ROPE ATTACHMENT MEANS
4.2.3.1. MINIMUM WINDING DIAMETER
The minimum winding diameter for the rope is determined by checking the relationship :
D ≥ H . d
where :
D is the winding diameter on pulleys, drums or compensating pulleys measured to the axis of
the rope.
H is a coefficient depending upon the mechanism group.
d is the nominal diameter of the rope.
Note  Refer to 4.2.2. for the mechanism group in which the rope should be classified.
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4.2.3.1.1. Values of H
The minimum values of the coefficient H, depending upon the group in which the mechanism is
classified, are given in table T.4.2.3.1.1. for drums, pulleys and compensating pulleys.
They correspond to ropes currently used and known and are based on experience concerning
their working conditions.
They do not however serve as a substitute for the dialogue which is indispensable between the
rope manufacturer and the manufacturer of hoisting appliances, especially when the use of new
ropes with varying flexibility characteristics is being considered.
Table T.4.2.3.1.1. Values of H
Mechanism
group Drums Pulleys
Compensating
pulleys
M 1
M 2
M 3
M 4
M 5
M 6
M 7
M 8
11,2
12,5
14
16
18
20
22,4
25
12,5
14
16
18
20
22,4
25
28
11,2
12,5
12,5
14
14
16
16
18
4.2.3.1.2. Note
When the formula given in clause 4.2.2.1. has been used to determine a minimum rope
diameter from which in turn the minimum diameters for drums and pulleys have been
determined, a rope of diameter greater than the minimum calculated diameter can be used with
these latter diameters, provided that the diameter of the rope used does not exceed the
minimum diameter by more than 25 % and that the pull in the rope does not exceed the value S
used for calculating this minimum diameter.
4.2.3.2. RADIUS OF THE BOTTOM OF THE GROOVE
The useful life of the rope depends not only on the diameter of the pulleys and drums, but also
on the pressure exerted between the rope and the groove supporting the rope.
The winding ratios above are given on the assumption of a radius of supporting groove r where :
r = 0,53 . d
d being the nominal diameter of the rope.
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4.2.3.3. ROPE ATTACHMENT MEANS
Rope attachments must be so designed as to withstand a tensile force 2,5 times the maximum
tensile force S without showing permanent deformation.
The means attaching the rope to the drum must be of such a design that, taking account of the
friction of the turns which remain around the drum, the sum of the frictional and fixing forces
withstands a tensile force 2,5 times the maximum tensile force S.
The coefficient of friction between the rope and the drum used in the calculations shall be :
µ = 0,1
when the rope is completely unwound from the drum, at least two complete turns of rope must
remain on the drum before the rope end attachment.
4.2.4. CHOICE OF RAIL WHEELS
In order to choose a rail wheel, its diameter is determined by considering :
 the load on the wheel,
 the quality of the metal from which it is made,
 the type of rail on which it rues,
 the speed of rotation of the wheel,
 the group classification of the mechanism.
4.2.4.1. RAIL WHEEL SIZE
To determine the size of a rail wheel, the following checks must be made :
 that it is capable of withstanding the maximum load to which it will be subjected, and
 that it will allow the appliance to perform its normal duty without abnormal wear.
The two requirements are checked by means of the following two formulae :
P
mean
III
≤ P
L
. C
1max
. C
2max
< 1,38 . P
L
≈ 1,4 P
L
taking C
1max
= 1,2 and
C
2max
= 1,15
and P
mean
I, II
/ ( b . D ) ≤ P
L
. C
1
. C
2
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where :
D is the wheel diameter in mm
b the useful width of the rail in mm
P
L
a limiting pressure dependent upon the metal used for the wheel, in N/mm
2
C
1
a coefficient depending on the speed of rotation of the wheel
C
2
is a coefficient depending on the group of the mechanism
P
mean III
is the mean load to be withstood by the wheel, in loading case III, in N, calculated
according to the formulae in clause 4.2.4.1.1.
P
mean I,II
is the mean load in case I or II.
4.2.4.1.1. Determining the mean load
In order to determine the mean loads, the procedure is to consider the maximum and minimum
loads withstood by the wheel in the loading cases considered, i.e. with the appliance in normal
duty but omitting the dynamic coefficient ψ when determining P
mean I,II
and with the appliance not
in use for P
mean III
.The values of P
mean
are determined by the formula below in the three cases of
loading I, II and III :
P
mean I,II,III
= ( P
min I,II,III
+ 2 . P
max I,II,III
) / 3
4.2.4.1.2. Determining the useful rail width b
For rails having a flat bearing surface and a total width l with rounded corners of radius r at each
side, we have:
b = l  2 . r
for rails with a convex bearing surface, we have:
b = l  4 . r / 3
4
4
(1) For the same width of rail head, these formulae give a greater useful bearing width for
convex rails than for flat rails. This allows for the superior adaptation of a slightly convex rail to the
rolling motion of the wheel.
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4.2.4.1.3. Determining the limiting pressure P
L
The value of P
L
is given in table T.4.2.4.1.3. as a function of the ultimate strength of the metal of
which the rail wheel is made;
Table T.4.2.4.1.3.  Values of P
L
Ultimate strength for metal P
L
used for rail wheel in N/mm
2
σ
R
> 500 N/mm
2
5,0
σ
R
> 600 N/mm
2
5,6
σ
R
> 700 N/mm
2
6,5
σ
R
> 800 N/mm
2
7,2
The qualifies of metal refer to cast, forged or rolled steels, and spheroidal graphite cast iron.
In the case of rail wheels with tyres, consideration must obviously be given to the quality of the
tyre, which should be sufficiently thick not to roll itself out.
In the case of wheels made of high tensile steel and treated to ensure a very high surface
hardness, the value of P
L
is limited to that for the quality of the steel composing the wheel prior to
surface treatment, according to table T.4.2.4.1.3., since a higher value would risk causing
premature wear of the rail.
For a given load, however, wheels of this type have a much longer useful life than wheels of
lesser surface hardness, which makes their use worthwhile in the case of appliances
performing intensive service.
Alternatively, it is possible to use wheels of ordinary cast iron, especially chilled cast iron, which
has good surface hardness.
It must be remembered that such wheels are brittle and that their use should be avoided for high
speed motions or when shock loadings are to be feared.
When these are used their diameter is determined by taking P
L
equal to 5 N/mm
2
.
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4.2.4.1.4. Determining the coefficient c
1
The values of c
1
depend on the speed of rotation of the wheel and are given in table T.4.2.4.1.4.a.
These same values are also given in table T.4.2.4.1.4.b. as a function of the wheel diameter and
the speed in m/min.
Table T.4.2.4.1.4.a.  Values of c
1
Wheel rotation
speed in R.P.M. c
1
Wheel rotation
speed in R.P.M. c
1
Wheel rotation
speed in R.P.M. c
1
200
160
125
112
100
90
80
71
63
56
0,66
0,72
0,77
0,79
0,82
0,84
0,87
0,89
0,91
0,92
50
45
40
35,5
31,5
28
25
22,4
20
18
0,94
0,96
0,97
0,99
1,00
1,02
1,03
1,04
1,06
1,07
16
14
12,5
11,2
10
8
6,3
5,6
5
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
Table T.4.2.4.1.4.b
Values of c
1
as a function of the wheel diameter and the speed of travel
wheel
diameter Values of c
1
for travel speeds in m/min
in mm
10 12,5 16 20 25 31,5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250
200
250
315
400
500
630
710
800
900
1 000
1 120
1 250
1,09
1,11
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,17






1,06
1,09
1,11
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17




1,03
1,06
1,09
1,11
1,13
1,14
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17


1
1,03
1,06
1,09
1,11
1,13
1,13
1,14
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
0,97
1
1,03
1,06
1,09
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,13
1,14
1,14
1,15
0,94
0,97
1
1,03
1,06
1,09
1,1
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,13
1,14
0,91
0,94
0,97
1
1,03
1,06
1,07
1,09
1,1
1,11
1,12
1,13
0,87
0,91
0,94
0,97
1
1,03
1,04
1,06
1,07
1,09
1,1
1,11
0,82
0,87
0,91
0,94
0,97
1
1,02
1,03
1,04
1,06
1,07
1,09
0,77
0,82
0,87
0,91
0,94
0,97
0,99
1
1,02
1,03
1,04
1,06
0,72
0,77
0,82
0,87
0,91
0,94
0,96
0,97
0,99
1
1,02
1,03
0,66
0,72
0,77
0,82
0,87
0,91
0,92
0,94
0,96
0,97
0,99
1

0,66
0,72
0,77
0,82
0,87
0,89
0,91
0,92
0,94
0,96
0,97


0,66
0,72
0,77
0,82
0,84
0,87
0,89
0,91
0,92
0,94



0,66
0,72
0,77
0,79
0,82
0,84
0,87
0,89
0,91
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4.2.4.1.5. Determining the coefficient c
2
The coefficient
c2
depends on the group classification of the mechanism and is given in table
T.4.2.4.1.5.
Table T.4.2.4.1.5.  Values of c
2
Group classification
of mechanism c
2
M 1 to M 4
M 5
M 6
M 7  M 8
1,12
1,00
0,90
0,80
4.2.4.2. NOTES
Note 1
The formulae apply only to wheels whose diameters do not exceed 1,25 m. For larger diameters
experience shows that the permissible pressures between the rail and the wheel must be
lowered. The use of wheels of greater diameter is not recommended.
Note 2
It should be noted that the limiting pressure P
L
is a notional pressure determined by supposing
that contact between the wheel and the rail takes place over a surface whose width is the useful
width defined earlier (clause 4.2.4.1.2.) and whose length is the diameter of the wheel. The
method of calculating set out above is derived from application of the HERTZ formula, which may
be written :
σ
cg
2
/ ( 0,35 . E ) = P / ( b . D )
where :
σ
cg
is the compressive stress in the wheel and the rail N/mm
2
E the modulus of elasticity of the metal in N/mm
2
P the wheel load in N
b and D in mm, being as defined above (clause 4.2.4.1.).
Taking K
L
to represent the value σ
cg
2
/ ( 0,35 . E ) which has the dimension of a pressure in
N/mm
2
, the relation may be written :
K
L
= P / ( b . D )
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and characterizes the wheel pressure on the rail. The formula of clause 4.2.4.1. is obtained by
putting :
K
L
= P
L
. c
1
. c
2
4.2.5. DESIGN OF GEARS
The choice of the method of making design calculations for gears is left to the manufacturer, who
must indicate the origin of the method adopted, the loads to be taken into account being
determined in accordance with the directions given in 2.6.
In the case of a calculation which takes account of the operating time the conventional hours
determined in 2.1.3.2. should be used.
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APPENDIX
A 4.1.3.  DETERMINATION OF PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN MECHANISM
COMPONENTS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE
The endurance limit for a polished specimen is a laboratory value, which is practically never
attained in parts actually used. Numerous factors  shape, size, surface condition (machining
quality) and possible corrosion  induce discontinuities resulting in "notch effects", which
decrease the permissible stresses in the part, when these stresses are calculated by
conventional elementary methods for the strength of materials. These factors are taken into
account by coefficients, called k
s
, k
d
, k
u
, k
c
, respectively all greater than or equal to unity, by the
product of which the endurance limit for a polished specimen is devided.
Guidelines concerning the determination of these coefficients are set out below :
a. Determination of k
s
This coefficient specifies the stress concentrations caused by changes of section with radii,
annular grooves, transverse holes and the method of securing hubs.
Figures A.4.1.3.1. a. and b. give the values of the shape coefficient k
s
as a function of the ultimate
strength of the metal, valid for diameter D of 10 mm.
The curves a. give the coefficient k
s
for changes of section of ratio D/d = 2 with a correction table
T.A.4.1.3.1. for other values of D/d. The b curves give, for guidance some values of k
s
for holes,
annular grooves and keyways.
Diameters in excess of 10 mm are taken care of by introducing the size coefficient k
d
.
Figure A.4.1.3.1.a. Shape coefficient k
s
(Diameter D = 10 mm)
Change of section D/d = 2
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For other values of D/d read k
s
from the curve (r/d) + q with the following values for q :
Table T.A.4.1.3.1.  Correction factors q for D/d ≤ 2
D/d 1,05 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,6 2
q 0,13 0,1 0,07 0,052 0,04 0,022 0
Curve I Transverse hole d
1
= 0,175 d
II Annular groove : depth 1 mm
III Keyed hub
IV Pressfitted hub
Figure A.4.1.3.1.b. Shape coefficient k
s
(Diameter D =10 mm)
Hole, annular groove, keyway
b. Determination of size coefficient k
d
For diameters greater than 10 mm the stress concentration effect increases and this increase is
allowed for by introducing the size coefficient k
d
.
The values of the coefficient k
d
are given in table T.A.4.1.3.2. for values of d from 10 mm to 400
mm.
Table T.A.4.1.3.2.  Values of k
d
d mm 10 20 30 50 100 200 400
k
d
1 1,1 1,25 1,45 1,65 1,75 1,8
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c. Determination of surface condition (method of machining) coefficient k
u
Experience shows that parts produced with a rough finish have a longer endurance limit than
carefully polished parts.
This is allowed for by applying a machining coefficient k
u
given in figure A.4.1.3.2. for the case of
a surface which is ground or finely polished with emery and for the case of a surface which is
rough machined.
d. Determination of corrosion coefficient k
c
Corrosion can have a very appreciable effect on the endurance limit of steels ; this is allowed for
by applying a coefficient k
c
.
Figure A.4.1.3.2. gives the values of this coefficient k
c
for the cases of corrosion due to fresh
water and due to sea water.
Figure A.4.1.3.2.  Values of the machining coefficient k
u
, corrosion coefficient k
c
Values of k
u
Curve I Surface ground or finely polished
II Surface rough machined
Values of k
c
III Surface corroded by fresh water
IV Surface corroded by sea water
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4  30
EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION
Shaft in A550 steel with change of section.
Diameters D = 70 mm and d = 5D mm
with transition radius r = 5 mm.
Turned on lathe, with keyed wheel.
The component will be deemed to be classified in group E4.
We shall assume alternating loading (κ =  1) and the shaft to be of A 550 steel
(minimum σ
R
= 550 N/mm
2
). We can therefore adopt :
σ
bw
= 0,5 . 550 = 275 N/mm
2
Section AB
D/d = 70 / 50 = 1,4
r/d = 5 / 50 = 0,1
Determination of k
s
(shape)
For D/d = 1.4 we have :
q = 0,04 (Table T.A.4.1.3.1.)
From the curve (r/d) + q = 0,1 + 0,14 we find by interpolation :
k
s
= 1,4 (Figure A.4.1.3.1.a.)
Determination of k
d
(size)
For d = 50 we have :
k
d
= 1,45 (Table T.A.4.1.3.2.)
Determination of k
u
(machining)
For a part turned on a lathe we have :
k
u
= 1,15 (Figure A.4.1.3.2., curve II)
From the foregoing values we derive :
σ
wk
= 275 / ( 1,4 . 1,45 . 1,15 ) = 117,8 N/mm
2
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4  31
For κ =  1 we have :
σ
d
= σ
wk
= 117,8 N/mm
2
c = log(2 000 000/8 000) / log(550 / 117,8) = 3,58
For group E4 the critical stress is therefore :
σk = σd . 2
(84)/c
= 117,8 . 2
(4 / 3,58)
= 255,4 N/mm
2
The safety coefficient ν
k
is given by :
ν
k
= 3,2
1/c
= 3,2
(1 / 3.58)
= 1,38
The permissible stress σ
af
is therefore :
σ
af
= 255,4 / 1,38 = 184,6 N/mm
2
Section CD
We have :
k
s
= 2,2 (Figure A.4.1.3.1.b.)
k
d
= 1,45 (same value as above)
k
u
= 1,15 (same value as above)
Hence :
σ
wk
= 275 / ( 2,2 . 1,45 . 1,15 ) = 75,0 N/mm
2
σd = σwk = 75,0 N/mm
2
c =log(2 000 000 / 8 000) / log(550 / 75) = 2,77
σ
k
= 75 . 2
(4/2,77)
= 204 N/mm
2
ν
k
= 3,2
1/2.77
= 1,52
σ
af
= 204 / 1,52 = 134 N/mm
2
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4  32
LIST OF SOME WORKS DEALING WITH FATIGUE PROBLEMS
(1) Niemann, G. Maschinenelemente
Band 1
Springer Verlag Berlin/Gottingen/Heidelberg 1975
(2) Niemann, G. Maschinenelemente
Band 2
Springer Verlag Berlin/Gottingen/Heidelberg 1983
(3) Decker, K.H. Maschinenelemente
Carl Hanser Verlag, Munchen 1982
(4) "Metal Fatigue" by J.A. POPE  Ph D, D.Sc  Wh.Sch. I. Mech. E.
Chapman and Hall Ltd., 37, Essex Street, London, W.C.2.
(5) "La Fatigue des Metaux" by R. CAZAUD  Ingenieur CNAM  Doctor of the University of Paris
Lecturer at the Higher Institute for Mechanical Engineering Materials, Consulting Engineer
Dunod
92, rue Bonaparte  Paris
(6) "Fatigue of Metals and Structures" by H.J. GROVER, S.A. GORDON, R.L. JACKSON
Thames and Hudson
London
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4  33
A 4.2.2.  COMMENTS ON THE CHOICE OF ROPES AND ON THE PROBLEM
OF THE FACTOR OF SAFETY
The useful life of a hoisting rope depends on factors inherent both in the construction of the rope
(internal factors) and in the characteristics of the hoisting appliance and the way in which the
rope is reeved (external factors).
The main external factors are the tensile load, the pulley diameters and the type and number of
working cycles.
These factors will in principle determine the rope winding diameters.
Figure F.A.4.2.2. shows the relationships between the tensile stress, the pulley diameters and
the useful life (number of bending reversals causing failure) for a given rope (of diameter 16
mm).
According to this diagram, the larger the pulley diameter and the smaller the tensile stress, the
longer the useful life of the rope.
Winding diameters must be determined so as to ensure a reasonable useful life of the rope
before its replacement.
The old method of calculation defined fixed minimum factors of safety and minimum winding
diameters (as a function of the rope diameter) for certain uses, such as for example in hoisting
appliances.
This method, which is still used and sometimes even stipulated by law in many countries, does
not enable the conditions for a reasonable useful life to be met. The loads and the type of
utilisation of hoisting appliance mechanisms differ considerably from one appliance to another
with the result that such minimum values may be too high in certain cases (e.g. for a power
station overhead travelling crane) or too low in other cases (e.g. for a grabbing crane on arduous
duty).
Even if the safety factors were chosen according to the group of the mechanisms, the calculation
of winding diameters on the basis of these safety factors could not result in a good design for the
following reasons :
The manufacturer wishes to use ropes of the smallest possible diameter in order to obtain the
smallest possible diameters for the pulleys and drums. For a given safety factor, he achieves
this by using wire of the greatest possible strength and using a rope with the greatest possible
fill factor.
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4  34
Yet the useful life of a rope whose diameter has been calculated in this way is not always
optimum.
A rope of identical diameter, of which the wire is of longer strength (e.g. 1600 N/mm
2
instead of
2200 N/mm
2
) and the fill factor is lower (e.g. eight strands instead of six) may have a much
longer useful life in spite of the lower factor of safety.
Another difficulty stems from the fact that the safety factor is related to breaking strengths whose
definitions differ from one country to another, and safety factors do not have the same meaning if
they relate to a breaking strength defined in different ways.
Four definitions exist for the breaking strength of ropes :
 Calculated breaking strength : this is the crosssection of the rope multiplied by the strength
of the wire of which it is composed ;
 Theoretical breaking strength : given by the sum of the breaking strengths of the wires used
in the rope ;
 Actual breaking strength : this is the load obtained by an ultimate tensile strength test on the
rope ;
 Nominal breaking strength : this is the minimum breaking strength guaranteed by the rope
manufacturer.
When a rope is determined by using a safety factor which is related either to the actual breaking
strength or to the nominal breaking strength, the manufacturer tends to adopt ropes in which the
spinning loss (difference between the theoretical breaking strength and the actual breaking
strength) is as small as possible in order to obtain a smaller rope diameter. The spinning loss,
however, is not related to the resistance of a rope to repeated bending. A satisfactory useful life
for ropes cannot therefore be obtained with this method of calculation.
This shows that the safety factor is not an adequate basis for determining the winding diameters
required to ensure satisfactory rope life under bending reversals ; indeed this method will often
prevent the optimum solution from being obtained.
Because it is difficult for the manufacturer to allow for the influence of these different factors, it is
preferable to determine the rope diameter d
min
simply as a function of the tensile load S, from the
formula :
d
min
= C . S
0,5
where C is a coefficient depending solely on the group of the mechanism.
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4  35
In cases where non rotating ropes are used (e.g. tower cranes in which the load is suspended
from a single part) and for dangerous handling operations (e.g. molten materials), the values of
C are increased above the normal values in order to compensate for the more unfavourable rope
construction or the greater risk.
The value of C, the safety factor Z
p
referred to the theoretical breaking strength and the rope fill
factor f (ratio of the metal cross section of the rope to the area of the circle circumscribing the
rope) are linked by the following relation :
C = [ Zp / (π . k . f .R
O
/ 4 ) ]
0,5
where R
O
is the ultimate strength (in N/mm
2
) of the wire used in the rope.
The values of C apply to ropes made with wire having a strength of 1600, 1800, 2000 or 2200
N/mm
2
.
where, exceptionally, use is made of a rope composed of wires with a strength of 1400 N/mm ,
the rope diameter must be increased accordingly.
The rope manufacturer or crane maker must choose the composition and cross section of the
rope, for the calculated minimum diameter d, to suit the reeving conditions of the particular rope
and in the light of the latest technical progress.
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4  36
Number of bending reversals required to cause failure (useful life)
Number of bendi ng reversal s
Tensi l
stress
Langs lay rope, diameter 16 mm, six strands of nineteen 1 mm dia. wires, Ro = 1400 N/mm
2
Castiron pulleys with machined groove of radius r = 8,5 mm.
Figure A.4.2.2.
Influence of pulley diameter D and tensile stress σσσ σ
t
on the useful life of a rope
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4  37
A 4.2.3.  CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM
WINDING DIAMETERS FOR ROPES
There are no absolute minimum pulley and drum diameters below which a rope could no longer
operate. Nor is there a required absolute minimum diameter for different types of rope.
The useful life of a rope is progressively reduced with decreasing pulley and drum diameters, if
other conditions remain unchanged.
Figure A.4.2.3. shows the pattern of behaviour of a particular rope.
In order to ensure an adequate useful rope life, the minimum winding diameters D must be
determined, as a function of the group classification of the mechanism involved, from the formula
:
D / d ≥ H
where d is the nominal rope diameter and H is a coefficient which is chosen according to the
group in which the mechanism is classified and which becomes higher when the duty is more
arduous.
The coefficient H is higher for pulleys than for drums because, in the course of a cycle of
operations, the rope is subjected to twice as many bending reversals over a pulley (rope straight,
rope bent, rope straight) as on a drum (rope straight, rope bent).
The coefficient H is lower for equalising pulleys because the rope undergoes fewer bending
reversals and the movement is normally very limited. Such pulleys must nonetheless be
dimensioned with reference to the number of bending reversals.
Unfavourable winding conditions, e.g. reeving around several pulleys, reverse bends, or the use
of nonrotating ropes whose construction is less favourable for bending reversals, must be
compensated for by a suitable increase to ensure a useful rope life commensurate with the
group classification of the mechanism.
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4  38
Number of bending reversals required to cause failure (useful life)
Number of bendi ng reversal s
Pul l ey di ameter
Rati o
Langs lay rope, diameter 16 mm, six strands of nineteen 1 mm dia. wires,
σ
R
= 1400 N/mm
2
Castiron pulleys with machined groove radius r = 8,5 mm.
Figure A.4.2.3.
Influence of pulley diameter D and tensile stress σσσ σ
t
on the useful life of a rope
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA
MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 5
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Revised in 2003
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA MANUTENTION
Section I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
BOOKLET 5
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Revised in 2003
The total 3
rd
revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section 1
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 5  1/ 35
The third edition of the "Rules for the design of hoisting appliances" dated 1987.10.01')
included 8 booklets. An addition to this edition was compiled in 1998. This addition is
incorporated in booklet 9, which also replaces booklet 6.
This booklet forms part of the "Rules for the design of hoisting appliances" 3rd edition
revised, consisting of 8 booklets:
Booklet 1  Object and scope
Booklet 2  Classification and loading on structures and mechanisms
Booklet 3  Calculating the stresses in structures
Booklet 4  Checking for fatigue and choice of mechanism components
Booklet 5  Electrical equipment revised in 2003
Booklet 6 – Stability and safety against movement by the wind
Booklet 7  Safety rules
Booklet 8  Test loads and tolerances
Booklet 9  Supplements and comments to booklets 1 to 8
NOTE: Booklet 9 must not therefore be used separately
Booklet 5 has been revised in 2003 to take into account various European standards.
The main modifications concern the following points:
5.3 Installation of cables and conductors
This clause has been rearranged; the new version includes some parts of old 5.2 and
references to
EN 6020432
EN 60364552
5.5 Limiting and indicating devices (old title "End limit switches")
This clause has been replaced by references to requirements coming from European
standards on motor over speed protection
5.6 Type of control
The revision of this clause makes references to requirements coming from European
standards on braking resistors of inverters
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5.7 Environment
The existing text has been deleted and replaced by the reference to EN 6020432.
Clauses on EMC and on potentially explosive atmospheres have been introduced
5.8 Selection of motors
The revision of this clause introduced minor changes. A new clause 5.8.4. on inverter drives
has been added
5.9 to 5.11
The revision of this clause introduced minor changes. The reference to IEC 600341 has
been added.
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BOOKLET 5  ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
5.1 FOREWORD..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
5.2 POWER SUPPLY.......................................................................................................................................................................... 6
5.2.1. GENERAL.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6
5.2.2. CUT OUT AND S AFETY DEVI CES..............................................................................................................................................................................................6
5.2.3. CONDUCTOR BAR S, CABLE REELS AND FLEXI BLE CABLES ..........................................................................................................................6
5.3 INSTALLATION OF CABLES AND CONDUCTORS ................................................................................................................. 7
5.3.1. CALCULATI ON OF CROSS SECTI ON OF CONDUCTORS.....................................................................................................................................7
5.3.1.1. CALCULATION OF THE CROSSSECTION IN RELATION TO THE ADMISSIBLE VOLTAGE DROP.........................7
5.3.1.2. CALCULATION OF THE MINIMUM CROSSSECTION IN RELATION TO THE THERMAL CAPACITY OF THE
CONDUCTORS...............................................................................................................................................................8
5.3.2. I NSTALLATI ON CONDI TI ONS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................9
5.4 ELECTRICAL PROTE CTIVE AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT..................................................................................................... 10
5.4.1. SAFEGUARDI NG MOTORS AGAI NST OVERHEATI NG..........................................................................................................................................10
5.4.2. SAFEGUARDI NG WI RI NG...............................................................................................................................................................................................................10
5.4.3. SAFEGUARDI NG AGAI NST ABSENCE OR I NVERSI ON OF PHASES ........................................................................................................10
5.4.4. ACTI ON OF SAF ETY DEVI CES...................................................................................................................................................................................................10
5.4.5. PROTECTI ON AGAI NST THE EFFECTS OF LI GHTNI NG......................................................................................................................................11
5.5 LIMITING AND INDICATING DEVICES..................................................................................................................................... 12
5.5.1. GENERAL REQUI REMENTS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................12
5.5.2. MOTOR OVERSPE ED PROTECTI ON....................................................................................................................................................................................12
5.6 CONTROLS.................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
5.6.1. COMPONENTS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13
5.6.1.1. RELAYS AND CONTACTORS.......................................................................................................................... 13
5.6.1.2. RESISTOR UNITS.......................................................................................................................................... 13
5.6.2. CONTROLGEAR, LOCATI ON, MOUNTI NG AND ENCLOSURES.....................................................................................................................14
5.6.3. TYPE OF CONTR OL.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14
5.6.3.1. ENERGISATION............................................................................................................................................. 14
5.6.3.2. CAB CONTROL .............................................................................................................................................. 14
5.6.3.3. FLOOR CONTROL.......................................................................................................................................... 14
5.6.3.4. CABLELESS CONTROLS............................................................................................................................... 14
5.6.4. CONTROL OF MECHANI CAL BRAKES.................................................................................................................................................................................15
5.6.4.1. SECOND BRAKE............................................................................................................................................ 15
5.7 ENVIRONMENT............................................................................................................................................................................. 16
5.7.1. POTENTI ALLY EXPLOSI VE ENVI RONMENTS...............................................................................................................................................................16
5.7.2. ELECTROMAGNETI C COMPATI BI LI TY................................................................................................................................................................................16
5.8 SELECTION OF MOTORS........................................................................................................................................................... 17
5.8.1. CRI TERI A FOR MOTOR SELECTI ON ( I EC 60034 1) .................................................................................................................................................17
5.8.1.1. REMARKS ON THE SELECTION OF MOTORS................................................................................................. 17
5.8.1.2. DEGREE OF PROTECTION (IEC 600345)........................................................................................................ 18
5.8.1.3. THERMAL CALCULATION OF THE MOTOR ..................................................................................................... 18
5.8.1.4. SQUIRREL CAGE MOTORS WITH DIRECT STARTING..................................................................................... 20
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5.8.1.5. POWER CORRECTION IN FUNCTION OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND ALTITUDE........................................ 21
5.8.1.6. CYCLIC DURATION FACTOR AND NUMBER OF WORKING CYCLES PER HOUR.............................................. 22
5.8.2. MOTORS FOR VE RTI CAL MOTI ONS.....................................................................................................................................................................................23
5.8.2.1. DETERMINATION OF REQUIRED TORQUE..................................................................................................... 23
5.8.2.2. CYCLIC DURATION FACTOR AND NUMBER OF CYCLES PER HOUR............................................................... 24
5.8.3. MOTORS FOR HO RI ZONTAL MOTI ONS.............................................................................................................................................................................25
5.8.3.1. DETERMINING THE NECESSARY TORQUE.................................................................................................... 25
5.8.3.2. CYCLIC DURATION FACTOR AND NUMBER OF CYCLES PER HOUR............................................................... 27
5.8.3.3. ROTATION..................................................................................................................................................... 27
5.8.3.4. SPAN VARIATION.......................................................................................................................................... 27
5.8.4. DEVI CE SELECT I ONS FOR I NVERTER DUTY...............................................................................................................................................................28
GENERAL..................................................................................................................................................................... 28
5.8.4.2. THERMAL DIMENSIONING............................................................................................................................. 29
5.8.4.3. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR VERTICAL MOTIONS........................................................................................... 29
5.8.4.4. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR HORIZONTAL MOTIONS...................................................................................... 30
5.9 LOAD LIFTING MEANS................................................................................................................................................................ 31
5.9.1. CURRENT SUPPL Y...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
5.9.2. LOAD HOLDI NG DEVI CES..............................................................................................................................................................................................................31
5.9.2.1. LIFTING MAGNETS........................................................................................................................................ 31
5.9.3. GRABS.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
5.9.4. LOAD TURNI NG EQUI PMENT......................................................................................................................................................................................................32
5.10 MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS........................................................................................................................................... 33
5. 10. 1. MAI NTENANCE........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33
5. 10. 2. CHECKS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33
5.10.2.1. REGULAR CHECKS........................................................................................................................................ 33
5.10.2.2. CHECKS BEFORE COMMISSIONING.............................................................................................................. 34
5.11 AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................................ 34
5. 11. 1. LI GHTI NG......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................34
5.11.1.1. CABIN........................................................................................................................................................... 34
5.11.1.2. WORKING AREA LIGHTING............................................................................................................................ 34
5.11.1.3. ACCESS AND MACHINERY CABINET LIGHTING.............................................................................................. 34
5.11.1.4. EMERGENCY LIGHTING................................................................................................................................. 34
5. 11. 2. HEATI NG AN D AI R CONDI TI ONI NG.................................................................................................................................................................................35
5.11.2.1. MACHINERY CABINETS............................................................................................................................... 35
5.11.2.2. CABIN........................................................................................................................................................... 35
5. 11. 3. AUXI LI ARY CI RCUI T............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS See booklet 1
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5.1 FOREWORD
The electrical equipment for hoisting appliances should conform to EN 6020432 and other
applicable ENstandards published by CEN and CENELEC. In case the relevant EN
standards do not specify particular requirements, the recommendations given in this
document should be followed.
Many details specified in the previous versions of this Booklet 5 are now covered by the EN
6020432.
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5.2 POWER SUPPLY
5.2.1. GENERAL
This document deals with a.c. lowvoltage systems up to 1000 V.
The power supply system should comply with EN 6020432 clause 4.3. Voltage variation at
the point of supply (4.3 of EN 6020432) should not exceed –5% ... +5%. of the rated voltage
under normal operating conditions. In applications with very long cabling distances it may be
necessary to limit the voltage variation further. The allowed per cent voltage drop in the
different parts of the power supply need to considered case by case. It is recommended that
the details of the power supply system are agreed between the supplier and the purchaser
e.g. by using Annex A of EN 6020432.
The type of the power supply grounding (see IEC 603641) may have significant effects on
the requirements of the crane electrification. The type should always be agreed between the
purchaser and supplier. In cases where the power supply type is TN with neutral directly
earthed, equipment will usually perform correctly.
If the power supply type is TN with other than neutral earthing, TT or IT some restrictions
may need to be considered, e.g. devices designed for neutral earthed TN supply may
incorporate components for EMC filtering, which might
− not withstand the phase to earth voltage of corner earthed systems or IT systems
during ground fault
− introduce unacceptably high leakage currents to earth.
5.2.2. CUTOUT AND SAFETY DEVICES
The requirements for cranesupplyswitch and crane disconnector are given in clause 5 of
EN6020432.
Additional requirements may apply, if these devices are used in emergency operations (see
9.2.5.4 of EN 6020432).
5.2.3. CONDUCTOR BARS, CABLE REELS AND FLEXIBLE CABLES
The following clauses in EN 6020432 set the basic requirements:
− 13.7. Flexible cables
− 13.8. Collector wires, collector bars and slipring assemblies
− 14.4.3. Connections to cranes and between moving parts of the crane
According to 13.8.2. of EN 6020432 the continuity of any protective bonding connection with
sliding contacts shall be ensured e.g. by duplication of the current collector.
Additionally, when sliding contacts are used to supply power to electronic drives, double
collectors should be used also in phase collectors to avoid noise and hardware failures which
may occur if a contact cuts off momentarily.
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5.3 INSTALLATION OF CABLES AND CONDUCTORS
General requirements for cables and wiring practices are given in clauses 13 and 14 of EN
6020432.
5.3.1. CALCULATION OF CROSSSECTION OF CONDUCTORS
These requirements apply both to the power supply to the crane and also to wiring within the
crane.
The voltage drop must be considered, paying attention to the fluctuation and the voltage drop
within the power supply. For very long supply lines, not only the resistive but also the
inductive part of the supply impedance need to be taken into account.
The crosssection of the conductors should be determined by taking into account the
mechanical strength required and the electrical load to be carried.
5.3.1.1. CALCULATION OF THE CROSSSECTION IN RELATION TO THE
ADMISSIBLE VOLTAGE DROP
When calculating the voltage drop, the most unfavourable position of the hoisting appliance
in relation to the supply point must be considered.
When calculating the admissible voltage drop on a supply line used by several hoisting
appliances, the startup (I
D
) and rated (I
N
) currents of the motors operating simultaneously
must be taken into account.
Notes for the calculation:
− In this clause, the rated current (I
N
) should be considered not necessarily to mean the
nameplate current of the motor but the current drawn by the motor at full rated load.
− For squirrelcage rotor motors I
D
(startup current), refer to the manufacturer's
catalogue. In case the motor is controlled by an electronic drive (softstarter, frequency
converter etc), the maximum current during any phase of operation should be
considered as startup current, although the highest current does not necessarily
occur when starting the motion. With direct starting the I
D
is typically 5 to 10 times I
N
.
With electronic drives the startup current depends on the converter type and on its’
adjustments; with frequency converters the I
D
is typically below 2 times I
N
.
− For slipring rotor motors, consider I
D
to be approx. 2 * I
N
.
− For drive with n motors in parallel, apply n * I
D
or n * I
N
.
− In case two or more hoisting appliances are working together, they should be
considered as one appliance by using the sum current ( I
D
or I
N
) of each joint motion.
− In case the power supply also feeds other (continuos) loads such as lighting, hydraulic
pumps, lifting magnets or other cranes, the current drawn by these devices need to be
taken into account.
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For a three phase power supply, the required minimum crosssection (S) of copper
conductors can be calculated with the formula:
S = √3 * l * I
tot
* cos ϕ / ( ∆u * κ ) [mm
2
], where
l = Effective length of the line [m]
I
tot
= Sum of the above calculated (I
D
and I
N
) currents [A]
∆u = Admissible voltage drop [V]
κ = Electric conductivity [Ω * mm
2
* m
1
]
1
cos ϕ = Power factor.
5.3.1.2. CALCULATION OF THE MINIMUM CROSSSECTION IN RELATION TO
THE THERMAL CAPACITY OF THE CONDUCTORS
When calculating the crosssection for the conductor bar, which supplies several hoisting
appliances, the actual simultaneous operation of the drive motors must be taken into
account.
Notes for the calculation:
− In this clause, the rated current (I
N
) should be considered not necessarily to mean the
nameplate current of the motor but the current drawn by the motor at full rated load.
− In case n>1 motors are driven in parallel, consider : I
N
= n * I
N’
(I
N’
= nominal current
for one motor).
− In case two or more hoisting appliances are working together, they should be handled
as one by using the sum current of each joint motion.
− In case the power supply also feeds other (continous) loads such as lighting, hydraulic
pumps, lifting magnets or other cranes, the current drawn by these devices need to be
taken into account.
The maximum allowed conductor temperature shall not be exceeded during normal
operation. Conductor crosssection should be selected according to manufacturers’
specifications or according to IEC60364552.
The tables of IEC 60364552 contain a number of parameters, the most important of which
are:
 conductor type
 installation method
 correction factors (ambient temperatures, bunching of cables,...); for cable drums see
also EN 6020432 clause 13.7.3,
The current limits given in IEC 60364552 are for continuous current. If the conductor
manufacturer does not provide more detailed guidance for intermittent use consisting of
− “active periods (Ta)” and
− “idle periods (Ti)”,
the information provided in 5.3.1.2.1 or in 5.3.1.2.2 can be used.
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5.3.1.2.1. Overloading capacity of
conductors with 10
minute cycle time
The allowed increase of the current
depends on the duration of the load
cycle compared to the thermal time
constant of the conductor. Table
5.3.1.2a defines the overloading
capacity ( f
ED
) of conductors in
intermittent duty when duration of the
operating cycle is 10 minutes. These f
ED
values have been calculated using the
formulas in 5.3.1.2.2.
5.3.1.2.2. Overloading capacity of
conductors with any
cycle time
If the duration of the operating cycle is
very short compared with the time
constant of the cable (T) it may be
possible to apply higher factors than
shown in 5.3.1.2.1.
The allowed overloading factor f
ED
for
the particular duty cycle can be
expressed as a function of Ta, Ti, and T
as shown below.
The thermal time constant T to be used in the f
ED
calculation is given in Table 5.3.1.2b.
5.3.2. INSTALLATION CONDITIONS
Type of protection for connection and distribution equipment must be suitable for surrounding
conditions following the guidelines given in EN 6020432 clause 12.3.
The connections and linking terminals should be placed in cabinets or boxes. Plugin
arrangements whose accidental connection could be dangerous should be clearly separated
unless their design precludes this risk. In order to ensure continual mechanical protection, the
protective covering of the cables and conductors should enter housings through packing
glands or such similar devices.
The wires or conductors belonging to electrical circuits with different rated voltages may be
arranged within a single enclosure or may form part of the same cable provided that these
wires or conductors are insulated against the highest rated voltage.
Conductors having single insulation can only be installed in conduits or trunking whose ends
are fitted with adequate protection.
Nonsheathed conductors and cables, which are fixed to parts of the framework should be
protected, if necessary, against any mechanical wear and tear.
Table 5. 3.1.2B
mm
2
1,5 2,5 4 6 10 16 25 35
T/min 2,7 3,1 3,6 4,2 5,2 6,4 7,9 9,4
mm
2
50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300
T/min 11,3 13,6 16,1 18,4 21,0 23,7 27,7 31,8
−
+
−
=
T
Ta
T
Ti Ta
ED
e  1
e  1
f
Table 5. 3.1.2A
cross
section
fED for a 10 minute cycle
Ta / (Ta + Ti)
mm2 0,6 0,4 0,25 0,15
1,5 1,044 1,120 1,265 1,505
2,5 1,058 1,150 1,315 1,580
4 1,075 1,183 1,369 1,660
6 1,092 1,215 1,421 1,737
10 1,116 1,260 1,493 1,842
16 1,139 1,303 1,561 1,942
25 1,161 1,344 1,626 2,037
35 1,177 1,373 1,673 2,105
50 1,193 1,403 1,719 2,173
70 1,207 1,429 1,760 2,231
95 1,219 1,450 1,793 2,280
120 1,227 1,464 1,816 2,314
150 1,234 1,477 1,836 2,343
185 1,240 1,488 1,854 2,369
240 1,247 1,501 1,874 2,397
300 1,252 1,510 1,888 2,419
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5.4 ELECTRICAL PROTECTIVE AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT
5.4.1. SAFEGUARDING MOTORS AGAINST OVERHEATING
Motor overload protection shall fullfill the requirements of 7.3 of EN 6020432.
Normal thermal relays or protection methods based on calculating methods may not perform
properly in short time duty (S2 of IEC 600341) and in intermittent duty, (S3...S8 of IEC
600341) because e.g.
− their time constant may not be comparable to that of the load cycle
− initial temperature during power up is not known
− when selfventilated motors are operated at low speeds the cooling is not efficient
Therefore protection methods based on actual temperature measurement of the motor are
preferred.
The overload protection can also be implemented by electronic devices, which may be either
separate devices or integrated in the control or drive unit.
5.4.2. SAFEGUARDING WIRING
The crosssection of a conductor should be determined according to the current intensity to
which it is subject during both normal running of the motor and startingup or electrical
braking, see clause 5.3.2.
Whether the loads (motors) are overloadprotected or not, all wires should be safeguarded
according to 7.2 of EN 6020432 against any overcurrent, which could result from a short
circuit or faulty insulation.
The protective device shall be rated for the anticipated shortcircuit currents.
5.4.3. SAFEGUARDING AGAINST ABSENCE OR INVERSION OF PHASES
Where an incorrect phase sequence of the supply voltage can cause a hazardous condition
or damage to the hoisting machine, protection should be provided according to 7.8 of EN
6020432.
If the absence of phases may occasion a danger, the appropriate safety measures must be
taken.
5.4.4. ACTION OF SAFETY DEVICES
When several motors drive the same motion, the action of a safety device should stop all of
the motors for this movement.
After a safety device has been activated, it should be possible for the equipment to be started
up again only manually.
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5.4.5. PROTECTION AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING
For very tall pieces of hoisting equipment which are erected in particularly exposed locations,
the effects of lightning must be considered
− on pieces of vulnerable structure (for example : jib support cable)
− on antifriction bearings or runners which form a link between large parts of the frame (for
example : slewing ring, travel runner).
When necessary, safeguarding against the effects of lightning should be carried out e.g. by
following IEC 610241.
For the safety of personnel, it is recommended that the runner rails for the lifting equipment
are earthed.
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5.5 LIMITING AND INDICATING DEVICES
In addition to the requirements given later in this clause, the limiting and indicating devices
should comply
− with 7.7 of FEM 1.001 Booklet 7, and
− with EN 120772, and
− with the ENstandards for the particular crane type, and
− in case there is no published ENstandards for the the particular crane type, the
requirements given in ISO 10245 for the particular crane type should be followed.
5.5.1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
A limit switch should bring about the arrest of motion by opening the electric circuit and
keeping it open as long as safety conditions are not restored.
If it is unavoidable to bypass a safety device, this operation should only be able to be
effected with the aid of a device which, when no longer actuated, automatically reinserts the
safety device. The provisions of 9.2.4 of EN 6020432 should be followed, and if necessary a
permanent warning signal should be given.
In general, the safety functions should comply with safety category 1 if hardwired or safety
category 2 of EN 9541 if not hardwired.
5.5.2. MOTOR OVERSPEED PROTECTION
All electronically controlled hoisting motions shall be equipped with overspeed protection.
The overspeed protection shall prevent
− uncontrolled and unintentional motions and
− all parts of the mechanism from reaching its mechanical limit speed.
The trigger limit of the overspeed protection shall be set so that the mechanical brake is
capable to stop the motion safely in all conditions. In general, the trigger limit should not
exceed 1,2 times the specified speed at nominal load. When utilising field weakening with a
reduced load, the trigger limit can be adjusted to a higher value, in general not exceeding 1,2
times the specified speed for that load.
The emergency stopping with any possible speed and load combination shall not cause any
hazard including the cases where the drive is intended to operate above the nominal speed.
NOTE : Topics to be considered include allowed speed/load combinations, time delays in the
system (particularly brake delays), mechanical speed limit of the machinery, reliability
of load measurement/estimation.
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5.6 CONTROLS
5.6.1. COMPONENTS
5.6.1.1. RELAYS AND CONTACTORS
Relays and contactors must comply with the requirements of EN602432 clause 4.2.2.
In case the crane will be used at an altitude in excess of 1000 m, this shall be considered by
selecting the contactors and relays.
Reversing contactors should be of the electrically or mechanically interlocking type.
5.6.1.2. RESISTOR UNITS
5.6.1.2.1. General
Resistor units should be accommodated in suitable enclosures according to EN 6020432 cl.
12.3.
The temperature limit of the resistance material is defined in 7.2.2.8 of IEC 609471.
Temperature rise of the touchable surfaces of the resistor enclosures shall comply with
7.2.2.2 of IEC 609471. When designing the resistor units, the equivalent torque, cyclic
duration factor and switching rate have to be considered.
Cooling fans for resistors should be used only if proper monitoring is arranged (air flow
detection and/or temperature measurement). In dirty environments fans should not be used
to ensure reliability.
5.6.1.2.2. Braking resistors for inverter drives
The braking resistor of a hoisting drive shall be capable of absorbing the generative energy
when lowering the maximum load at maximum speed. For horizontal motions, the braking
resistor shall be capable of absorbing the generative energy during deceleration of the
motion also taking into account the possibility of a swinging load and the wind push (the load
and load attachment included).
The braking resistor shall be thermally capable to absorb the generative energy during
successive drive cycles of the application. The failure of the braking resistor shall neither lead
to the loss of stopping capability nor to any uncontrolled acceleration of the motion.
The braking resistors and their enclosure may heat up to hazardous temperatures. Protection
or warning of the hazard shall be provided depending on the application. The requirements of
clause 5.1.4.1 of prEN 131352 shall be fulfilled.
NOTE : The braking resistor may also be common for several hoist and travel drives. In such
cases the dimensioning of the braking resistor shall be made accordingly.
NOTE : The braking resistor is usually connected to the DCbus of the inverter and due to
this it becomes live always when electric power is supplied to the inverter – also during not
running the motor.
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5.6.2. CONTROLGEAR, LOCATION, MOUNTING AND ENCLOSURES
Switching devices, controlgear and panels housing electrical equipment may be enclosed:
− in cabinets or housings,
− in special enclosed spaces,
− in the supporting structure (principally the crane girder) of the hoisting appliance.
These enclosures and the equipment installed should comply with cl. 12 of EN 6020432.
5.6.3. TYPE OF CONTROL
5.6.3.1. ENERGISATION
The lifting appliance can only be energised when all the control devices are in the off
position. This off position can be determined either by a checking circuit or by using holdto
run controls. As required in EN 6020432 clause 10.7.1, a device for emergency stop or for
emergency switching off shall be located at each operator control station.
5.6.3.2. CAB CONTROL
The controls should be so arranged that the operator has an adequate view of the crane’s
working area.
The control for hoisting appliances should preferably be arranged on the righthand side of
the operator’s seat.
5.6.3.3. FLOOR CONTROL
Pushbuttons or other switching devices, which automatically return to their “off” position as
soon as they are released, should be provided for the control of all motions by pendant
control units.
Housings of pendant control units should preferably be of fully insulating material or of
material with protective insulaion. Metal parts accessible from the outside, which pass
through the insulation, should be separately earthed.
The surface of the housing must be a vivid colour. For indoor operation, the degree of
protection should be at least IP43, and for outdoor operation at least IP55
Pendant control units should be suspended with a strain relief arrangement.
5.6.3.4. CABLELESS CONTROLS
The requirements of 9.2.7 of EN 6020432 and Annex C of prEN 13557 apply to cableless
controls incl. radio and infrared controls.
The transmitter must have a minimum protection class IP 43 for indoor use and IP 55 for
outdoor use.
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5.6.4. CONTROL OF MECHANICAL BRAKES
The requirements of EN 6020432 clauses 9.3.4, 15.6, and 15.7 should be fulfilled.
Measures should be taken to ensure that no unintentional movements occur when starting.
5.6.4.1. SECOND BRAKE
Cranes, which require particular safety, e.g. in steel works or with dangerous or melted loads,
should be provided with a second brake.
The operation of the second brake shall be arranged according to the design of the drive. It is
recommended that under normal operating conditions, the second brake is always be applied
on stopping, after the motion has been brought to a halt by the main brake. In some
applications – for example if waiting for the releasing of the second brake would cause
unacceptable time delay at each starting  it may be necessary to apply the second brake
only when the crane switch (main contactor) is deenergized.
In the event of an emergency stop, the second brake should be applied immediately.
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5.7 ENVIRONMENT
The electrical equipment shall be suitable for use in the physical environment and operating
conditions specified in 4.4.2 to 4.4.8 of EN 6020432. When the physical environment or the
operating conditions are outside those specified, an agreement may be needed between the
supplier and the user (see annex A of EN 6020432).
5.7.1. POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ENVIRONMENTS
In potentially explosive atmospheres, the electrical equipment including motors shall comply
with relevant additional requirements (e.g. EN 50014...50020).
5.7.2. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
The requirements of 4.4.2 of EN 6020432 apply.
The manufacturer should perform an EMC analysis to define what essential safety and/or
protection requirements apply to his apparatus and how to conform to them. The
manufacturer should apply
− harmonised specific product family standards and
− harmonised generic standards for the residential, commercial, and light industrial
environment, and industrial environment
to bring the hoisting machine into compliance with the EMC Directive.
When using only CE marked apparatus and components (complying with the EMC
Directive) and following strictly the instructions and limitations of use of the manufacturer of
these products, the finished hoisting machine could be considered to comply with the EMC
Directive and no further verification is then needed. The manufacturer shall provide clear
instructions for assembly/installation/operation/maintenance in the instructions for use to
ensure that the compliance with the Directive can be reached in all expected electromagnetic
environments.
In cases where the manufacturer does not restrict himself to only using CE marked
apparatus, a thorough EMC analysis and verification of compliance is needed.
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5.8 SELECTION OF MOTORS
5.8.1. CRITERIA FOR MOTOR SELECTION (IEC 600341)
When selecting motors for an application, at least the following details need to be considered:
 required powersthe thermal power is also included in these required powers,
 maximum rated torque and maximum acceleration torque,
 cyclic duration factor,
 number of cycles/hour,
 type of control (type of braking),
 speed regulation,
 type of power feed,
 degree of protection, (environment conditions),
 ambient temperature,
 altitude.
The motor has to comply with the following two dimensioning requirements:
 the thermal calculation according to clause 5.8.1.3.
 the required maximum torque:
• for hoisting mechanisms according to clause 5.8.2.1.
• for horizontal motions according to clause 5.8.3.1.
NOTE: Additional or different criteria may be needed depending on the driving system.
NOTE: Selection of motors for inverter drives is defined in clause 5.8.4, which also covers the
dimensioning of inverter drives.
If the required torque diagrams, in order to define the mean equivalent torque (cl. 5.8.1.3.1.)
are not available, these can be assessed respectively with the help of tables T 5.8.2.2a. and
T 5.8.3.2a
5.8.1.1. REMARKS ON THE SELECTION OF MOTORS
The selection of the motor should be agreed with the manufacturer in taking into account the
torque and powers calculated in the following clauses and the real operating conditions of the
motor.
In the event of electronic power control, the definition of the motors has to be made in
cooperation with the manufacturer, taking into account the cooling system and the speed
range.
In cases where two or more mechanisms drive the same motion, the following shall be
considered:
− both static and dynamic synchronisation of the motions according to the needs of the
application
− necessary interlocks between the mechanisms to ensure safe operation
− both static and transitional asymmetrical loading of the mechanisms and consequently
needed adequate dimensioning of motors and other drive components
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5.8.1.2. DEGREE OF PROTECTION (IEC 600345)
The degree of protection for all motors shall be according to EN 6020432 clause 15.2. In
case of water condensation risk, care should be taken that the water condensation drain
holes remain open.
5.8.1.3. THERMAL CALCULATION OF THE MOTOR
5.8.1.3.1. Mean equivalent torque
In order to carry out the thermal calculation, the mean equivalent torque must be determined
as a function of the required torque during the working cycles, by the formula:
n 2 1
n
2
n 2
2
2 1
2
1
med
t ... t t
t * M ... t * M t * M
M
+ + +
+ + +
=
Where :
t
1
, t
2
, ...,t
n
are the durations of the time periods during which the different torque
values are produced; periods of rest are not taken into account.
M
1
, M
2
, .... M
n
are the calculated torque values taking into account all the inertia
forces including the one of the rotor mass of the motor.
In case of variable loads at least 10 successive working cycles must be taken into account
(see definition 2.1.2.2.).
Diagram 5.8.1.3.1. shows an example of the torque for 2 different operating cycles.
5.8.1.3.2. Mean equivalent power
Starting from the mean equivalent torque, the mean equivalent power P
med
[kW] is defined by
the formula:
P
med
= (M
med
* n
m
/ 9 550 )
where:
M
med
= mean equivalent torque [Nm]
n
m
= speed of motor [1/min]
If the motor is rated for S3duty and the rating corresponds to the actual use in the particular
application, then the motor can be selected according to the calculated mean equivalent
power.
For S1rated squirrel cage motors, the thermal dimensioning shall be carried out according to
the method described in clause 5.8.1.4. (NOTE: applies only for direct starting motors).
For the motor selection, the mean equivalent power P
med
should be corrected as a function of
altitude if it exceeds 1000 m and the ambient temperature if it deviates from 40 °C (See
5.8.1.5.).
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Torque
raising
with load
lowering
with load
raising
without load
lowering
without load
time
without load
with driving wind
with load
and resisting wind
hoisting
motion
horizontal
motion
CYCLE 1
CYCLE 2
raising with
partial load
lowering with
partial load
raising
without load
lowering
without load
time
with partial load
and resisting wind
without load
with driving wind
hoisting
motion
horizontal
motion
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6
t7
t8 t9 t10
t11 t12
M1
M2
M3 M4
M5
M7
M8
M9 M10
M11
M12
tr2 tr1 tr3 tr4
tr1 tr2 tr3
M1
M2
M3 M4
M5
M6
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6
t7
t8 t9 t10
t11 t12
M2
M3 M4
M5
M8
M9 M10
M11
tr2 tr1 tr3 tr4
M1
M1
tr1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
t1 t2 t3
tr2
t4 t5 t6
tr3
M6
M6
M12
Diagram 5.8.1.3.1.
Typical torques for 2 different operating cycles:
Hoisting motion Horizontal motion
tr: rest time tr: rest time
M1,M4,M7,M10, starting torque M1,M4 starting torque
M2,M8, hoisting torque raising M2 working torque with wind
M3,M6,M9,M12 braking torque M3, M6 braking torque
M5,M11, hoisting torque lowering M5 torque without load with wind
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5.8.1.4. SQUIRREL CAGE MOTORS WITH DIRECT STARTING
The following inequality has to be fulfilled for the thermal dimensioning of squirrel cage
motors:
C
k
( 1  η
N
) * P
N
* T > ( 1  η
mcy
) * P
mcy
* t
N
+ ( P
N
* t
E
* I
D
/ I
N
)  ( J * n
mcy
2
* 10
3
/ 182 )
NOTE: Subscript “cy” refers to cycle.
( 1  η
N
) * P
N
* T
loss energy of the motor working at its rated
power (S1) during a time T
( 1  η
mcy
) * P
mcy
* t
N
loss energy of the motor during the time t
N
(constant speed) in a cycle
( P
N
* t
E
* I
D
/ I
N
)  ( J * n
mcy
2
* 10
3
/
182 )
loss energy of the motor during the starting
and braking phases
C
k
correction factor linked to the type of motor
P
N
nominal power [kW] of the motor in
continuous (S1) duty
η
N
efficiency of the motor at P
N
P
mcy
. M
mcy
* n
mcy
/ 9 550 [kW]
n
mcy
speed of motor [1/min] for power P
mcy
M
mcy
mean resisting torque [Nm] calculated in the
same manner as M
med
(see clause 5.8.1.3.1),
but not including the starting and braking
phases.
η
mcy
efficiency of the motor at power P
mcy
T
total time of cycle [s],
= t
N
+ t
E
+ t
r
ED
cyclic duration factor (see clause 5.8.1.6.)
= 100 * ( t
N
+ t
E
) / T
t
N
operating time [s] at constant speed during
one cycle.
t
E
equivalent time [s] of starting and braking
during one cycle,
= ( π / 30 ) * n
mcy
* J / M
acc
/ ( d
ccy
+ 0,5 * d
icy
+
3 * f
cy
)
t
r
total rest (idle) time [s] during one cycle.
J
total inertia of masses in motion referred to
the motor shaft [kgm
2
].
d
ccy
the number of complete starts during one
cycle
d
icy
the number of impulses during one cycle
f
cy
the number of electrical brakings during one
cycle
M
acc
the mean accelerating torque [Nm],
= M
Dmcy
 M
mcy
M
Dmcy
mean starting torque of motor [Nm]
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The following data has to be indicated by the motor manufacturer:
P
N
nominal power [kW] of motor in continuous
(S1) duty
η
1/4 ... 5/4
efficiency for 1/4 P
N
... 5/4 P
N
powers
J
M
moment of inertia of motor [kgm
2
]
n
1/4 ... 5/4
speed of motor at 1/4 P
N
... 5/4 P
N
[1/min]
M
Dmcy
mean starting torque of motor in [Nm]
I
D
/I
N
ratio between the starting current and the
current at P
N
C
k
correction factor linked to the type of motor
In case the C
k
factor is not mentioned in the manufacturer's catalogue, C
k
shall be taken
equal to 1 for motors of polarity equal or above 4.
5.8.1.5. POWER CORRECTION IN FUNCTION OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND
ALTITUDE
These corrections are depending from the type of motor, the cooling method and the
insulation class.
The precise calculation can only be made by the motor manufacturer in supplying them with
the following indications:
 P
med
without correction
 value of ambient temperature
 altitude
The thermal dimensioning can be based on the formulas below and on the values of k
indicated in Diagram 5.8.1.5:
P’
med
= P
med
/ k
or
P'
mcy
= P
mcy
/ k (for squirrel cage motors)
P'
mcy
or P'
med
= required nominal power of motor as function of altitude and ambient
temperature.
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ALTITUDE
Ambient Temperature
Diagram 5.8.1.5 = Correction factor k as function of ambient temperature and altitude
Note 1: The k > 1 coefficient values are to be applied only by agreement between the motor
manufacturer and the hoisting appliances manufacturer.
Note 2: The ambient temperature shall be indicated above an altitude of 1000 m.
5.8.1.6. CYCLIC DURATION FACTOR AND NUMBER OF WORKING CYCLES PER
HOUR
The cyclic duration factor is given by the following formula:
ED = Operating time / (Operating time + idle time ) * 100 (%)
The operating time and the number of operations per hour of the motors as well as the
number of working cycles of the crane, are an important base for the thermal definition of the
motors and which should be agreed between the user and the manufacturer of the crane. In
case it is not possible to give these indications in a precise manner, it should be referred to
tables T 5.8.2.2 a and T 5.8.3.2 a.
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5.8.2. MOTORS FOR VERTICAL MOTIONS
5.8.2.1. DETERMINATION OF REQUIRED TORQUE
For a hoisting motor, the required power to raise the maximum nominal load (P
Nmax
) is
defined in kW in taking account of the configuration of the transmission and of the reeving
according to the following formula:
P
Nmax
= L * V
L
* 10
3
* η
Where:
L = maximum nominal permissible lifting force [N]
V
L
= lifting speed [m/s]
η = efficiency of machinery
The required torque to raise the maximum nominal load is:
M
Nmax
= P
Nmax
* 9 550 / n, where
n
m
= rotating speed of the motor [1/min].
In order to be able to develop the necessary torque for acceleration, for lifting the test load or
for compensating for variations in the mains voltage and frequency, the torque developed by
the motor must satisfy the following minimum condition:
 For squirrel cage motors with direct starting:
M
min
/ M
Nmax
≥ 1,6, where
M
min
is the minimum torque of the motor during starting.
 For slip ring motors:
M
max
/ M
Nmax
≥ 1,9
with M
max
being the maximum torque of the motor.
 For all types of motors which are fed by voltages and /or variable frequencies:
M
max
/ M
Nmax
≥ 1,4
The mechanical braking torque at the motor shaft (M
F
) should at least be equal to:
 Static M
F
≥ 2 * M
Nmax
* η
2
 Dynamic M
F
≥ 1,6 * M
Nmax
* η
2
Definition of the braking torque:
 Static: is the required minimum torque to prevent the SWL (safe working load) rotating the
machinery.
 Dynamic: is the braking torque produced by the brake during the whole duration of a
braking cycle.
In case electrical braking is applied, it shall be capable to slow down the load in complete
safety.
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5.8.2.2. CYCLIC DURATION FACTOR AND NUMBER OF CYCLES PER HOUR
In the case where no precise indications are given, the values mentioned in Table T 5.8.2.2.a
can be chosen.
Table T.5.8.2.2.a.
Indications for the number of cycles per hour and the cyclic duration factor for the vertical
motions
Type of appliance Particulars Numbe
r
Type of mechanism ED%
Refe
rence
Designation
concerning
nature of use
(1)
of
cycles
per
hour
Lifting
Derrickin
g hinged
boom
Derricki
ng
boom
1 Handoperated (=not
motorised) appliances
2 Erection cranes 225 2540
3 Erection and dismantling
cranes for power stations,
machine shops, etc.
215 1540
4 Stocking and reclaiming
transporters
Hook duty 2060 40 S2 (2)
1530
min
5 Stocking and reclaiming
transporters
Grab or
magnet
2580 60100 S2 (2)
1530
min
6 Workshop cranes 1050 2540
7 Overhead travelling cranes,
pigbreaking cranes
Scrapyard cranes
Grab or
magnet
40120 40100
60
8 Ladle cranes 310 4060
9 Soakingpit cranes 3060 4060
10 Stripper cranes, openhearth
furnacecharging cranes
30
10
60
60
11 Forge cranes 6 40
12a
12b
Bridge cranes for unloading,
bridge cranes for containers
Other bridge cranes (with crab
and/or slewing jib crane)
a – Hook or
spreader duty
b – Hook duty
2060
2060
4060
4060
S2 (2)
1530
min
S2 (2)
1530
min
13 Bridge cranes for unloading,
bridge cranes (with crab and/or
slewing jib crane)
Grab or
magnet
2080 40100
60
S2 (2)
1530
min
14 Drydock cranes, shipyard jib
cranes, jib cranes for
dismantling
Hook duty 2050 40 40
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15 Dockside cranes (slewing, on
gantry, etc.), floating cranes
and pontoon derricks
Hook duty 40
20
60
40
4060
16 Dockside cranes (slewing, on
gantry, etc.), floating cranes
and pontoon derricks
Grab or
magnet
2560 60100 4060
17 Floating cranes and pontoon
derricks for very heavy loads
(usually greater than 100 t)
210 S1 (2)
or S2
30 min
S2 (2)
1530
min
18 Deck cranes Hook duty 3060 40 40
19 Deck cranes Grab or
magnet
3080 60 60
20 Tower cranes 20 4060 2540
21 Derricks 10 S1 (2)
or S2
30 min
S1 or
S2 (2)
30 min
22 Railway cranes allowed to run
in train
10 40
1) This column comprises only some indicatory typical cases of utilisation
2) it is recommended for S1 and S2 to refer to the definition IEC 600341
5.8.3. MOTORS FOR HORIZONTAL MOTIONS
In order to select travel motors correctly, all the necessary torque (or power) values must be
considered, taking into account the starting time, the number of starting cycles per hour and
the cyclic duration factor. The maximum transmissible torque of the travel motors is limited by
the adhesion of the driven travel wheels on their tracks.
5.8.3.1. DETERMINING THE NECESSARY TORQUE
 Speed maintaining torque
To determine the torque necessary for maintaining the speed, account has to be taken
of the sum of forces (w) resisting to travel resulting from the deadweight, the load and
operating conditions such as:
 deformation of the running surface,
 friction of the wheels on straight sections and in curves,
 wind force,
 gradients in the track,
 necessary traction of power supply cable.
 Acceleration torque (running up to speed)
The acceleration torque shall take into account the sum of the acceleration forces of
the mass of lifted load and of the other masses put into motion. The recommended
acceleration values are given in Table T 2.2.3.1.1 (booklet 2).
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The travel motors must deliver the necessary torque in the following operating conditions:
 Case I for cranes not exposed to wind
 Case II for cranes exposed to wind
The necessary torque can be calculated by the following formulae (see diagram
5.8.1.3.1)
Case I
M
1
, ... M
n
= [ a * ( m + m
L
) + w
0
]* v * 60 / ( 2 * π * n
m
* η )
Case II
The largest of the values from the results of the following formula shall be taken into
account:
M
1
, ... M
n
= [ a * ( m + m
L
) + w
8
]* v * 60 / ( 2 * π * n
m
* η )
and
M
1
, ... M
n
= w
25
* v * 60 / ( 2 * π * n
m
* η )
where:
a acceleration [m/s
2
] (at constant speed a = 0)
m = m
0
+ m
rot
* η , equivalent mass [kg] of all parts put into motion,
excluding the load, which is supposed to be concentrated at the
suspension point of the load.
m
L
mass of lifted load [kg]
m
0
mass [kg] of the whole of the elements, excluding the load,
undergoing the same horizontal motion as the suspension point of
the load.
m
rot
= Σ( J * nχ
2
/ v
2
) / 91,2 , equivalent mass [kg] of the inertia of
rotating parts reduced to linear motion, where:
nχ speed of rotating masses [1/min]
J moment of inertia of all rotating masses [kgm
2
]
w
0
, w
8
, w
25
total travel resistance [N] (w can also become negative in
some cases)
w
0
at zero wind
w
8
at a wind of 80 N/m
2
w
25
at a wind of 250 N/m
2
v travel speed [m/s]
n
m
rotation speed of motors [1/min]
η overall efficiency of mechanism
The motor shall be selected based on the highest of the calculated torque values (M
1
, ... M
n
)
in case I and II.
For slip ring motors used for the horizontal motions, the starting resistances shall be so
defined that the minimum torque delivered by the motor is never less than 1,2 times the
torque required to maintain the travel speed.
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5.8.3.2. CYCLIC DURATION FACTOR AND NUMBER OF CYCLES PER HOUR
In the case where no precise indications are given, the values mentioned in Table T
5.8.3.2.a. can be chosen.
5.8.3.3. ROTATION
The calculation is carried out in an analogous fashion to clause 5.8.3.1, angular speeds being
substituted for the linear speeds.
5.8.3.4. SPAN VARIATION
If the span variation in the case of luffing jibs, leads to an elevation or to a lowering of the
centre of gravity of the masses put into motion, the calculation can be carried out in an
analogous fashion to clause 5.8.3 in inserting into the factor (w) the forces required to the
vertical displacement of the centre of gravity.
Table T. 5.8.3.2.a
Indications for the number of cycles per hour and the cyclic duration factor for the horizontal
motions
Type of appliance Particulars Numbe
r
Type of mechanism ED%
Refe
rence
Designation
concerning
nature of use
(1)
of
cycles
per
hour
Rotatio
n
Crab Travel
1 Handoperated appliances
2 Erection cranes 225 25 2540 2540
3 Erection and dismantling
cranes for power stations,
machine shops, etc.
215 25 25
4 Stocking and reclaiming
transporters
Hook duty 2060 1540 4060 2540
5 Stocking and reclaiming
transporters
Grab or
magnet
2560 40 60 1540
6 Workshop cranes 1050 2540 2540
7 Overhead travelling cranes,
pigbreaking cranes, scrapyard
cranes
Grab or
magnet
40120 4060 60100
8 Ladle cranes 310 4060 4060
9 Soakingpit cranes 3060 40 4060 4060
10 Stripper cranes, openhearth
furnacecharging cranes
30
10
40
40
60
40
11 Forge cranes 6 100 25 25
12a
12b
Bridge cranes for unloading,
bridge cranes for containers
Other bridge cranes (with crab
and/or slewing jib crane)
a – Hook or
spreader duty
b – Hook duty
2060
2060
1540
2540
4060
4060
1540
2540
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13 Bridge cranes for unloading,
bridge cranes (with crab and/or
slewing jib crane)
Grab or
magnet
2080 40 40100 1560
14 Drydock cranes, shipyard jib
cranes, jib cranes for
dismantling
Hook duty 2050 25 40 2540
15 Dockside cranes (slewing, on
gantry, etc.), floating cranes
and pontoon derricks
Hook duty 40
20
2540 40 1525
16 Dockside cranes (slewing, on
gantry, etc.), floating cranes
and pontoon derricks
Grab or
magnet
2560 4060 2540
17 Floating cranes and pontoon
derricks for very heavy loads
(usually greater than 100 t)
210 1540
18 Deck cranes Hook duty 3060 40
19 Deck cranes Grab or
magnet
3080 60
20 Tower cranes 20 4060 25 1540
21 Derricks 10 25
22 Railway cranes allowed to run
in train
10 25
1) This column comprises only some indicatory typical cases of utilisation
5.8.4. DEVICE SELECTIONS FOR INVERTER DUTY
5.8.4.1. GENERAL
When feeding asynchronous motor by inverters,
the motor speed is always close to the noload
point (= between the maximum torque point and
zerotorque point) on the torque curves shown in
the figure 5.8.4.1. The speed adjustment as
realized by changing the supply frequency to the
motor. In the fieldweakening region above the
nominal motor speed n
N
, the motor’s maximum
torque (“pullout torque” M
po
) decreases inversely
proportional to the square of the speed, which
sets limitations to the use of fieldweakening.
The figure also shows the motor current at rated
speed (thick line), which increases very rapidly if
the motor is loaded excessively.
NOTE 1: If the motor is loaded up to the pull
out torque or too close to it, there is a
high risk of getting into an unstable
situation. The required minimum torque
margins are defined in 5.8.4.3 and 5.8.4.4. An even higher margin may be needed
depending on
Figure 5.8.3.4
0
1
2
3
4
5
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6
N I
I
N M
M
N n
n
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• the characteristic of the inverter (e.g. vector control or U/f control, with or without
speed feedback), and
• the foreseen environment (e.g. variation of supply voltage, load swaying, transient
phenomena).
NOTE 2: The curves shown in the figure are indicative only, and actual values for a
particular motor type need to be asked from the motor supplier.
NOTE 3: The advice given in 5.8.1.1 shall be followed throughout this clause.
5.8.4.1.1. Use of field weakening
As with field weakening the motor's pullout torque decreases, only a limited load can be
handled. The allowed maximum percent load for different speeds can not be specified as
such, but must be analyzed in more detail. The main points affecting are the load to be
handled and the rotational inertia of the system (motors, brakes, couplings, gears) together
with the desired acceleration rate.
When applying field weakening is considered, all restrictions caused by the mechanical
components (motor, brake, gear) have to be checked. Note also that increasing the speed
increases the stopping distance in quadrature.
5.8.4.2. THERMAL DIMENSIONING
The thermal calculation of the motor can be done as shown in 5.8.1.3. When using S1rated
motors, instead of the inequality of 5.8.1.4, the below formula shall be used.
C
k
(1  η
N
) * P
N
* T > ( 1  η
med
) * P
med
* (T  t
r
)
The operational class of the crane as well as the load spectrum has only a negligible effect
on the inverter selection. The following items may vary depending on application and should
be checked:
• dimensioning of the braking resistor
• need of enclosure cooling.
5.8.4.3. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR VERTICAL MOTIONS
5.8.4.3.1. Motor selection
The required torque (M
Nmax
) to raise the maximum nominal load is calculated as in 5.8.2.1.
The torque M
max
developed by the motor shall comply with 5.8.2.1.
In order to be able to develop the necessary torque for acceleration, for lifting the test load or
for compensating for variations in the mains voltage, the largest of the torques M
1
... M
n
(
=M
i,max
) during the load cycle (see 5.8.1.3.1) should comply with
M
po
/ M
i,max
≥ 1,3,
unless it is ensured by the control system that exceeding the pull out torque M
po
can be
avoided. See also NOTE 1 in 5.8.4.1.
NOTE: In the field weakening region, a lower safety margin according to the inverter
manufacturer’s instructions may be appropriate.
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5.8.4.3.2. Inverter selection
The continuous current rating of the inverter shall be at least equal to the motor current at
load torque M
Nmax
. The current required by the motor at any foreseen loading including
dynamic situations shall not exceed the short time overload rating of the inverter.
5.8.4.4. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR HORIZONTAL MOTIONS
5.8.4.4.1. Motor selection
The required torques (M
1
... M
n
) are calculated as in 5.8.3.1. The largest of them (M
i,max
) must
satisfy the following minimum condition:
M
po
/ M
i,max
≥ 1,2,
unless it is ensured by the control system that exceeding the pull out torque M
po
can be
avoided.
The possibility to apply field weakening should be checked case by case. Usually there are
very limited possibilities to apply field weakening in horizontal motions due to the fact that
very often a major portion of the torque requirement comes from the acceleration (and
deceleration) dependent term. Typical applications for field weakening are cranes exposed to
wind during low wind condition.
5.8.4.4.2. Inverter selection
The continuous current rating of the inverter shall be at least equal to the motor current at the
highest speed maintaining torque. The current required by the motor at any foreseen loading
including dynamic situations shall not exceed the short time overload rating of the inverter.
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5.9 LOAD LIFTING MEANS
5.9.1. CURRENT SUPPLY
In view of the arduous duty to which current supply systems are subjected, the electrical
equipment must be selected and installed with special care.
Supply cables should be able to be wound on cable winders and their mechanical strength,
resistance to external influences and heatresistance, must be suitable for the service
conditions.
Cable fixing means should be so selected that all strain on the connections or damage to the
cables is avoided.
Cables should be installed and guided in such a way as to exclude the possibility of damage
in normal service.
5.9.2. LOAD HOLDING DEVICES
The requirements given in this clause apply to all load holding devices such as lifting
magnets and vacuum lifters.
Load holding devices are normally designed for a cyclic duration factor of 50 %. Other cyclic
duration factors should be agreed between the manufacturer and user.
The tearoff force should be at least twice the lifting capacity.
If there is a standby power supply from batteries, the holding time should be at least 20
minutes. In this case, an automatic charging unit and a charge level indicator should be
provided. Use of the standby supply should be indicated visually and audibly for general
warning. If the battery voltage level is not adequate, a device preventing the installation from
being used should come into effect.
5.9.2.1. LIFTING MAGNETS
The insulation class of the windings should be selected according to the power loss, the
ambient temperature and, if necessary, the heating caused by the goods handled.
The lifting capacity for a lifting magnet should be specified for a precise load at rated voltage
and operating temperature of the magnet coil.
5.9.3. GRABS
The drive motors (electrohydraulic or electromechanical drive) should be designed for S3,
S4 or S6 duty depending on type and application.
In normal service, the motors and electrical equipment located on the grab must comply with
IP 55 at least. For underwater operation the degree of protection must be IP 57 at least. Due
to the special service conditions of this equipment, jolts and vibrations must be given
particular attention.
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5.9.4. LOAD TURNING EQUIPMENT
Load turning equipment should be so designed that loads can be accelerated and braked
without the ropes twisting. The arrangement of the lifting ropes, the load, the lifting height, the
centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of the load and loading beam if applicable should
be taken into account in the design of the equipment.
The installation of guides such as telescoping or articulated systems may be used in order to
prevent the twisting of ropes.
All electrical connections to turning parts should be designed in accordance with the turning
range.
If the turning motor is mounted on the supporting structure of the hoisting appliance, it must
comply with the degree of protection of the other motors on the structure at least. If the
turning motor is mounted on the load lifting means, it must comply with IP 44 at least for
indoor operation and IP 55 for outdoor operation.
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5.10 MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS
5.10.1. MAINTENANCE
The electrical equipment of a hoisting appliance should be maintained in good condition.
Maintenance should be based on the duty class and load spectrum of the hoisting appliance
and carried out in accordance with the instructions of the supplier or manufacturer.
In addition to the checklists in 5.10.2, requirements for maintenance instructions and
practices can be found e.g. in ISO 124801 and EN 126441.
5.10.2. CHECKS
A distinction is made between regular checks and checks made before the appliance is
commissioned.
Regular checks are subdivided into simple checks and comprehensive checks.
5.10.2.1. REGULAR CHECKS
5.10.2.1.1. Simple checks
The safety devices which can be checked from the control position are to be checked
regularly, in principle before the start of each workday, for their proper electric functioning.
In particular, the following, at least, must be checked :
− emergency limit switches,
− brake functions,
− emergency stop.
5.10.2.1.2. Comprehensive checks
At least once a year, the electrical equipment of a hoisting appliance should be given a
comprehensive check.
Besides the above simple checks, the following should be checked thoroughly :
— the settings and conditions of the electrical safety devices,
— integrity of protective earth systems,
— integrity of equipotential circuits,
— insulation of all the electrical equipment,
— tightness of all connections,
— predetermined resistance values, if any,
— physical condition of cables and cable inlets,
— physical condition of safety devices,
— presence and condition of devices protecting against direct contact,
— the technical performance of replaced parts is compatible with the proper functioning of
the hoisting appliance.
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5.10.2.2. CHECKS BEFORE COMMISSIONING
In addition to the comprehensive checks, the checks before commissioning include, at least :
— checking that all the hoisting appliance’s electrical equipment is in conformity with
regulations and standards,
— checking that the electrical equipment agrees with the circuit diagrams,
— checking the switching sequence of the safety and control circuits,
— checking the proper functioning of the electrical components
— checking that the control system does not permit any uncontrolled excess speeds in
normal operation,
— checking the correct settings for all the electrical equipment and its proper functioning.
5.11 AUXILIARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
In addition to the requirements of EN 6020432 clause 16 the following clauses apply.
5.11.1. LIGHTING
5.11.1.1. CABIN
A fixed nondazzling service lighting should be provided, so arranged that only the necessary
illumination for the lighting of the control equipment is provided.
When the general area lighting equipment is not sufficient to permit access and exit out of the
cabin in safety, supplementary portable lighting should be provided ; this equipment must be
able to work, even if the principal electrical circuits of the crane are isolated.
5.11.1.2. WORKING AREA LIGHTING
When the working area lighting is provided by the appliance, projectors should be suitably
placed on the crane, so that a minimum illumination of 30 lux at ground level is guaranteed.
This lighting circuit should be independent of the principal circuits of the hoisting appliance.
Precautions must be taken to avoid voltage drops produced by starting the motors cutting out
the gas discharge lamps.
5.11.1.3. ACCESS AND MACHINERY CABINET LIGHTING
When the general area lighting does not permit sufficient illumination, supplementary lighting
independent of the principal circuits of the hoisting appliance should be provided. The
minimum illumination should be 30 lux.
5.11.1.4. EMERGENCY LIGHTING
When the lighting of the area does not permit exit out of the appliance in safety, a portable
lamp, equipped with batteries should be provided. A battery charger must be provided in the
cabin.
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5.11.2. HEATING AND AIRCONDITIONING
5.11.2.1. MACHINERY CABINETS
Natural or forced ventilation should be provided to disperse thermal power generated by the
machinery and its equipment.
Where electronic equipment is used and working conditions do not guarantee an ambient
temperature for proper functioning of the electronic equipment, an air conditioning unit should
be provided.
5.11.2.2. CABIN
If necessary heating appliances should be provided in the cabin.
This apparatus of black heat/nonradiant type shall be securely fixed. It must be provided with
a thermostat and must have such a power to assure a minimum temperature of 15° C, taking
into account the environment in which the equipment is installed. This apparatus must be fed
independently of the principal circuits of the hoisting appliance.
If required by the environment an air conditioning unit should be installed in the cabin to
maintain a maximum acceptable temperature. This apparatus must be fed by a circuit
independent of the principal circuits of the hoisting appliance.
5.11.3. AUXILIARY CIRCUIT
If there is no possibility of supply in the proximity, auxiliary circuits should be provided for
maintenance purposes, as follows :
− A circuit for portable lighting, if the ambient lighting is not sufficient to carry out
maintenance.
− A circuit for portable tools according to agreement between customer and supplier.
− These circuits should be protected by a differential circuit breaker of high sensitivity and
they should be independent of the principal circuits of the hoisting appliance.
 : 
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA
MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 7
SAFETY RULES
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 7
SAFETY RULES
7.1. SCOPE..................................................................................................................................................4
7.2. BASIS OF CALCULATIONS...............................................................................................................4
7.3. MARKING AND PLATES.....................................................................................................................4
7.3.1. RATING PLATE............................................................................................................................4
7.3.2. MANUFACTURER'S PLATE......................................................................................................5
7.3.3. WARNING NOTICES..................................................................................................................5
7.4. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS..................................................................................................6
7.4.1. CLEARANCES.............................................................................................................................6
7.4.1.1. Safety distances....................................................................................................................... 6
7.4.1.2. Longer clearance...................................................................................................................... 6
7.4.1.3. Upper clearance ....................................................................................................................... 6
7.4.2. DRIVER'S CABS IN GENERAL.................................................................................................6
7.4.2.1. Driver’s visibility ........................................................................................................................ 6
7.4.2.2. Cab’s dispositions..................................................................................................................... 7
7.4.2.3. Heatinsulating material ............................................................................................................. 7
7.4.2.4. Glazed windows and entrances.............................................................................................. 7
7.4.2.5. Antiglare lighting and heating................................................................................................... 7
7.4.2.6. Heatproof................................................................................................................................. 8
7.4.2.7. Clean air supply ........................................................................................................................ 8
7.4.3. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS REGARDING HOISTSUSPENDED DRIVER'S CABS....8
7.4.3.1. Plate indication .......................................................................................................................... 8
7.4.3.2. Inopportune motions.................................................................................................................. 8
7.4.3.3. Suspended driver's cabins....................................................................................................... 8
7.4.3.4. Lowering speed limit ................................................................................................................. 8
7.4.3.5. Controls..................................................................................................................................... 9
7.4.3.6. Limit switches........................................................................................................................... 9
7.4.3.7. Buffers...................................................................................................................................... 9
7.4.3.8. Distress signal .......................................................................................................................... 9
7.4.3.9. Safety headroom...................................................................................................................... 9
7.4.3.10. Remote control ........................................................................................................................ 9
7.4.4. GANGWAYS AND PLATFORMS..............................................................................................10
7.4.4.1. Cab access............................................................................................................................. 10
7.4.4.2. Indirect access ....................................................................................................................... 10
7.4.4.3. Access to gangways, stairways and platforms.................................................................... 10
7.4.4.4. Maintenance areas ................................................................................................................. 10
7.4.4.5. Raised locations areas ........................................................................................................... 10
7.4.4.6. Erection, dismantling, testing, repairs and maintenance work’s areas................................... 11
7.4.4.7. Lowered work’s areas........................................................................................................... 11
7.4.4.8. Headroom................................................................................................................................ 11
7.4.4.9. Guard rails .............................................................................................................................. 11
7.4.4.10. Slipproof surfaces............................................................................................................... 12
7.4.4.11. Power lines protections........................................................................................................ 12
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7.4.5. STAIRWAYS AND LADDERS..................................................................................................12
7.4.5.1. General ................................................................................................................................... 12
7.4.5.2. STAIRWAYS........................................................................................................................... 12
7.4.5.3. LADDERS................................................................................................................................ 13
7.5. MECHANICAL DEVICES...................................................................................................................14
7.5.1. ROPE AND CHAIN DRIVES....................................................................................................14
7.5.1.1. Drums...................................................................................................................................... 14
7.5.1.2. Lowest hook position.............................................................................................................. 14
7.5.1.3. Ropes...................................................................................................................................... 14
7.5.1.4. Chains..................................................................................................................................... 14
7.5.2. HOOK BLOCKS, PULLEYS AND OTHER LOAD CARRYING DEVICES ........................15
7.5.2.1. Prevent to jumping................................................................................................................... 15
7.5.2.2. Hand guard ............................................................................................................................. 15
7.5.2.3. Maintenance............................................................................................................................ 15
7.5.2.4. Accidental unhooking protection ........................................................................................... 15
7.5.2.5. Working load plate................................................................................................................... 15
7.5.3. BRAKES......................................................................................................................................15
7.5.3.1. General ................................................................................................................................... 15
7.5.3.2. Hoisting brake ......................................................................................................................... 16
7.5.3.3. Travel and crab brakes........................................................................................................... 16
7.5.3.4. Slewing brake......................................................................................................................... 17
7.5.3.5. Luffing brake........................................................................................................................... 17
7.6. HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT................................................................................................................18
7.6.1. Pipes ...........................................................................................................................................18
7.6.2. Cylinders.....................................................................................................................................18
7.6.3. Working pressure.....................................................................................................................18
7.6.4. Pollution......................................................................................................................................18
7.6.5. Pressure gauge........................................................................................................................18
7.6.6. Breathers....................................................................................................................................18
7.6.7. Limit positions...........................................................................................................................19
7.6.8. Bursting pressure.....................................................................................................................19
7.6.9. Hydraulic fluid ............................................................................................................................19
7.6.10. Unintentional startup............................................................................................................19
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7.7. SAFETY DEVICES..............................................................................................................................20
7.7.1. DEVICES FOR LIMITING WORKING MOTIONS..................................................................20
7.7.1.1. HOIST MECHANISMS............................................................................................................... 20
7.7.1.2. TRAVEL DRIVES..................................................................................................................... 20
7.7.1.3. LUFFING AND SLEWING MECHANISMS........................................................................... 21
7.7.2. SAFETY AGAINST OVERLOADING AND OVERTURNING................................................21
7.7.2.1. Derailment safety devices ...................................................................................................... 21
7.7.2.2. Overload protection ................................................................................................................ 22
7.7.2.3. Load chart............................................................................................................................... 22
7.8. AGEING OF APPLIANCES................................................................................................................23
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7.1. SCOPE
These rules are applicable to cranes and heavy lifting appliances covered by clause 1.4. of
booklet 1  "Object and Scope"
1
.
7.2. BASIS OF CALCULATIONS
The calculation of crane structures and mechanisms shall be in accordance particularly with
booklet 3"Design stresses in the structure" and booklet 4 "Design and choice of mechanism
components".
7.3. MARKING AND PLATES
Lifting appliances shall bear the following markings or plates, in the language of the country in
which the appliance will operate, or in a language accepted by the user.
7.3.1. RATING PLATE
The lifting capacity (and radius where applicable) shall be permanently marked in a visible
position and shall be easily legible from the ground.
The lifting capacity shall be the heaviest mass which may be hoisted by the crane, or by any
hoisting accessory, either permanent or incorporated under certain conditions ; in the case of
grabbing cranes, the lifting capacity shall be the permissible total weight of the grab and
contents.
In the case of luffing cranes, the lifting capacity corresponding to each radius shall be indicated
in durable form showing appropriate graduations, and shall be clearly legible from the ground.
More detailed indications of permissible loads at different radii shall be obtainable from the
manufacturer's operating manual.
In the case of cranes with more than one hoist, the lifting capacity of each hoist shall be indicated
on the relevant hook block. It should furthermore be indicated if all the hoists can be used at the
same time.
1
For builders tower cranes, the safety measures in preparation by the E.E.C. are also accepted by the
F.E.M.
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7.3.2. MANUFACTURER'S PLATE
Each lifting appliance, independent crab or winch shall be fitted at a convenient point with the
maker's plate, detailing the following :
 name of manufacturer,
 year of manufacture,
 manufacturer's serial number,
 lifting capacity in kgs and/or tonnes,
 type.
7.3.3. WARNING NOTICES
A notice reading : "Do not stand under the load" shall be suitably located so as to be clearly
visible. Crane access points shall be marked with a notice reading : "No access for
unauthorised personnel". Particularly dangerous areas shall be marked with a notice reading :
"Danger  Crane" and, where necessary, by means of warning colour stripes.
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7.4. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
7.4.1. CLEARANCES
7.4.1.1. Safety distances
All moving parts of lifting appliances, with the exception of handling and grabbing devices, in their
most unfavourable position and under the most unfavourable loading conditions shall be at least
0,05 m from any fixed part of a building, at least 0,1 m from any guard rail or handrail and a
minimum of 0.5 m from access areas. Access areas are all access ways authorised to
personnel. This does not apply to working platforms. For railway loading profiles, the appropriate
loading gauge shall be used and there shall be a minimum clearance of 0,5 m in access areas.
Under no circumstances shall fixed parts of any lifting appliance encroach upon the railway
clearance gauge.
7.4.1.2. Longer clearance
The minimum vertical distance between the longer clearance line of a lifting appliance and areas
of general access below (from the floor as well as from fixed or movable equipment belonging to
the building, with the exception of working or service platforms or similar shall be at least 1.8 m
in areas of general working access. From parts of stationary or mobile installations with limited
walkon or stepon access (such as roofs, heaters, machinery parts and cranes travelling below
etc.) as well as from guard rails, the minimum vertical distance shall be 0,5 m.
7.4.1.3. Upper clearance
The minimum vertical distance between the upper clearance line of a lifting appliance and fixed
or moving parts above (e.g. between crab structures or guardrails on the one hand and roof
joists, pipelines or lifting appliances travelling overhead on the other) shall be not less than 0,5
m in maintenance areas and in the vicinity of platforms. This distance may be reduced to 0,1 m
in the case of individual structural members, provided no danger to personnel results or that
adequate precautions are taken to eliminate the risks.
7.4.2. DRIVER'S CABS IN GENERAL
7.4.2.1. Driver’s visibility
Driver's cabs shall be designed so that the driver has a clear view of all work areas or so that he
may adequately follow all operations with the aid of suitable equipment.
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7.4.2.2. Cab’s dispositions
The driver's cab shall have sufficient room for the driver to be able to reach or leave the controls
without hindrance. Controls shall preferably be operated from a sitting position, but also from a
standing position when necessary.
Driver 's cabs shall have a minimum headroom of 1,9 m and shall be fitted with a guard rail of at
least 1,0 m high.
Outdoor cabs, or those operating in unheated bays, shall be of enclosed construction, except in
warm climates. Driver's cabs in heated bays, or which are seldom used or of an auxiliary nature
may be of open construction.
A protective shield shall be installed above the driver 's cab when there is any danger of falling
objects.
The layout of the cab and controls shall be ergonomically designed.
7.4.2.3. Heatinsulating material
The structural framework of the driver's cab shall be of noncombustible material, and the side
panels and roof may optionally be of fire resistant materials. The floor of the driver's cab shall be
covered with nonmetallic, heatinsulating material.
7.4.2.4. Glazed windows and entrances
In cabs with windows less than 1,0 m from the floor and glazed areas in the floor, the glazing
shall be constructed or protected to a height of 1,0 m so that personnel cannot fall through them ;
walkover windows shall be tread proof.
Entrances shall be protected against accidental opening. Sliding doors and outward opening
doors of driver's cabs must lead on to landings.
It must be possible to clean the windows of the driver's cab without risk. Glazed openings let into
the floor of the driver's cab and those which are exposed to an increased risk of breakage or
subjected to heat radiation when the crane is in operation shall be made of suitable safety glass.
7.4.2.5. Antiglare lighting and heating
Driver's cabs shall be provided with adequate antiglare lighting to allow handling of the controls
and, if necessary, can be ventilated.
Enclosed driver's cabs for outdoor operation and cabins located in unheated bays must be
provided with heating.
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7.4.2.6. Heatproof
Driver's cabs which are exposed to radiant heat shall be protected against heat radiation and of
a heatproof design, and they shall be airconditioned in order to ensure tolerable working
conditions.
7.4.2.7. Clean air supply
Driver's cabs exposed to conditions presenting a health hazard, such as dust, vapours or gases,
shall be protected against their entry and provided with a clean air supply.
7.4.3. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS REGARDING HOISTSUSPENDED DRIVER'S
CABS
7.4.3.1. Plate indication
The permitted number of persons and maximum load of the driver's cab shall be permanently
and clearly indicated. Additional "Operating and maintenance instructions for hoistsuspended
driver's cabs" shall be posted in the cab.
7.4.3.2. Inopportune motions
It must not be possible for the driver's cab to spin or swing dangerously.
7.4.3.3. Suspended driver's cabins
Hoist suspended driver's cabins shall be provided with an antifall device. Alternatively, there may
be two independent means of suspension, provided that the driver's cabin remains secure
should one means of suspension break, or should the drive or service brake fail. Each individual
means of suspension shall be designed with a safety factor of not less than five times the full
working load.
If there is an antifall device and only one means of suspension, a minimum safety factor of eight
is necessary.
Rope drives shall be designed as a minimum in accordance with mechanism group M8. The
diameter of the rope shall be not less than 6 mm. Ropes for outdoor duty shall be made of
galvanised steel wire.
7.4.3.4. Lowering speed limit
On reaching a speed of 1.4 times the nominal lowering speed the driver's cab shall
automatically be brought to a halt.
The driver's cab must be able to move independently of the load.
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7.4.3.5. Controls
All controls shall stop automatically as soon as the driver releases them.
7.4.3.6. Limit switches
Normal and emergency limit switches shall be provided for the highest and lowest positions of
the cab, with separate switching and operating systems.
Emergency limit switches shall directly switch off the main power circuit and activate an audible
warning signal.
In the event of the driver 's cab striking an obstacle or a suspension means becoming slack, all
crane motions shall automatically shut down. Devices for returning the crane to service shall not
be of self resetting type.
7.4.3.7. Buffers
If the travel speed of the driver's cab is greater than 40 m/min, devices shall be provided to
reduce the speed promptly so that the buffers cannot be struck at a speed
greater than 40 m/min. If the impact velocity is greater than 20 m/min, energy absorption buffers
shall be provided.
7.4.3.8. Distress signal
The driver 's cab shall be provided with a distress signal system independent of the electrical
supply of the crane.
It shall also be provided with a mean of emergency descent, e.g. a rope ladder or escape
apparatus, which is always in the cab.
7.4.3.9. Safety headroom
The user shall ensure that with the maximum stacking height of goods there is a safety
headroom of 0,5 m to the underside of the driver's cab in its working position.
7.4.3.10. Remote control
It must only be possible to remotely operate the crane from the ground with the driver's cab in its
highest working position (see also 7.7.).
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7.4.4. GANGWAYS AND PLATFORMS
7.4.4.1. Cab access
Easy and safe access to the driver's cab must be possible with the lifting appliance in any
position under normal working conditions. If the floor of the driver's cab is less than 5 m above
ground level, access may be restricted to certain positions of the lifting appliance, provided the
driver's cab is fitted with appropriate emergency exit means, e.g. a rope ladder.
Entry to the driver's cab should be preferably from a platform at the same level as the floor of the
cab and provided with guard rails. Entry through the floor, or through the ceiling of the driver's cab
shall be permissible only when necessitated by virtue of space restrictions.
Where entry is made directly via a staircase, a platform or a gangway, the horizontal gap to the
driver's cab entrance shall not exceed 0,15 m and the difference in level between the platform
and the driver's cab floor shall not exceed 0,25 m.
7.4.4.2. Indirect access
When the driver's cab cannot be reached directly from ground level in any position of the crane,
and where the driver's cab floor is higher than 5 m from ground level, the crane installation shall
be provided with appropriate gangways. For certain appliances, such as overhead travelling
cranes, access may be limited to certain positions of the crane, if appropriate devices are
provided which enable the driver to leave the cab.
7.4.4.3. Access to gangways, stairways and platforms
Gangways, stairways, and platforms must have safe access with the lifting appliance in any
position. Stairways and ladders in frequent use shall lead on to platforms or gangways. For such
access, stairways are preferable to ladders.
7.4.4.4. Maintenance areas
All operating locations and all equipment of the crane which requires regular inspection or
maintenance must be provided with safe access, or be reached by means of portable work
platforms.
7.4.4.5. Raised locations areas
The abovementioned locations when more than 2 m above floor level, and also crane jibs must
be accessible via stairways, platforms, walkways or ladders. Steps shall be fitted with guard rails
on both sides (see also 7.4.5.2.).
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7.4.4.6. Erection, dismantling, testing, repairs and maintenance work’s areas
When work is carried out during erection, dismantling, testing, repairs and maintenance at
points situated more than 2 m above floor level, appropriate measures shall be taken on cranes
and jibs to ensure the safety of personnel (such as handrails, handgrips, safety devices, etc.)
and to permit access of personnel to these points. Pulleys and moving parts placed at the end of
jibs shall be designed so that no lubrication is necessary between erecting and dismantling the
crane. If this is not the case, the jib must be provided with access.
7.4.4.7. Lowered work’s areas
The abovementioned access to the jib may be omitted when the latter can be lowered for the
purpose of a complete visual check or when other constructions permit a visual check.
7.4.4.8. Headroom
Stairways, gangways and platforms shall have a headroom of not less than 1,8 m. A clear
passageway not less than 0,5 m wide must be provided in the vicinity of driven parts which move
relative to gangways and platforms ; this dimension may be reduced to 0,4 m up to a height of
0,6 m by providing a handrail. The clear width of passage way between stationary parts shall be
not less than 0,4 m.
The clear headroom of little used access ways inside crane structures may be reduced to a
minimum of 1,3 m, whilst at the same time the width shall be increased to 0,7 m, varying linearly
with the reduction in height. The headroom above platforms used only for maintenance
purposes may be reduced to 1,3 m.
7.4.4.9. Guard rails
Parts of crane installations with access shall be provided with continuous guard rails on those
sides where there is a danger of falling from a height of over 1 m. Toe guards shall be not less
than 0,1 m high. Openings in guard rails shall be permissible where adequate protective
measures against falling are provided. Guard rails shall, as a rule, be not less than 1 m high
and shall be provided with toe guards and intermediate rails. The height of the guard rails may
be reduced to 0,8 m for passage ways where a clear height of 1,3 m is permissible. Along
gangways there shall be at least one handrail.
For gangways alongside building walls or a solid wall construction, handrails shall be
permissible in lieu of guard rails. Interruptions in the length of these shall not exceed 1 m (e.g.
for building columns, door openings).
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7.4.4.10. Slipproof surfaces
Platform surfaces shall be suitably slipproof. Holes, gaps and openings in the flooring shall be
restricted in size so that a 0,02 m diameter ball cannot pass through.
Gangways which are less than 0,5 m above exposed power lines must be provided with solid
flooring in those areas.
7.4.4.11. Power lines protections
When gangways are located adjacent to power lines, these lines must be protected against
accidental contact.
7.4.5. STAIRWAYS AND LADDERS
7.4.5.1. General
Stairways and ladders shall be provided wherever the difference in level exceeds 0,5 m.
Footholds provided with hand grips may be installed on vertical surfaces where the height does
not exceed 2 m (e.g. end carriages).
Ladders shall be interrupted by intermediate landings if they exceed a height of 8 m. For great
heights as, for example, tower cranes for building, additional intermediate platforms may be
provided for which the vertical interval must be a maximum of 8 m. Where there are space
problems, a single continuous ladder with platforms alongside may be installed.
7.4.5.2. STAIRWAYS
The slope of stairways shall not exceed 65°, the height of individual steps shall not exceed 0,25
m (0,2 m for tower cranes) and their depth shall not be less than 0,15 m. If possible, the
following ratios shall be observed :
2 . step height + 1 tread width = 0,63 m
The height interval between steps shall be constant. In the case of main stairways the guard rail
posts shall be spaced not less than 0,6 m apart, but in the case of other stairways 0,5 m shall
suffice.
Surface of treads shall be antislip.
Stairways shall be provided with guard rails on each side ; where there is a wall on one side of
the stairway a handrail shall be sufficient on the wall side.
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7.4.5.3. LADDERS
The length of rungs between side frames shall be no less than 0,3 m ; their pitch shall be
constant and not exceeding 0,3 m. The rungs shall be at least 0,15 m away from fixed structural
members. A rung shall be able to withstand a force of 1200 N at the centre without suffering
permanent deformation.
Climbthrough openings shall not be smaller than 0,63 m x 0,63 m or less than 0,8 m in
diameter.
Ladders over 5 m in height shall be provided with safety hoops starting at a height of 2,5 m.
The distance between safety hoops shall be not greater than 0,9 m. They must be
interconnected by at least three equally spaced longitudinal stringers. In all cases, one
longitudinal stringer must be placed at a point which is exactly opposite the vertical centre line of
the ladder.
The strength of safety hoops, reinforced by the longitudinal stringers, must be adequate to
withstand a force of 1000 N distributed over 0,1 m acting on any point of the hoop, without any
visible deformation.
The sides of ladders shall extend at least 1 m above the top rung, unless some other
appropriate handhold is provided. Where space is limited, 0,8 m shall be acceptable.
Safety hoops are not necessary on ladders placed on the inside of structures which can act as a
safety guard and where there is a clearance of 0,7 m to 0,8 m between the ladder and the
opposite side. Structural members can be considered equivalent to safety hoops provided they
are arranged so that the perpendicular distance between bars in the danger zone is always less
than 0,75 m and the inscribed circle between the ladder and the struts is less than 0,75 m.
The ladders must be provided with rest platforms spaced so that the first stretch does not
exceed 10 m and there are then rest platforms at every 8 m.
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7.5. MECHANICAL DEVICES
7.5.1. ROPE AND CHAIN DRIVES
7.5.1.1. Drums
Rope drums shall be provided with rope grooves. The rope, as a rule, shall be wound in one
layer. If winding is done in more than one layer, an appropriate spooling device or winding
system shall be provided ; such a device is not necessary in the case of two layers where the
rope is selfguided during winding.
If there is a possibility of the rope becoming slack on the drum during operation or of not being
wound on properly, means shall be provided to prevent this.
Drums shall be provided with end flanges unless other measures are taken to prevent the ropes
from overriding the ends or falling.
The diameter of the flanges of the drum shall be such that, with the rope fully wound on, the
flange shall project a distance of not less than oneandahalf rope diameters above the top layer
of the rope (for builders cranes, twice the rope dia).
7.5.1.2. Lowest hook position
At the lowest permissible hook position, there shall still be at least two turns on the drum before
the rope anchorage. If the rope end is fastened to the drum with bolted clamps, there shall be at
least two separate clamps held by bolting fitted with positive locking devices.
7.5.1.3. Ropes
Ropes shall be protected wherever possible against the influence of direct radiant heat and
against being sprayed with molten and other dangerous substances. Special ropes shall be
used when operating under conditions of excessive influence of heat, corrosive materials etc...
7.5.1.4. Chains
Chain drives shall be provided with a device ensuring smooth running of the chain on the
sprocket wheel and preventing it from jumping. An effective chain guard shall be provided.
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7.5.2. HOOK BLOCKS, PULLEYS AND OTHER LOAD CARRYING DEVICES .
7.5.2.1. Prevent to jumping
Adequate means shall be provided to prevent the rope or chain from jumping off the pulleys.
7.5.2.2. Hand guard
An adequate guard shall be provided where there is any danger of a hand being trapped
between the rope and the pulley of the hook block.
7.5.2.3. Maintenance
Rope pulleys shall be designed so as to be accessible for maintenance.
7.5.2.4. Accidental unhooking protection
Safety hooks or specially designed hooks shall be required where the method of operation
induces increased danger of accidental unhooking of the load or of the hook becoming
snagged.
7.5.2.5. Working load plate
Interchangeable load carrying devices, such as grabs, lifting magnets, buckets, tongs and
beams, shall be permanently marked with their safe working load and dead weight and also, in
the case of grabs and buckets for bulk materials, with their capacity and name of manufacturer.
7.5.3. BRAKES
The provisions of this clause shall not apply to cylinder operated mechanisms e.g. hydraulic jack
hoists.
7.5.3.1. General
Drives shall be provided with mechanical brakes. If in exceptional cases the drive is through a
selflocking gear, the brake may be omitted, provided it has been ensured that no excessive
stresses or movements can occur.
Brake mechanisms shall be easy to inspect. Brake springs shall be of the compression type.
Brakes must be adjustable and brake linings must be replaceable.
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7.5.3.2. Hoisting brake
Hoist units must be provided with brakes which are automatically applied and which can safely
hold the test load in the event of switching off or failure of the hoist drive.
Brake systems shall be designed for 1,6 times the hoist load and they shall be capable of
braking the dynamic test load without a damaging snatch effect and without unacceptable
overheating.
Brakes of hoist units shall be arranged so that there is a positive mechanical link between the
winch components which, on the one hand, generate the braking moment and, on the other
hand, support the load.
The electrical and mechanical gear shall make it possible to keep the lowering speed under
load within the permissible limits.
Hoist units for carrying molten materials shall be provided with two mechanical brakes which
operate independently of each other, each of which shall meet the preceding requirements ; the
second brake shall be applied with a time lag in relation to the first one.
In special critical cases where failure of a driving unit must be catered for the second brake shall
act on the rope drum ; this brake shall be so controlled that it is applied automatically, not later
than the instant a speed of 1,5 times the nominal lowering speed has been reached. In such
cases the control gear of the crane shall include an emergency stop which shall also activate the
brake.
7.5.3.3. Travel and crab brakes
Power driven travel drives of cranes and crabs shall be equipped with an automatic brake, or a
brake which may be operated from the control position. Excluded from this category are cranes
not subjected to wind, operating on a horizontal track at a speed not exceeding 40 m/min., or
when on wheels with antifriction bearings, not exceeding 20 m/min. For cranes intended to carry
molten materials, a brake is required independently of speed.
The brakes must be so designed that the crane or crab can be brought to rest in a suitable time
and held stationary in all operating conditions, under wind load when applicable and also in the
case of power failure.
Nonautomatic travel brakes of cranes and crabs exposed to the wind shall be provided with a
clamping device.
Automatic travel brakes or anchoring devices shall be designed with a factor of safety not less
than 1.1 against the maximum forces in out of service conditions.
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7.5.3.4. Slewing brake
Power driven slewing drives shall be provided with brakes designed to bring to a halt, in a
suitable time and to hold the slewing part stationary in all service conditions, under wind load
when applicable and in the event of power failure.
7.5.3.5. Luffing brake
Luffing systems shall be provided with brakes designed so that in the event of shut down or
failure of the luffing gear drive they shall be applied automatically and safely hold the jib with the
test load in the most unfavourable position.
Brake mechanisms shall be designed for a minimum braking moment equivalent to 1,6 times
the moment due to the hook load and the dead weight of the jib system plus 1,0 times the
moment due to the wind load, in the most unfavourable operating configuration (i.e. maximum
wind load in service).
For the crane out of service this shall be at least 1,1 times the moment due to the dead weight of
the jib system and due to the wind (max. out of service storm wind) in the most unfavourable jib
position or in a specified out of service jib position.
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7.6. HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT
7.6.1. Pipes
Precision seamless steel pipe shall be used for pressure lines up to 3 cm outer diameter ; no
welding shall be done on these except for welding on the flanges of bolted connections.
7.6.2. Cylinders
When hoisting and luffing mechanisms are driven by hydraulic jacks, automatic devices (burst
protection valves) shall be installed immediately adjacent to the connections to pressure lines to
avoid any undesirable lowering of the load, particularly in the event of pipe failure. When there is
a risk of dangerous lowering of the load due to oil leakage or leaking components, mechanical
devices shall be provided to prevent this.
With other hydraulic drives, the above motions must be stopped by means of automatic brakes,
actuated by selfresetting controls, as specified under paragraph 7.5.3.
7.6.3. Working pressure
Exceeding of the maximum specified working pressure shall be prevented by means of
pressure relief valves. Appropriate provisions or constructional measures shall be
taken to prevent the working pressure from being exceeded by more than 1.6 times,
including the case of transient peak pressure.
7.6.4. Pollution
Prior to startup, the hydraulic system shall be free from foreign bodies such as turnings,
sprinters or scale. The system shall be designed so that such foreign bodies can be readily
removed when making repairs.
7.6.5. Pressure gauge
Each hydraulic circuit shall have at least one connection outlet for a pressure gauge, enabling
the measurement of pressure without any dismantling of pipework.
7.6.6. Breathers
Hydraulic systems shall be fitted with breathers at suitable points.
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7.6.7. Limit positions
Overrunning of limit positions shall be prevented by means of appropriate devices.
7.6.8. Bursting pressure
Pipework and hoses must be designed with a factor of safety of four against bursting pressure ;
this applies also to connections and flange joints. For stationary lifting appliances which are free
from hydraulic shocks and vibration , a factor of safety of 2,5 shall suffice.
7.6.9. Hydraulic fluid
Hydraulic fluid used in the hydraulic installations of cranes and winches shall comply with the
requirements of service conditions and with the technological and safety requirements. The
hydraulic fluid shall be specified to the user. It must be possible to check the maximum and
minimum levels of the hydraulic tank.
7.6.10. Unintentional startup
Unintentional startup of drives following the renewal of power supply after failure or the
switching on of the isolator switch or of the main crane switch must be prevented ; e.g. by means
of electrical interlocks or by means of an automatic mechanical return of the controller.
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7.7. SAFETY DEVICES
7.7.1. DEVICES FOR LIMITING WORKING MOTIONS
7.7.1.1. HOIST MECHANISMS
The range of power driven hoist mechanisms shall be restricted at the highest and the lowest
permissible positions of the load supporting means by automatic limit switches (emergency
limit switches), having regard to the distance required to slow clown. The return from the limit
positions must be possible by means of the controller. If a limit position is reached during
normal operation, there shall be an additional and independent service limit switch. In this case,
when the service limit switch has been tripped, it shall be possible to effect the return movement
by use of the controller, but if the emergency limit switch has been tripped, this return movement
shall not be possible.
Hoists powered by an internal combustion engine and mechanically coupled with non
intermediate electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic link may be provided with visual or acoustic
warning devices instead of limit switches.
7.7.1.2. TRAVEL DRIVES
Power driven cranes and crabs shall be provided with devices such as shoe brakes, rubber,
spring or hydraulic buffers or other special devices, which are capable of absorbing one half of
the energy of the moving masses at normal travelling speed and such that the maximum
deceleration in the driver 's cab does not exceed 5 m/sec
2
.
If the limit of travel is frequently reached during normal operation, the maximum deceleration in
the driver 's cab shall not exceed 2,5 m/sec
2
.
Cranes and crabs with radio control shall be provided with limit switches when the travel speeds
are in excess of 40 m/min.
Cranes and crab mounted driver's cabs, which are subject to wind, shall be provided with storm
anchors for "Out of Service" conditions.
When operating conditions require that certain wind conditions be taken into account in the
operation of the crane, a wind indicator and alarm must be provided on the crane.
Cranes shall be fitted with rail sweeps where material obstructions can come to rest in the track.
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When two or more cranes run on the same track special devices shall be provided to prevent a
dangerous collision. Under no circumstances shall the deceleration in the driver's cab exceed 5
m/sec
2
.
In areas which are dangerous due to their being within the operational area of cranes or crabs,
adequate measures shall be taken to protect personnel ; e.g. by the use of warning notices,
flashing lights, acoustic warnings or, if necessary, automatic stopping devices.
7.7.1.3. LUFFING AND SLEWING MECHANISMS
With power driven luffing mechanisms the movement of the jib at the limit of the travel shall be
restricted by means of automatic limit switches (emergency limit switches) having regard to the
distance required to slow clown.
The return from the limit positions must be possible by means of the controller.
Luffing mechanisms powered by an internal combustion engine and mechanically coupled with
no intermediate electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic link, may be provided with visual or acoustic
warning devices instead of limit switches.
Similarly, power driven slewing mechanisms withlimited slewing range shall have the slewing
movement limited by means of an automatic emergency limit switch.
Furthermore, there shall be devices in accordance with the spirit of the provisions of paragraph
7.7.1.2. at the limits of travel of restricted slewing range or luffing range.
7.7.2. SAFETY AGAINST OVERLOADING AND OVERTURNING
7.7.2.1. Derailment safety devices
Cranes and crabs shall be so designed, or provided with such additional safety devices that,
even in the event of derailment or failure of a runner wheel or a wheel shaft or bearing, the
maximum drop is limited to 3 cm and falling or overturning is prevented.
In addition, exceptional forces such as those due to impact on buffers, collision and erection
shall not cause the crane or the crab to overturn or fall.
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7.7.2.2. Overload protection
Cranes and trolleys equipped with jibs and outriggers which can overturn due to an overload,
and having a load lifting capacity independent of radius, shall be provided with an overload
protection switch ; however, when the load lifting capacity varies with the outreach, the switch
shall also act as a load moment switch. It should be possible to return into the permissible
range of the load moment by reversing the movement or, where the overload has been caused
by lifting the load, by setting it down using the controller.
Cranes with hoists and/or luffing mechanism powered by an internal combustion engine and
mechanically coupled with no intermediate electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic link may be
provided with a visual or acoustic warning device instead of an overload switch.
7.7.2.3. Load chart
Cranes and lifting appliances with the lifting capacity dependent on radius shall be provided with
a permanent notice, clearly visible from the driving position and stating, in suitable graduations,
the hook loads corresponding to the various radii.
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7.8. AGEING OF APPLIANCES
Like other machines and lifting appliances, those pertaining to Section I of the FEM are also
designed for a certain duration of life.
They are, in addition, covered by Design Rules which have been developed from the scientific
knowledge and experience of users and manufacturers for application to the various types of
appliances.
This notion of ageing applies mainly to the structure and the mechanisms, and not so much to
the consumable components (such as : ropes, brake linings, brushes, heat engines, etc...).
The principal factors contributing adversely to the ageing of appliances are :
 fatigue phenomena
 corrosion
 operational, assembly and dismantling accidents
 overloading
 inadequate maintenance.
The user must always bear in mina the importance of ageing.
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA
MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 8
TEST LOADS AND TOLERANCES
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9
Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 8
TEST LOADS AND TOLERANCES
8.1. TESTS...................................................................................................................................................2
8.1.1. DYNAMIC TEST...........................................................................................................................2
8.1.2. STATIC TEST...............................................................................................................................2
8.1.3. NOTE 1..........................................................................................................................................2
8.1.4. NOTE 2..........................................................................................................................................2
8.2. TOLERANCES OF CRANES AND TRACKS.....................................................................................3
8.2.1. MEASURING PROCEDURE.....................................................................................................3
8.2.2. MANUFACTURING TOLERANCES FOR CRANES...............................................................3
8.2.2.1. Span.......................................................................................................................................... 3
8.2.2.2. Crane girders camber............................................................................................................... 4
8.2.2.3. Inclination of the wheel ............................................................................................................. 4
8.2.2.4. Trolley rail center distance........................................................................................................ 4
8.2.2.5. Difference in height of two opposite points.............................................................................. 5
8.2.2.6. Bearing surface........................................................................................................................ 5
8.2.2.7. Vertical axis of the trolley......................................................................................................... 6
8.2.2.8. Trolley rails linearity .................................................................................................................. 6
8.2.2.9. Axes of the wheel bores.......................................................................................................... 7
8.2.2.10. Axle bores of opposite wheels .............................................................................................. 7
8.2.2.11. Bushed wheels....................................................................................................................... 8
8.2.2.12. Guide rollers............................................................................................................................ 8
8.2.2.13. Bushed wheels diameter........................................................................................................ 8
8.2.3. TOLERANCES FOR CRANE TRACKS....................................................................................9
APPENDIX..................................................................................................................................................11
A  8.1.3.  TEST LOADS FOR CRANES IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.........................11
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.
8.1. TESTS
Prior to being placed in service, appliances must be tested under overload conditions, as follows
:
8.1.1. DYNAMIC TEST
The dynamic test shall be carried out with an overload coefficient ρ
1
= 1,2 i.e. with a load equal to
120 % of the safe working load. All motions shall be carefully operated in turn, without checking
speeds of temperature rises in the motors (see clause 2.3.3.c).
8.1.2. STATIC TEST
The static test shall be carried out with an overload coefficient ρ
2
= 1,4 i.e. with a load equal to
140 % of the safe working load. This test must be carried out under still conditions and consists
in hoisting the safe working load to a small distance above the ground and then adding the
required surplus without shock (see clause 2.3.3.c.).
8.1.3. NOTE 1
The figures given for these test loads represent minimum requirements. Where national
legislation or rules call for higher values, these must be complied with insofar as appliances
destined for such countries are concerned.
The test to be used in certain countries are given in appendix A8.1.3. for information.
8.1.4. NOTE 2
When making these tests, it is customary to measure the deflection of the structure of an
appliance.
The present rules impose no obligation as to the allowable deflections.
Should the user wish to impose a deflection limit, he must specify this in his call for tenders
1
.
1
(1) The custom of regarding small deflection under load as a measure of the strength of an appliance
should be discontinued.
Although an unduly large deflection can adversely affect lattice girders because of the danger of movement
at the joints, no untoward effects are to be feared in the case of solidweb or box girders.
In practice, the magnitude of the deflection should be limited only from the standpoint of convenience of
operation, since vertical oscillations of the load can be troublesome in some cases.
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8.2. TOLERANCES OF CRANES AND TRACKS
GENERAL
The use of the Design Rules presupposes that the tolerances specified hereafter for cranes and
tracks shall be maintained. These tolerances apply unless other conditions have been agreed
with the user, and take no account of elastic deformations during the operation. The elastic
deformations have to be taken into consideration if required.
The specified tolerances are valid for overhead travelling cranes, gantry cranes and jib cranes,
but not for railway cranes. For cranes which have been erected for temporary use only, e.g.
building cranes, these rules are only partially valid, in other cases they are to be used judiciously.
8.2.1. MEASURING PROCEDURE
when using measuring tapes, calibrated steel measuring types are to be used. The rules for the
use of these measuring types are to be observed. The readings obtained are to be corrected for
the sag of the tape measure as well as for the divergence of the ambient temperature from the
standard temperature. All measurements on one and the same crane have to be made with the
same tape and the same tension force.
8.2.2. MANUFACTURING TOLERANCES FOR CRANES
8.2.2.1. Span
The greatest divergence ∆
s
of the crane span’s from the drawing dimension must not exceed the
following values :
for s ≤ 15 m : ∆
s
= ± 2 mm
for s > 15 m : ∆
s
= ± [ 2 + 0,15 . ( s15 ) ] mm ( max. ± 15 mm )
(s is to be expressed in m)
Figure 8.2.2.1.
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8.2.2.2. Crane girders camber
Crane girders, freely supported at their ends, must have no sag, even if the drawing does not
prescribe a camber. This means that the track of the trolley with unloaded crane (without trolley)
must have no deviation downward from the horizontal. This requirement only applies to cranes
with a span longer than 20 m.
8.2.2.3. Inclination of the wheel
In cases where the top of the rail is flat, the inclination of the wheel axis from the horizontal, for
the unladen crane, must be between + 0,2 % and 0,05 %.
Figure 8.2.2.3.
By unladen crane is meant the crane bridge without trolley, freely supported on the end
carriages.
8.2.2.4. Trolley rail center distance
The trolley rail centre distance must not differ from the nominal dimension s by more than ± 3
mm.
Figure 8.2.2.4.
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8.2.2.5. Difference in height of two opposite points
In a plane perpendicular to the travel direction of the trolley, the difference in height of two
opposite points of the trolley track shall not exceed 0,15 % of the trolley rail centre distance, with
a maximum of 10 mm .
Figure 8.2.2.5.
8.2.2.6. Bearing surface
Trolley rails shall be laid in such a way that the running surface is horizontal and that the greatest
unevenness of the bearing surface is no more than ± 3 mm for rail centres up to 3 m and no
more than ± 0,1 % of the trolley wheel centre distance if it exceeds 3 m .
Figure 8.2.2.6.
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8.2.2.7. Vertical axis of the trolley
The vertical axis of the trolley rail must not diverge from the vertical axis of the rail girder web by
more than half the thickness of the rail girder web .
Figure 8.2.2.7
8.2.2.8. Trolley rails linearity
The axes of the trolley rails must not diverge from their theoretical axis by more than ± 1,0 mm in
a rail length of 2 m. There should be no misalignments at rail joints.
Center axi s of the trol l ey rai l s
Figure 8.2.2.8.
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8.2.2.9. Axes of the wheel bores
The axes of the wheel bores must not have an angular deviation greater than ± 0,04 % from its
theoretical axis, in the horizontal plane .
Theoretical position
of all wheels
Figure 8.2.2.9.
8.2.2.10. Axle bores of opposite wheels
The axle bores of wheels opposite to each other at each side of the track, and if wheels are
mounted in bogies the axes of the bogie pins of the unwarped trolley and crane bridge shall have
an alignment divergence in the vertical plane, less than 0,15 %, maximum 2 mm of the wheel
centre distance .
Figure 8.2.2.10.
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8.2.2.11. Bushed wheels
The centre planes of wheels rolling on a common rail must not diverge more than ± 1 mm from
the rail axis .
Center of wheel Center of wheel
Center axi s of the rai l head
Figure 8.2.2.11.
For bushed wheels the above tolerances apply with the wheel in a central position between the
contact surfaces at either side of the wheel.
8.2.2.12. Guide rollers
If horizontal guide rollers are used, the centre of the distance between guide rollers at one corner
must not deviate more than ± 1 mm from the axis of the rail .
Center of di stance between
gui de rol l ers
Center axi s of the rai l head
Di stance
between
gui de
rol l ers
Figure 8.2.2.12.
8.2.2.13. Bushed wheels diameter
The diameter tolerance of the wheels should correspond to the ISO tolerance classification h9. If
runner wheel speeds are synchronized by an "electrical shaft", tighter tolerances may be
required. These will have to be determined from case to case. These tolerances will apply also
to non driven wheels, as the wheels must be interchangeable.
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8.2.3. TOLERANCES FOR CRANE TRACKS
The tolerances specified below apply to new crane tracks. If in the course of use, these
tolerances are exceeded by 20 %, the track must be realigned. If the travelling behaviour is
noticeably deteriorating, it may be necessary to realign the track, even if the tolerance excess has
not reached 20 %.
1  The greatest divergence ∆
s
from the spans s is :
for s ≤ 15 m : ∆
s
= ± 3 mm
for s > 15 m : ∆
s
= ± [ 3 + 0,25 . ( s15 ) ] mm (max. ± 25 mm)
(s is to be expressed in m) (see figure 8.2.2.1.).
If horizontal guide rollers are provided on one rail only, the tolerances for the other rail only
may be increased to three times the above values, but must not exceed 25 mm.
2  It is assumed that with the trolley positioned in the centre of the span the deflection of both
rail tracks is approximately equal.
3  The greatest permissible tolerance of the upper edge of the rail is ± 10 mm from the
theoretical height position. The theoretical height is either the horizontal position, or if
applicable, the theoretical camber curve. The height position of the two rails may show a
divergence of 10 mm. The curvature in a longitudinal direction may, at each point of a
measured length of 2 m, not exceed a rise of ± 2 mm.
4  The inclination of the rail rolling surface must not exceed the following values as compared
with the theoretical position :
Longi tudi nal l y : 0,3 %
Lateral l y : 0,3 %
Figure 8.2.3.a.
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5  The maximum permissible lateral deviation of each rail in a horizontal plane is ± 10 mm.
The curvature in the longitudinal axis at any point shall not exceed ± 1 mm in a length of 2 m
.
Random sampl i ng
Figure 8.2.3.b.
For cranes guided on both sides by horizontal rollers, the above values are valid also for the
rail surfaces of the horizontal rollers.
For cranes guided on one rail only, the requirement for the straightness of the non guiding
rail can be lowered, in agreement with manufacturer.
6  No account has to be taken of misalignment at the rail joints. It is recommended that
welded rail joints are used.
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.
APPENDIX
A  8.1.3.  TEST LOADS FOR CRANES IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Country Dynamic tests Static tests Comments
AUSTRIA 125 % up to 25 t
110 % over 25 t
BELGIUM Up to 20 t 125 %
From 20 to 50 t + 5 t
Over 50 t 110 %
25 t 140 %
25 to 50 t 10 t
50 t 120 %
SWITZERLAND According to
DIN 15030
GERMANY Pk = 1,25 . P (H1 and H2)
Pg = 1,33 . P (H1 and H2)
Pk = 1,25 . P
Pk = 1,25 . P
1
+ 0,25 . P
0
Pg = 1,50 . P (H3 and H4)
Pg = 1,33 . P  1,4 . P
DIN 15018 part 1
DIN 15019 part 1
DIN 15030
FRANCE 120 %
(excluding builder's tower cranes
and some dismountable
appliances : 110 %)
150 %
(excluding builder's tower cranes
and some dismountable
appliances : 133 %)
GREAT BRITAIN 125 % of the SWL
ITALY 128 % self propelled cranes
120 % tower cranes
110 % other lifting appliances
During 15 min.
NETHERLANDS Up to 20 t 125 %
From 20 to 50 t + 5 t
Not compulsory
NORWAY Up to 20 t 125 %
From 20 to 50 t + 5 t
Over 50 t 110 %
or FEM
FEM
SWEDEN Up to 5 t 125 %
From 5 to 20 t 120 %
From 20 to 50 t 115 %
Over 50 t 110 %
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FEDERATION EUROPEENNE DE LA
MANUTENTION
SECTION I
HEAVY LIFTING APPLIANCES
F.E.M.
1.001
3
rd
EDITION
REVISED
1998.10.01
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF
HOISTING APPLIANCES
B O O K L E T 9
SUPPLEMENTS AND COMMENTS
TO BOOKLETS 1 to 8
The total 3rd Edition revised comprises booklets 1 to 5 and 7 to 9Copyright by FEM Section I
Also available in French and German
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Booklet 9
SUPPLEMENTS AND COMMENTS
TO BOOKLETS 1 TO 8
9.1. PREFACE..............................................................................................................................................3
9.2. PRESENTATION..................................................................................................................................3
9.3. VALUES OF THE DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT ψψψ ψ (2.2.2.1.1.) ..............................................................4
9.4. FORCE DUE TO HORIZONTAL MOTIONS S
H
(2.2.3.)....................................................................6
9.4.1. Transverse action due to rolling action........................................................................................ 6
9.4.1.1. Model of appliance................................................................................................................. 6
9.4.1.2. Relationship between tangential forces and displacements.................................................... 8
9.4.1.3. Forces due to skewing ........................................................................................................... 9
9.4.1.4. Tangential forces, F
x
and F
y
................................................................................................ 10
9.4.1.5. Skewing angle α.................................................................................................................. 11
9.4.2. Buffer effects on the structure ................................................................................................. 11
9.5. WIND ACTION (2.2.4.1.)...................................................................................................................12
9.6. QUALITY OF STEEL (3.1.3.) ............................................................................................................13
9.7. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OTHER THAN JOINTS  PERMISSIBLE STRESSES (3.2.2.1.)....18
9.8. JOINTS MADE WITH TENSION BOLTS WITH CONTROLLED TIGHTENING (3.2.2.2.1.).......20
9.9. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO CRIPPLING (3.3)..............................................................20
9.10. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BUCKLING (3.4).............................................................21
9.11. CASE OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO SIGNIFICANT DEFORMATION (3.5.)...................22
9.11.1. Nonproportional effect on the structure due to the forces .................................................... 22
9.11.2. Non linear structures and favourable effects of own weight................................................. 24
9.12. CHOICE OF RAIL WHEELS (4.2.4.)..............................................................................................26
9.13. DESIGN OF GEARS (4.2.5.) ...........................................................................................................27
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9.14. DETERMINATION OF PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN MECHANISM COMPONENTS
SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE ( 2.1.4.3., 4.1.3.5., 4.1.3.6., 4.1.3.7.) .......................................................27
9.14.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 27
9.14.2. Partial modifications of booklet 2 and 4.................................................................................... 28
9.14.3. Checking for fatigue of a mechanical component  example................................................... 34
9.15. STABILITY AND SAFETY AGAINST MOVEMENT BY WIND (Booklet 6 : deleted)................36
9.15.1. Scope....................................................................................................................................... 36
9.15.2. Stability  Calculations.............................................................................................................. 36
9.15.2.1. Stability.............................................................................................................................. 36
9.15.2.2. Calculations ....................................................................................................................... 36
9.15.2.3. travel effect ........................................................................................................................ 36
9.15.2.4. site effect ........................................................................................................................... 36
9.15.2.5. attachments effect ............................................................................................................. 36
9.15.2.6. collision effect .................................................................................................................... 36
9.15.2.7. For tower cranes ................................................................................................................ 37
9.15.3. Backward stability in service conditions ................................................................................. 38
9.15.4. Application of wind loads ........................................................................................................ 38
9.15.4.1. Onservice.......................................................................................................................... 38
9.15.4.2. Outofservice..................................................................................................................... 38
9.15.5. Crane base .............................................................................................................................. 38
9.15.6. Temporary additional stability devices..................................................................................... 39
9.15.7. Deformation.............................................................................................................................. 39
9.15.8. Resistance to drifting caused by wind.................................................................................... 39
9.16. TESTS (8.1.) ....................................................................................................................................41
9.17. TORANCES OF CRANES AND TRACKS (8.2.) ...........................................................................42
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9.1. PREFACE
The Rules for the Design of Hoisting Appliances established by the Technical Committee of
Section I of the Fédération Européenne de la manutention (F.E.M), which were published in the
form of 8 booklets, have been increasing widely used in many countries all over the world.
However, these rules were elaborated at the beginning of the eighties and must advance to keep
pace with the improving state of knowledge and the increasingly efficient conception tool being
used.
The need for a revision is based on several observations :
• The harmonized standard EN 13001 from the work of CEN/TC147/WG2 will be applied
progressively only at the beginning of the 21st century.
Thus, it is not desirable to await this date and continue to refer to the FEM rules, certain
parts of which became obsolete.
• FEM 1.001 consolidates a great deal of experience and serves manufacturers and
customers often as a basis for calculations.
• Development of the rules should make future application of the harmonized standards
easier, based on methods with limit states, among others.
The text below shall be considered as a supplement to those texts which are the subject of
booklets 2, 3, 4 and 8. Booklet 6 is deleted.
9.2. PRESENTATION
At the begining of each clause, there is a reference to the clause coming from booklet 2, 3, 4, 6 or
8 that the new text may replace.
Example :
Clause 2.2.2.1.1.of booklet 2 may be replaced by the following text:
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9.3. VALUES OF THE DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT ψψψ ψ (2.2.2.1.1.)
Clause 2.2.2.1.1.of booklet 2 may be replaced by the following text:
For the coefficient ψ given by the clause 2.2.2.1.1 of booklet 2, we can take the value φ
2
given by
the following text :
In the case of hoisting an unrestrained grounded load, the dynamic effects of transferring the
load from the ground to the crane shall be taken into account by multiplying the gravitational force
due to the mass of the hoist load by a factor φ
2
(see figure F.9.3).
The mass of the hoist load includes the masses of the payload, lifting attachments and a portion
of the suspended hoist ropes or chains, etc.
Figure F.9.3  Factor φφφ φ
2
The factor φ
2
shall be obtained as follows :
φ
2
= φ
2min
+ β
2
ν
h
φ
2min
and β
2
are given in table T.9.3.a for the appropriate hoisting class. For the purpose of this
standard, cranes are assigned to hoisting classes HC1 to HC4 according to their dynamic
characteristics. (The selection of hoisting classes depends on the particular types of cranes and
is dealt with in the European Standards for specific crane types.) Equally, values for φ
2
can be
determined by experiments or by analysis without reference to hoisting class.
ν
h
is the steady hoisting speed, related to the lifting attachment. Values of ν
h
are given in table
T.9.3.b.
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Table T.9.3.a  Values of βββ β
2
and φφφ φ
2min
Hoisting class
of the appliance
β
2
s/m
φ
2 min.
HC1 0,17 1,05
HC2 0,34 1,10
HC3 0,51 1,15
HC4 0,68 1,20
Table T.9.3.b  Values of ννν ν
h
for estimation of φφφ φ
2
Load combination Type of hoist drive and its operation method of operation
HD1 HD2 HD3 HD4 HD5
Case I, Case II
ν
h,max
ν
h,CS
ν
h,CS
0,5 . ν
h,max
ν
h.
= 0
Case III 
ν
h,max

ν
h,max
0,5 . ν
h,max
Where :
HD1 hoist drive cannot be operated with creep speed;
HD2 a steady creep speed for the hoist drive can be selected by the crane driver;
HD3 hoist drive control system ensures the use of a steady creep speed until the load is
lifted from the ground;
HD4 a stepless variable speed control can be operated by the crane driver;
HD5 after prestressing the hoist medium, a stepless variable speed control is provided by
the drive control system independent of the crane driver;
ν
h,max.
is the maximum steady hoisting speed;
ν
h,CS
is the steady hoisting creep speed.
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9.4. FORCE DUE TO HORIZONTAL MOTIONS S
H
(2.2.3.)
Clause 2.2.3.of booklet 2 may be replaced by the following text:
9.4.1. Transverse action due to rolling action
Example of a method for analysing forces due to skewing.
9.4.1.1. Model of appliance
To enable an estimation to be made of the tangential forces between wheels and rails and also
of the forces between the acting guide means that are caused by skewing of the lifting appliance,
a simple travelmechanics model is necessary. The lifting appliance is considered to be
travelling at a constant speed without antiskewing control.
The model consists of n pairs of wheels in line, of which p pairs are coupled. An individual (i)
pair of wheels can be defined, either as coupled (C) mechanically or electrically, or mounted
independently (l) of each other. The latter condition is also valid in the case of independent
single drives.
The wheels are arranged in ideal geometric positions in a rigid crane structure which is
travelling on a rigid track. Differences in wheel diameters are neglected in this model. They are
either fixed (F) or movable (M) in respect of lateral movement. The lateral degree of freedom can,
for example, be provided by a hinged leg.
The different combinations of transversally inline wheel pairs that are possible are shown in
figure F.9.4.a.
Coupled (C) Independent (I)
Fixed/Fixed
(F/F)
CFF
IFF
Fixed/Movable
(F/M)
CFM
IFM
Figure F.9.4.a  Different combinations of wheel pairs
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In figure F.9.4.b the positions of the wheel pairs relative to the position of the guide means in
front of the travelling crane are defined by the distance d
i.
NOTE: Where flanged wheels are used instead of an external guide means, d
1
= 0.
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It is assumed that the gravitational forces due to the masses of the loaded appliance (mg) are
acting at a distance µl from rail 1 and are distributed equally to the n wheels at each side of the
crane runway.
Width of t he rail head Sl ack of the
guide
Travell ing di rect ion
Span
Rail 1 Rai l 2
Wheel pair 1
Wheel pair 2
Wheel pair i
Wheel pair n
Figure F.9.4.b  Positions of wheel pairs
9.4.1.2. Relationship between tangential forces and displacements
It is at first necessary to assume a relationship between the tangential forces and the
corresponding displacements occurring between wheel and rail. Since the wheel has to transfer
drive moments (M
y
) to the rail and its movement is restricted by the system (crane and runway), it
slides in the longitudinal and lateral directions [u(u
x
,u
y
); corresponding tangential forces (F
x,
F
y
)
react on the crane (see figure F.9.4.c).
Sliding
distance
Rolling distance
Geometry
Forces
Figure F.9.4.c  Tangential forces and displacements
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In general, a relationship exists between the sliding distances (u
x
,u
y
), the freerolling distance rψ,
the wheel load F
z
and the tangential forces (F
x
, F
y
), as follows :
F
x
= f
x
(s
x
, s
y
, p
c
, surface conditions) ⋅ F
z
F
y
= f
y
(s
x
, s
y
, p
c
, surface conditions) ⋅
F
z
The friction coefficients of the rolling wheel (f
x
, f
y
) depend on the slip, i.e. the relation between
slide and freerolling distances (s
x
= u
x
/ rψ, s
y
= u
Y
/ rψ), on the contact pressure between wheel
and rail (p
c
) and on the surface conditions of the rail. To simplify the calculation, the following
empirical relationships may be used :
f
x
= 0,3⋅
( )
1 e
250. s
−
− 







x
, for s
x
Û 0,015 f
y
= 0,3⋅
( )
1 e
250. s
−
−








y
, for s
y
Û 0,015
9.4.1.3. Forces due to skewing
The crane model is assumed to be travelling in steady motion and to have skewed to an angle α,
as shown in figure F.9.4.d. The appliance may be guided horizontally by external means or by
wheel flanges.
Figure F.9.4.d  Forces acting on crane in skewed position
Direction of motion Direction of rail
Lateral slip
Guide means
Instantaneous
Slide pole
Rail 2 Rail 1
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A guide force F
y
is in balance with the tangential wheel forces F
x1i
, F
y1i
, F
x2i
, F
y2i
, which are
caused by rotation of the appliance about the instantaneous slide pole. With the maximum
lateral slip s
y
= α at the guide means and a linear distribution of the lateral slip s
yi
between the
guide means and the instantaneous slide pole, the corresponding skewing forces can be
calculated as follows :
a) Distance between instantaneous slide pole and guide means h
For systems F/F, h = (pµµ'l
2
+ Σd
2
i
) / Σd
i
For systems F/M, h = (pµl
2
+ Σd
2
i
) / Σd
i
where :
p is the number of pairs of coupled wheels;
µ is the distance of the instantaneous slide pole from rail 1;
µ' is the distance of the instantaneous slide pole from rail 2;
l is the span of the appliance;
d
i
is the distance of wheel pair i from the closefitting guide means. b) guide force F
y
F
y
= ν f mg
where :
ν = 1  Σd
i
/nh, for systems F/F
= µ' (1  Σd
i
/nh), for systems F/M
f = 0,3·(1  e
250
α
) where α < 0,015 rad;
mg is the gravitational force due to the mass of the loaded appliance;
n is the number of wheels at each side of the crane runway.
9.4.1.4. Tangential forces, F
x
and F
y
F
x1i
= ξ
1i
fmg
F
x2i
= ξ
2i
fmg
F
Y1i
= ν
1i
fmg
F
Y2i
= ν
2i
fmg
Where :
f and mg are as given in clause 9.4.1.3.b)
ξ
1i,
ξ
2i,
ν
1i
and
ν
2i
are as given in table T.9.4.
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Table T.9.4  Values of ξξξ ξ
1i,
ξξξ ξ
2i,
ννν ν
1i
and
ννν ν
2i
Combinations
of wheel pairs
(see figure F.9.4.a)
ξ
1i
= ξ
2i
ν
1i
ν
2i
CFF
µµ'l/nh
µ
n
d
h
i
( ) 1−
IFF 0
µ'
( )
n
d
h
i
1−
CFM
µµ'l/nh
0
IFM 0
9.4.1.5. Skewing angle ααα α
The skewing angle α , which should not exceed 0,015 radians, shall be chosen taking into
account the space between the guide means and the rail as well as reasonable dimensional
variation and wear of the appliance wheels and the rails as follows :
α = α
g
+ α
w
+ α
t
Where :
α
g
= s
g
/w
b
is the part of the skewing angle due to the slack of the guide;
s
g
is the slack of the guide;
w
b
is the
distance between the guide means;
α
w
=
0,1 (b/w
b
) is the part of the skewing angle due to wear;
b is the width of the rail head;
α
t
= 0,001 rad is the part of the skewing angle due to tolerances.
9.4.2. Buffer effects on the structure
In clause 2.2.3.4.1 replace 0,7 m/s with 0,4 m/s
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9.5. WIND ACTION (2.2.4.1.)
Clause 2.2.4.1.of booklet 2 may be replaced by the following text:
Other recommendations or work results can also be used provided that the same level of safety
is obtained
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9 13
9.6. QUALITY OF STEEL (3.1.3.)
Clause 3.1.3 of booklet 3 may be replaced by the following text:
The properties of the steel grades frequently used are provided in the following standards :
EN 10025 Hotrolled products of nonalloy structural steels. Technical delivery conditions;
EN 101131 Hotrolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels 
Part 1: General delivery conditions;
EN 101371 Plates and wide flats made of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched
and tempered or precipitation hardened conditions  Part 1: General delivery
conditions;
EN 101491 Hotrolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming  Part 1:
General delivery conditions;
EN 102101 Hot finished structural hollow sections of nonalloy and fine grain structural steels 
Part 1: Technical delivery requirements;
EN 102191 Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of nonalloy and fine grain steels 
Part 1: Technical delivery requirements.
The quality of steels in these design rules refers to the property of the steel to exhibit ductile
behaviour at determined temperatures.
The steels are divided into four quality groups. The group in which the steel is classified, is
obtained from its notch ductility in a given test and at a given temperature.
Tables T.9.6.a, T.9.6.b, T.9.6.c and T.9.6.d comprises the notch ductility values and test
temperatures for the four quality groups.
The indicated notch ductilities are minimum values, being the mean values from three tests,
longitudinal test pieces are used.
The notch ductility shall be determined in accordance with Vnotch impact tests according to the
European Standard EN 100451.
Steels of different quality groups can be welded together.
T
c
is the test temperature for the Vnotch impact test.
T is the temperature at the erection site of the crane.
T
c
and T are not directly comparable as the Vnotch impact test imposes a more
unfavourable condition than the loading on the crane in or out of service.
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Table T.9.6.a  Quality groups
Quality
Impact
energy
Test
temperature
Steels, corresponding to the quality group
Designation of steels
Old New
group
according to
EN 100451
J
Tc °C
According to
old standard
According to
EN 100271 &
ECISS IC 10
According
to
EN 100272
standard standard
ST 372
ST 442
S235JR
S275JR
1.0037
1.0044
DIN 17100
1  
50 B S355JR 1.0045 BS 4360 (1972)
Fe 360B
Fe 430B
Fe 510B
S235JR
S275JR
S355JR
1.0037
1.0044
1.0045
EN 10025
(1990)
R St 372
St 442
S235JRG2
S275JR
1.0038
1.0044
DIN 17100
2 27 + 20
E 24(A37)2
E 28  2
E 36 (A52)2
S235JR
S275JR
S355JR
1.0037
1.0044
1.0045
NF A 35501
40 B
43 B
S235JRG2
S275JR
1.0038
1.0044
BS 4360
(1972)
Fe 360C
Fe 430C
Fe 510C
S235JO
S275JO
S355JO
1.0114
1.0143
1.0553
EN 10025
(1990)
St 373U
St 443U
ST 523U
S235JO
S275JO
S355JO
1.0114
1.0143
1.0553
DIN 17100
3 27
 0
E 24 (A37)3
E 28  3
E 36 (A52)3
S235JO
S275JO
S355JO
1.0114
1.0143
1.0553
NF A 35501
40 C
43 C
50 C
S235JO
S275JO
S355JO
1.0114
1.0143
1.0553
BS 4360
(1972)
EN 10025
(1993)
27
Fe 360D1
Fe 360D2
Fe 430D1
Fe 430D2
Fe 510D1
Fe 510D2
S235J2G3
S235J2G4
S275J2G3
S275J2G4
S355J2G3
S355J2G4
1.0116
1.0117
1.0144
1.0145
1.0570
1.0577
EN 10025
(1990)
40
Fe 510DD1
Fe 510DD2
S355K2G3
S355K2G4
1.0595
1.0596
4
27
 20
St 373N

St 443N

St 523N

S235J2G3
S235J2G4
S275J2G3
S275J2G4
S355J2G3
S355J2G4
1.0116
1.0117
1.0144
1.0145
1.0570
1.0577
DIN 17100
40


S355K2G3
S355K2G4
1.0595
1.0596
27
E 24 (A37)4
E 28  4
S235J2G3
S275J2G3
1.0116
1.0144
NF A 35501
40
E 36 (A52)4 S355K2G3 1.0595
27
40 D
43 D
50 D
S235J2G3
S275J2G3
S355J2G3
1.0116
1.0144
1.0570
BS 4360
(1972)
St 523N S355J2H 1.0576 DIN 17100 EN 102101
50D S355J2H 1.0576 BS 4360
(1972)
(1994)
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Table T.9.6.b  Quality groups
Quality
Impact
energy
Test
temperature
Steels, corresponding to the quality group
Designation of steels
Old New
group
according to
EN 10 0451
J
Tc °C
According to
old standard
According to
EN 100271 &
ECISS IC 10
According
to
EN 100272
standard standard
40
47
S275N
S275NL
1.0490
1.0491
40
47
E 355 R
E 355 FP
S355N
S355NL
1.0545
1.0546
40
47
E 420 R
E 420 FR
S420N
S420NL
1.8902
1.8912
NF A 36201
(1984)
EN 101132
(1993)
40
47
E 460 R
E 460 FP
S460N
S460NL
1.8901
1.8903
40
47
StE285
TStE285
S275N
S275NL
1.0490
1.0491
40
47
StE355
TStE355
S355N
S355NL
1.0545
1.0546
40
47
StE420
TStE420
S420N
S420NL
1.8902
1.8912
DIN 17102
(1983)
EN 101132
(1993)
4 40
47
 20
StE460
TStE460
S460N
S460NL
1.8901
1.8903
40
47
40EE
S275N
S275NL
1.0490
1.0491
40
47
50EE
S355N
S355NL
1.0545
1.0546
40
47
S420N
S420NL
1.8902
1.8912
(United
Kingdom)
EN 101132
(1993)
40
47
55EE
S460N
S460NL
1.8901
1.8903
40
47
S275M
S275ML
1.8818
1.8819
40
47
S355M
S355ML
1.8823
1.8834
40
47
S420M
S420ML
1.8825
1.8836
EN 10 1133
(1993)
40
47
S460M
S460ML
1.8827
1.8838
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Table T.9.6.c  Quality groups
Quality
Impact
energy
Test
temperature
Steels, corresponding to the quality group
Designation of steels
Old New
group
according to EN
100451
J
Tc °C
According to
old standard
According to
EN 100271 &
ECISS IC 10
According
to
EN 100272
norme norme
30
40
50
S 460 T
S460Q
S460QL
S460QL1
1.8908
1.8906
1.8916
30
40
50
S 500 T
S500Q
S500QL
S500QL1
1.8924
1.8909
1.8984
30
40
50
S 550 T
S550Q
S550QL
S550QL1
1.8904
1.8926
1.8986
30
40
50
S 620 T
S620Q
S620QL
S620QL1
1.8914
1.8927
1.8987
NFA 36204
(1992)
EN 101372
(1995)
30
40
50
S 690 T
S690Q
S690QL
S690QL1
1.8931
1.8928
1.8988
30
40
50
S890Q
S890QL
S890QL1
1.8940
1.8983
1.8925
30
40 S 960 T
S960Q
S960QL
1.8941
1.8933
4
30
40
50
20
TStE 460 V
S460Q
S460QL
S460QL1
1.8908
1.8906
1.8916
30
40
50
StE 500 V
TStE 500 V
EStE 500 V
S500Q
S500QL
S500QL1
1.8924
1.8909
1.8984
30
40
50
StE 550 V
TStE 550 V
EStE 550 V
S550Q
S550QL
S550QL1
1.8904
1.8926
1.8986
30
40
50
StE 620 V
TStE 620 V
EStE 620 V
S620Q
S620QL
S620QL1
1.8914
1.8927
1.8987
(Allemagne)
EN 101372
(1995)
30
40
50
StE 690 V
TStE 690 V
EStE 690 V
S690Q
S690QL
S690QL1
1.8931
1.8928
1.8988
30
40
50
TStE 890 V
EStE 890 V
S890Q
S890QL
S890QL1
1.8940
1.8983
1.8925
30
40 TStE 960 V
S960Q
S960QL
1.8941
1.8933
40
50
S500A
S500AL
1.8980
1.8990
40
50
S550A
S550AL
1.8991
1.8992
40
50
S620A
S620AL
1.8993
1.8994
EN 101373
(1995)
40
50
S690A
S690AL
1.8995
1.8996
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Table T.9.6.d  Quality groups
ality
Impact
energy
Test
temperature
Steels, corresponding to the quality group
Designation of steels
Old New
oup
according to
EN 10 0451
J
Tc °C
According to old
standard
According to
EN 100271 &
ECISS IC 10
According
to
EN 100272
standard standard
E 315 D S315MC 1.0972
E 355 D S355MC 1.0976
E 420 D S420MC 1.0980
S460MC 1.0982
S500MC 1.0984 NF A 36231
E 560 D S550MC 1.0986 (1992)
S600MC 1.8969
S650MC 1.8976
E 690 D S700MC 1.8974
QStE 300 TM S315MC 1.0972
QStE 360 TM S355MC 1.0976
QStE 420 TM S420MC 1.0980
QStE 460 TM S460MC 1.0982
QStE 500 TM S500MC 1.0984 SEW 092 EN 101492
QStE 550 TM S550MC 1.0986 (1995)
QStE 600 TM S600MC 1.8969
QStE 650 TM S650MC 1.8976
4 40  20
QStE 690 TM S700MC 1.8974
43F35 S315MC 1.0972
46F40 S355MC 1.0976
50F45 S420MC 1.0980
S460MC 1.0982 (United
S500MC 1.0984 Kingdom)
60F55 S550MC 1.0986
S600MC 1.8969
S650MC 1.8976
75F70 S700MC 1.8974
QStE 260 N S260NC 1.0971
QStE 300 N S315NC 1.0973 SEW 9275
QStE 360 N S355NC 1.0977
QStE 420 N S420NC 1.0981 EN 101493
S260NC 1.0971 (1995)
40/30 S315NC 1.0973 (United
43/35 S355NC 1.0977 Kingdom)
S420NC 1.0981
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9 18
9.7. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OTHER THAN JOINTS  PERMISSIBLE
STRESSES (3.2.2.1.)
Clause 3.2.1.1.of booklet 3 may be replaced by the following text:
Table T.9.7.a  Values for f
y
, f
u
, and σσσ σ
a
for non alloy, fine grain structural steels
and such in the quenched and tempered conditions
Standard Steel Thickness Yield Ultimate Permissible stresses: σ
a
t stress f
y
stress f
u
Case I Case II Case III
mm N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
S235 ≤ 16 235 340 157 177 214
(Fe360) ≤ 40 225 340 150 169 205
EN 10025 ≤ 100 215 340 143 162 195
≤ 150 195 340 130 147 177
≤ 200 185 320 123 139 168
≤ 250 175 320 117 132 159
S275 ≤ 16 275 410 183 207 250
(Fe440) ≤ 40 265 410 177 199 241
≤ 63 255 410 170 192 232
≤ 80 245 410 163 184 223
≤ 100 235 410 157 177 214
≤ 150 225 400 150 169 205
≤ 200 215 380 143 162 195
≤ 250 205 380 137 154 186
EN 10025 S355 ≤ 16 355 490 237 267 323
and (Fe510) ≤ 40 345 490 230 259 314
EN 10113 S355N ≤ 63 335 490 223 252 305
and ≤ 80 325 490 217 244 295
S355NL ≤ 100 315 490 210 237 286
steels up ≤ 150 295 470 197 222 268
to t ≤150 ≤ 200 285 450 190 214 259
≤ 250 275 450 183 207 250
EN 10113 S460 ≤ 16 460 550 307 346 418
≤ 40 440 550 293 331 400
≤ 63 430 550 287 323 391
≤ 80 410 550 273 308 373
≤ 100 400 550 267 301 364
EN 10137 S460 ≤ 50 460 550 307 346 418
≤ 100 440 550 293 331 400
≤ 150 400 500 267 301 364
S690 ≤ 50 690 770 460 519 627
≤ 100 650 760 433 489 591
≤ 150 630 710 420 474 573
S890 ≤ 50 890 940 593 669 809
≤ 100 830 880 553 624 755
S960 ≤ 50 960 980 640 722 873
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NOTE 1:
The yield stress f
y
and the permissible stress σ
a
of the hot finished structural
hollow sections according to EN 102101 comply with those in Table T.9.7, t ≤ 65 mm, for
grades 235 to 460.
NOTE 2: The yield stress f
y
and the permissible stress σ
a
of the cold formed welded
structural hollow sections according to EN 102191 comply with those in Table T.9.7, t ≤ 40
mm, for grades 235 to 460.
Table T.9.7.b  Values for f
y
, f
u
, and σσσ σ
a
for high yield strength steels for
cold forming and hollow sections
Standard Steel Thickness Yield Ultimate Permissible stresses: σ
a
t stress f
y
stress f
u
Case I Case II Case III
mm N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
S315 315 390 210 237 286
S355 355 430 237 267 323
EN 10149 S420 420 480 280 316 382
S460 all t 460 520 307 346 418
S500 500 550 333 376 455
S550 550 600 367 414 500
S600 600 650 400 451 545
S650 ≤ 8 650 700 433 489 591
> 8 630 700 420 474 573
S700 ≤ 8 700 750 467 526 636
> 8 680 750 453 511 618
EN 102191 S420MH ≤ 16 420 500 280 315 382
and MLH ≤ 40 400 500 267 300 363
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9 20
9.8. JOINTS MADE WITH TENSION BOLTS WITH CONTROLLED
TIGHTENING (3.2.2.2.1.)
Clause 3.2.2.2.1.of booklet 3 may be replaced by the following text:
For the calculation developed in clause 3.2.2.2.1, other recommendations or standards (for
example : VDI 2230, FDE 25030, or the work of CEN/TC 185/WG 7) can be used.
However, different methods may not be mixed.
Tests (for example : extensometric) can complete and/or replace the calculations.
9.9. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO CRIPPLING (3.3)
Clause 3.3.of booklet 3 may be replaced by the following text:
The method presented in ENV 19931 :1992 Eurocode 3 :
Design of steel structures Part 1.1 may be used.
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9.10. CHECKING MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BUCKLING (3.4)
Clause 3.4 of booklet 3 may be replaced by the following text:
In determining the buckling safety coefficients, stated below, it was considered that flat plates
under compressive stresses equally distributed over the plate width, are exposed to a greater
danger of buckling than plates under stresses changing from compression to tension over the
plate width.
In consequence, safety against buckling was made dependent on the ratio ψ of stresses at the
plate edges (appendix A3.4. of booklet 3).
It shall be verified that the calculated stress is not higher than the critical buckling stress divided
by the following coefficients η
v
given by table T.9.10:
Table T.9.10
Case
Buckling safety η
v
Buckling of plane members
I
II
III
1,70 + 0,175 (ψ  1)
1,50 + 0,125 (ψ  1)
1,35 + 0,075 (ψ  1)
Buckling of curved members :
Circular cylinders
(e.g. tubes)
I
II
III
1,70
1,50
1,35
The edgestresses ratio ψ varies between + 1 and  1.
Appendix A.3.4.of booklet 3 gives the procedure for determining the critical buckling stress.
Checking members subjected to buckling can be carried out according to other
recommendations , for example ENV 19931.
ENV 19931 is based on limit state analysis : partial safety factors γ
F
and γ
M
are used.
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9.11. CASE OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO SIGNIFICANT
DEFORMATION (3.5.)
Clause 3.5.of booklet 3 may be replaced by the following text:
9.11.1. Nonproportional effect on the structure due to the forces
Figure F.9.11.a
In this case the stresses in the members cannot be
proportional to the forces which cause them due to the
deformation of the structure as a result of the application of
these forces.
This is the case, for example, with the stresses produced in
the column of a crane (illustrated in figure F.9.11.a) where it is
clear that the moment in the column is not proportional to the
forces applied because of deformations that increase their
moment arm.
In this case the calculation can be carried out :
 either by using the limit states method;
 or by using the method described in clause 3.5 of booklet 3.
Limit states method
The figure F.9.11.b shows the limit states method :
Figure F.9.11.b  Typical flow chart of the limit state method
f
i
is the load i on the element or component;
F
j
is the load combination j from loads f
i
, multiplied by partial load coefficients and risk
coefficient, when applicable;
S
k
are the load effects in section k of members or supporting parts, such as inner forces and
moments, resulting from load combination F
j;
σ
1l
are the stresses in the particular element l as a result of load effects S
k;
σ
2l
are the stresses in the particular element l arising from local effects;
σ
l
is the resulting design stress in the particular element l;
R is the specified strength or characteristic resistance of the material, particular element or
connection, such as the stress corresponding to the yield point, limit of elastic stability or
fatigue strength (limit states);
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lim σ is the limit design stress;
γ
P
are the partial load coefficients applied to individual loads according to the load
combination under consideration;
γ
n
is the risk coefficient, where applicable;
γ
m
is the resistance coefficient.
NOTE 1: Instead of a comparison of stresses, as mentioned above, a comparison of
forces, moments, deflections, ets. may be made.
NOTE 2: A general description of the limit state, method of design is given in ISO 2394 :
1986, General principle on reliability for structures.
The individual specific f
i
loads are calculated according to the data in booklet 2.
They are multiplied by the appropriate partial coefficients of load.
Then they are combined according to the combinations given in clause 2.3 of
booklet 2.
Table T.9.11  Partial coefficients γγγ γ
p
Loads Clause Loading condition
(see 2.3)
Case I Case II Case III
Dead
unfavourable effect 2.2.1 1,22 1,16 1,10
loads
Favourable effect  estimated
weight
0,90 0,95 1,00
Favourable effect  measured
weight
1,00 1,00 1,00
Working loads 2.2.2.1 1,34 1,22
Acceleration from drives 2.2.3 1,34 1,22 1,10
Effects of climate 2.2.4 1,16 1,10
with γ
m
= 1,10
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For checking erection or dismanling, the case III is appropriate.
NOTE: The values given in table 10 of the document pr EN 130012 may be accepted.
9.11.2. Non linear structures and favourable effects of own weight
Clause 3.5 of Booklet 3 describes a corrective method for proof of competence calculations in
cases of structures subjected to significant deformation. However, the significant deformations
are not the only cases where the designer shall consider the use of similar correction.
By combining clauses 2.3.1 and 3.2.1 or 3.4 the conditions for calculated stress in load
combination Case I can be expressed as follows:
σ {γ
c
(S
G
+ ψ S
L
+ S
H
)} ≤ σ
cr
/ ν
where
σ
cr
is the yield stress, crippling stress or buckling stress, whichever is the
most critical one,
ν is the relevant coefficient ν
E
or ν
V
.
The above formula can also be presented as:
νσ{γ
c
(S
G
+ ψS
L
+ S
H
)} ≤ σ
cr
for any structural system.
If the structural system is behaving nearly linearly, the above formula can be modified as follows:
σ = k
g
ν γ
c
S
G
+ k
L
ν γ
c
ψ S
L
+ k
h
ν γ
c
S
H
≤ σ
cr
where coefficients k
g
, k
L
, and k
h
represent the linear relationships between the load effects (S
G
,
S
L
, S
H
) and the calculated stress. Those coefficients depend on the configuration and type of
loading of the crane.
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A simplified example: A simply supported beam,with span l and section modulus W, loaded by
its own weight mg (S
G
) and in the middle by force F (produced by the load effects S
L
) . The
bending stress is calculated by the formula:
σ
ν γ ν γ ψ
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
c c
mg l
W
F l
W 8 4
where it is seen that k
l
W
g
=
⋅ 8
and k
l
W
L
=
⋅ 4
In order to check the most critical effect of all the loads for a particular design detail, it is evident
that the signs for the variable loads shall be selected so that they lead to the maximum
combined stress (if such a combination is physically possible). Furthermore, the loads are
multiplied by coefficients taking into account dynamic effects and an adequate margin for failure.
However, in a case where the dead weight S
G
decreases the absolute value of the stress due to
the variable loads (S
G
having an opposite, favourable stress effect) the multiplication of the dead
weight by its coefficients would lead to an situation where the actual margin for the critical stress
might be dangerously reduced. To maintain the intended margin for failure, the calculation
method described in clause 3.5 shall be applied in the following cases:
1.  When the dead weight has an effect in the opposite direction to the effect of the variable
loads, i.e. the dead weight has a balancing effect. Examples: towers and lower structures of
slewing jib cranes and tower cranes.
2.  Especially for structures where the dead weight has an effect in the opposite direction to the
effect of the variable loads and the tension and compression forces are carried by different
structural elements.
Example 1: Tiedowns for storm anchoring take the difference between upwards and
downwards loads while the wheels carry all the downwards loads in the case of opposite
wind action.
Example 2: Bogie pins and the ties of pin joints (such as end cups). The pins carry all the
compression while the ties carry the difference between upwards and downwards loads.
3.  Prestressed structures.
Example: Bolted flange joints.
In this case the variable loads shall be multiplied by the coefficient ν, but the prestress loads
shall be taken as the lowest estimated nominal values. The coefficient for the dead weight shall
be selected between 1 and ν depending on whether its effect is favourable or unfavourable for
the bolts.
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9.12. CHOICE OF RAIL WHEELS (4.2.4.)
Clause 4.2.4.of booklet 4 may be replaced by the following text:
The method proposed in clause 4.2.4.1 can be used with the values of P
L
and c
2
given below
tables T.9.12.a and T.9.12.b:
Table T.9.12.a  Values of P
L
Ultimate strength of metal
used for rail wheel
N/mm_
P
L
N/mm
2
Minimum strength
for the rail
N/mm
2
f
u
> 500
5,00 350
f
u
> 600
5,60 350
f
u
> 700
6,50 510
f
u
> 800
7,20 510
f
u
> 900
7,80 600
f
u
> 1000
8,50 700
Table T.9.12.b  Values of c
2
Group classification
of mechanism
c
2
M1 and M2 1,25
M3 and M4 1,12
M5 1,00
M6 0,90
M7 and M8 0,80
The hardening of the running surface at the depth of 0,01D may be taken into account when
selecting the value of P
L
When using the tables above, it is not necessary to consider the 5 last paragraphs of clause
4.2.4.1.3 in booklet 4.
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9.13. DESIGN OF GEARS (4.2.5.)
Clause 4.2.5.of booklet 4 may be replaced by the following text:
Standards or calculation methods such as follows may be used, for example:
• NF E 23015, Henriot method;
• DIN 3990;
• ISO 6336.
For the design calculation for gears, the coefficient γ
m
is not cumulative with the service factor
(k
a
). However, it shall be at least equal to γ
m
.
9.14. DETERMINATION OF PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN MECHANISM
COMPONENTS SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE ( 2.1.4.3., 4.1.3.5., 4.1.3.6.,
4.1.3.7.)
Clauses 2.1.4.3, 4.1.3.5, 4.1.3.6, 4.1.3.7 and appendix A 4.1.3 of booklets 2 and 4 may be
replaced by the following text:
9.14.1. Introduction
The calculation methods for determining the fatigue strength of mechanism components are
similar in the documents of section I (FEM 1.001 edition 1987) and section II (FEM 2.131 and
FEM 2.132 edition 1992)
In the abovementioned editions, the Wöhler curve of a component includes a second slope
(factor c') for the number of cycles n greater than 2.10
6
:
Figure F.9.14.a
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The presence of this second slope results in the determination of very low values for fatigue
strength for very heigh number of cycles n, and consequently the safety level is too high.
The text below proposes in particular the cancelling of the second slope of the Wöhler curve is
presented below.
9.14.2. Partial modifications of booklet 2 and 4
BOOKLET 2 MODIFIED
NOTE: The modifications are written in bold face type.
2.1.4.3 STRESS SPECTRUM
....In many applications the function f(x) may be approximated by a function consisting of a
certain number r of steps, comprising respectively n
1
, n
2
,... n
r
stress cycles ; the stress σ may
be considered as practically constant and equal to σ
i
during n
i
cycles. If n represents the total
number of cycles and σ
max
the greatest of the stresses σ
1
, σ
2
, ..., σ
r
there exists a relation :
r
n
1
+ n
2
+ ... + n
r
= ∑ n
i
= n et σ
1
> σ
2
> ... > σ
r
i =1
we obtain an approximated form :
k
sp
=
σ
σ
1
max
[
\

¸
)
j
c
n
n
1
+
σ
σ
2
max
[
\

¸
)
j
c
n
n
2
+ ..... +
σ
σ
r
c
max
[
\

¸
)
j
n
n
r
=
σ
σ
i
c
i
i
r
n
n
max
[
\

¸
)
j
=
∑
1
the summation is truncated for the first n
i
≥≥≥ ≥ 2.10
6
. This n
i
is taken as n
r
and replaced with
n
r
= 2.10
6
cycles.
Depending on its stress spectrum, a component is placed in one of the spectrum classes
P1, P2, P3, P4, defined in table T.2.1.4.3.
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BOOKLET 4 MODIFIED
NOTE: The modifications are written in bold face type.
4.1.3.5 WÖHLER CURVE
In this context, the Wöhler curve, shows the number of stress cycles n which can be
withstood before fatigue failure as a function of the maximum stress σ (or τ), when all stress
cycles present the same amplitude and the same ratio k between extreme values.
With regard to this WÖHLER curve, the following hypotheses are made respectively
 for n = 8.10
3
: σ = σ
R
or τ =
σ
R
3
 for 8·10
3
≤ n ≤ 2·10
6
, the area of limited endurance, the function is represented
by a straight line TD in a reference comprising two logarithmic scale axes
(figure 4.1.3.5 modified).
The slope of the WÖHLER curve, in the interval considered, is characterized
by the factor :
c = tan ϕ =
log log
log log
2 10 8 10
6 3
⋅ − ⋅
− σ σ
R d
or c = tan ϕ =
log log
log log
2 10 8 10
3
6 3
⋅ − ⋅
−
σ
τ
R
d
 for n > 2.10
6
: σ = σ
d
or τ =τ
d
Figure 4.1.3.5 modified
The spectrum factor k
sp
of the component is determined by means of the above mentioned
value of c.
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4.1.3.6. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A MECHANICAL COMPONENT
The fatigue strength σ
k
or τ
k
of a given mechanical component is determined by the following
expressions respectively :
σ σ
k
j
c
d
=
[
\


¸
)
j
j
⋅
−
2
8
or τ τ
k
j
c
d
=
[
\


¸
)
j
j
⋅
−
2
8
where j is the component's group number.
The group classification of components, on the basis of their total number of cycles n and their
spectrum factor k
sp
, as well as the critical fatigue stresses associated with each group, are
illustrated in figure 4.1.3.6 modified where σ
jk
represents the stress applying to group E
j
. For the
critical shear stresses, the letter σ must be replaced with τ.
Figure 4.1.3.6
modified
Concerning the relation between spectrum classes P1 to P4 and the spectrum factor k
sp
see
table T.2.1.4.3 in booklet 2.
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Comment : The above fatigue strengths are based on the component’s group number so
those values are discontinuous. The above formulas may be usefully replaced with the
following:
σ
σ σ
k
d
sp
d
c
d
sp
c
k
n
n
k
n
=
⋅
[
\

¸
)
j
=
⋅
⋅
[
\

¸
)
j
1
6
1
2 10
or τ
τ τ
k
d
sp
d
c
d
sp
c
k
n
n
k
n
=
⋅
[
\

¸
)
j
=
⋅
⋅
[
\

¸
)
j
1
6
1
2 10
See example in 9.14.3.
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BOOKLET 4 MODIFIED
NOTE: The modifications are written in bold face type.
4.1.3.7 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES AND CALCULATIONS
The permissible stresses σ
af
and τ
af
are obtained by dividing the stresses σ
k
and τ
k
, defined in
4.1.3.6., respectively by a safety factor of
k
ν
.
Taking : ν
k
c
= 3 2
1
,
σ
af
and τ
af
will be obtained by the relations :
σ
σ
ν
af
k
k
= τ
τ
ν
af
k
k
=
and it is verified that : σ σ ≤
af
τ τ ≤
af
with : σ maximum calculated normal stress amplitude,
τ maximum calculated shear stress amplitude.
In the case of components acted upon simultaneously by normal stresses and shear
stresses with different ratios κ between extreme stresses, the following condition must be
satisfied :
σ
σ
σ
σ
σ σ
σ σ
τ
τ
ν
x
kx
y
ky
x y
kx ky
k
k
[
\

¸
)
j
+
[
\


¸
)
j
j
−
⋅
[
\


¸
)
j
j
+
[
\

¸
)
j
≤
2
2
2
2
11 ,
in which :
σ
x
, σ
y
= maximum normal stresses in the directions x and y respectively,
τ = maximum shear stress,
σ
kx
, σ
ky
= fatigue strength for normal stresses, in the directions x and y
respectively,
τ
k
= shear fatigue strength.
If it is not possible to determine the most unfavourable case of the foregoing relation from the
corresponding stresses σ
x
, σ
y
and τ, calculations must be performed separately for the loads
σ
x max
, σ
y max
and τ
max
and the most unfavourable corresponding stresses.
It should be noted that the checks described above do not guarantee safety against brittle
fracture.
Such safety can be ensured only by a suitable choice of material quality.
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BOOKLET 4 MODIFIED
A 4.1.3.  DETERMINATION OF PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN MECHANISM COMPONENTS
SUBJECTED TO FATIGUE
NOTE: The modifications are written in bold face type.
The endurance limit for a polished specimen is a laboratory value, which is practically never
attained in parts actually used. Numerous factors  shape, size, surface condition (machining
quality) and possible corrosion  induce discontinuities resulting in "notch effects", which
decrease the permissible stresses in the part, when these stresses are calculated by
conventional elementary methods for the strength of materials. These factors are taken into
account by coefficients, called k
s
, k
d
, k
u
, k
c
, respectively all greater than or equal to unity.The
endurance limit fora polished specimen isdivided by the product of theses coefficients.
Designers are advised against using a skin factor taking into account the influence of
surface treatments.
...
The calculation for permissible stresses for fatigue can also be constructed with the
stress gradient method (or Siebel method), which takes into account plastic adaptation
with notch root ..
This method is used in the following documents :
 "Handbuch für Werkstoffprüfung", E. SIEBEL, Berlin 1958,
 "Calcul des pièces à la fatigue  Méthode du gradient", A. BRAND, CETIM 1980
 FKM Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e. V. (Hrsg.) : Festigkeitsnachweis. Vorhaben
Nr. 154, FKMHeft 1831Frankfurt 1994,
 E DIN 743 : Tragfähigkeit von Wellen und Achsen. Teile 14, BeuthVerlag, Berlin, April
1996
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9.14.3. Checking for fatigue of a mechanical component  example
We consider a shaft whose initial stress spectrum is as given in table T.9.14:
Table T.9.14
Level σ
i
(N/mm_) σ
i
/σ
max
n
i
(real) n
i
(effective)
1 200 1 10 000 10 000
2 160 0,8 50 000 50 000
3 125 0,625 200 000 200 000
4 90 0,45 1 500 000 1 500 000
5 80 0,4 5 000 000 2 000 000
6 71 0,355 20 000 000 0
7 63 0,315 50 000 000 0
n = ∑n
i
= 3 760 000
According to booklet 2 Classification of the component
n = 3,76.10
6
It belongs to the class of utilization B8 (clause 2.1.4.2).
c = 3 (slope of the Wöhler curve for the component)
We calculate the spectrum factor k
sp
(clause 2.1.4.3):
k 1
10
3,76 10
0,8
5 10
3,76 10
0,625
2 10
3,76 10
0,45
1,5 10
3,76 10
0,4
2 10
3,76 10
sp
4
6
3
4
6
3
5
6
3
6
6
3
6
6
= ⋅
⋅
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
= 0,0026 + 0,006809 + 0,012986 + 0,036353 + 0,034043
= 0,09285
It belongs to the spectrum class P1 and, consequently, to the component group E6 (clause
2.1.4.4).
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According to booklet 4 Checking for fatigue
The endurance limit of the component is : σ
d
= 100 N/mm
2
(clause 4.1.3.4).
The fatigue strength of the shaft is (clause 4.1.3.6):
σ σ
k
j
c
d
N mm = = =
− [
\

¸
)
j
− [
\

¸
)
j
2 2 100 158
8 8 6
3 2
. . /
The safety factor is (clause 4.1.3.7): ν
k
= 3.2
1/c
= 3.2
1/3
= 1.473
The permissible stress of the shaft is : σ
σ
ν
af
k
k
= = =
158
1473
1073
,
, N/mm
2
The maximum calculated stress is :
σ = 200 N/mm
2
σ = 200 N/mm
2
> σ
af
= 107.3 N/mm
2
The shaft is not acceptable for fatigue, because the max stress amplitude is higher than the
permissible value.
NOTE: If we use the fatigue strength formula proposed in the comment of the clause
4.1.3.6, it becomes :
σ
σ
k
d
sp
c
k
n
=
⋅
⋅
[
\

¸
)
j
=
⋅
[
\

¸
)
j
=
2 10
100
0 09285
3760000
2000000
1789
6
1 1 3 / /
,
, N/mm
2
The permissible stress of the shaft is :
σ
σ
ν
af
k
k
= = =
1789
1473
1215
,
,
, N/mm
2
The maximum calculated stress is :
σ = 200 N/mm σ = 200 N/mm
2
> σ
af
= 121.5 N/mm
2
The shaft is still not acceptable for fatigue, because the max stress amplitude is higher than the
permissible value.
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9.15. STABILITY AND SAFETY AGAINST MOVEMENT BY WIND
(Booklet 6 : deleted)
The following text replaces booklet 6
9.15.1. Scope
These requirements specifiy the conditions to be met when verifying, by calculation, the stability
of cranes that are subject to tipping and drifting; it assumes that the cranes are standing on a
firm, level supporting surface or track.
NOTE: Where the crane is required to operate on an inclined surface, the manufacturer
shall take the specified conditions into account.
9.15.2. Stability  Calculations
9.15.2.1. Stability
A crane is said to be stable when the algebraic sum of the stabilizing moments is greater than or
equal to the sum of the overturning moments.
9.15.2.2. Calculations
Calculations shall be made to verify the stability of the crane by computing the sum of the
overturning moments and the stabilizing moments using the loads multiplied by the load factor
given in table T.9.15.a
In all calculations, the position of the crane and its components, and the effect of all loads and
forces, shall be considered in their least favourable combination, direction and effect.
9.15.2.3. travel effect
For cranes designed to travel with load, the forces induced by the maximum allowable vertical
track variation as specified by the manufacturer shall be taken into account, in addition to other
loads specified in condition II of table T.9.15.a.
9.15.2.4. site effect
Where required, excitation effects appropriate to the particular site or zone shall be considered
as an additional loading condition.
9.15.2.5. attachments effect
In the calculations shown in table T.9.15.a, consideration shall be given to the loads induced by
the weight of the crane and its components, including any lifting attachments which are a
permanent part of the crane in its working condition.
9.15.2.6. collision effect
For the case of collision (e. g. buffer impact), the stability calculations shall be based on dynamic
considerations.
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9.15.2.7. For tower cranes
For tower cranes the stability case according to table T.9.15.b shall be met.
Table T.9.15.a.
Condition Loading
Load factor to
be considered
I. Basic Stability
Loads induced by the dead weight
Applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces*
1,0
1,6P
0
0
II. Dynamic Stability
Loads induced by the dead weight
Applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces
1,0
1,35 P
1,0 W1
1,0 D
III. Backward Stability
(Sudden release of load)
Loads induced by the dead weight
Applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces
1,0
0,2 P
1,0 W1
0
IV. Extreme
Wind Loading
Loads induced by the dead weight
Applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces
1,0
1,0 P1
1,2 W2
0
V. Stability During
Erection
or dismantling
Loads induced by the dead weight
Applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces
1,0
1,25 P2
1,0 W3
1,0 D
Where :
D are the inertia forces from drives
P is the net load
P1 is the fixed load lifting attachment; outofservice the fixed load lifting attachment
shall be considered as part of the weight of the crane and its components
P2 is the weight of the part being installed/removed during erection or dismantling
W1 is the inservice wind effect
W2 is the outofservice wind effect  gusting effects are included
W3 is the inservice wind effect W1 or the effect of the wind limit for erection work in
accordance with the instruction handbook of the manufacturer
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Table T.9.15.b.
Condition Loading
Load factor to be
considered
VI Stability During
Erection or
dismantling
see figure F.9.15.
Loads induced by the dead
weight
Horizontal applied load
Vertical applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces
1,0
0,10 P2
1,16 P2
1,0 W3
1,0 D
Figure F.9.15  Example: application of a load P2 for fitting a jib
9.15.3. Backward stability in service conditions
The backward stability is covered by condition III.
9.15.4. Application of wind loads
9.15.4.1. Onservice
Onservice wind forces shall always be applied in the least favourable direction.
9.15.4.2. Outofservice
Outofservice wind forces shall be applied in the least favourable direction for those cranes
which are not free to rotate with the wind. For those cranes which are designed to rotate with the
wind, the force shall be applied on the superstructure in the direction contemplated, and in the
least favourable direction on the lower structure.
9.15.5. Crane base
The crane manufacturer shall specify the forces imposed by the crane on the ground or
supporting structure. The information given by the manufacturer should state all applicable
conditions for which the forces have been stipulated (including outofservice wind). Where the
crane base provides all or part of the stability of the crane, the manufacturer shall specify the
requirement applicable to the crane base.
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9.15.6. Temporary additional stability devices
Tower cranes shall be stable in their operating configuration (condition I to IV in table T.9.15.a)
without use of temporary additional devices.
Temporary additional devices may be used to satisfy condition V in table T.9.15.a, erection or
dismantling.
Detachable ballast may be used to satisfy the case in condition IV of table T.9.15.a. However, this
condition shall be met without this extra ballast, using a factor of 1,1 W2.
9.15.7. Deformation
Where it can be shown that with the most unfavourable loads for the most destabilizing
configuration, and consideration given to deformation (Second Order Theory), the effect on the
overturning moment does not exceed 10%.Then stability calculations may be carried out ignoring
deflections (First Order Theory) for ease of calculation.
However, when this is the case, the overturning moments for each condition in table T.9.15.a
shall be increased by the value obtained above according to the second order.
9.15.8. Resistance to drifting caused by wind
The resistance to drifting caused by wind shall be proven by calculation for all cranes on rails
operating in the open air under the conditions in table T.9.15.c.
Table T.9.15.c  Drifting caused by wind
Condition Loading
Load factor to be
considered
1. IN SERVICE Loads induced by the dead weight
Applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces
1,0
1,35 P
1,2 W1
1,0 D
2. OUT OF SERVICE Loads induced by the dead weight
Applied load
Wind load
Inertia forces
1,0
1,0 P1
1,2 W2
0
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Where rail clamps or similar measures are necessary to avoid outofservice drifting, the
operator's manual shall advise that they shall be applied when the inservice wind limit has been
reached.
The resistance to travel due to friction and the coefficients of friction shown in table T.9.15.d shall
apply.
Table T.9.15.d  Resistance to travel and coefficients of friction
Ratio : Resistance to travel / Radial load Coefficient of friction between track and
Plain bearings Anti friction bearings the braked wheel the rail clamp
0,02 0,005 0,14 0,25
NOTE: Higher coefficients of friction may be allowed for if it can be shown that these are
present in all surface conditions and qualities (e.g. oil, dirt, ice).
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9.16. TESTS (8.1.)
Clause 8.1.of booklet 8 may be replaced by the following text:
Prior to being in service, appliances must be tested under overload conditions, as follows :
The cranes shall be tested dynamically, using the maximum nominal speed for each drive
movement and overload that is not less than that obtained by multiplying the rated load by
coefficient ρ given in table T.9.16:
Table T.9.16  Values of ρρρ ρ dynamic test coefficient
Last (t)
ψ ≤ 1,2 ψ ≤ 1,4 ψ > 1,4
≤ 30
1,2 1,25 1,3
≤ 100
1,15 1,2 1,25
< 100 1,10 1,15 1,2
NOTE: These values are not applicable for cranes equipped with powered series hoist
mechanisms with a direct action lifting force limiter. In that case the values given in FEM
9.751 may be used.
where ψ = dynamic coefficient according clause 9.3.
For cranes this dynamic test also covers the requirements of static overload and stability testing.
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9.17. TORANCES OF CRANES AND TRACKS (8.2.)
Clause 8.2.of booklet 8 may be replaced by the following text:
The axes of the wheel bores shall not have an angular deviation greater than α from its
theoretical axis, in the horizontal plane, see figure F.9.17
The theoretical axis is the arithmetic mean value of the direction angles of all wheel axes. The
values for α are given in table T.9.17 below.
Theoreti cal
posi ti on
of al l wheel s
Figure F.9.17
Table T.9.17  Wheel direction deviation angle ααα α/rad
Class of Travel speed v (m/min)
mechanism
≤25 ≤50 ≤100 ≤200 >200
M1 0.0012 0,0012 0,0012 0,0010 0,0008
M2 0,0012 0,0012 0,0010 0,0008 0,0007
M3 0,0012 0,0010 0,0008 0,0007 0,0006
M4 0,0010 0,0008 0,0007 0,0006 0,0005
M5 0,0008 0,0007 0,0006 0,0005 0,0004
M6 0,0007 0,0006 0,0005 0,0004 0,0004
M7 0,0006 0,0005 0,0004 0,0004 0,0004
M8 0,0005 0,0004 0,0004 0,0004 0,0004
NOTE: The angles α give approximately same amount of wear of the wheels and rails, when the
wheels are designed according to 9.12.
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