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"Guitar compositions of the 19th century, with the e ception of those of a didactic nature, ha!en"t recei!ed the
attention they deser!e from either scholars or performers# $he superficial accusation made of such literature that it is of little artistic !alue, is the result of a series of misconceptions which ha!e %een passed on due to the a%sence of an ade&uate historical and aesthetic analysis, and due also to the unfamiliarity of the performers with music which demands a %rilliant techni&ue too often superior to their a%ility# 'ppressed %y the wor(s of the )reat Romantics and intimidated %y such technical difficulty, )uitarists ha!e preferred to i)nore a period which often presents music of e cellent su%stance## *owe!er, today increasin) attempts are %ein) made to re!alue the music of those who (ept the instrumental tradition ali!e e!en in the countries that saw an almost total predominance of opera# + careful selection of these compositions re!eals wor(s which compare well with the %est pa)es of other more successful composers and which deser!e to %e in cluded in today"s concert pro)rammes#"
- ,n memory of Ru))ero Chiesa -19.. - 199./
Recommended 0-strin) Early Classical-Romantic Guitar Composers -%y %irth date/1
Major non-guitar composers included for time frame point of reference Composers which were major orchestral composers but minor guitar composers
Guitar Composers :
Bach ( 1685 - 1 5! " 1 #a$dn ( 1 %2 - 18!& " 1 Luigi Boccherini 2
Mo'art ( 1 56 - 1 &1 " 1
1749 1752 c!17"0 17"" 17"7 17"8 17"8 17"8 1770 1771 177# 177# 1775 1775 177" 1778 1781 1781
- 1805 - 1815 - 18#8 - 1848 - 1815 - 1852 - 1820 - 1847 - 1841 - 181" - 18#0 - 1850 - 1821 - 18"9 - 185" - 18#9 - 1829 - 1858
Federico oretti Si$on olitor Leonard %on Call &ntoine de L'o(er Fili))o *ragnani Francesco olino
Beetho(en ( 1 ! - 182 " 1
Ferdinando Carulli Fernando Ferandiere +en,eslaus atieg-a &ndrei S(chra &ntonio .a%a Fran/ois 0e Fossa 1ose)h 2u33ner Fernando Sor auro *iuliani &nton 0ia4elli
.iccol5 6aganini Frederi- Carl Le$$ing 0ionisio &guado Luigi Legnani atteo Carcassi Francesco Calegari 1os! Charles Lo$
)ossini ( 1 &2 - 1868 " 1
1782 1782 1784 1790 1792 1797 1797 1795 179" 1797 1797 1800 1802 180# 1804 1805 1805 1805 180" 1807 1810 1811 1811 1811
- 1840 - 184" - 1849 - 1877 - 185# - 1877 - 1877 - 1870 - 1870 - 1828 - 1845 - 187# - 1878 - 18"9 - 1875 - 1882 - 1881 - 188# - 185" - 1871 - 1890 - 1897 - 18"" - 1877
6ietro 6ettoletti Feli8 'oret,-( Fran, Schu4ert 2 Luigi Castellacci 9%an 6ado%et, arco :ani de Ferranti 'ector Berlio, 2 ;rinidad 'uerta 1ose Broca 1an Bo4ro<ic, .a)oleon Coste 1ohann 2as)ar ert, 'enri- =ung
Chopin ( 181! - 18*& " 1
.icholas a-aro33 &ntonio Cano &da$ 0arr Stanisla< S,c,e)ano<s-i
+erdi ( 181% - 1&!1 " 1
S>33ren 0egen 181" - 1885 are- 2onrad So-olo<s-i 1818 - 188# Fernando Cordero 1822 - 18"1 *iulio =egondi 1822 - 1872 1ai$e Bosch 182" - 1895 1ohann 0ec-er-Schen182" - 1899 1ose ?inas 182# - 1888 1ohann 0u4e, 1828 - 1891 1uli@n &rcas 18#2 - 1882 9%an 2linger 7 - 1897 Francisco ;arrega 1852 - 1909 9 3ind it is hel)3ul to )lace each co$)oser in a ti$eline ne8t to their )eersA to 4etter understand the st(listic as)ects o3 inter)retation! ;he $ore (ou )la( 19th centur( $usicA (ou <ill 3ind there is a $aBor di33erence in each decade! ;he $usic o3 1800-1810 sounds %er( di33erent 3ro$ the $usic o3 the 18#0Cs 3or e8a$)le! ;he guitar $usic 4e3ore a4out 1825 reall( 3alls $ore into <hat is co$$onl( descri4ed as the "Classical 6eriod" - <hile guitar $usic a3ter a4out 1825 4eco$es $ore "=o$antic 6eriod!" ;here is not a s)eci3ic date that this occurredD ratherA it <as a gradual )rocess o3 e%olution
<hich continues to this da(! ;he Classical *uitar Co$)osers List EC*CLF 'o$e)age )ro%ides a succinct re3erence to co$)osers 3or solo classical guitar! Gach entr( o3 the list consists o3 the co$)oserCs 3ull na$eA (ear o3 4irthA (ear o3 death Ei3 a))lica4leFA and nationalit(! &l)ha4eti,ing is si$)l( done 4( dro))ing all accents and diacritics! ;his is an e8cellent )lace to 3ind $an( o4scure co$)osers! 6hili) Bone: "*uitar and andolin" - an e8tensi%e 1914 4iogra)hical source that is o3ten HuotedA 4ut also -no<n 3or ha%ing so$e errors! +ell <orth stud(ing as a good )ri$ar( sourceA and so$eti$es the onl( source o3 in3or$ation! ;his 4oo- has 4een digiti,ed 3or 3ree do<nload at ;he 9nternet &rchi%e: "a 501EcFE#F non-)ro3it that <as 3ounded to 4uild an 9nternet li4rar(! 9ts )ur)oses include o33ering )er$anent access 3or researchersA historiansA scholarsA )eo)le <ith disa4ilitiesA and the general )u4lic to historical collections that e8ist in digital 3or$at!" "$he 2Golden Era2 of the )uitar %e)an with the eminent ,talian )uitarist and composer, 3erdinand Carulli
-1770-1841/, whose 2Guitar 5ethod2 %ecame popular throu)hout Europe# *e was followed %y 5atteo Carcassi, author of a 25ethod,2 etudes and technical wor(s, (nown to e!ery )uitar student# 6e t came 5auro Giuliani, 7ui)i 7e)nani, and 8ani di 3erranti, all ,talians# ,n 9pain we find :ionisio +)uado and 3erdinand 9or, the latter ac(nowled)ed as the )reatest composer, and called the ;eetho!en of the )uitar# 9omewhat later appeared 6apoleon Coste in 3rance and <# =# 5ert> in +ustria# $hese men not only were )reat artists, )i!in) recitals in all the music centers of Europe, %ut composers as well, lea!in) %ehind them hundreds of %eautiful compositions for their instrument# $o students of to-day the classic wor(s of these masters are indispensa%le# " - Geor)e C# =ric(
Choosin) the Edition $ype
+here )ossi4leA 9 )re3er the Facsi$ile Gdition as the $ost authoritati%e sourceA and is o3ten the 4est edition in ter$s o3 )age turnsA 3ingeringA co$)leteness o3 d(na$icsA etc!! ;his is a )hoto-co)( o3 the original 19th centur( editionA re-)rinted! ;he dra<4ac- is so$e editions can 4e <orn and hard to readA and do not o33er $an( 3ingerings to assist the 4eginning )la(er! ;he &rticle 4( =o4ert S)encer: ";he ;()e o3 Gdition +e Should 6la( Fro$" is an e8cellent su$$ar( o3 the 4ene3its o3 3acsi$ile editions! +e o<e a great de4t o3 gratitude to the late =o4ert S)encer 3or his sel3less e33orts to $a-e original editions a%aila4le to )er3or$ers and )u4lishers! +ithout S)encerCs e33ortsA <e <ould )ro4a4l( not ha%e a%aila4le toda( the 3ine editions o3 Chanterelle and ;ecla and others <hich $ade the original $usic a%aila4le to the )u4lic! Ither edition t()es include "Jrte8t" - <hich is su))osed to 4e a re-engra%e$ent o3 the original to enhance reada4ilit(A 4ut <ithout changing an(thing in the originalA li-e 3ingerings or notesA e8ce)t 3or correcting o4%ious errors! 'o<e%erA onl( a 3e< )u4lishers adhere to this standard! ost $odern editions are re%isions - $eaning that a $odern editor has i$)osed their o)inion o3 3ingerings and inter)retation on the score! ¬her t()e o3 edition is an &ntholog( - <hich contains a large nu$4er o3 )ieces 3ro$ $an( co$)osers in a collection!
;his )age discusses the guitar co$)osers o3 the so-called earl( ro$antic guitar era o3 the late 1700Cs and 1800Cs <hose $usic is -no<n to $eA and in $( o)inion $ade a contri4ution to the re)ertoire! 9t is 4( no $eans an e8hausti%e listA since there <ere )ro4a4l( hundreds o3 $inor co$)osersA $an( o3 <ho$ ha%e 3allen into o4scurit( due to lac- o3 a%aila4le )ri$ar( source $aterialA or a$ateurs <ho did not <rite good $aterial in $( o)inion! 9 e$)hasi,e the $ost <ell--no<n co$)osers o3 earl( 19th centur( guitar $usicA <ho ha%e <ithstood the test o3 ti$eA and <hose $usic is still readil( a%aila4le in )rint! 9 also discuss se%eral
he Classical *uitar" is that Sor and *iuliani <ere $iles a4o%e their co$)etitorsD and <hile 9 agree that the( <ere a$ong the 4estA 9 3eel this )oint is greatl( e8aggerated: "Although the total surviving body of guitar music from the early nineteenth century is vast.oad did not $ention the$ co$)ared to Sor and *iuliani 4ecause he grou)ed the$ into his ne8t 4oo..co$)osers <hose $usic is not as <ell -no<nA 4ut in $( o)inion is o3 high Hualit( and <orth( o3 )er3or$ance! 9 also discuss a 3e< co$)osers <hose $usic 9 ha%e )la(ed in order to gi%e a Hualitati%e assess$ent! <hough so$e scholars $a( disagree <ith $( editorial choicesA 9 3eel that $( non-co$$ercial re%ie< and rating o3 this $usic is a use3ul ser%ice to )ro%ide to the )u4lic <ho $a( ha%e li$ited ti$e and resources to s)end on $usic! <hough there <ere thousands o3 )ieces )u4lished in this ti$e )eriod Eindeed $( li4rar( is o%er 10A000 scoresA all o3 <hich 9 ha%e at least s-i$$ed onceFA there is a %ast di33erence in Hualit( o3 the $usic! uch o3 the %er( o4scure $usic is not $issed! 'o<e%erA there are $an( 3ine co$)osersA and $an( ge$s to 4e 3oundA i3 (ou are <illing to si3t through a lot o3 $aterial to 3ind the$! 'o)e3ull( the reco$$endations on this <e4 )age <ill 4e use3ul! Fred ....oad! 9 $ight add that later co$)osersA such as Coste and ert... <ere rather li$ited to the guitarA <hereas Sor and es)eciall( *iuliani <ere 3ull cha$4er orchestra co$)osers <ith the ca)acit( to <rite large scale co$)ositions! . there are few compositions that can be classified as "major works". Nevertheless the two most able composers.he other co$)osers listed here <rote $an( 3ine )iecesA 4ut o3ten their to) )ieces did not reach the height o3 e8cellence o3 the othersA and their )ieces %aried considera4l( in Hualit(! .i3 (ou are <illing to si3t through a lot o3 $usic to 3ind the$! Gach co$)oser listed is di%ided into lin-s to 4iogra)hical in3or$ationA di33icult( le%elA and $( "editorCs choice" o3 the 4est sheet $usic a%aila4le in )rint! <hough it $a( 4e interesting as an acade$ic )ursuit to list the co$)lete <or-s o3 a co$)oserA the a%erage )erson does not ha%e access to o4scure li4raries scattered across the glo4e! .here are $an( 3ine arrange$ents o3 o)era tunesA the$es and %ariationsA etc!A 4( lesser--no<n co$)osers . Sor and Giuliani. both use the guitar in a grand manner with orchestral suggestions in the te ture.. ! have come to the conclusion that there is a considerable $ualitative gap between these two leading figures and all their competitors... <ere also e8ce)tional co$)osersA <hose guitar $usic eHualled or sur)assed at ti$es Sor and *iuliani! .his is a )ractical list o3 <hat is readil( a%aila4le! 9 ha%e <asted hundreds o3 dollars 4u(ing 4ad editionsA <hich ha%e lots o3 errorsA as <ell as )oor re%isionist 3ingeringsA or <hich o33er onl( a 3e< "selected" )ieces! 9n $( 20K (ears o3 e8)erience )la(ing this $usicA 9 strongl( reco$$end to )la(ers that (ou get the co$)lete <or-s editionsA 3acsi$ile co)ies <here a%aila4leA or $odern urte8t editions <hich are 3aith3ul to the original scoreA and sta( a<a( 3ro$ anthologies or hea%il(-edited )ieces! .. were able to approach the larger canvas..here are reall( not %er( $an( sources <hich $eet this criteriaA and 9 ha%e sa%ed (ou the )ain 4( identi3(ing the$ 4elo<! .Fred . ! reali"e that the collection heavily favors the work of Sor and Giuliani# but after e amining literally hundreds of compositions of other composers of the period in the hope of finding a neglected masterpiece." .oadCs assess$ent in his antholog( ".and into a later era! 'o<e%erA Coste and ert.
es and other dances targeted to<ard 4eginnersA and short )ieces li-e the inuetsA $ost li-el( due to )u4lishing de$ands! <hough so$e char$ing short )ieces are 3oundA $uch o3 the a$ateur $usic is tireso$e and )redicta4leA and lac-ing the $usical content Sor <as a4le to achie%e <ith si$)le 4eginner <or-s! +!aila%le Repertoire1 14 +or-s 4( &guado are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! .:ionisio +)uado.io)raphical .he =ondos o)! 2 Eincluding the 3a$ous =ondo in & $inorF and the Fandango stand out in $( $ind as his 3inest <or-s! ost o3 &guadoCs out)ut <as si$)le studiesA <alt.he 0ionisio &guado 'o$e 6age has $ore in3or$ation a4out the co$)oser! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 &guado <as li$ited to )ieces 3or the guitarD to $( -no<ledge he did not <rite an( )ieces <ith other instru$entsA e8ce)t 3or re%ision o3 SorCs guitar duets! Li-e $ost guitarists o3 this eraA &guadoCs $usic can 4e classi3ied into 2 categories: %irtuoso concert <or-sA and a$ateur )ieces! &guadoCs %irtuoso <or-s are li$ited to a 3e< o)usC .nformation1 &guado <rote se%eral e8cellent concert )iecesA such as the "Fandango" and the "=ondos Brillantes o)! 2"A 4ut as is so co$$onA the onl( )ieces <ell--no<n 4( &guado are the si$)le e8ercises 3ro$ the ethod 3or a$ateurs! G%en Sego%ia )la(ed onl( these si$)le etudesA and ignored the "real" )ieces that &guado )u4lished! Lou <ill also 3ind lots o3 <alt.es 3or a$ateursD so$e o3 the$ ha%e si$)le char$A 4ut these <ere $ass-$ar-et )u4lications <hich are not re)resentati%e o3 &guadoCs 4est <or-s! &guado and Sor li%ed in the sa$e a)art$ent 4uilding in 6arisA and )la(ed in duets together! &guado is -no<n 3or his use o3 the 3ingernailsA <hile Sor ad%ocated no nails! 9t is said that Sor clai$s that &guado )re3erred SorCs toneA 4ut Sor ac-no<ledged that &guado <as a4le to achie%e greater s)eed <ith the use o3 nails! .<hich are 3ine concert )iecesA and %er( de$anding on techniHue! . 1784 .1849 .
his is a 4-%olu$e set! 93 9 had to )ic.he light )ieces 3or a$ateurs consist o3 $ostl( <alt.$( challenge to concert artists searching 3or <orth( and under-)la(ed re)ertoire! .he C0 <hich goes <ith the +est4roo.he $ethod is the 3acsi$ile <ritten in S)anishA <hich is nearl( useless i3 (ou do not read S)anish! For a good Gnglish translation o3 the $ethodA ..he o)us 1" Fandango is a <orth( concert $aster)ieceA <ith an e8cellent recording 4( Carle .his is on the "Stradi%arius" la4elA and 9 <as a4le to 3ind co)ies on $ost $aBor online C0 retailer sites! &guado is <ell--no<n 3or ad%ocating a tri)od de%ice to hold the guitar and there4( 3ree the )la(er 3ro$ holding the guitarA and allo< $ore o3 the instru$ent to %i4rate 3reel(! 1a$es +est4roo-Cs 4oosho<s )hotos o3 2 &guado-o<ned guitars 4( Lacote and La)rP%otteA <hich are unusual in a))earance and undou4tedl( custo$ $ade 3or &guado! FirstA their di$ensions are larger than $ost guitars o3 the da(A $ore li-e a $odern guitar in )ro)ortion! SecondA &guado ad%ocated the $odernst(le 4ridge! &guado is -no<n to ha%e used guitars 4( 4oth these $a-ersA and the 3a$ous lithogra)h sho<ing a guitar <ith o%al-sha)ed soundhole is certainl( 4( La)rP%otte! 9t is also s)eculated that &guado $a( ha%e )la(ed earl( guitars 4( *uadagnini at one )ointA 4ased on other s-etches! .there are actuall( # <or-sA each <ith a slo< and 3ast $o%e$entA thus "=ondo O#" is actuall( =ondo O2A second $o%e$entA etc!F! Fro$ o)us # co$e a 3e< shortA char$ing <or-sA including a inuet recorded 4( .here is onl( one )u4lished source o3 &guadoCs co$)lete 3acsi$ile <or-sA Chanterelle GditionsA resold 4( el Ba( usic 6u4lishers 6u4lications! .Esee accessories and recordings )ages o3 this <e4 siteF 3eatures )er3or$ances o3 &guado on a Lacote <hich <as out3itted 3or the &guado tri)odA and thus it $a( ha%e 4een associated <ith &guado or his circle directl(! .?olu$e #A <hich is the <or-s <ith o)us nu$4er! ?olu$e 4 is <or-s <ithout o)usA also a good choice! ?olu$es 1 and 2 are re)rints o3 the studies and $ethodA and there is so$e redundanc( 4et<een %olu$es 1 N 2A as di33erent editions are )resented o3 the sa$e <or-! .orres! &lso o)us 15A the enuet &33andango is e8ce)tional! Both 3andangos allude to the energeticA 3ier( S)anish )o)ular st(le! 7oren>o 5icheli has recorded an e8ce)tional C0 entirel( o3 &guadoCs $usicA including his 4est <or-s .e< *uitar ethodA translated into Gnglish 4( Louise Big<ood! Editor"s 9u))ested Pic(s1 &guadoCs <or-s 3all into # general categories: 1! Studies 2! Light 6ieces 3or a$ateurs #! ?irtuoso concert <or-s! an( o3 &guadoCs studies are niceA short )ieces <hich re$ain )o)ular! So$e o3 the$ can 4e tediousA ho<e%er! .ecla )ro%ides the 0ionisio &guado: .he =ondo in & $inor E$ar-ed as O#F is )erha)s &guadoCs $ost 3a$ous )ieceA <ith current recordings 4( 0a%id =ussel and others! 9t is a real sho< )ieceA 3un to )la(A da.or4ert 2ra3t! .the entire o)us 2 =ondosA o)us 15 enuet a33andangoA o)us 1" Fandango %ariationsA and selections 3ro$ the studies! Long o%erdueA this C0 is a standout e33ortA <ith i$)ecca4le $usicianshi) and st(le o3 the )eriodA and recorded on an 1850Cs French ro$antic guitar! .es and contradances <hich gro< tireso$eA although a 3e< char$ing light )ieces can 4e 3ound 4( si3ting through the stac-! I3 the %irtuoso concert <or-sA I)us 2 "=ondos" stands out as a $aster)iece <hich deser%es a 3ull recordingA o3 all $o%e$ents and )ieces contained therein .ling and interesting Eas an asideA the original )u4lication incorrectl( nu$4ered the titles ..oneA 9 <ould )ic.4oo.re)at on a gut strung .
lbert.with his )aab . guitarA Stau3erst(le instru$entsA and $ulti-4ass Q har) guitarsA as <ell as $usic 4( ert.Featured 6la(er o3 the onthA 7-04 and Ir)hee: 'einrich &l4ert and the First *uitar RuartetA 4( &llan orris! #einrich .*einrich +l%ert -1870-19?0/ and the 5unich Guitar @uartet <hough 4e(ond the ti$e )eriod sco)e o3 this <e4 siteA &l4ert deser%es $entioning! St(listicall(A &l4ertCs $usic is o3 the *er$an-?iennese tradition and could easil( )ass 3or co$)ositions <ritten decades earlierA and sounds great on )eriod guitars! &lso interesting is the 3act that ter.<o in3or$ati%e articles on the net are: 'ar) *uitars .circa 1&!!..ndreas /te(ens"0 . and other $id to late 19th centur( co$)osersA <ere all %er( acti%e in *er$an( until easil( the 1920Cs! &l4ert is also -no<n 3or his $ethodA arrange$entsA teachingA and guitar Huartet! &ndreas Ste%ens no< o<ns 2 o3 &l4ertCs 3or$er guitars and has recorded &l4ertCs <or-s! &ndreas in3or$s that "9n his )u4lic a))earances he 3irst )la(ed a =aa4 +a))engitarre 4ecause he 3ound that the sound o3 his 'auser un3ortunatel( did not carr( enoughA 3ro$ 1910 .ani and 3ro$ 1914 to his death he )la(ed di33erent guitars 3ro$ *elasA 6aris!" +or-s 4( &l4ert can 4e 3ound in =GM and BoiBe! .1914 he )la(ed a odelo *uadagnini 3ro$ o.appenform guitar (courtes$ of .
A CosteA =egondiA and Legnani <ere )u4lishing $an( o3 their 3inest co$)ositions .188B .here are 52 )u4lished original co$)ositions and arrange$ents o3 considera4le %ariet( and de)th! .ed as a$ong the 4est ge$s o3 the entire re)ertoire! .3or e8a$)leA o)era arrange$ents o3 ?erdiA BelliniA =ossiniA etc!A are a$ong &rcasC <or-s! 9n additionA &rcas <rote $an( classical arrange$ents o3 )o)ular S)anish songs and dancesA such as the Bolero! .o dou4t &rcas <as ahead o3 his ti$eA another hall$ar.he <riting is at a high le%elA $usicall( and technicall(! 9 ha%e had to re-thin. and Coste .he S)anish guitar concert %irtuosoA )ro3essorA and co$)oser 1ulian &rcas is 3a$ous toda( 3or 4eing .io)raphical . 18.arregaCs teacherA as <ell as 4eing the guitarist <ho <or-ed <ith .orres to slightl( $odi3( the guitarCs design to its current standard! &rcas <as acti%e at a %er( earl( )eriodA indeed the sa$e ti$e )eriod as <hen ert.arregaA not sur)rising since &rcas <as taught 4( his 3atherA <ho studied directl( <ith &guado or one o3 &guadoCs 3ollo<ers! &rcas and .&rcasC )lace in histor( 4ased on this edition! Biogra)hical in3or$ation is listed at these <e4 site: &rcas Bio &rcas Bio :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 &rcas <as li$ited to )ieces 3or the guitar and guitar duetsD to $( -no<ledge he did not <rite an( )ieces <ith other instru$ents! &s <as co$$on )racticeA &rcas co$)osed $ostl( arrange$ents or 3antasies o3 o)eras or 3ol.nformation1 .the 18"0Cs! St(listicall( &rcas re$inds $e o3 a cross 4et<een &guado and .songsA in addition to a 3e< original the$es! &rcas did not <rite si$)le $usic 3or 4eginnersA and the technical de$ands are high! &t least an inter$ediate le%el o3 techniHue is reHuired to )la( an( o3 &rcasC $usicA and $an( )ieces reHuire a %er( ad%anced techniHue! +!aila%le Repertoire1 .arrega sound %er( $uch ali-e on so$e )iecesA as indeed 4oth )la(ers <ere )art o3 a S)anish tradition and st(le <hich included $an( others! .<uliAn +rcas.his )o)ular st(le is %er( traditional and "S)anish" soundingA and it later 4eca$e the 3la$enco st(le! Ither co$)ositions are in a $ore classical 3or$A such as inuets and other original co$)ositions! uch o3 this re)ertoire has 4een long-neglected and out o3 )rint! 'o<e%erA <ith the recent )u4lication o3 &rcasC co$)lete <or-sA once again this $aterial is starting to 4eco$e recogni.o3 a good co$)oser! &rcas <rote $an( e8tended o)eratic )ot-)ourrisA Bust li-e ert.B .
ango • La Cu4ana • Fantasia so4re $oti%os 'eterogeneos Bolero *ector .arrega! .4oo-A around 270 )ages! 9t is e8)ensi%e 4ut <orth it! Editor"s 9u))ested Pic(s1 .ra%iata Eo3ten incorrectl( attri4uted to . initiall( $ade his li%ing as a guitaristA and he )u4lished a 3e< )ieces 3or guitar during the 3irst Huarter o3 the 19th centur(! &s no solo guitar <or-s ha%e 4een locatedA $ost li-el( Berlio.including )er3or$ances <ith 6aganini! .erlio> .$( 3a%orite guitar )iece o3 all ti$e • SFantasia so4re ?erdi .o%rowic> -180?-1881/ <as a 6olish %irtuoso guitarist and co$)oser! 'e <as a student o3 *iulianiA <ho <as -no<n 3or ense$4le <or.he <or-s o3 &rcas in $( o)inion are o3 high Hualit(A and st(listicall( 3all in4et<een &guado and .re)at on a gut strung . 52 )ieces 3or guitar E1 un)u4lishedF in original 19th centur( 3acsi$ile edition! 'istorical notes and anal(tical co$$entar( o3 each )iece in Gnglish and S)anish! . .nice recording 4( Claudio arcotulli • SColeccion de .1809 / Berlio. o<ned a guitar 4( *ro4ert o3 irecourtA <hich he and 6aganini signedA and is no< in a 6aris $useu$! <an 6epomucen .angos .his is a %er( thic.s<eet recording 4( Carle .orres • S?is)eras Sicilainas: Bolero • SGl 6ano Q 6unto de la 'a4ana • inueto en i enor • Gl adrileno Schotisch • oti%o de Bar4ero de Se%illa • anuelito • Los 6anaderos Bolero • arina .. is 3a$ous as a classical orchestral co$)oser <ith a uniHue st(leA 4ut not as a guitarist! 9n actualit(A guitar and 3lute <ere the onl( instru$ents he could )la(! Berlio.180.here is onl( one )u4lished source o3 &rcasC co$)lete 3acsi$ile <or-sA a%aila4le 3ro$ FFS9A *S6 and others: "1ulian &rcas Co$)lete +or-s 3or *uitar EI4ras Co$)letas )ara *uitarraF" Gdited 4( elchor =odrigue.he( deser%e $uch greater e8)osure and are 4eginning to 4e disco%ered! ( )ersonal 3a%orites: • SBolero . onl( )u4lished 3or guitar as acco$)ani$ent! &s a 3riend o3 6aganiniA Berlio.arregaF .
eclaA so (ou can do<nload to see i3 (ou li-e the co$)oser 4e3ore 4u(ing the edition <ith 18 <or-s E1# o3 <hich are not in =GMF! .he 6e)e =o$ero dou4le C0 o3 Boccherini is a $ust-ha%e recordingA as is =ichard Sa%inoCs! .Eo)us 8" "6asa Calle"F <hich is not a%aila4le in the .he )rinting is clearA 4oldA and urte8t .his edition contains detailed 4iogra)hical in3or$ation and serious co$)ositionsA o3 %ar(ing di33icult( le%els! . titled "Selected +or-s"! ?olu$e 1 contains ?ariationsA and ?olu$e 2 is nearing co$)letion! .ecla .he .1ai$e Bosch Gdition Esee lin-F is a collection o3 eighteen <or-s 3or solo guitarA in re)rints o3 their original editionsA <ith 7" )ages! ".osch "Bosch <as a <ell--no<n guitarist in late nineteenth centur( 6arisA a conte$)orar( o3 Coste and a 3riend o3 the )ainter Gdouard anet! & Catalan 4orn in BarcelonaA his <or-s sho< strong S)anish in3luence" EBrian 1e33er(F! .he other 5 <or-s are also in .ecla edition! .he arHuis co$$issioned )ieces <ith guitarA and thus Boccherini arranged a 3e< o3 his )rior <or-s to deri%e the no< 3a$ous Boccherini *uitar RuintetsA <hich ha%e 4een recorded 4( =ichard Sa%inoA 6e)e =o$eroA and others .+!aila%le Repertoire1 .occherini -1749-180?/ ostl( -no<n as a cha$4er co$)oser o3 su)er4 Huintets! 9n 17"9 he settled in adrid! 9n the 1790Cs Boccherini had a )atronA the arHuis de Bene%enteA <ho <as a guitarist! .here are se%eral little ge$s in this 3acsi$ile collection that are <ell <orth )la(ing! 9n )articular 9 li-ed Bri$4orionA 0uettinoA editationA Gtoiles et 3leurs !!! se%eral o3 the shorter and easier ite$s to<ards the end o3 the %olu$e are also %er( e33ecti%e !!! there is $uch to si$)l( enBo( in this %olu$eA and itTs a $ust 3or an(one )ur)orting to 4e interested in the $usic o3 its centur(! & centenar( <ell <orth $ar-ing!" EClassical *uitarA 0ece$4er 199"F! " <or-s 4( Bosch are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBeA including 1 <or.he " dou4le-course guitar <as )o)ular in S)ain at the ti$e o3 co$)ositionA 4ut the arHuis <as a su4scri4er to &guadoCs "-single string $ethodA thus there is still de4ate as to <hether the "-string or 12-string guitar is 4est 3or BoccheriniCs $usic! <aime .and are regarded as a$ong the %er( 3inest cha$4er <or-s in the guitar re)ertoire! .highl( reco$$ended! 11 o)usC are also a%aila4le 3ro$ =GM! 7ui)i .he 0igital *uitar &rchi%e has )u4lished an authoritati%e edition o3 Bo4ro<ic.
his dates are unknown. %er"i&'io&(aspelli reference his birth at the end of the )'!!!th century. and for a brief period in 2aris as well. of which the best known is Antonio +alegari. where he published music. !n about . (icordi and +anti in 3ilan.. .&ustrian guitarist and co$)oserA and a conte$)orar( o3 *iuliani in ?ienna! &uthor o3 $ostl( cha$4er <or-sA including a )o)ular eas( guitar trio in C! ?er( classical in st(leA not %er( de$anding in techniHueA <ith an a))eal to the a$ateur audience o3 the da(! Se%eral <or-sA $ostl( ense$4le )iecesA are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! +ntonio Cano . . becoming subse$uently much admired in the music circles in central /urope.ottiA "*rancesco +alegari was a guitarist and composer who flourished in the first half of the . becoming a competitor of +ipriani in 1ologna. mainly in Germany. . and +ipriani in 1ologna and *lorence.181? / .roca <as a S)anish co$)oserA 1805 .1897 /! . but do not provide any references beyond their statement.<ose .e started his activity as a concert performer in *lorence.1882! &ccording to Fred ." &ccording to arco ?! Ba.is compositions were published by important firms such as 2leyel in 2aris.ofmeister and Schwar" in 0eip"ig..?er( little is -no<n o3 Calegari! &ccording to &ngelo *ilardinoA "According to the sources ! have at hand.." Si8 <or-s 4( Calegari are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! 9 had ne%er heard o3 this co$)oser-guitaristA 4ut 9 3ound u)on sight reading the $usicA that it stood out as 4eing o3 %er( high Hualit( and 3un to )la(! 9n )articularA o)! 4 E.1811 .9 for violin and guitar# and several instrumental reductions on themes of operas.(roliens ?ariationsF and o)! 10 ESch<ei.arregaA 4ut <ritten $uch earlier! 3ran> C 3rancesco Cale)ari -179D-18DD/ .er ?ariationsF are $( 3a%orites! 7eonard !on Call .4 and the (ond8 7p. 7f his production for guitar&& about twenty works in all&&we should mention the 'ariations 7p.456 he entered in the publishing industry.oadA Broca <as a student o3 &guado 4ut $ostl( sel3-taught! 'e <as esta4lished in Barcelona and reno<n 3or his )la(ing o3 <or-s 4( Sor and &guado! 'e <as a 3riend o3 1ulian &rcas and the teacher o3 1ose Ferrer! BrocaCs <or-s are elegant )ieces in a si$ilar st(le to .e was probably a native of *lorence# he was from a family of prominent musicians.e lived for a long time in 0eip"ig and 1raunschweig. %he different sources give *lorence as his birthplace and refer to his journey to Germany. .1707 . .5 for guitar# the 2olonese 7p.-th century# little information is known about his life.
.his lea%es $an( )eo)le <ith the $ista-en i$)ression that Carcassi is onl( 3or 4eginners! Carcassi <rote )la(a4le and re<arding $usic 3or the t()ical guitarist: there are )ieces 3or a %ariet( o3 )la(ing a4ilitiesA 3ro$ %er( eas( )ieces 3or a4solute 4eginnersA through e8tended %irtuosic o)eratic 3antasies <hich reHuire an ad%anced techniHue! So$e o3 CarcassiCs <or-s are co$)ara4le to Legnani in ter$s o3 $usical le%el and techniHue! . .he Carcassi concert )ieces are $ostl( <ritten at an inter$ediate to ad%anced le%el o3 )la(ingA and are $uch $ore re)resentati%e o3 CarcassiCs s-ill! Li-e $ost guitarist-co$)osers o3 this eraA Carcassi <rote %ariations and 3antas( 3or$s o3 )o)ular songs and o)erasA 4ut CarcassiCs s-ill at this genre 3ar e8ceeded $ost o3 his conte$)oraries! Carcassi is $ost <ell--no<n toda( as an author o3 studies 3or a$ateurs <hich re$ain )o)ular and ."*uitaristA teacher and co$)oser! .his pupil of :ionisio +)uado originall( )ractised $edicine 4e3ore de%oting hi$sel3 to the guitar and teaching at the adrid Conser%atoire! 'e <as also o33icial archi%ist to Rueen 9sa4ella the Second! +e are inde4ted to Cano 3or his guitar $ethod )u4lished in 1852 and re)rinted in 18"8 <ith an additional treatise on har$on( ada)ted to the guitar! &ntonio Cano co$)osed a4out a hundred )ieces and e8ercises 3or the guitar! .18?. 179B .nformation1 Carcassi <as a %irtuoso )la(er <ho <rote $an( 3ine e8tended <or-s! CarcassiCs )ieces sho< originalit( in their de%elo)$entA and a thorough -no<ledge o3 the 3inger4oard and all its )ositions .t is pro%a%le that he )a!e lessons to 3rancisco $arre)a and contri4uted to the de%elo)$ent o3 the techniHue o3 the tre$olo! 'is $ain contri4ution to the <orld o3 $usic is his guitar tutorial: " Ptodo de *uitarra" E1852F!" .he etudes and si$)le )ieces Carcassi <rote 3or the )ur)oses o3 teaching 4eginners are char$ing and e33ecti%eA and the( are still )o)ular toda( <ith countless a$ateurs! .e8t )ro%ided 4( .io)raphical .or4ert Fischer! 5atteo Carcassi.and in $an( cases inno%ati%e techniHue! Sadl(A $ost )u4lishers continue to )u4lish onl( CarcassiCs )ieces 3or 4eginnersA and the concert-le%el <or-s are no< $ostl( out o3 )rintA des)ite their high Hualit(! .
more modern. .ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba.4<5. After establishing an enviable reputation as a performer in his native land. melodious. sometimes called the father of the !talian school of guitar playing. by his concentrated efforts and natural musical endowments.e perfected the method of fingering. *erdinando +arulli. where he was received with unbounded enthusiasm. and salons of 2arisian artists and of the nobility were thrown open to him. had been a resident of 2aris for some years and by his concert performances and guitar compositions had drawn to himself the favor and patronage of the wealthy 2arisians. recogni"ing the genius of +arcassi.earl( e%er( classical guitarist has )la(ed a Carcassi etude at so$e )oint! .he onl( recordings 9 can 3ind are the etudes and the " Ca)rices . later returning to his adopted city where he died in . +arcassi must be counted among the greatest masters of the instrument.ottiF! .4:6 he arrived in 2aris and." . and he introduced a new style of music.is )ossi4l( the $ost <idel( used classical guitar $ethod in histor(D it continues to 4e a to) sellerA and it has 4een continuousl( in )rint since its )u4lication in the earl( 19th centur(! 9t re$ains a rele%ant treatiseA and easil( as good as SorCs studies! 9 a$ sur)rised to 3ind that a4solutel( no4od(A to $( -no<ledgeA has recorded an( o3 CarcassiCs serious concert <or-s 3or guitar! . two years later. After a few years in 2aris. 1ut. 2ublishers importuned him for his compositions. received him with open arms. +arcassi again journeyed through /ngland and the various countries of continental /urope.he Carcassi $ethod 4oo.he Carcassi *uitar ethod B( *eorge C! 2ric.Geor)e C# =ric( See also .Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 . !n .he 9talian *uitar in the 19th-Centur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies . ac$uired most e traordinary skill upon his chosen instrument.p to this time he had written and published more than three hundred compositions. the fickle 2arisians were ready to transfer their allegiance to the new star on the guitar firmament. with the arrival of +arcassi. made his first appearance in 0ondon.all o3 <hich are 4eginner <or-s! 'o<e%erA Carcassi is not considered to 4e an elite co$)oser li-e SorA *iulianiA or Carulli due to the laco3 large-scale <or-s 3or other instru$ents! 9 a$ onl( a<are o3 one )iece 3or )iano and guitar 4( CarcassiD no<here to 4e 3ound are <or-s 3or 2 or $ore instru$ents! Ine could $a-e a si$ilar criticis$ o3 Barrios toda(: an e8cellent guitar co$)oserA 4ut not a co$)oser o3 large-scale )ieces or orchestral <or-s! . abounding in artistic and pleasing effects and also of but medium difficulty. %hese cities had been visited previously by *erdinand Sor# and the /nglish and *rench musical public. among them a method which was a universal favorite. he toured Germany.e33ecti%e! . he shows much originality and individuality. .he( are e8cellent )iecesA co$)ara4le to *iuliani or Legnani and surel( deser%e a decent recording! . brilliant. introduced many novel effects and carried the resources of the instrument to greater lengths than any guitarist before him.an interesting article 3ro$ 1941 regarding the continued )o)ularit( o3 the Carcassi ethod! Ither Huotes 3ro$ 2ric-: "Not a great deal is known concerning the early career of +arcassi beyond the fact that he studied the guitar in his youth and.. +arcassi was in the prime of life. !n his compositions. of which about eighty were published.E1941F .
another )ersonal 3a%orite! • Fantas( on "=o4in &dair" .Fantas( on the the$e "Clic Clac"! .he Carcassi *uitar ethod .a <ell--no<n the$e <ith cool %ariations • .ra La La" .le audiencies! Carcassi )u4lished $an( )ieces 3or 4eginnersA including )ieces 3or 3irst (ear students! Countless guitarists o%er se%eral generations ha%e than-ed Carcassi 3or )ro%iding )la(a4le $usic at all le%els o3 a4ilit(! +!aila%le Repertoire1 I%er 25 +or-s 4( CarcassiA including $an( e8tended 3antas( <or-sA are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! ¬her 9 )ieces not in =GM are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ BoiBe! +ithout a dou4tA the Carcassi ethod and the )ieces contained <ithin is the $ost 3a$ous <or-! 9t is readil( a%aila4le 3ro$ se%eral )u4lishersA including el Ba( usic 6u4lishers! .niceU &lsoA La Fiancee 3ro$ this series is reco$$ended! • I)us 41 .uscan( *uitar 6u4lications released a Carcassi concert <or-A &dieu8 a la Suisse .ellA 9 )ages .hree 9talian &irs o) 9 .this )o)ular 9rish 3ol.this is one o3 CarcassiCs 4est )iecesA one that 9 )ersonall( enBo( )la(ing! Editor"s 9u))ested Pic(s1 • .ing at 3ull s)eed • Si8 Fantasies o) ##-#8: I)eratic )ot-)ourris! I)us #" is an arrange$ent o3 +illia$ .o3 CarcassiCs $usic as 4eing "accessi4le" .he *F& &rchi%es has a 3e< Carcassi )iecesA including Sonata: o)us 1D 0eu8 airs de 4allets de lCo)era de oise de =ossini: o)! 28A no! 1! .eclaCs on-line distri4ution ar$ "'e4eCs +e4" has a %er( clear 3acsi$ile o3 this )iece: the har$on( is interestingA the 3ingerings and use o3 the guitarCs resources are cle%erA o%erall an original co$)osition around a <ell--no<n tune o3 the da(! • ?ariations on ".he di33icult( le%el o3 $ost Carcassi )iecesA including the concert <or-sA is usuall( ediu$ di33icult(A <hich $a-es this $usic a))ealing to acco$)lished a$ateur )la(ers! & 3e< )ieces reHuire ad%anced techniHueA 4ut not so ad%anced as to $a-e the$ out o3 reach! 9 li-e to thin.songsA in addition to a 3e< original the$esA and $an( the$e N %ariation )ieces! Li-e $ost guitarists o3 this eraA CarcassiCs $usic can 4e classi3ied into 2 categories: %irtuoso concert <or-sA and a$ateur )ieces! an( o3 CarcassiCs %irtuoso <or-s are nice concert )ieces that audiences t()icall( enBo(! .still in )rint toda(A one o3 the $ost e33ecti%e $ethods e%er <ritten .a si$)le the$e 4eco$es intricate and interesting through these inno%ati%e and challenging %ariationsA 3ast and all o%er the 3inger4oard .since it <as <ritten idio$aticall( to the guitar and concei%ed 3or a realistic le%el o3 a4ilit(! an( o3 his <or-s "sound" harder than the( reall( areA and are designed so that )er3or$ers <ith $odest techniHue can da..here are no Carcassi duets -no<n to e8ist! &s <as co$$on )racticeA Carcassi co$)osed $ostl( arrange$ents or 3antasies o3 o)eras or 3ol.song <as arranged 4( olino and othersA 4ut CarcassiCs stands out! • 25 Gtudes o) "0: &$ong the 3inest and $ost )o)ular etudes 3or the instru$entA easil( ri%alling the Hualit( o3 Sor and *iulianiCs studiesA the( are still <idel( )la(ed toda(! G8cellent inter$ediate )ieces! • ?ariations on 0uc 0e =eichstadt o) 52 .he Ca)rices o)us 2" still circulates as <ell! & large collection o3 e8tended o)eratic 3antasies is a%aila4le 3ro$ 0onald Sauter in the *uitar $usic in the Li4rar( o3 Congress! .)o)ular 9talian songs o3 the da(A <ell arranged and %aried • .rios =ondos o) 2: =ondo # is a 3ier( sho<)iece that sounds a$a.:ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 Carcassi <as li$ited to )ieces 3or the guitarD to $( -no<ledge he did not <rite an( )ieces <ith other instru$entsA e8ce)t 3or one )iece 9 3ound 3or )iano and guitar! .
ens o3 original 3acsi$ile $anuscri)ts and listening to recordings o3 CarulliCs <or-s 3or guitar <ith %iolinQ3luteQ)ianoA that in generalA Carulli $ade a clear distinction in his )u4lications 4et<een 4eginner )ieces and concert )ieces! .he 4eginner )ieces <ere clearl( indicated as suchA and thus the( are $ore li$ited to the 3irst )ositions on the guitarA lesser di33icult(A and si$)ler $usical ideasA to allo< de%elo)$ent o3 the a$ateur )la(er! .3erdinando Carulli.1841 .oda(A this situation is starting to 4e corrected 4( a%aila4le 3ree 3acsi$iles 3ro$ =GMA and a 3e< 3ine recordings o3 these seriousA e8tended <or-s 4( Saracino and Sa%inoA a$ong others! 9t is o3ten statedA and 9 agreeA that CarulliCs out)ut %aries in Hualit( considera4l(A %ar(ing 3ro$ $aster)iece ge$s to tired 3or$ulas! 'o<e%erA 9 4elie%e a co$)oser should 4e Budged 4( the Hualit( o3 the concert )iecesA not o3 the )ieces )u4lished e8)ressl( 3or 4eginners! 9 ha%e 3ound u)on e8a$ining do.nformation1 Carulli <as a )roli3ic co$)oserA an earl( )ioneer <ho )re-dated Sor and *iulianiA and <as considered 4( $an( to 4e the 3ather o3 the $odern "-string guitar! So$e o3 his 4est )ieces are e8ce)tionalA and are a$ong the 3inest <or-s o3 this era! 9n $an( <a(sA Carulli is under-rated as a co$)oser and should 4e re-e8a$ined! CarulliCs co$)ositional a4ilities are de$onstrated in the $an( large-scale <or-s 3or guitar <ith %iolinA 3luteA )ianoA and $an( 3ine guitar duets! 0es)ite thisA %er( little Carulli $aterial is in )rint: and un3ortunatel(A li-e CarcassiA onl( the 4eginner )ieces 3or a$ateurs 4( Carulli can 4e 3ound in )rint toda(A <hich lea%es the $ista-en i$)ression that this <as the e8tent o3 CarulliCs ca)a4ilities! .he concert )ieces are $ore .io)raphical . 1770 .
de%elo)edA $ore di33icultA and $usicall( $ore co$)le8! 9 also share the 3ir$ 4elie3 o3 =ichard Sa%ino and othersA that Carulli <as a to)-tier 19th centur( guitar co$)oserA and %astl( under-rated! +ith a little )atience and access to $an( scoresA the ge$s in CarulliCs re)ertoire are <orth the search! St(listicall(A Carulli 3ollo<s the classical )eriod $old in the st(le o3 o.it sounds li-e the late 18th-centur( st(leA 3ast and light <ith a))ro)riate "a33ect" and inter)retation! 9n that st(leA e$otions and $oods <ere called "a33ects" and <ere con3ined to a section o3 a )iece! .o3 this $usic as "clichP" .and clearl( in 1810A )u4lished $usic 3ollo<ed the classical st(le! Carulli <as %er( acti%e as a co$)oser 3ro$ 1800-1820: a true "classical" guitarist! .he "a33ect" did not change until a ne< section: thusA in accordance <ith $ost "classical" )eriod $usicA indi%idual %ariations <ould 4e $aBor or $inorA and consistent in their "a33ect" .he "ro$antic" )eriod did not start until at least 1820#0A and <e do 3ind e%olution in CarulliCs later o)us nu$4ers to change <ith the ti$es so$e<hat! +hile $odern guitarists so$eti$es thin.art and 'a(dn .resoluteA sadA Bo(3ulA etc!! 9n the later ro$antic )eriodA "a33ects" changed 3reHuentl( and 3lo<ed ca)riciousl(! 9n the (ear 1810A Carulli <as alread( 40 (ears old .it $ust 4e noted ho< earl( this $usic <as )u4lishedA and as =ichard Long )oints outA Carulli in%ented $an( e33ects and )ortions o3 the guitarCs language that <ere ne< and inno%ati%e at the ti$eA and <idel( co)ied to the )oint that toda( the( see$ clichPs! ¬her )oint o3 inter)reting CarulliA is that the )ieces <ill surel( sound dull i3 (ou )la( it dull! 9n other <ordsA add d(na$icsA )hrasingA colorA intensit(A and e$otion to 4ring out the $usic! CarulliCs <riting <as not con3ined to .
ottiF! ario .he 9talian *uitar in the 19th-Centur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies .uscan( *uitar 6u4lications has a 3e< )ieces o3 Carulli! .he *F& &rchi%es also has a 3e< Carulli )iecesA including a nu$4er o3 3luteA %iolinA %iolaA and guitar duets! & large collection o3 e8tended ..ortaCs 4oo.solo guitar! 9n 3actA solo guitar <as the s$allest )ercentage o3 CarulliCs out)ut! CarulliCs serious <or-s 3or guitar duet are a$ong the 3inest in the entire re)ertoire Eone such duo <as recorded 4( 1ohn +illia$s and 1ulian Brea$FA and there are $an( suites to choose 3ro$! CarulliCs <or-s 3or )iano and guitar <ere recentl( recorded 4( Leo)oldo Saracino EguitarF and assi$o 6alu$4o E)ianoF: these <or-s co$)rise 3ull( 8 C0 =I CsU Carulli also recorded nu$erous duos 3or guitar and 3luteA guitar and %iolinA and *uitar .not 3or # guitarsFA in addition to %arious other co$4inationsA including cha$4er <or-s! 9n those da(sA CarulliCs %ision <as to treat the guitar Bust li-e an( other orchestral instru$entA and ense$4le )la(ing <as a huge )art o3 its )ur)ose! Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric-! See also .he di33icult( le%el %aries considera4l(D the concert <or-s are usuall( ediu$ di33icult(A 4ut se%eral <or-s reHuire %er( ad%anced techniHue to )la( at 3ull s)eed <ith the intended inter)retation! .a4out Carulli is a catalog <hich lists the co$)lete Carulli <or-s and their location: htt):QQ<<<!li$!itQcataloghiQ$usicalia00#torta!ht$ +i-i)edia &rticle listing CarulliCs o)us nu$4ers and their (ear: Carulli Co$)ositions List :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 Carulli <as a ca)a4le co$)oser <ho <as a4le to <rite $an( large scale <or-s 3or other instru$ents in addition to solo guitar )ieces! &s <as co$$on )racticeA Carulli co$)osed $ostl( arrange$ents or 3antasies o3 o)eras or 3ol.Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 .he $usic <as <ritten idio$aticall( to the guitar! Carulli also )u4lished $an( short and eas( )ieces 3or 4eginnersA including )ieces 3or 3irst (ear students! *i%en the %ariet( o3 out)ut Econcert solosA concert duetsA 4eginner duetsA 4eginner solosA concert cha$4er <or-sA 4eginner cha$4er <or-sFA Carulli <rote co$)ositions to a))eal a <ide audience! 9 3ir$l( 4elie%e that Carulli should 4e ele%ated in status as one o3 the 3inest )rinci)al co$)osers 3or the guitar! +!aila%le Repertoire1 &round 45 +or-s 4( Carulli are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! .ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba.as no dou4t there <as a si.rio Ee!g! 3or *uitarA FluteA and ?iolin .songsA in addition to a 3e< original the$esA and $an( the$e N %ariation )ieces! Li-e $ost guitarists o3 this eraA CarulliCs $usic can 4e classi3ied into 2 categories: %irtuoso concert <or-sA and a$ateur )ieces! Carulli also ga%e us a third categor(A that o3 "inter$ediate" )ieces 3or good a$ateur )la(ers .ea4le nu$4er o3 classical guitarists in 6aris loo-ing 3or good and )la(a4le $usic! an( o3 CarulliCs %irtuoso <or-s are su)er4 concert )ieces and real ge$s o3 the re)ertoire! .
)ossi4l( CarulliCs 4est solo <or-D recorded 4( =ichard Sa%ino on .<in-leA .he stor( is corn(A 4ut it hel)s in the inter)retation: 3or e8a$)leA ".<in-leA Little Star" o) "0 O# - "Carulli.Forget the di))(A short 4eginner duos! CarulliCs inter$ediate to %irtuoso duos are 3antastic! • LCIrageA o)! 2 .icholas 9souardCs o)era Cendrillon staged in 6aris E1810F or a di33erent o)era or 4alletA or )erha)s it <as a ne< <or-! 9t see$s to 4e orchestral <ritingA reduced to guitarA and it see$s to 4e 4allet-4asedA as %arious dance rh(th$s are e$)lo(ed! .in a )ure Classical st(le! .while on the table which is chastel$ inlaid with i(or$ and ebon$ 9 are the initials of 6usta(e Carulli car(ed in i(or$and forming the terminations of the scrolls of the bridge0 3he sound hole is unusual.el cor )iVA I)! 107FA and E=accolta di Sonate 0i%erseF .while he was a professor in that institution0 3his beautiful 4talian instrumentwith the dedication of his guitar method.a8os! # co$)lete SonatasA each <ith # $o%e$ents! • CendrillonA o)! 44! & three-)art <or..his is an earl( <or.& nice earl( <or-A again %er( $uch in the classical st(le! • .4oth ne<l( engra%ed: Ir)hee Gditions ECarulli 6age lin-F! Editor"s 9u))ested Pic(s1 • Cha$4er <or-s .o)eratic 3antasies is a%aila4le 3ro$ 0onald Sauter in the *uitar $usic in the Li4rar( o3 Congress! Ir)hee Gditions has 2 Carulli editions not a%aila4le else<here ESolo and ?ariations on .be1ueathed his guitar to the museum of the 2ational Conser(atoire of Music.he 3irst $o%e$ent is a li%el( o%erture! .& straight-3or<ard classical suite! • *rande SonateA o)! 1"! .he 3inal section has a <onder3ul BaroHue-st(le seHuence! • Sonata o) 5 • Iu%ertureA I)! " O1 ..was presented b$ 5erdinand Carulli to his son (6usta(e" in 181!0 4t was constructed from his designs in elegant rosewood with mar1uetr$ of i(or$ and ebon$.he =ondo is straight-3or<ard <riting and $eant to 4e )la(ed %er( 3ast! • SoloA o)! 20 .he s-( dar-ens" should de3initel( trigger the guitarist to )la( the $usic to $atch the stor(! Cle%er e33ects 3or i$itating <indA rainA thunderA and hail are used! .he $usic is dra$atic and %aried .guitar <ith 3luteA %iolaA )ianoA %iolin: our 4est ense$4le re)ertoire! • 0uets .he stor( is o3 a thunder stor$A a lo%e stor(A and a 4attle <ith a $onster! .rois Sonates o) 21 .in )laces it sounds =enaissance or BaroHueA in other areas o)eratic! .he $elodies are in3ectiousA as 9 3ind $( sel3 <histling the tunes 3ro$ this <or-! 9t is not di33icult! • ?ariations on ".he "<ailing o3 the she)herdess" $elod( is si$)l( haunting! .being partiall$ closed b$ a delicate i(or$ cameo of a muse pla$ing a l$re0" - .his is a %er( earl( <or-A dating 3ro$ 18001810! 9t is a stor( 3or guitar and recited %oiceA 4ut <or-s <ell as a solo )iece! 9n this earl( <or-A <e 3ind $an( o3 CarulliCs "3a%orite lic-s" as <ell as )assages o3 great 4eaut( and li%elinessA and cle%er use o3 the guitar! .he &dagio $iddle $o%e$ent is one o3 the $ost 4eauti3ul )assages 9 ha%e encountered! .the head and nec7 are most cle(erl$ e8ecutedterminating in the form of a bow of ribbon.his can 4e 3ound in %arious anthologies! 9t is a %er( classical-)eriod o%ertureD 3astA li%el(A and coo-s <hen )la(ed at 3ull te$)o! • # Sonatines o) 7 .4ased on the "Cinderella" stor(D the section o3 the stor( is $entioned as the $usic occursA as the $usic is e%ocati%e o3 the stor( line! CarulliCs o)us 44 <as )u4lished in 6arisA a )ot)ourri! 9t $a( re3er to .
<hich e%o-es the a<-<ard ga)ing <al. there <as ?an 'alen $uch later!!! Solo and ?ariations on .heeFA 9talian .uscan( 6u4lications E%er( good edition 9 IF! I2A e%er(one -no<s this $elod(A <hich <as originall( a French tune 3ro$ 17"1A <hich o.as <e $ust re$e$4erA 3irst there <as CarulliA and .& =uggero Chiesa $odern edition e8ists 4ut $a( 4e out o3 )rint! I3 the " "&ndante" )iecesA se%eral o3 the$ are a))ealing: $( 3a%eCs are O1 and es)eciall( O2! Carulli uses $an( di33icult notation 3igures and so$e o3 the )ieces see$ li-e <ritten-out i$)ro%isationsA 4ut O2 is a %er( nice )iece <hich 4rings out the $idrange on the Lacote! Louis.el cor )iVA I)! 107 ..his is an interesting <or.artA Beetho%enA and others used as a %ariation su4Bect! CarulliCs )iece is i$aginati%e in its use o3 the guitar and <orth the e33ortA as it is a challenge! .arie 0u%illard EFranceF reco$$ends these <or-s as <ell: Solo o)! 11#A # Solos o)! 7"A Solo o)! 229 ELes &dieu8FA 6olonaise o)! 141A Sonate o)!1" .Lots o3 3unU " )ieces <ith %ariations: French ?i%e 'enri Ruatre Eancient airFA S)anish Fandango E3ier(UFA Gnglish &ir E*od Sa%e the 2ing Q ( Countr( .he$e <ith ?ariations and =ondo o) 1"2 .arantellaA =ussian Chanson Ethe 3a$ous Shone in-aFA and a da.the( are all Ee8ce)t o)! 229FA in re)rint 4( " in-o33 re)rint editions" E4ut not on =GMF! 7ui)i Castellacci -1797-184?/ &ccording to =ichard LongA Luigi Castellacci <as an 9talian %irtuoso o3 the $andolin and the guitar <ho later $o%ed to 6aris in the 1820Cs and <as a conte$)orar( o3 SorA CosteA CarulliA and Carcassi in 6aris! .is o3 .ota4l(A a 19th centur( source indicates Castellacci )la(ed in concert <ith Sor on at least one occasion! ost o3 his $usic is the$e and %ariations o3 o)erasA <hich are re<arding to )la( 4ecause the( reHuire inter$ediate a4ilit( to )la(A 4ut achie%e great $usical e33ect! .=ichard Long )ro%ided this in the *F& Sound4oard $aga.this is intended to 4e i$4ellished <ith 3ier( stru$$ingA etc! La *ira3e!! o) #0" .lots o3 9th )osition )assages <hich sounds s<eet on )eriod guitars! # 0i%erti$ents al Gs)agnole o) 209 ..ineD it is a nice set o3 %ariations on the 3a$iliar Folias tune! .• • • • 6hili) Bone • • • • • .irolienne Eit <as )o)ular to co)( horn $usic thenF! Folias o3 S)ainA ?ariationsA o)! 75 O2 .es)eciall( O# .ooA the e8)ositionA and so 3orth! " 0i%ertisse$ents Brillants o) #17 EChanterelleF .ling &ustrian .uscan( 6u4lications has a nice edition <ith e8cellent )age turns and 3old-outs! .+hile $ost o3 this $usic is good 4ut not greatA the O5 Bolero is sauc( and %er( "S)anish"! " ESeiF &ndantiA o)! #20 .ational &irs o3 6eo)les o3 Guro)e o) 7# .'G.here are se%eral "guitar lic-s" such as )ull-o33Cs .o3 the *ira33e at the 6aris .
he Ir)hee Gditions Cordero 6age contains additional 4iogra)hical in3or$ation and descri4es their edition o3 Fernando Cru. Cordero $usic co$)osed in circa 1851A "Si8 0i%ertisse$ents 3or *uitar"A introduced 4( elanie 6lesch! Fernando Cordero is not to 4e con3used <ith the $odern co$)oser and guitarist Grnesto Cordero E4orn in 194" in .3ernando Cru> Cordero -18BB-1801/ Fernando Cru.a8os chose to record these )ieces on "-string guitarA thus $issing the e8tended sonorit( o3 the 7 and 8 string guitars 3or <hich the )ieces <ere co$)osed! 6la(ers <ho ha%e onl( a "-string guitar should not 4e inti$idated 4( the occasional 7th string! CosteCs )u4lications indicate that the )la(er can raise the octa%e o3 these notesA 4ut he )re3ers the 7string! .a8os Co$)lete +or-s o3 Coste on C0A 3or onl( a4out Y5 )er C0! .A Gs)aXaA d! 18 Ict 1859A onte%ideoA Jrugua( E3ro$ htt):QQgenealogia3a$iliar!netF! Cordero <as a la<(er and 3ree$asonA as <ell as a gi3ted guitarist! Cordero li%ed in Buenos &iresA &rgentina and later tra%elled to Guro)e! .his 7 string $usic is )er3ectl( )la(a4le on a "-string guitarA 4( raising the octa%e o3 the lo< 0A or )la(ing in 0ro)-0 tuningA de)ending on the )iece! .he Hualit( o3 the $usic is <orth<hile to do so! Coste )la(ed and <rote 3or "-stringA 7stringA and )erha)s 8-string guitar de)ending on the )iece! 9n the co$)lete <or-s seriesA (ou <ill 3ind a $i8ture o3 "-7 string )iecesA though $ostl( 7-string! . (clic7 thumbnail to see larger image" . 180? .a8os is issuing the .e the 3ull sonorit( o3 the $usic! 9t is a su4tle e33ectA 4ut %er( nice <hen used! See the 7-stringA 8-string N 10-string *uitars 6age 3or $ore detail a4out the 3loating 7-string Coste-st(le guitar! 9 enBo( )la(ing Coste on $( 8-string Stau33er co)( 4( 2resse! Ine 4iogra)hical detail is <orth noting: 180" <as co$$onl( 4elie%ed to 4e CosteCs 4irth date until .io)raphical .e< Lor-F! 6apoleon Coste.he lo< 0 is used s)aringl(A so there is not a 4ig sacri3ice to raise its octa%e! 'o<e%erA i3 (ou ha%e a 7-string or 8-string classical guitarA (ou can o3 course reali. Cordero <as 4orn in onte%ideoA Jrugua( in 1822A died 21 &ug 18"#! 'is 3ather <as Fernando arWa CorderoA 4orn 0# 1un 1789A in C@di.nformation1 .hese C0Cs are o3 good Hualit( and highl( reco$$endedA though it is regretta4le that .a)oleon Coste studied <ith Fernando SorA <ho dedicated 2 )ieces to Coste! CosteCs $usic is si$ilar to SorCsA 4ut <ith a $ore =o$antic French st(le! CosteCs $usic is e8cellent Hualit( o%erallA trul( 3antastic ge$sA and )ieces range in di33icult(! So$e o3 CosteCs concert <or-s deser%e an e$inent )lace in the re)ertoire! Sego%ia onl( recorded a 3e< etudes 4( CosteD these are nice )iecesA 4ut not re)resentati%e o3 the high Hualit( o3 CosteCs e8tended <or-s! .188.he 7th string <as usuall( the lo< 0A 4ut <as so$eti$es tuned to C! Si$on +(n4erg clai$s in the Chanterelle te8t that C and 0 are 3ound in the sa$e <or-A and thus there $ight ha%e 4een an 8-string guitar on occasion! 93 soA the 8th string al<a(s lo< C! 'o<e%erA 9 3ound that the C and 0 occur in di33erent $o%e$ents and thus the 7th string <as )ro4a4l( re-tuned! .
o3 CosteCs $usic as 4eing "accessi4le" .and regional )ieces is e8ce)tional! ost o3 the <or-s $a-e use o3 the 7-string guitarA 4ut it is e33ecti%e on "-string! .alent" and reHuire at least $ediu$ a4ilit(! Coste had a long li3e s)anA and <as )u4lishing $usic 3ro$ the 18#0Cs through the 1870Cs! 0uring this 40 (ear )eriodA $usic changed considera4l(A and CosteCs $usic changed <ith the ti$es! 9 3ind a lot o3 %ariet( and originalit( in his $usicA and Coste ran-s as )erha)s $( )ersonal 3a%orite 19th centur( co$)oser! .he .asA and so$e earl( chro$aticis$! +!aila%le Repertoire1 &round 50 +or-s 4( Coste are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GMA $ost o3 the soloA duoA and o4oe <or-sA including a cou)le o3 rarities not )u4lished 4( Chanterelle: short )ieces 3or %oice N guitarA and one 3or o4oe and )iano! &lso chec.e.ot sur)risingl(A $uch o3 his $usic sounds li-e SorA 4ut Coste has his o<n uniHue st(le as <ellA and tended to 4orro< 3ro$ other ti$e )eriods and st(les <ith certain character )ieces! Later <or-s 4eca$e $ore ro$antic in characterA <ith e8tended canden.he re$aining %ariations are cle%erl( arranged! • Sou%enirs de Flandres o) 5 <ith " )iecesD O#A O4 es)eciall( and O" .BoiBe! .3or this in3oF! Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric-! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 Coste <as li$ited to )ieces 3or one guitarA or at $ost 2 instru$ents! ost o3 his out)ut is guitar solosA <ith so$e 3ine duets and $usic 3or %iolinQ3luteQo4oe and guitarA and a 3e< short )ieces 3or )iano and o4oe or )iano and %oice! &s <as co$$on )racticeA Coste co$)osed $ostl( arrange$ents or 3antasies o3 o)eras or 3ol.songsA in addition to a 3e< original the$esA and $an( the$e N %ariation )ieces! .a8os C0 a%aila4le! &s <ith the ti$e )eriodA this is an o)eratic %ariation set .Gntirel( "-string and an earl( <or-! *ood .arantelle has 4een recorded .since it <as <ritten idio$aticall( to the guitar and concei%ed 3or a realistic le%el o3 a4ilit(! Coste <as )articularl( s-illed at <riting 3or the guitar so that the 3ingerings are naturalA <ith no a<-<ardness! Coste did not )u4lish eas( $usic 3or 3irst (ear studentsD his Gtudes are dedicated to "&$ateurs o3 .arantelle ..Brian 1e33er( later 3ound the 4irth certi3icate <hich con3ir$ed 1805 as the correct date Ethan-s to Brigitte :ac.&lso an earl( "-string <or.houghA the $ore ad%anced <or-s do reHuire an acco$)lished )ro3essional to $a-e the$ sound 3luid and 3la<less! 9 li-e to thin.and so$e<hat ad%anced! .3lash(A (et idio$atic and $usical! • Fantaisie on Ballet dC&r$ideA o) 4 .his earl( set o3 arrange$ents o3 French 3ol.he introduction is a 4eauti3ul C-$inor dra$aA re$iniscent o3 a Sor adagio! .he di33icult( le%el o3 $ost Coste )iecesA including the concert <or-sA is usuall( ediu$ to &d%anced di33icult(A <hich $a-es this $usic a))ealing to acco$)lished a$ateur )la(ers! & 3e< )ieces reHuire ad%anced techniHueA 4ut not so ad%anced as to $a-e the$ out o3 reach! .here is onl( one )u4lished source o3 CosteCs co$)lete 3acsi$ile <or-sA Chanterelle GditionsA resold 4( el Ba( usic 6u4lishers 6u4lications! ?olu$es 1-" and 9 are solo $aterialD %olu$e 7 is guitar duetsA and %olu$e 8 is 3luteQo4oeQ%iolin and guitar duets! So$e %olu$es are 4eco$ing scarceA indicating )erha)s this is 3ast going out o3 )rint! Editor"s 9u))ested Pic(s1 • ?ariations on "&ir de la Fa$ille Suisse" 4( +eiglA o) 2 .
ilA o)! 19A Le :u(der.a8os! Iriginall( an un)u4lished <or-A it is a 3lo<ingA $ood( ca)rice! SCa)rice on the S)anish &ir La CachuchaA o) 1# .o3 CosteCs in $odern ti$es! artha asters and others ha%e good recordings o3 this )iece! 9t e%o-es an ancient renaissance 3ol.ee o) 20A and Les ClochesA o)! 21 .cFadden recorded this 3or .Gntirel( "-string! & 4eauti3ul <or-A li%el( and )assionate! *rand Ca)riceA o) 11 .he introduction is the sa$e as the 6assage 0es &l)es and is o)tional! .his )iece re3ers to historical e%ents on 0ec! 29A 1855! .in $ood and st(leF .are hisA and <hich are straight arrange$ents o3 Bellini! .or$aA o) 1" .& suite <hich is one o3 CosteCs 4est and $ost )o)ular <or-s! .his )o)ular 3ol.is an all ti$e 3a%orite o3 $ineD re3ers to the $ountain $en o3 the French re%olution! &lso nota4le are o)! 18 Les Bords 0u =hinA 0el3.he 7th string lo<-0 is onl( 3ound once and it does not add $uchA so 9 )la( this <oron "-string guitar! S&ndante et 6olonaise o) 44A Sou%enir du 1ura .he 6olonaise section is entirel( "-string and an e8cellent recording o3 it 4( 6a%el Steidl is a%aila4le on . O#A4SA"A7A10A12 ..• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • se)aratel( 4( se%eral artistsD it is "-string and is an e8cellent e8a$)le o3 the 3or$! Fantaisie de ConcertA on e(er4eerA o)! "! =ecorded 4( F! :igante on .his %ersion <as recorded 4( Staro4inD it is 3airl( eas( 4ut gi%es a so$4er character and uses the guitarCs lo<er ranges! 'ere <e 3ind the 7th string tuned do<n to C on 1 note! d SLe 6assage 0es &l)es o) 27A28A40 .esA CosteCs are $usical and interestingA and not all that di33icult! Se%eral recordings ha%e 4een $ade o3 or 3ro$ this set! SLucia di La$er$oor ?ariationsA o) 9 .es on StraussA o) 7 .Staro4inCs recording stands out in $( $ind as the 4est! .Ine o3 CosteCs 4est )iecesA and a$ong the 3a%orites o3 his students! Le 0e)art o) #1A es)eciall( Le =etour .is 3lash(A $usicalA and %aried! Ine o3 $( )ersonal 3a%orites! Sou%enirs o) 17-2#A .&n ancient airD Sor also arranged this <or.although 9 usuall( do not li-e short <alt.he other $o%e$ents o3 the Sou%enirs suite did not a))eal to $e! La =o$anesca o) 19E4is!F .in G $inor and $elanchol(! ..he $usic is uniHue to CosteCs st(le and is )erha)s the $ost o3ten recorded <or.+hile 9 nor$all( do not li-e short <alt.6u4lished in 1878A this is a ro$antic <or-A si$ilar to SorCs ?illegoise Fantas( o)! 52 in character! .song <as arranged 4( a nu$4er o3 co$)osersA 4ut CosteCs stands out as a $aster3ul arrange$ent! 6olonaise o)! 14 .a8os! SFantaisie sur La .he introduction e%o-es the $aBestic al)sA and the re$aining # $o%e$ents are inter$ediate in a4ilit( and $elodic! S25 Gtudes: o) #8 .hese "G)isode" )ieces are all in %er( di33erent character! .Coste notes <hich )arts o3 the <or.Consists o3 the so$4er 3uneral $arch Esi$ilar to SorCs <or.$ostl( 3or 7-stringA $an( ge$s! Gasil( co$)ara4le to SorCs Studies in Hualit(! For an( 7-10 string )la(erA these )ieces are essential! &utu$n Foliage o) 41: +alt.esA these # stand out o3 the set! Funeral arch o) 4# .a8os! &n e8citing ad%anced <or-D it $a-es 3ull use o3 7 strings and goes to the 22nd 3retA 4ut the $odern recording is still e33ecti%e <ith "-strings and har$onics in )lace o3 the highest originall( 3retted notes! 1" +alt.he o)! 17A ?allee dCIrnans and es)eciall( Les ontagnards .his )iece is rich in character! La Source du L(son o) 47 .the$e and is a concert <or-! .3or %iolin and guitar! .Fugue et =ondeau interestingl(A the Fugue 3or$ <as not )o)ular in guitar $usicD Coste <as Huite in%enti%e to )ull 3ro$ BaroHue co$)ositional 3or$ and use delight3ul BaroHue seHuences a la Bach or ?i%aldi! .he =ondeau &llegretto section is a $ore li%el( <or-! .his <or.
<hich <as )o)ular in that region and ti$e )eriod . including 3o""ani.e was the son of *riedrich Schenk.hese are all <ritten 3or 10-string guitarA 4ut $ost )ieces utili.he lo< notes are indicated "8" 4ut notated <ithin the nor$al "-string octa%e rangeA thus "-string )la(ers can also )la( this $usic! So$e o3 this $usic is sch$alt. where he established himself as the premier virtuoso and teacher of guitar. As he learned the guitar from his father.49." .he .3ro$ .u$4er =iBS1075-1 and =iBS1075-2F! . .o3 .4urg! &t this ti$e he tea$ed u) <ith Frederic. but moved to St.his is a good e8a$)le o3 the o)eratic 3antas( genreD an e8tended concert <or3ro$ the un)u4lished series 4( Chanterelle! • +dam :arr -1811-1800/ oti%icall(-4ased high Hualit( co$)ositions 3or soloA duoA and Huart guitar! 9 s)o-e <ith 1oe Costello o3 6hoeni8A &ri.esA )ol-as and such .a su)er4 and gri))ing concert <or-! • 9ntroduction et ?ariations sur !! =ossini .*regg inerA 'ar)*uitars!.or4ert Fischer <ohann :ec(er-9chen( -18B0-1899/ =ecker&Schenk was born in 'ienna.( Ethin.this stands out as a $elodic and <ell-cra3ted <or3ro$ the set! • S&ndante et &llegro Eno o)usF . 2etersburg in .e onl( 2 lo< notes in the )iece <hich $a-es it suited to 8-string guitar as <ell! .et =GM and BoiBe contain a 3e< scores! .. who created the spectacular single and dual arm harp guitars. it is likely that =ecker&Schenk utili"ed these instruments during his career.Eno o)usF .he BoiBe collection also has so$e o3 the duets $issing 3ro$ =GM and a 3e< solo <or-sA $ostl( short! "0arrCs talents in co$)osing and )er3or$ing on the guitar are <ell docu$entedA 4ut his a4ilities in singing and on the .onaA <ho disco%ered the <or-s o3 &da$ 0arr in a *er$an li4rar( <hile tra%elling to Guro)e! 1oe is <or-ing to )u4lish these 3ine <or-s Esee 1ose)hCostello SiteF! =GM contains a 3e< short )ieces in an antholog( as <ell as a large nu$4er o3 e8cellent duets 3or 2 guitars in an Gggers EeditorF %olu$e E$usic 3ro$ &!0arr in the . copied by many luthiers.inuetto all a.ither are little -no<n to )resent da( $usic 3ans o3 the guitar! 0arr <as 4orn at Sch<ein3urtA *er$an(A 1811 and died at &ugs4urgA in 18""! &t the age o3 eighteen he 4egan his $usical acti%ities in )er3or$ance and tra%elled throughout Guro)e )er3or$ing 4e3ore ro(al courts! &t the end o3 his tour in =ussiaA he re$ained in St! 6eters4urg to teach and )er3or$ and a3ter three (ears returned to a )osition in +ur.4ut other .our-aA 3ro$ o)! 50 .a8os recording 4( 6a%el Steidl is <ell done! .arregaCs "=osita 6ol-a" as the general st(leF <ith <alt.. 7ther clues include a (ussian guitar catalog which lists the wappen& shaped harp guitar as the "=ecker&Schenck model.Brand and 4egan a relationshi) as a guitar duet )er3or$ing throughout *er$an( until his death Icto4er 22A 18""!" .
he longer )ieces are $ore challenging and interesting! ost i$)ortantl(A 0egen <as a $aster cellist and <rote $an( )ieces 3or cello and guitar a%aila4le 3ro$ 1ens =as$ussen and ..he 4est <or.<ith (ou S>33ren 0egen E181"-1885F 1ens Bang =as$ussen has <or-ed <ith .iau-*a%otte: Be <arnedA this $elod( <ill stic.ecla Gditions to )ro%ide do<nloada4le $usic scores and 4iogra)hies 3ro$ t<o i$)ortant 0anish co$)osers .18?8 / .<or-s deser%e $eritA including: • 2leinrussische .he instru$ent 0egen used <as $ade 4( Stau33er! St(listicall(A the $usic is close to CosteCs st(le! .4( the =ussian co$)oser Saren-o 4ut arranged 4( 0ec-erSchen• Fantaisie =o$antiHue .1781 .hese are )eha)s the $ost i$)ortant <or-s 3or cello and guitar in the 19th centur( re)ertoireA and the( are 0egenCs 3inest <or-s as <ell! +nton :ia%elli .-4ased )ieces! .he $usic is goodA 4ut not Huite at the co$)ositional le%el o3 Coste! 0egen has his o<n st(le to so$e degreeA and at $o$ents he can <rite 3ine and interesting $usic <ith de)th! &t other ti$esA the $usic can 4e too 3or$ula4asedA es)eciall( the shorter <alt.<eise .(rolienne .0egen and =ung! 0egen had %er( close ties to .a)olPon CosteA and the $usic also e$)lo(s the o)tional 7th string Etuned to C or 0A de)ending on the )ieceF! For )la(ers <ith 7A 8A or 10string guitarsA this is a <elco$e addition to the re)ertoire! .9 I 3ound in =e8 or BoiBe • .he 7th string can 4e raised an octa%e 3or "string guitars as it is used s)aringl(! .ecla Gditions! .an.&ustrian st(le • 2iss-2iss.
hese )ieces are char$ingA 4ut not o3 the Hualit( o3 *iuliani! &s a )u4lisherA 0ia4elli )u4lished thousands o3 <or-s 3or $an( instru$entsA and 4eca$e <ealth( as the o<ner o3 ?iennaCs leading )u4lishing 3ir$! an( guitar co$)ositions <ere )u4lished 4( 0ia4elliA including .*uitaristA Co$)oserA 6ianistA 6u4lisher! 0ia4elli is $ost 3a$ous 3or the the$e u)on <hich Beetho%en 4ased an e8tensi%e set o3 %ariationsA and 3or 4eing Beetho%enCs )u4lisher! 0ia4elli co$)osed <or-s 3or guitar soloA duoA and guitar <ith other instru$entsA including $an( )ieces 3or guitar and 3orte-)iano! .
he Fantaisie 'ongrois stands out as )ro4a4l( the 4est <or-A and =o4ert . <as a ?iennese guitarist <ho studied <ith ert.A and )oints out that these <or-s are ela4orateA onl( 3or )ro3essionals Eli-e Lis.au has researched 0u4e.rent has included this in concert )rogra$s! 9t 4orro<s 3ro$ the ert. and 4eca$e a %irtuoso concert guitarist! Inl( a 3e< <or-s <ere )u4lishedA <hich can 4e 3ound 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM Eincluding the ert. <ere )u4lishedA and )ro4a4l( due to the technical reHuire$entsA other )ieces <ere )ro4a4l( sold as hand-co)ied .$an( *iuliani 3irst editions! 9nterestingl(A as docu$ented in 0r! 'ec-Cs 4iogra)h(A *iuliani once <rote in a )ri%ate letter to a 3riend that 0ia4elli earned his "eternal conte$)t" 3or )u4lishing )ractices <hich enriched 0ia4elli at the )er3or$erCs e8)ense! Se%eral <or-s are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! <ohann :u%e> -18B8-1891/ 0u4e. )iece o3 the sa$e title 4ut is a ne< co$)osition! +hile challengingA it is not i$)ossi4le to )la(! ichael Sie4erichs-.-st(le 'ungarian Fantas(FA and also se%eral hand-<ritten $anuscri)ts can 4e 3ound in BoiBe! 'is co$)ositions $a-e e8tensi%e use o3 the 10-string guitarA and it is nearl( 3ruitless to atte$)t these )ieces <ith less than an 8-string instru$ent! 9t also reHuires 22-24 3rets on so$e )iecesA clearl( 3or the Stau3er-st(le guitar! ost o3 the <or-s are e8tre$el( di33icultA <ith 3ast note 3lourishesA and clearl( <ritten 3or %irtuoso )la(ers! 9n the later 19th centur(A as the ro$antic )eriod 3lourishedA instru$ental %irtuosit( and senti$ent <ere )re%alent and so$eti$es o%erdone! . Bio E9n *er$anF 0u4e.tF! &))arentl(A onl( 2 <or-s 4( 0u4e.
" &ccording to 4( Grling >ldru)A )ro3essor o3 guitar at the =o(al &cade$( o3 usic in Zrhus 0en$ar-: "Adolph Dulius /ggers. even he was a properly educated composer.nfortunately. /ggers also published >. duets for : guitars and >. =anish and foreign. guitar e8tensi%el(! an( o3 the 3a$ous ro$antic guitar co$)osers such as ert. +antor and guitarist.! .he 1a$es +est4roo.er design <ith cuta<a( 3or eas( u))er 3ret accessA and 10 strings! Brigitte :ac. %hese are arrangements which are still in use today.dvalgte Bompositioner? @Selected CorksA for guitar solo by D. A real treasure for every guitarist and singer to e plore.he arrange$ents are o3 high editorial Hualit(! 3ernando 3erandiere -1771-1810/ Fernando Ferandiere enBo(ed a high ran.=udert E+arsa<F!" +dolph <ulius E))ers -18?9-1919/ ¬her later guitarist <orth $entioning concerning ro$antic guitar is &! Gggers! &ccording to 0aniel Fr(-lund on the Ir)hee <e4 siteA "/ggers was amongst other things a guitar teacher in +openhagen and produced a great number of song collections with guitar accompaniment. B.he actual guitar used 4( 0u4e. can 4e 3ound in the Gggers editions! .ocar la *uitarra Gs)agnola )or usica"A a $ethod in $odern notation 3or the si8-string guitar! . /ggers was another of the =anish music personalities who were hopelessly in love with the guitar. inside! 9t does not see$ to ha%e 4een 4uilt in ?ienna 4ut according to &le8 .hese are a ethod 3or guitarA as <ell as duet collections 3ro$ around 1900-1920 <hich use ter.e-indl( )ro%ided )hotos o3 a guitar she "recentl( aHuired at an auction in ?ienna: a %er( )eculiar s)eci$en o3 a 10 string guitarA unla4eled 4ut <ith the signature o3 1ohann 0u4e. he did not write any compositions for the guitar.: Spanish =ances and 3elodiesA for mandolin and guitar.s)onsored C0 Esee =ecordings )ageF has a 3e< nice )ieces 4( Ferandiere on a "-course 6ages guitar! . believe meE" Se%eral <or-s 4( Gggers are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! .as a guitarist in the eighteenth centur( and <as s)o-en o3 in glo<ing ter$s 4( 0ioniso &guado! .$anuscri)ts indi%iduall( 4( the co$)oserA a )ractice <hich is <elldocu$ented during this ti$e )eriod and done 4( ert. has sur3aced: a Stau3erQScher. but however created an enormous amount of wonderful guitar accompaniments of songs by the greatest composers. .his re$ar-a4le )roli3ic co$)oser <rote t<o hundred and thirt( 3i%e <or-s! FerandiereCs $ost in)ortant contri4ution to the classical guitar <as his "&rte de .: Spanske =anse og 3elodier? @. 3ert".i$$er$an it sho<s so$e si$ilarities <ith instru$ents 4uilt 4( 'enr(.
he BoiBe collection contains 2 <or-s not in =GM or Ir)hee! Enea Gardana .<o o3 these <or-s 9 enBo( %er( $uchA including the Bolero o)! 22 <hich is an arrage$ent o3 ?erdiCs ?es)ri Siciliani 3or "-string guitarD a 3ier( S)anishsounding )ieceA the the$e o3 <hich also 3or$s the 4asis o3 a 4olero 4( 1ulian &rcas! .he I)hee edition is su)er4: it has a good 4iogra)h(A )lus the $usic con3or$s as a true urte8t edition to the originals and 9 )re3er these editions to the 3acsi$ile! Ir)hee has also released a ne<l( disco%ered <or-A .1809 / Fran/ois 0e Fossa is 4eginning to gain notice as a $aBor co$)oser o3 su4stantial $erit! .he $usic is challenging 4ut <ell <orth the e33ort! Fossa <as not o4liged to $a-e a li%ing at $usicA and thus held to the highest artistic standards o3 co$)osition! .he outstanding article o3 ! I)hee )ro%ides 4iogra)hical details: F=&.h]$e de Beetho%en! .9 ha%e 4een una4le to locate an( 4iogra)hical in3or$ation on *ardana! .177? .roisi\$e Fantaisie I)! 10 sur un .3ranEois :e 3ossa .[I9S 0G FISS&A & French *uitarist in e8ico 4( atan(a I)heeA and I)hee )u4lishes se%eral <or-s 4( Fossa! .here is one 3ine guitar duet in the =GM collection! .here are 19 o)us <or-s a%aila4le 3ro$ =GM and $an( 3ro$ BoiBe as <ell! &ll are ad%anced le%elA and se%eral <ere <ritten 3or guitar <ith 9 strings! .he solo )ieces are ad%anced and $usicall( richA and the cha$4er )ieces sho< FossaCs true ca)a4ilities at larger-scale <or-s! ?er( little guitar $usic sur%i%esA 4ut <hat re$ains is su)er4A including an e8cellent set o3 cha$4er )ieces <ith guitarA and the e8ce)tional 'a(dn arrange$ents! Fossa <as a 3riend o3 &guado! .
he guitar <riting is idio$atic and cle%erD al<a(s using the guitar to its 3ullest ca)acit(A so that see$ingl( di33icult )ieces are logical and attaina4le! &s <ith SorA the )arts are "correct" as the( said 4acthen .nformation1 *iuliani le3t his nati%e 9tal( in his earl( 20Cs 3or ?iennaA <here he <as a$ong the elite co$)osers in ?ienna during the earl( 19th centur(! 'is 3riends included Beetho%enA Schu4ertA 'u$$elA =ossiniA and 6aganiniA and he )er3or$ed 3or the to) %enues and )eo)le o3 his age! *iuliani )la(ed the guitarA L(ra guitarA <as an acco$)lished %ocalistA and cellist <ho )la(ed cello in the <orld )re$ier o3 Beetho%enCs 7th s($)hon(! *iuliani <rote a 3e< co$)lete concertosA <ith assistance 3ro$ 'u$$el to orchestrate the$A as <ell as a great deal o3 cha$4er $usic and duets 3or 2 guitarsA 3luteA )ianoA and %iolin! Late night Ba$ sessions <ith Schu4ert and 3riends <ere <ee-l(A as <ell as concert a))earances and colla4oration <ith other elite $usicians <hich <ere a 3reHuent occurence! *iulianiCs 200K %ocal <or-s ha%e 4een co$)ared to Schu4ertCs in their Hualit(A and )ossi4l( sur)ass the$! &s a close 3riend o3 =ossiniA *iuliani <as gi%en original $anuscri)ts to arrange as he li-edA and access to =ossini 3or in)ut on his =ossini arrange$ents! *iulianiCs solo <or-s nu$4er o%er 18 %olu$es through . 1781 .18B9 .hi$ as one o3 the greatest )er3or$ers o3 the guitar to ha%e e%er li%ed! *iulianiCs $usic is li%el(A interestingA d(na$ic and con%incing! .in other <ordsA )ro)er %oice leadingA har$on(A and 3ull )arts <ritten out! .his $usic <as )o)ular .io)raphical .5auro Giuliani.ecla! &cross the 4oardA conte$)orar( re%ie<s o3 his )la(ing ran.
has )u4lished a co$)lete 4iogra)h( o3 this di%erseA )roli3icA and a$a..E1940F! G$ilia *iulianiA auroCs daughterA also )u4lished a 3e< <or-sA as did ichel *iulianiA auroCs son! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 *iuliani <as a ca)a4le co$)oser <ho <as a4le to <rite $an( large scale <or-s 3or other instru$ents in addition to solo guitar )ieces! *iuliani <rote # 3ull guitar concertosA and $an( <or-s 3or 2 guitarsA %iolinA 3luteA and )iano <ith guitar! &s <as co$$on )racticeA *iuliani co$)osed $an( arrange$ents or 3antasies o3 o)eras or 3ol.he di33icult( le%el %aries considera4l(! .he concert <or-s are usuall( ediu$ to &d%anced di33icult(A <ith se%eral <or-s that reHuire %irtuoso techniHueA 4ut $an( 3ine concert )ieces are accessi4le to inter$ediate )la(ers! .his includes soloA duoA 3lute N guitarA and a 3e< rarities! an( di33erent %ersions o3 each score are a%aila4le! .songsA in addition to original the$esA and $an( the$e N %ariation )ieces! Li-e $ost guitarists o3 this eraA *iulianiCs $usic can 4e classi3ied into 2 categories: %irtuoso concert <or-sA and a$ateur )ieces! an( o3 *iulianiCs %irtuoso <or-s are su)er4 concert )ieces and the %er( 4est ge$s o3 the entire guitar re)ertoire! .ing co$)oser o3 the 19th centur( guitarD it is a%aila4le through Gditions Ir)hee! 9 ha%e read 0r! 'ec-Cs 4oo-A and 9 <ould highl( reco$$end it! For an o%er%ie<A read 0r! Brian 1e33er(Cs article: .ottiF! Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric.ecla GditionsA 0r! Brian 1e33er( ed!A )u4lished the entire Co$)lete +or-s o3 *iuliani: %ol! 1-18 Solo <or-sA %ol! 19-24 0uetsA %ol! 25-#2 ConcertosA %ol! ##-#9 Ither <or-s Eguitar and other instru$entsA and %ocal <or-sF! .Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 .u)on its releaseA and has <ithstood the test o3 ti$e! *iuliani is <ithout a dou4t a$ong the to) # co$)osers 3or the guitar in the 19th centur(A and )ro4a4l( 3or all ti$e! 0r! 'ec.ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba.he original editions %ar( in reada4ilit(A 4ut $ost o3 the$ are %er( .he $usic <as <ritten idio$aticall( to the guitar! *iuliani also )u4lished $an( short and eas( )ieces 3or 4eginnersA including )ieces 3or 3irst (ear students! *i%en the %ariet( o3 out)ut Econcert solosA concert duetsA 4eginner duetsA 4eginner solosA concert cha$4er <or-sA 4eginner cha$4er <or-sFA *iuliani <rote co$)ositions to a))eal a <ide audience! +!aila%le Repertoire1 an( <or-s 4( *iuliani are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! .he 9talian *uitar in the 19thCentur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies .otes on *iulianiCs $usic! See also .
ilia" 4( 6acini! 9 disco%ered this )iece sight reading the *iuliani co$)lete <or-sA and it has al<a(s stuc. 0ibrarians all over the world were tremendously helpful.through ..he 3irstA o)! 119 is one o3 the $ost <idel( recorded and concerti.u %edrai" 3ro$ BelliniCs 9l 6irata" and "=ondongino Brillante" • Concerto in & aBor . every piece with new bibliographical notes establishing the original te t and often giving lists of suggestions for performance & while making absolutely clear that any such lists were only a starting point for performers.ed )ieces in the entire guitar re)ertoire! • I)! 150: *ran Sonata Groica . without e ception.ionali na)oletani! &ccording to 0r! 1e33er(: "! am writing this piece as the editor of all of GiulianiFs music & and ! mean all. many thousands of pages of themJ.eck.volumes are still easily available to performers and scholars today from my firm %ecla and many pieces are available individually.songs o3 the da(A 3un to )la( and a))ealing! • I)! 119-124A " =ossiniane! 6ot-)ourri %irtuoso 3antasies 4ased on airs 3ro$ =ossini o)eras! ." Editor"s 9u))ested Pic(s1 • Sonata I)us 15 .he 3lute and %iolin duos are all o3 3airl( high cali4er! 3ilippo Gra)nani -1707-181B/ . Some arrived soaked in the rain Hunprotected alas by the 1ritish 2ost 7fficeJ.he grand sonata is another concert sho< )ieceA eHui%alent to o)us "1! • I)! 128: ?ariations on the o)era "&$a. 1ack in .& 4it longA 4ut a good the$e and %ariation! • I)! 125: Si8 9rish national airs .. ! sorted out which editions were the primary sources.his &ustrian 3ol.arantelle e Balletti na.his concerto is a 3ull orchestral <or-A a $aster)iece recorded 4( 1ohn +illia$sA =ichard Sa%inoA and others! • I)! 1#7 .-I6J.Ine o3 the 4est classical guitar sonatas in the entire re)ertoire! *uitarists should record all # $o%e$entsA not Bust the 3irst! • I)! #8: Si8 %ariations on "a Schisserl und a =eindl" . All the 5. ! obtained copies of all the early editions Hand that means many.Jnder-ser%ed (et delight3ul $usicA es)eciall( the duets! Si$ilar to Carulli in st(le! *ragnani ca$e .-4.eckFs invaluable Gale thesis %he 1irth of the +lassic Guitar H.song %ariation is 3un to )la( and <ell arranged • I)! 45: Si8 %ariations on "Folies dCGs)agne" .& 3un grand rondo on a hunting the$eA <ith hunting hornA cattle dru$A and other i$itations! FunU • I)! 110: ?ariations on a $arch 4( Cheru4ini .re . %here were a good many additions to .as a 3ine <or-A challenging 4ut so cle%erl( <ritten that it 3alls naturall(! .his deser%es a recording! • Fa%orite <or-s <ithout o)us include "?ariations on the &llegro canta4ile 3ro$ ". ! then published all GiulianiFs music.uscan( 6u4lications: ..Fa$ous 3ol.+idel( )la(ed e%en toda(A a su)er4 %ariation set on this ancient air • I)! "1: *rande Iu%erture .& 3a$ous )ieceA a sta)le o3 the guitar re)ertoire • I)! 109: La Caccia . Some copies came even from the then Gugoslavia.I)us #0! .re 6olonesi Concertanti 3or t<o guitars! I3 the $an( su)er4 *iuliani duetsA this is $( )ersonal 3a%orite! • .eas( to read! Lou are assured o3 reading uncorru)ted original editions! 9 <ould not go <ith an( other source o3 *iulianiD although =GM and other sources $a( ha%e *iuliani <or-s a%aila4leA 0r! 1e33er( )ro%ies the authoritati%eA earliest sur%i%ing 3irst editions o3 each )iece! Ine e8ce)tion is a ne<l( disco%ered <or.& concert sho<)iece <ith $an( recordings • I)! 107: ?ariations on a the$e o3 'andel .&45 ! did e tensive bibliographical work starting from %homas .
iedo4ore.then he can 4e considered a descendant o3 the 3a$ous %iolin school o3 .o3 acti%ities a3ter 1812! 6erha)s the lac.Feli8 'oret.nia.^< =us-i E%illage near Lu4linF in 6oland! See .1^.&ngelo *ilardino 2 <or-s are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! :i$$er$ann also has a $odern edition o3 # nice Sonates! 3eli *oret>(y C 3eli(s *orec(i -1790-1870/ .hree Sonatas 3or solo guitar )u4lished 4( :i$$er$annA Fran-3urtA under the cares o3 *uido argaria! .-(A Feli8A a 6olish guitaristA 4orn in 6rague in 1800 and died in Gdin4urgh in 1871! 'e is considered one o3 the 4est guitarists o3 Bohe$iaA and has 4een erroneousl( clai$ed as that nationalit(! +hen he <as a child he )la(ed the guitarA 4ut <ith no other intent than a$use$ent! 'is ..3ro$ Li%ornoA 9tal(A 3ro$ a 3a$il( o3 instru$ent 4uilders and $usiciansA trained as a %iolinistA thus the $an( %iolinistic e33ects in his $usic! 'e later de%oted hi$sel3 to guitarA %isited *er$an(A and settled in 6aris <here he 4eca$e good 3riends <ith Carulli! *ragnani dedicated # duets to Carulli! *ragnani <as )articularl( talented <ith cha$4er $usicA thus the duetsA triosA and <or-s 3or %iolin and guitar are a$ong the 3inest! 9t is o3ten said that the e8act date o3 *ragnaniCs death is not -no<nD onl( that no re3erences to his acti%ities can 4e 3ound a3ter 1812! &ccording to 0uo *hiri4i.3ro$ Lu4lin in 6oland <rites that Feli-s 'orec-i <as 4orn 01!01!179" in 'or(s.-( <ent 3ro$ 6oland to ?ienna <here he )er3or$ed <ith *iuliani and 0ia4elli and studied <ith *iuliani! ..a t()ical e8)ression o3 the 9talian st(le o3 the 2nd hal3 o3 M?999th centur( .he )re3ace to o)us 15 4( 'oret.rio I)! 12!!! 9 strongl( reco$$end (ou get acHuainted <ith the .ing and )u4lishing career and s)ent $ost o3 his li3e in Gdin4urghA Scotland! 1a-u4 .oA as to the li%ing dates o3 *ragnaniA <e re3er to a 4iogra)h( o3 an 9talian guitaristA assi$o &gostinelliA <hich docu$ents the dates 17"8-1820A e%en though the death register o3 Leghorn he Huotes sa(s that Fili))o died 59 (ears oldA <here his li3edates <ould sa( 52! 9n an( e%entA this is later than the 1812 date o3ten cited due to the lac. 8#-224-0#58-5! 9n this 4oo.o3 )ress noti3ications could 4e due to ill health or retire$entA or settling into a Huiet teaching career! 9n the <ords o3 &ngelo *ilardino: "9t is the case o3 an e$inent guitarist-co$)oser <hose <or.e3 6o<ro.ardini ELuchesiCs teacherF! 'e shi3ted to guitar later! 'e co$)osed 15 )u4lished <or-s! Besides the .(ou can 3ind $ore interesting in3or$ation a4out 6olish earl( ro$antic guitarists! Fro$ 6!1!BoneCs C*uitar and andolinCA courtes( o3 =o4 ac2illo) Enote corrections a4o%eF: "'oret.is still little -no<nA 4ecause it has 4een shado<ed 4( the <or-s o3 the 9talian $asters <ho <rote in $ore an u)dated st(le ECarulli and *iuliani a4o%e allF! =eall(A *ragnaniCs co$)arati%el( s$all out)ut stands %er( <ell in 3ront o3 an( $odern audience and all <hat he <rote can 4e success3ull( )er3or$ed in concert no<ada(sA 9 <ould dare to sa( $ore success3ull( than CarulliCs a%erage <or-s and at least as success3ull( as *iulianiCs )ieces! Fili))o *ragnani <as 4orn at Li%orno ELeghornF on 17"7 and the date o3 his death is tentati%el( 3i8ed on 1812 in 6aris! 'e <as one o3 the sons o3 a $usical 3a$il(A $ainl( de%oted to %iolin and guitar $a-ing! 'e recei%ed %er( earl( a 3irst class training as a %iolin )la(er under the guidance o3 *iulio aria Luchesi .he( are e8cellent e8a$)les o3 that )eculiar Sonata 3or$ in t<o $o%e$ents created 4( 9talian $asters <ith a s)ecial concern 3or!!!$elod(: des)ite the s-ills sho<ed in the 3or$al designA these Sonatas are $ainl( %er( 4eauti3ul songs!" .*itara od & do : 6+ 1989 E)age 85F 9SB.-( )u4lished in London sa(s "9 3eel there3ore that as 9 <as so 3ortunate as to recei%e $( $usical education 3ro$ so a4le a ..eacher!!!"! 'e had a success3ul concerti.
-(A 3ro$ ?iennaC! 'e toured *reat Britain and e%entuall( $ade his a4ode in Gdin4urgh! 9n this cit( he $et <ith a 3a%oura4le rece)tionA <as recognised 4( the $usical )u)lic and )atronised 4( societ( as the 3ore$ost teacher o3 the guitar in ScotlandD his nu$erous )u)ils ca$e 3ro$ a3arA and included the $ost in3luential and 3ashiona4le $e$4ers o3 Gdin4urgh societ(!!! 'is )u4lications 3or guitar nu$4er considera4l( $ore than one hundred and 3i3t(A and the( <re e8ceedingl( )o)ular <ith a$ateur guitarists o3 *reat BritainA 3or the( a))ealed to a%erage )er3or$ers 4( their si$)licit( and e33ecti%eness: his cele4rated aestoso and &dagio are )earls o3 classic 4eaut(!!! 'oret.regular instruction in guitar )la(ing and the theor( o3 $usicA and 3ro$ the ti$e he <as under a teacherA recei%ing s(ste$atic instructionA his interest in the instru$ent <hich had onl( a$used hi$ )re%iousl(A de%elo)ed into a )assion! +hen 3i3teen he co$$enced a career as cler.in the Cha$4er o3 &ccounts in +arsa<A 4ut his dis)osition <as <as too acti%e to 4e reconciled to this $onotonous li3e! 'a%ing 4eco$e so a4sor4ed in $usic and the guitarA and his e$)lo($ent )ro%ing ir-so$eA he resigned and co$$enced to teach the guitar! 'e also continued his $usical studies <ith increased %igour and a 3e< (ears later %isited ?ienna! 'ere he studied the $ethods and co$)ositions o3 the 3ore$ost ?iennese $astersA recei%ed higher instruction on his instru$ent 3ro$ *iulianiA e%entuall( )er3or$ing in )u4lic <ith hi$ and also <ith 0ia4elli! Such <as his success and re)utationA that he o4tained the )atronage o3 the =o(al CourtA and <as a))ointed guitar instructor to the &rchduchessA and se%eral other $e$4ers o3 the ro(al householdA 4e3ore he had 4een resident in ?ienna a (ear! 'is restless nature still )redo$inated and not content <ith his honoura4le )ositionA undertoo.-( <as the author o3 %arious studies and e8ercises 3or the guitar and original songs <ith guitar and he <rote guitar acco$)ani$ents to nu$erous )o)ular %ocal co$)ositions! an( o3 the later <ere issued in Scotland and dedicated to his )u)ils and 3riends there!" Se%eral <or-s are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! $rinidad 3rancisco *uerta y Caturla .-i ad%ertised the 3act o3 his arri%al 3ro$ this 3a$ed cit( 4( announcing hi$sel3 on his 3irst co$)ositions )u4lished in Gngland as CF! 'oret.-( %isited London and $et <ith his usual successA 3or his ad%ent occured at a %er( o))ortune ti$e .3a$il( returned to their nati%e land <hen he <as in his teensA and $ade their a4ode in +arsa<! 9t <as here that he too.<hen Gngland had 4eco$e 3a$iliar <ith the na$es o3 the guitar %irtuosi <ho had created such sensations in ?iennaA and 'oret.a )rotracted and ro%ing tour o3 Guro)eA tra%elling through *er$an(A )er3or$ing in Fran-3urt and other i$)ortant citiesA and then 6aris! 1ust )re%ious to 1820A 'oret.1804 .187? / ! .
5 #uerta0 3his actual guitar is published in ?ames .s son in law.e< Lor-A and 4ased on the dedications and <rite-u)s sur%i%ingA $ust ha%e 4een a trul( e8ce)tional )er3or$er! .s 1828 :anormo with label .here are around 25 or so sur%i%ing co$)ositionsA $ostl( o)eratic st(le and char$ing $iniatures! 'e <as -no<n to )la( 6anor$o guitarsD 'uerta <as $arried to 6anor$oCs daughterA thus *!L! 6anor$o <as the 3ather-in-la< to 'uerta ( 2aturla E1804 .and #uerta.<3his guitar of Bra'ilian )osewood and /pruce once belonged to :anormo.3he Centur$ that /haped the 6uitar.here is a C0 out <ith 'uerta $usic 4( Stuart *reen on a 6anor$o re)lica! +!aila%le Repertoire1 .s boo7.ttard"0 'uerta <as a S)aniard <ho tra%eled to .#=>)3.0 4t was his pla$ing instrument0 4t has a hand written label stating that this guitar was made for .estbroo7. < (courtes$ of )a$ .:ictures of #uerta with a :anormo.1875F! .
Get . .ote: *F& Sound4oard carried a recent article a4out 'uerta .uerta was the best guitarist he had ever heardKeven while *ernando Sor and =ionisio Aguado were performing in 2aris.uertaFs achievements were considerable. .uerta composed at least 9M works.ector 1erlio" and 'ictor ." formerly the Spanish national anthem.nited States H.45M& . Nonetheless. only useful for strumming accompaniments to parlor songs..including e%idence o3 'uertaCs 4irth date o3 1800A not 1804! ore details co$ing soon! .uerta was acclaimed during his lifetime as "the 2aganini of the guitar.! 'uerta Li3e and +or-s"! .ugo.4:<J and he toured Spain." ..the entire sur%i%ing guitar <or-s e8tant at ti$e o3 )u4lication! &s $ore <or-s $a( (et sur3aceA 3uture %olu$es $a( 4e 3orthco$ing! . /ngland and *rance. forgotten there as well as in his native Spain. Sor. 3ost of these.e was highly praised by .his edition is o%er 180 )agesA including 4iogra)hical in3or$ationA )hotosA and around 25 co$)ositions .uerta is completely unknown to classical guitar audiences today." Dudging from e isting opus numbers. %he Allgemeine 3usikalische Leitung went further and claimed . etc.uerta.uerta to be the greatest living guitarist.-:. advised "!f one wants to get an idea of what virtuosos are able to achieve..e in the Jnited StatesA" 9nter-&$erican usic =e%ie<A %ol! 15 ESu$$er-Fall 199"FA no! 2A ))! 10#-121! Bio 3ro$ 'ar$onicorde!co$: "%rinidad . unfortunately. A century before Segovia. the compositions of such famous guitar players as Lanni de *erranti. A music critic for 0a revue musicale declared that . have been lost." . +ontemporary critics were astounded by his techni$ue and simultaneously applauded and critici"ed his trying to make the guitar a symphonic instrument.he 0igital *uitar &rchi%e has )u4lished an authoritati%e edition o3 'uerta titled "&! . 2aris music critic Arthur 2ougin H. . %his probably resulted from a decline in his later years that brought him to die in poverty in 2aris.. and even traveled to the 3iddle /ast with 0ouisa de (othschild. should be studied.highl( reco$$ended! Bi4liogra)h(: 1a$es =ado$s-iA ".he )rinting is clearA 4oldA and urte8t . . 1erlio".rinidad 'uerta ( Caturla: First S)anish ?irtuoso *uitarist to Concerti. . in his Grand %raitN dF!nstrumentation.uerta did much to overcome the stereotype of the guitar as an inferior instrument. 2ortugal.uerta was the first classical guitarist to concerti"e in the .J claimed that he wrote the ".imno de (iego.
arCs ar$(A and a talented co$)oser-arranger! ost o3 2lingerCs )ieces are <ritten 3or an 8-string guitarA <ith 7th_0A 8th_&A and other<ise con%entional "-string tuning! &ll o3 his <or-s 3ro$ o)us 1-12 are 3or nor$al "-string guitarA <ith 8-string notes a))earing in o)us 1# <hen )resu$a4l( the co$)oser 4egan using an 8-string guitar! &ll o3 the <or-s are )la(a4le on a "-string instru$ent 4( raising the octa%es o3 these notesA o3ten <ritten as 8%a! . Gleg( <as )ossi4l( arranged in its )resent 3or$ 4( 2lingerA and indeed it sho<s the characteristic 0ro) 0 and 0ro) & notes 4ut no other e8tended notes! 9n addition to arrange$entsA 2linger <as a su)er4 co$)oser in his o<n right! 2linger <as associated <ith a-aro33 and the guitar societ( in St! 6eters4urgA a hu4 o3 guitar <here Sor and 6ettoletti a$ong others sta(ed 3or (ears! Free $usic in )rinted and hand-<ritten $anuscri)t is a%aila4le 3ro$ =GMA and a signi3icant nu$4er o3 <or-s in BoiBe! <oseph =uffner ..hese are late ro$anticA $ost si$ilar to =egondi and Coste! 2lingerCs )ieces are $ostl( inter$ediate to ad%ancedA 4ut not a<-<ard! .1897 / .han-s to the internet and the generous )olicies o3 the li4raries <ho are ste<ards o3 these co$)ositionsA on-line 3ree 60F access to $uch o3 the $aterial can 4e 3ound in =GM and BoiBe! 6u4lishers are also starting to release $odern critical editions o3 these <or-s Eincluding <or-s not 3ound onlineFA such as the e8cellent J.!an =lin)er .here are arrange$ents o3 +estern Guro)ean )ieces li-e Schu4ertA as <ell as distinctl( =ussian-sounding <or-sA so$e<hat in the st(le o3 .nformation1 Legnani <as a %irtuoso co$)oserA arrangerA %iolinistA guitaristA and o)era singer! Legnani ran-s as one o3 the 4est and 3ore$ost %irtuoso guitarist co$)osers o3 the 19th centur(! +hile $ost o3 his )eices had gone out o3 )rint and <ere al$ost 3orgotten in the $id to late 20th centur(A these <or-s are 4eginning to 4e re-disco%ered 4( a ne< generation o3 guitarists and are a))earing $ore 3reHuentl( in concert )rogra$s! . Ir)heus editions 3ro$ 9tal( and .he 3ingerings are cle%erD the( are inno%ati%e and di33erent 3ro$ the t()ical "Carulli )atterns" 3ound in so $an( )iecesA and the( de$onstrate a thorough use and -no<ledge o3 the 3inger4oard! & <rite-u) o3 2linger can 4e 3ound in the )re3ace to the =egondi .chai-o%s-( or "6ictures at an G8hi4ition"! .1877 . 1790 .18?0 / 2u33ner <as a )roli3ic co$)oser and arranger 3or guitarA and large a$ounts o3 cha$4er $usic! 2u33nerCs $usic is targeted to<ard a$ateur )la(ers! 'a%ing read through stac-s o3 his $aterialA $( assess$ent is that the $usic is o3 $ediocreA 4ut not 4adA Hualit(! 7ui)i 7e)nani.io)raphical .en Gtudes )u4lished 4( Gditions Ir)hee! 9t <as 2linger <ho hand-co)ied the =egondi etudesA <hich 4eca$e the sole -no<n sur%i%ing co)( o3 these )ieces! 2linger also )roduced hand $anuscri)ts o3 )ieces 4( ert.D .A and the 3a$ous ert.1770 .2linger <as a =ussian general in the C.
a long 4rea.he 9talian *uitar in the 19th-Centur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies .ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba.elloni also states that Legnani retired to =a%enna around 1850 and $ade stringed instru$ents including guitars and %iolins! .he 3irst )hase )roduced o)us <or-s 1-87A and the second )hase started ane< <ith o)us 201! & )ortion o3 LegnaniCs co$)ositions are lost 4ased on ga)s in o)us nu$4ers! 6erha)s the( are a$ong the <or-s <ithout o)us nu$4ers 4ut re$ain to 4e identi3iedA or )erha)s the( are 4uried in )ri%ate collections or a li4rar(A or )erha)s the( ha%e co$)letel( disa))eared! 9t is )ossi4le that so$e o3 the $issing o)us nu$4ers include %ocal <or-s! .here are no -no<n )ortraits o3 Legnani -no<n to ha%e sur%i%ed! 93 an(one has oneA )lease e$ail $e! See also .200 are lost! 9t is $( strong 4elie3 that Legnani did not )u4lish an( <or-s <ith o)us nu$4ers 3ro$ 100-200! .he $issing <or-s in the 3irst )hase are o)us nu$4ers: 9A 1#-15A 17A ##A #5-#9A 41-59A "5-8"! .ottiF! Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric-! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 Legnani <rote $ostl( 3or solo guitarA <ith so$e out)ut 3or other instru$ents such as 3lute and guitar! &s <as co$$on )racticeA Legnani co$)osed $ostl( arrange$ents or 3antasies o3 o)eras or .elloni in the introduction to ChanterelleCs o)us "0 )u4lication cites a contract <here4( 6aganini and Legnani <ere to )la( # concerts together in 18#"A 4ut the contract <as cancelledA and no e%idence e8ists o3 a Boint concert actuall( 4eing )er3or$ed! 'o<e%erA <e cannot discount <ord o3 $outh handed do<nA and such stories o3ten ha%e a 4asis in 3act! *i%en the e%idence o3 the contract to )er3or$ togetherA o4%iousl( the( $ust ha%e )la(ed together at so$e )ointA as it is %er( li-el( that other contracts e8isted 4ut <ere lostA or )erha)s )ri%ate )er3or$ances <ere gi%en! Lac..3ro$ )u4lishing and <anted to cleanl( distinguish the old 3ro$ the ne<! 9t a))ears there is a ga) in ti$eD 3or e8a$)le o)! "0 dates to a 1829A o)! "4 to a 18#2A <hile o)us 222 is esti$ated at 184"! .here are clai$s that the o)us nu$4ers 4et<een 100 ..<as needed to distinguish the nu$4eringsA or )erha)s Legnani too.o3 docu$entation is not )roo3 that so$ething did not occur! Legnani <as %er( in%ol%ed <ith luthiersA as e%idenced 4( the "Luigi Legnani" $odels 4( Stau3er and =iesA and an instru$ent clai$ed to 4e his o<n guitar Esee the Builders )ageF! 6ro3essor *a.hus #8 <or-s ha%e 4een 3oundA and 49 <or-s are $issingD o%erall this is 44` 3ound and 5"` $issing! 0uring )hase 2A the o)us nu$4er ga)s are: 205-221A 225-2#"A 2#9-249! Inl( 9 <or-s sur%i%e in )hase 2 Eo)! 201-250F .he #" Ca)rices Eo)! 20F are the $ost <idel( a%aila4le and <ell--no<n! <hough $usicall( su)er4A these )ieces <ere technical etudes along the lines o3 6aganiCs ca)rices! ost o3 LegnaniCs other $usic is su)er4A and should 4e gi%en a closer loo-! So$e )u4lishersA such as J.an 18` sur%i%al rate! . Ir)heusA =icordiA and &raniti Gditions ha%e )u4lished a 3e< )ieces! 9 a$ al<a(s tr(ing to get $( hands on as $uch as )ossi4leA and a ne< $odern co$)lete <or-s edition is long o%erdue! .others! *uitarists o3ten tell stories a4out Legnani and 6aganini )la(ing together in concert! 9 ha%e heard this stor( handed do<n nearl( e%er( ti$e a guitarist )la(s so$ething 4( Legnani in concert or in $aster classesA and it is )art o3 the guitarCs 3ol-lore! 6ro3essor *a.Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 ..o o)us nu$4er 4et<een 100-200 has sur3aced in an( collectionA )u4licationA catalog re3erenceA or li4rar( to $( -no<ledge! 9t is statisticall( i$)ro4a4le that o%er 100 <or-s in a ro< could 4e lostA 4ased on 44` 3ound 4et<een 1-87A and 18` 3ound 4et<een 201-250! 9 do not -no< the reason 3or this ga)! +e can onl( s)eculate at the reasons: )erha)s there <ere )u4lishing issues and a clean 4rea.here a))ears to 4e t<o )hases o3 LegnaniCs )u4lishing career! .
re 4alli na.Flash( and 3un to )la(A not as hard as it soundsA 6aganini-li-e in st(le! • I)! 11 ..ionali" or "# .ionali .le audiences! ...here (ou )ull do<n the el4o< a 4it! &r)eggios <ere a co$$on 3eature! 9t is o3ten said that *iuliani is -no<n 3or the octa%e )assages .he 4est o3 his <or-s are ge$s o3 the re)ertoire! 0i33icult( le%els %ar( considera4l(! Ither <or-s can 4e a 4it tediousA and e$)hasi.& %er( $usicalA good arrange$ent .erre$oto con ?aria.songsA in addition to a 3e< original the$esA and $an( the$e N %ariation )ieces! I)eratic $usicA )articularl( 9talian o)era such as =ossiniA co$)rises $uch o3 his out)ut! 9n addition to the solo guitarA and guitar N 3lute <or-sA 6ro3essor *a..ling S)anish dances! .ell I)era LC9taliana in &lgeri di =ossini .e 3lash o%er su4stanceA 4eing o4tusel( di33icult! 9 ha%e read through nearl( all o3 LegnaniCs sur%i%ing solo guitar <or-s se%eral ti$esA and selected $( reco$$endations 4elo<! .he last t<o are <ell--no<n and da.0uetto .e!g! GarthHua-e %ariations .re Balli .a.ichael .and is certainl( 4e(ond $( a4ilit( or that o3 $ost a$ateurs! Se%eral )ieces are accessi4leA <ith e33ort and )racticeA to ad%anced a$ateur )la(ers! Ither )ieces are 4e(ond the a4ilit( o3 $ost inter$ediate )la(ers! & nice set o3 # )ieces <ith inter$ediate techniHue reHuire$ents is the ".9 <ould sa( Legnani uses the$ e%en $ore so! 6atterns: as <ith $an( guitar co$)osersA Legnani used cle%er )atterns to get the $ost sound 3ro$ the guitar and to i$)ressi%e e33ectA $a-ing it sound harder than it is! =eciti%o Q ad li4: these are 4orro<ed 3ro$ o)erasA <here in dra$atic sections o3 the o)eraA the singer is solo and gi%es $ore o3 a recital than a $elod(A <hich Legnani $i$ics on the guitar! +here $ar-ed ad li4A it $eans literall( at li4ert(: the te$)o can 4e %ariedA sto))ing and startingA %ar(ing the tone and )unctuationA and generall( i$)ro%ising the deli%er(! 9t is )ossi4le that the )er3or$er o3 the era <ould gi%e an e8tended i$)ro%ised caden.oda(A selected )ieces 4( Legnani are o3ten chosen 4( )er3or$ing concert artists to sho<case their a4ilit( and da.a here! Legnani did not <rite $uch eas( $usic 3or 4eginners! .his is )urel( editorial! Certain trade$ar.he( are not di33icult Bust 3or the sa-e o3 4eing di33icultA 4ut ratherA 4ecause the co$)oser held high standards 3or the guitar and de$anded the e8ecution and s-ill o3 a classicall( trained %iolinist or )ianist! Editor"s 9u))ested Pic(s1 • Eno o)usF .ational 0ances" a%aila4le 3ro$ =GM! G%en though $an( )ieces $a( 4e di33icultA the( are high Hualit( co$)ositions and <ell <orth the e33ort to stud(! .he co$)ositional Hualit( o3 LegnaniCs out)ut %aries! .he Gtudes are challenging )iecesA %er( ad%ancedA and co$)ara4le to the 6aganini %iolin etudesA <hich are co$$onl( )er3or$ed in concert )rogra$s 4( %irtuoso concert artists toda(! *i%en the di33icult( le%el o3 $an( o3 LegnaniCs concert )iecesA he $ust ha%e 4een an a$a.3ol.ioni ..techniHues are 3ound in se%eral )ieces! Ine o3 the$ is holding the 4arre at the 9th 3ret and 10th 3retA )la(ing 3ast notes in )atterns 3ro$ the 9th to 12th 3rets E3or e8a$)le as in o)! 19A #2!F .led his audiences! .ing )er3or$er o3 re$ar-a4le a4ilit(! +ritten accounts o3 Legnani 3ro$ ?ienna indicate that e%en in a cit( accusto$ed to such %irtuosos as *iulianiA Legnani da.challenging! • I)! 10 .he Chachucha <as also arranged 4( Coste and others and $ust ha%e 4een <ell--no<n at the ti$e! • I)! 1 .Scher..ur-aA La *itanaA La Chachucha! For the inter$ediate guitaristA these short )ieces should 4e in e%er(oneCs re)ertoire! ..hree 0ancesA a.o .ot too di33icultD nice guitaristic e33ects and an interesting $inor section! 9 )la( 3ro$ the 6aris =ichault editionA and a di33erent edition is 3ound in BoiBe <ithout the o)us nu$4er listed! .elloni cites the e8istence o3 %ocal <or-s and "a concerto 3or guitar and orchestra o3 <hich onl( the guitar )art has sur%i%ed" EChanterelle o)! "0 introductionF! .hat 4eing saidA not all his $usic is i$)ossi4le to )la(A though $uch o3 it reHuires the techniHue o3 Gliot Fis.roster has recorded an e8cellent rendition o3 this )iece! 9t is 3ar too di33icult 3or $e or $ost guitarists to )la( ho<e%er! • I)! 5 .=ondeau ..
the &ustrian 3ol.he$e .ell 4( =ossini .& %er( nice )ieceA sounds i$)ressi%e 4ut is Huite )la(a4le! 9n $( )ersonal re)ertoire and one o3 $( a4solute 3a%orites! • I)! 202 .• I)! 12 ..his )iece <ould $a-e a 3ine ending )iece to a concert 3or a to) artist <ith the cho)s to )la( it <ellA ending in roaring a))lause! .ell I%erture is a )iece e%er(4od( recogni.ell I%ertureA 3ro$ =ossiniCs o)era *uillau$e .songA and the $inor section Huotes SorCs 3a$ous *rand Sonata o)! 14! • I)! #1 .elodies .ational 'ongroises .his deser%es concert )er3or$ances and recordings! For " or 8 string guitar! Lo$ used so$e o3 the sa$e the$es! • I)! 2#7 .6ot-6ourri Brillant .Brilliant and da.accessi4leA 4 )agesA %aried as a )ot-)ourri should 4e! • I)! #2 ..ione &raniti Gditions <ith 60F 3iles sent 4( e$ail! .irolese .he 3ourth %ariation is tedious and uni$aginati%eA consisting o3 trillsA and 9 3eel no re$orse s-i))ing that %ariation as the rest o3 the )iece is e8cellent! • I)! #0 .ling 4ut %er( )la(a4le .hat saidA these ca)rices are $usicall( rich and )resent a stud( in %irtuosit( .?ariations !! Cendrillon .his is a challenging <or.lingA $usicall( rich Fantas(! ?irtuosic! 'earing 1udicael 6erro( )la( this )iece li%e is an e8)erience 9 <ill ne%er 3orget! • I)! 20 .=ecorded and so$eti$es concerti.C 'ungarian Fantas( in st(leA 4ut $uch longer and $ore %aried! .es! .he 3a$ous +illia$ .<hich deser%es concert )er3or$ances! For " or 8 string guitar! • I)! 20# .6la(a4le and agreea4le! • I)! 29 ."?ariations 4rillantes et non di33iciles" .here is a $uch easier to readA re-engra%ed $odern edition a%aila4le 3ro$ Ir)hee Gditions ELegnani 6age lin-F! Se%eral <or-s 4( Legnani can 4e )urchased at Fonda.he o)era <as =ossiniCs last o)eraA and it <as 3irst )er3or$ed at the 6aris I)era on &ugust #A 1829! Luigi LegnaniCs arrange$ent <as )u4lished in ?ienna 4( &rtaria in 1840! 9t is a%aila4le in 3acsi$ile o3 the original edition 3ro$ =GM and the *F& &rchi%es! .?ariations .his tends to 4e all that $ost )eo)le -no< o3 Legnani! .song has 12 %ariations .?aria..6ot)ourri en ca)rice .<ith =a)haella S$itsD she )ointed out that the introduction 4orro<s an &ustrian national 3ol.#" Ca)rices! ..ioni nellCo)era ":el$ira" di =ossini .& concert 3antas( on 'ungarian the$esA si$ilar to ert.<ellA 4( his standards an(<a(A <hich $eans a good a$ateur )la(er can tac-le it .his includes soloA 3lute N guitarA and a 3e< rarities including a 3e< 3or 8-string guitar! .9ntroduction N .ioni !! 0onna del Lago di =ossini .the( are )erha)s the 4est ad%anced etudes <ritten 3or the guitarA es)eciall( 3or inter)retation! Gach )iece is shortA 1 )age! .ellA as arranged 4( LegnaniA is a 3antastic concert <or..?aria.&s it sa(sA it sounds 4rilliant and da.ottingha$ J2 has a lot o3 Legnani )iecesA $odern editions all sold .he +illia$ .& <ell--no<n =ossini the$eA $usicall( interestingA though the Bu$)s result in cutting o33 the )hrase at )oints .& good set o3 %ariations! • I)! 24 .e%entuall(! .his is a re-<rite o3 LegnaniCs earlier o)us 25A 4ased on a the$e 4( Schuster! I)! 2#7 is $ore accessi4le to )la(A sho<s other co$)ositional i$)ro%e$entsA and 9 )re3er it o%er o)! 25! +!aila%le Repertoire1 2# <or-s 4( Legnani are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM as <ell as $ore in BoiBe! .that <ill ne%er 3ail to i$)ress and delight audiencesA since e%er(one is alread( 3a$iliar <ith the $elod(! .a 4it longA 4ut a great etudeA and )la(a4le! • I)! 18 and also as no o)usA ?ariations on =ossini 0onna del Lago "IhU Huante lagri$e" .ed .Fantasia .<ould $a-e a nice duo! • I)! 19 .lingA 4ut "not di33icult" .he S)anish *uitar Centre in .$usicall( interestingA onl( 4 )ages! +ritten 3or "-string guitarA 4ut sounds good on an 8-string <ith re)eated 0Cs and &Cs lo<ered an octa%e! 9 studied this <or.Fantas( on +illia$ .earl( e%er( guitarist has their 3a%orite ca)rices 3ro$ this set! • I)! 21 .a da.
t/is title ca) be !e-o0ed: I /a0e )o i)&o!-atio) about a 1Duetto co)ce!ta)te3 (&lute E uita!" op: ?7F pe!/aps it is op: 67.here is a *rand Stud( a%aila4le through el Ba( usic 6u4lishersA $ore or less a )ot-)ourri! J. t/is title ca) be !e-o0ed: o)ly t/e 1$a0ati)a d2E!)a)i3.elloniA 9tal( Dubious / possibly duplicate titles *: 0 RIDUZIONE D'OPERA 0 VARIAZIONI ( uita!" 0 VARIAZIONI ( uita!" 0 VARIAZIONI ( uita!" 0 VARIAZIONI #A$I%I ( uita!" 0 VARIAZIONI #A$I%I ( uita!" 0 Duette &'! #l(te u)d *ita!!e +*: .9tal( I)us 1A#A4A and "?aria.he )ro3essor also edited the Chanterelle 6aganini co$)lete guitar <or-s! S _ 9n3or$ation 3ro$ 6ro3! *iuse))e *a..)u4lished in a )rior issue o3 Sound4oard aga.ottingha$ J2! .. 0 *!a) studio pe! la c/ita!!a (sa-e as op <0*" 0 =/e-e a0ec 0a!iatio)s pou! uita!e..:*.ur-a Collection" 4( atthe< &rdi.indi%iduall(! S)anish *uitar Centre Legnani! See$s to 4e the sa$e $aterial )u4lished 4( J.elloni in 9tal( is a Legnani scholar <ho )ro%ided $an( details also! . Ir)heus Gnglish 6ageF has $an( Legnani editionsA so$e o3 <hich are re-sold 4( S)anish *uitar Centre in .ineA and also released as )art o3 the " a.:*.I) -y opi)io). &o! e@a-ple. < pa es >issi) pa!t o& p: ?: +*: .ioni 3acili so)ra un te$a della Cenerentola"! ¬her 9talian site <ith a 3e< )ieces is *uitarInline!9.ell I%erture that e%er(one recogni.I) -y opi)io).*. Ir)heus and EJ. opus )os: ?.he( are designed to 4e challenging etudes 3or the guitarA as a stud( o3 techniHue! Chanterelle through el Ba( usic 6u4lishers has a 3acsi$ile setA as does =icordi! .! 9C$ not sure ho< to order 3ro$ these sites though! 93 (ou -no<A )lease e$ail $e! "LegnaniQ=ossiniQI)! 2 Iu%erture de lC9talien a alger" is a%aila4le in the *uitar $usic in the Li4rar( o3 Congress! arco Ba. %ui i %e )a)i Gu!0i0i) Opus 0 =itle $a0ati)a d2El0i!a pe! c/ita!!a sola * H)o4) Io!5s: .hese are LegnaniCs $ost 3a$ous )ieces! .ur-a in & . Irheus Eit <as chea)er 3or $e to 4u( direct 3ro$ Ir)heusF! J.I) -y opi)io).he *F& &rchi%es has $an( o3 LegnaniCs sur%i%ing )u4lished <or-sA including an arrange$ent o3 the +illia$ . Ir)heus . a)d t/e 4o!5s 67 a)d 89 a!e &ou)d &o! &lute a)d uita! so &a!.his <as )ro4a4l( a res)onse to the 6aganini 24 Ca)rices 3or %iolin! .es! FFS9 Collection o3 Classical *uitar Solos Contains a length( Ca)rice <hich is not )art o3 the 3a$ous #" Ca)rices! a. t/e 1$a0ati)a d2El0i!a3. t/is title ca) be !e-o0ed: -aybe o)e o& t/e ot/e! 4o!5s 4/ic/ appea! i) t/e list. 0 O/B Cua)te la !i-e (p!obably sa-e as op D8/6?": ?7 Duo $o)ce!ta)te (&lute E uita!" +*: .. o! 6A o! 679.otti )u4lished a list o3 the )rinted <or-s o3 Luigi Legnani! 9 ha%e ta-en his listA cross re3erenced it against $( o<n collection and Brian 1e33er(Cs collectionA )lus a thorough search o3 9nternet sourcesA to co$)ile the 3ollo<ing list <hich is $ore co$)lete! 93 an(one has additionsA correctionsA or clari3icationsA )lease e$ail $e! 6ro3essor *iuse))e *a.he $ost 3a$ous set o3 )ieces is the #" Ca)ricesA in all $aBor and $inor -e(s! .oneA sold through el Ba( usic 6u4lishers! .
+Va!iaJio)i su te-a del Duetto:::*.%a >oli)a!a. 0 I)t!oduJio)e e Ro)dL 0 Va!iaJio)i &acili sop!a u) te-a della $e)e!e)tola 0 *!a)d $ap!ice i) D +=/is 4o!5 is di&&e!e)t &!o.%a da-e du lac.op: < a)d op: 7?: =/e e@act title (4it/out opus )u-be!" is t/e &ollo4i) : 1*!a) $ap!iccio pe! c/ita!!a sola3: It is t/e sa-e 4o!5 (IoOp" o& 1*!a)de Go)ata Cuasi #a)tasia3 pe! c/ita!!a" *. de Rossi)i D0 DD D6 Gc/e!Jo co) Va!iaJio)i +Gc/e!Jo / ossia / Cuatt!o Va!iaJio)i*.%a da-e du lac. 6O Va!iaJio)i sop!a u) =e-a di Gc/uste! (late! !e0ised a)d si-pli&ied as opus 679" 6< >ela) e &a0o!i su! Zel-i!a et $o!!adi)o de Rossi)i et aut!es -oti&s o!i i)au@ co-poses: 69 *!a)d Va!iatio)s o) a) o!i i)al t/e-e +I)t!oduJio)e / *!a) Va!iaJio)i e $oda / sop!a u) te-a o!i i)ale:::*.Nel co! piu )o) -i se)to. 8 $o!o e !o)do .Go!te seco)da-i. DA #a)tasia 60 7< $ap!ices 6D I)t!oduJio)e e 0a!iaJio)i pe! la c/ita!!a sop!a la ca0ati)a &a0o!ita.: D: $a0ati)eF 6: >a!c/e &a0o!ite de Rossi)i +Please )ote t/at t/e 6 t/e-es a!e t/e op: )os: D8 E 6?: Deu@ t/e-es::::D: $a0ati)e (O/ Cua)te %a !i-e". . %a *ita)a. op: ? O Duetto Nell Ope!a %'Italia)a i) Al e!i di Rossi)i +Duetto Ai $ap!icci della so!te:::*.%a) ui! pe! u)a bella. D =e!!e-oto co) 0a!iaJio)i 6 %e )a)i/Rossi)i/Op: 6 Ou0e!tu!e de l'Italie) a Al e! +*!a) Gi)&o)ia:::*. di Rossi)i 66 Va!iaJio)i sop!a la >a!cia )ell'Ope!a #!eysc/utJ di Iebe! 67 Duo $o)ce!ta)te Op: 67 (&lute E uita!" 6? Va!iaJio)i sop!a u) te-a della Do))a del la o di Rossi)i +also publis/ed to et/e! 4it/ op: D8*. 6: >a!c/e &a0o!ite: Also publis/ed sepa!ately 4it/ opus )os: D8 a)d 6? !especti0ely*. 0 Va!iaJio)i dalla .E!)a)i.Zel-i!a. &o! &lute E uita! +$a0ati)a d2E!)a)i:::!idotta pe! &lauto e c/ita!!a*.A!-ida. e %a $ac/uc/a*. < *!a) $ap!iccio 9 $a0ati)a . Ro)deau *!a) Va!iaJio)i sop!a u) >oti0o =i!olese D< *!a) 0a!iaJio)i sul duetto. )ell'ope!a . 6A =/e-e a0ec 0a!iatio)s b!illa)tes et )o) di&&iciles . 0 7< IalJe! / =/i!tyMsi@ G/o!t Valses +7< Valses di di&&icoltN p!o !essi0a*. Alto et Qasse / Pa! / %eidesdo!& et %e )a)i / Ru0: 68 (de %e )a)i"*.%'Italia)a i) Al e!i. D8 E 6? 6 t/e-es de l'ope!a . 7 *!a) !ice!ca!io o studio ? =e-a co) 0a!iaJio)i sul te!Jetto . 0 =!e balli )aJio)ali +%a >aJJu!ca..0 *!a) Go)ata pe! c/ita!!a * 0 I)t!oduJio)e dell2Atto 6K )ell2Ope!a E!)a)i pe! c/ita!!a sola * 0 Gi)&o)ia )ella *aJJa %ad!a::: pe! c/ita!!a sola * 0 $a0ati)a d2El0i!a !idotta pe! &lauto e c/ita!!a * 0 #a)tasy o) . D8 $a0ati)e (O/ Cua)te %a !i-e" de l'ope!a .P!ia c/e l'i-pe )o.. )ell'ope!a . 68 Va!iaJio)i $o)ce!ta)ti Op: 68 ( uita! E pia)o&o!te" +Please )ote t/at t/e e@act title o& t/is 4o!5 M co-posed by %eidesdo!& a)d %e )a)i M is t/e &ollo4i) : Va!iatio)s $o)ce!ta)tes / su! / u) =/P-e de Rossi)i / pou! / Pia)o et *uita!e / a0ec Acco-pa )e-e)t / de deu@ Violo)s. +also publis/ed to et/e! 4it/ op: 6?*.Pe)sa alla pat!ia. . )ell'ope!a ..
=/e-e. Va!iaJio)i / e #i)ale / pe! la / $/ita!!a Gola / co-posti da / %ui i %e )a)i / Ope!a <?*. I)t!oductio) t/e-e et 0a!iatio)s 679 I)t!oductio) et t/e-e (t/is is a !eM4!ite o& opus 6O.t/e >et/od +>etodo e < $ap!icetti pe! c/ita!!a c/e se!0o)o di co-pi-e)to dell2op: 6O0*. easie! to play t/a) op: 6O. <D *!a)de &a)tasia pe! c/ita!!a sola <6 I)t!oduJio)e e Ro)dL <7 7< IaltJes <? I)t!oduJio)e. 3rederi( Carl 7emmin) -178B-1840/ =o(al Cha$4er usician o3 2ing Christian ?9 o3 0en$ar-! Ine )iece sur%i%esA in 'e4e on-lineA <hich reHuires an ad%anced techniHue! Biogra)h( o3 Le$$ingA 4( 1ens Bang-=as$ussen! +ntoine de 7*oyer -1708 .No) Piu >esta Acca)to al #oco. based o) t/e t/e-e by Gc/uste!" 678 *!a) potMpou!!i: sop!a alcu)i -oti0i d'ope!e &a0o!ite 6O0 >et/od &o! t/e uita! E < $ap!ices &!o.18?B/ . 0a!iaJio)i e &i)ale: co-posit l'a))o D876 +=/e e@act title is t/e &ollo4i) : I)t!oduJio)e. 89 *!a) Duetto Op: 89 (&lute E uita!" M I 4ould speculate t/at %e )a)i did )ot publis/ a)y opus )u-be!s i) t/e D00's M pe!/aps /e too5 a b!ea5. (< o! 8 st!i) " #a)tasy o) Iillia. 7D Potpou!!i b!illa)t 76 Potpou!!i e) cap!ice 7? ?0 *!a) $ap!iccio I)t!oductio). te-a. a)d Va!iatio)s Dedicated to Paci)i::: <0 *!a) $ap!ice Gtudio +1*!a) $ap!ice ou Etude:::3 Please )ote t/at P!o&: *aJJello)i edited a -ode!) U!te@t Editio) (publis/ed by $/a)te!elle Ve!la " o& t/is 4o!5*.=ell (< o! 8 st!i) " >elodies Natio)al So) !oises (< o! 8 st!i) " Ro)doletto sc/e!Joso Recueil des >Tlodies -ode!)es +Recueil des >elodies:::*. /=e-a.No!-a. o! &o! 4/ate0e! !easo) decided to !eMsta!t 4it/ 60D: 60D 606 607 60? 666 66? #a)tasy o) .70 Va!iatio)s A !eables su! la Ro-a)ce &a0o!ite du $e)d!illo) .
he$eFA and o)! 21 EFantaisie elancoliHueF! Lo$ is a %irtual un-no<n toda(! 9 3ound his )ieces to 4e idio$aticall( <ritten <ith cle%er and original use o3 the 3inger4oardA and at a high le%el o3 <riting co$)ara4le to CarcassiCs concert %ariations! 9 sus)ect Lo$ <as a33iliated <ith *iuliani and Q or Legnani 4ased on st(leA ti$e )eriodA and le%el o3 co$)ositional s-ill! 6icholas 5a(aroff .9nterest in L'o(er has risen latel(A <ith an in-de)th article and 4iogra)hical in3or$ation 3ro$ Gri.he cha$4er $usic in )articular is outstandingA <ith duets and trios <hich are a$ong the %er( 4est 3or the instru$ent! L'o(erCs solo $aterial is 3airl( di33icultA 4ut it e8hi4its a s)ar-le and "-ic-" <hich is characteristic o3 late 18th-centur( $usicA 4ut <ith a distincti%e 3lair and uniHue st(le! Garl( L'o(er )ieces <ere <ritten 3or the 5-string Eor 5courseF instru$entA <ith no notes lo<er than "&"! Ither )iecesA the $aBorit(A are "-string <or-s! .he e8tant <or-s are )u4lished 4( 0ia4elli N Co! in ?iennaA <hich 4ased on -no<n in3or$ation a4out the )u4lisher ESee the +i-i)edia article on 0ia4elliFA <ould date the )u4lication o3 these <or-s to circa 1825-1850! *uessing that to 4e an esta4lished )er3or$er and )u4lished $( a $aBor 3ir$ the artist <ould 4e around 20-#0 (ears oldA Lo$ $a( ha%e 4een 4orn around the turn o3 the centur( Ecirca 1790-1805F! *erhard 6enn adds that his co$)ositions Earound 18 -no<n )iecesF <ere )u4lished $ostl( in the (ears 1828-#0A as o)!21 is 3ro$ 18#4 Eaccording to res)ecti%e ad%ertise$ents in the "+iener :eitung"F! 14 )ieces 4( Lo$ are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ BoiBe! &dditional <or-s are in the .=ussian no4le and %irtuoso guitarist! a-aro33 le3t 4ehind his 3ascinating e$oirs o3 a-aro33 <hich are essential reading 3or an(one stud(ing 19th centur( guitar! 'is $usic <as e8traordinaril( de$andingA nearl( un)la(a4le! a-aro33 )re3erred the 8-string and later 10-string instru$ent! 'e is $ost 3a$ous 3or ha%ing a co$)oserCs contestA at <hich ert.e )ost-hu$ousl(A and Coste second )ri.arie 0u%illard EFranceF also adds that the "*rande sonate )our la guitare o)! 12" and "Si8 e8ercices )our la guitare o)! 27" 3ro$ &ntoine de Lho(er are )u4lished 4( "Les Pditions Buissonni\res" in France E<<<!editions-4uissonnieres!3rF! 6hili))e S)inosi recorded the concerto 3ro$ Lho(er o)! 1" in C0! <os# Charles 7om -circa 179D .1810 .here is a set o3 .he edition de)icted is o33ered 4( Gditions Ir)hee! in-o33 o33ers an edition o3 3acsi$ile <or-s o3 Lho(er! =GM has 1 <or.18DD /! .he re%i%al o3 L'o(erCs $usic is long o%erdue! .Stenstad%old and r! I)hee! 9n L'o(erCs da(A %arious )u4lications <hich list the to) guitarists consistentl( rated L'o(er a$ong the to) 10A a <elldeser%ed re)utationA 4ased on the Hualit( o3 his )u4lished $usic! .o 4iogra)hical in3or$ation a4out 1!C! Lo$ has co$e to light to $( -no<ledge! . <as a<arded 3irst )ri.octurne guitar duets in BoiBe! Louis.1890 / .3or %iolin and guitar! .e! Se%eral )ieces are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! .a-ano collectionA <hich is not a%aila4le to the )u4lic! I3 Lo$Cs e8tant <or-sA $( 3a%orites are o)! 2 E?ariations on a $oti3 o3 6aganiniFA o)! 5 E?ariations on a 'ungarian .
Fen>eslaus 5atie)(a -177.Matieg7a was a master of the large form0 4 do belie(e that recognition of his wor7 will ran7 him in the future as far more important to the 1&th centur$ guitar literature than /or or 6iuliani0 4 thin7 he and Mert' are the 2 great guitar composers of that centur$0< .s these sonatas and much of the chamber music will attest to.he $odulations and de%elo)$ent are )articularl( richA and at ti$es the $usic sounds to $e al$ost BaroHue in its $elodic seHuencing! atieg-a <rote $an( <or-s 3or cha$4er orchestra including guitarA 3or e8a$)le 3luteA %iolaA and guitarA as <ell as arrange$ents o3 Beetho%en <ith guitar and other instru$ents! .he C*rand Sonata O1C and CSonateA o)us .-18.in la<! B( 1817A atieg-a <as esta4lished as a $usician and guitar co$)oser! &3ter 1817A atieg-a <or-ed in church a))oint$ents and sacred $usic! 'e died in 18#0 and the age o3 57 3ro$ a lung condition! &gustWn aruri )ro%ided the a4o%e 4iogra)hical details and has recorded $an( o3 atieg-aCs <or-s on C0! +)ustGn 5aruri C: of 5atie)(a atieg-aCs solo guitar <or-s <ere )u4lished $ostl( 4et<een 1805-1812A and the *rande Sonate 1 Esee 4elo<F a))earing in 1808! atieg-a <rote a great deal o3 cha$4er $usicA $uch o3 it no< recorded 4( &gustWn aruri! atieg-a <rote 3ull-scale <or-s 3or guitar <ith %arious co$4inations o3 %iolinA %iolaA hornsA clarinetA 3luteA celloA etc!! 9n addition to se%eral atieg-a C0Cs 4( atieg-aCs cd &gustWn aruriA other artists <ho ha%e recorded atieg-a include a 3ine recording 4( assi$o &gostinelliA un3ortunatel( out o3 )rint E*rande Sonate nb1A Fantaisie o) 4A Sonate )rogressi%e o) 17A Sonate o) 2#FA and also the sonate o) 1" 4( =ein4ert G%ersA a *er$an guitarist! I)us 22 <as dedicated to auro *iulianiA <hich indicates a connection 4et<een these co$)osersA 4oth li%ing in ?ienna during this ti$e! @rio Carreira has <ritten an article co$)aring atieg-aCs Sonata o)! 2# 3or guitar solo <ith 'a(dnCs )iano sonata 'o4o-en M?9:#2 on the 'e4e +e4site: &rticle lin-! Carreira goes on to suggest a lin.he ESchu4ertF Huartet 0! 9" had 3or a long ti$e 4een considered as Schu4ertCs originalA until the disco%er( o3 the 1807 edition o3 atieg-aCs .his detail could )ossi4l( 4e regarded as e%idence o3 <hat the author hi$sel3 $a( ha%e seen and heard in ?ienna in his ti$e! atieg-a li%ed in ?ienna 3ro$ 1800 to 18#0A so it is Huite )ossi4le that he -ne<A )erha)s in )ersonA the co$)oser 1ose)h 'a(dnA <ho died in the sa$e cit( in 1809!" Carreira goes on to )oint out that Schu4ert arranged atieg-aCs <or-s: ".he( are as good as the <or-s o3 Sor! .he solo guitar co$)ositions see$ orchestral in nature! .with the e8ception of the :aganini 6rand /onata0 .4et<een 'a(dn and atieg-a: "&s can 4e seen 4( co$)aring the t<o sonatasA the )iano3orte Jrte8t edition E'enle ?erlagF does not ha%e an( )er3or$ance indicationsA 4ut the )u4lished edition o3 atieg-aCs Sonata I)!2# has $an( clear d(na$ic $ar-ings and )er3or$ance instructions! .eodor =ischel!" GditorCs note: 9 3ind the e8tended <or-s o3 atieg-a to 4e 3ine $aster co$)ositions that deser%e recognition! .0a%id LeisnerA co$$enting on atieg-a and 3uture )lans to record the co$)oser! atieg-a <as 4orn in Bohe$iaA $o%ing to ora%iaA and in 1791 enrolled in the Jni%ersit( o3 6rague as a la< student! atieg-aCs $usical 4ac-ground and training <as $ostl( %iolinA cla%eA %oiceA %ioloncelloA and )ianoA in addition to the guitar! For this reasonA $uch o3 his $usic is cha$4er $usic <ith guitarA in addition to solo guitarA <hich he learned later! 9n 1800A atieg-a 4eca$e a )ro3essional $usicianA $o%ing to ?iennaA 4ut <as o4liged to <or.he $usic is in a late 18th centur( st(leA 3ollo<ing the $odels o3 'a(dn and othersA and %er( $uch o3 a Cclassical )eriodC genre! .0/ <Most of the sonatas of Matieg7a ha(e a substance and compositional techni1ue surpassing other guitar sonatas of that centur$.otturno in :ell a$ SeeA &ustria in 19#2 4( the guitarist .
2#C stand out as $( 3a%orites! . to which ! listened with ever&growing rapture. for here was the great guitar composer ! had long given up hope of finding. !t was a fascinating large work. ! felt like a +olumbus discovering a new America. !n contrast. " Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric-: "As a performer and writer for guitar. At the same time. /ach one better than the last && all magnificent. contained everything && rich composition. . which kept surging above the surface of arpeggios and chords. very modest and with no hint of a pretense to greatness about him.his *rand Sonata in )articular stands out as one o3 the 4est guitar )ieces e%er <ritten during the classical )eriod! I)us 2# can 4e 3ound in the 'e4e site 3or a s$all do<nload 3ee! 9 <as delighted to disco%er that 4oth su)er4 *rand SonatesA and the entire o)us 20 o3 24 )iecesA and the o)us 4 Fantas( are all a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! <ohann =aspar 5ert>. ! offered him my guitar and asked him to play something." was the answer. %hey could be removed from the rest and played separately without losing their power and musical significance. 1asic to all this.io)raphical . neither fat nor thin. great musical knowledge.. 1ayer. not only as regards the technical treatment of the guitar but also as regards his compositions for the instrument. !n his full&hearted compositions. Soussman. whose manuscripts. A . 1800 . %hus. finding them worthless rubbish. he had a deep understanding of the instrument with all its possibilities and hidden secrets. 1obrovich. "1y whom is this piece writtenO" ! asked. ! had been searching for him everywhere.. ! liked the finales and introductions especially well. . there was the clear basic melody. among the countless pieces of music ! bought throughout (ussia and /urope.. absence of trivial e pression and multiplicity of harmonic effects. novelty.nformation1 Fro$ ." %hen he played another piece. ! had thrown them away in despair. Buffner.. Afterwards. ! was dumbfounded with surprise and admiration. not in my possession. etc. "!t has not been published yet. 3ert" is ranked amongst the most illustrious# his original compositions. and a poetic and sublime writer for his instrument. they could give full satisfaction to any listener. %he effects were brilliant and daring. transcriptions and operatic arrangements are gems of beauty. the music played by 3ert".18?0 .e was a musician of e ceptional attainments.he e$oirs o3 a-aro33: ". As soon as it was feasible. and still another. 3ert" was a tall man. "1y me. represent the precious pearls of guitar repertoireE . .e took it readily and immediately began to play. because they were unusual and were wonderfully developed.. and whatever 3ert" wrote showed his e $uisite refinement. about <6. cooked up by talentless modern composers such as 2adovet".e was a great inventor.3ert". grandeur of style. unity. +arcassi. e cellent development of an idea.
polonaises. but well worth while. Altogether there were more than one hundred published opus numbers.is early compositions.nder the title of "7pera (evue. !n his concerts 3ert" used a ten stringed guitar.his $usic is highl( dra$atic and e$otionalA <ith $an( d(na$ic $ar-ings indicated! uch o3 the $usic is o)era arrange$entsA or o)eratic in st(le! ert. gi%en their Huic. is a$ong the 4est o3 the 19th centur(! ert. .e the 3ull sonorit( o3 the $usic! an( <or-sA such as the Barden-lange and I)ern =e%ue )iecesA ho<e%erA do not utili.& 4elo< the "th string! ost )la(ers toda( raise the octa%es o3 these e8tended notesD since the( are used s)aringl( this is not a great co$)ro$ise! 'o<e%erA i3 (ou ha%e an 8-10 string guitarA (ou can reali.)ro4a4l( a 10-string! . is -no<n to ha%e )la(ed Scher. "%he 1arber of Seville". and %arantelle.attac-A enor$ous d(na$ic rangeA and sensiti%e tone ca)acit(! &s 9 o3ten )la( ert. these arrangements being vastly superior to anything of the kind published previously or at a later date. 7p. . who survived her husband many years# but some time before her death on August <th. "*ingalFs +ave". . or guitar and piano.e $ore than " strings! & great deal o3 ert. "1arden Blaenge.or$al guitar! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 . . "/rnani". on a Stau33er co)( 4( 2resseA it is o4%ious to $e through the co$)ositional st(le that the $usic <as <ritten <ith this guitar schoolCs sonorit( in $ind! Se%eral later <or-s 4( ert. 3ert" was a prolific composer. %hey should be in the library of every serious minded guitarist. 3ert" wrote thirty&three classic transcriptions for guitar solo of favorite operas. 4.Geor)e C# =ric( . .B .ere are the titles of a few.he $usic o3 ert. . in addition to those already mentioned. . and they are preserved in the societyFs library in 3unich. that is. the !nternational Guitar Society raised by subscription a sufficient sum to purchase them. nocturnes.er guitarsA <ho <as a 4uilder 3or Stau33er! .A es)eciall( the concert <or-sA utili. !n these numbers.5. purest gems of melody.er.er. to I. +apriccio.e guitars <ith $ulti)le 4ass strings .he 3irst " strings are nor$alA 3ollo<ed 4( o)en strings 0 . although the majority of his works consist of transcriptions and arrangements of classical compositions for guitar solo. playing piano accompaniments to his guitar.ungarian dances.husA Stau33er st(le guitars sound 4est 3or ert. guitarA <hich is tuned three hal3 ste)s higher than a nor$al guitar thus gi%ing it an e8tended u))er range and su)erior )roBection 3or ense$4le situations! &ll the -no<n guitar duos 3or e8a$)le are 3or . "0a *avorita".-65. of medium difficulty.vulgar melody or a commonplace harmony seems to have been impossible to his very nature. and "%he 3erry Cives of Cindsor"# from 7p. with four free swinging bass strings added to the regular si stringed instrument. 3ert" has employed all the resources of the instrument# and their performance re$uires technic of the highest order. each one of them consisting of ten or more pages. 4". *or unaccountable reasons the present day guitar virtuosos have neglected the music of 3ert"# which is a pity. and Coste 4est re)resent the generation a3ter Sor and *iulianiA 4ut 4e3ore the later S)anish ro$antic co$)osers! . guitar duo. 7p."" . that would grace any concert programP from 7p. *re$uently his wife appeared with him on concert programs. "(igoletto". and many more remained in manuscript. also <rote ense$4le )ieces 3or .C . and . <rote $an( )ieces <ith )iano as his <i3e <as an acco$)lished -e(4oardistA $ost o3 <hich are not in )rint! an( )ieces are onl( 3ound in Guro)ean li4raries and )ri%ate collections! 9n addition to e8tended 4ass range guitarsA ert. 7p. is in )rintA though this is a 3raction o3 his out)ut gi%en the o)us nu$4er ga)s! ert. are of a light characterK. as there are many of his compositions and arrangements that would delight an appreciative audience. %hese manuscripts stayed in the possession of 3ert"Fs widow.5" is a group of thirteen tone pictures.
he =GM li4rar( has all ## )ieces 3or 3ree do<nload! . are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! . )u4lished the 1#" "Cuc-oo" or "1#" Little Gntertainings" series . duosA 11 3ro$ ChanterelleA )lus Floto<StradellaA 0er BallA +asser3ahrt a$ . guitar! &s <as co$$on )racticeA ert. e8celled in this regard and 3ar sur)assed $ost o3 his conte$)oraries! Ither concert )iecesA such as the Gleg( and 'ungarian Fantas(A reHuire %er( ad%anced techniHue! .: s 159: "0ie 'ugonotten"A s 1"0: " a.he edition is cris)A eas( to readA and scholarl(A <ith the original edition 3aith3ull( engra%ed ane<A old errors corrected and dul( notatedA <ith ne< 3ingerings in italic to di33erentiate the$ 3ro$ the originals! ost o3 these <or-s are shorterA easier )ieces <ell suited to $ost inter$ediate )la(ers! 9n their da(A these )ieces <ere intended 3or the $ass $ar-et o3 a$ateur guitarists! .raunseeA Grinnerungen an Jngarn 9 and 99A Fantasia "La =age" and the 3our a4o%e! "Grinnerungen an Jngarn" and the Fantasia are in the "csterreichische .er. $a( ha%e had a great deal o3 in)ut and colla4oration <ith his <i3e on a nu$4er o3 his )iecesA gi%en their )ianistic nature! . to $( -no<ledge are a cou)le o3 )ieces at FFS9 in an antholog( FFS9 Collection o3 Classical *uitar Solos A and 2 short 3ree4ies 4( .he $usic <as <ritten idio$aticall( to the guitar! +!aila%le Repertoire1 &round 100 <or-s 4( ert.he $ost co$)lete collection is )ro4a4l( 4( ChanterelleA the "Collected +or-s" .ational4iliothe-"! .o3 at least "-15 )ages! .he )iano )ortions $a( ha%e 4een co$)osed to a great degree 4( ert.he onl( other )ieces in )rint 4( ert.his <ould 4e 21 -no<n ert.songsA in addition to a 3e< original the$esA and $an( the$e N %ariation )ieces! ert.ert.or "Songs o3 the Bards" are the $ost )o)ular )iecesA %er( nice $usicall(A and accessi4le to )la(ers o3 inter$ediate a4ilit(! & ne< release is 4( el Ba( usic 6u4lishersA "Iriginal Co$)ositions 3or *uitar" .C I)ern =e%ue is a set o3 ## o)era arrange$ents 3or solo guitarA so$e o3 <hich are <ell-no<n! Gach arrange$ent is a $aBor <or. <rote $ainl( 3or solo guitarA as <ell as se%eral duets and )ieces 3or )iano and guitar! . guitar <ith second guitar or )iano are 3ound! Solo <or-s include $ost o3 the $aBor solo )ieces including the 3a$ous "Barden-lange" series <hich 9 reco$$end $ost )eo)le should start <ith! In a hu$orous noteA e%en the great co$)osers had 4ills to )a(: ert.ur-a o)40"A s1"0: "Ginsiedlers +aldglcc-en"A and s 1"1: "Gs le4e der Fasching"! . reHuires .one o3 the I)us OCs in this edition are in )rint else<here to $( -no<ledgeA and the( are not in the Chanterelle editions! 9t contains o)! 1A 2A 5A 9A 12A and ##! .songs o3 %arious countries! an( o3 the <or-s her are not a%aila4le an(<here else and the( are all 19th centur( 3acsi$iles! .uscan(! ert.! .reseller is el Ba( usic 6u4lishers! .<hich is a <elco$e addition to the )u4lished re)ertoire o3 ert.or4ert Fisher )oints out that the $anuscri)t section o3 =GM contains 3our other duos o3 ert.he ense$4le $usic 4( ert.he Chanterelle edition onl( )resents 4 o3 the I)ern =e%ue )ieces! *endai in 1a)an is slo<l( )u4lishing the I)ern =e%ue editionsA and Sound4oard announced the e%entual .Cs <i3eA <ho <as a %irtuoso )ianist! 9ndeedA ert. <rote <ell o%er 100 )ieces 3or guitarists o3 ediu$ a4ilit(A $ost o3 <hich are o)eratic 3antasies! <hough $ost guitarist co$)osers <rote 3or the o)eratic 3antas( $ediu$A ert. co$)osed $ostl( arrange$ents or 3antasies o3 o)eras or 3ol.1#" %er( short )arlour )ieces 3or 4eginners <hich are arrange$ents o3 )o)ular tunes and o)erasA starting <ith "Lan-ee 0oodle 0and(" and co%ering $ost o)eras and )o)ular 3ol.he "Barden-lange" .here are also a 3e< anuscri)ts in BoiBe! =GM includes the entire I)ern =e%ue o)us 8A all ## o)era 3antasies! &lso se%eral <or-s 3or ter.
he 0igital *uitar &rchi%e is )u4lishing a ne<l( engra%ed edition o3 the entire ##-)iece I)ern =e%ue in se%eral %olu$es! .he $usic is 3acsi$ile re)rints o3 original editionsA 4ut so$eho< the( <ere a4le to o4tain )ristine originals that loo.1847 / arco Ba." .he *F& &rchi%es has all ##A 4ut this can get e8)ensi%e since the entire set is se%eral hundred )ages! .his edition contains e8tensi%e notes! .he err( +i%es o3 +indsor" and "Grnani" Ea totall( di33erent )iece than the I)ern =e%ue %ersionF! 3rancesco 5olino .he *F& &rchi%es a))ears to ha%e se%eral )ieces that are not in )rint else<hereA 4ut since the titles %ar( slightl(A it is hard to tell! .a$ong olinoCs 4est concert <or-s .. $aterial is a4out an inch thic-A and none o3 this $aterial is a%aila4le 3ro$ Chanterelle! .)u4lication o3 the entire setA 4ut )resentl( the entire set is out o3 )rint! .<ith the *rande Iu%ertureA *rande SonateA =o4in &dairA and *od Sa%e the 2ing .as clearA 4oldA and clean as an( $odern )rint .highl( reco$$ended! Ir)hee Gditions has a olino edition ne<l( engra%ed: Ir)hee Gditions E olino 6age lin-F 3ro$ the end o3 the "*rande Pthode Co$)lette"A I)! 4"! 9t is an arrange$ent o3 "?i%e 'enri 9?" <hich Carulli also arranged se)aratel( in his .husA his cha$4er <or-s <ith guitar deser%e the highest $ention! olino co$)osed o%er "0 <or-s 3or guitarA including a $ethod! olinoA li-e $an( guitar co$)osersA )u4lished eas( <or-s 3or 4eginners E)resu$a4l( these <ere a source o3 inco$eFA as <ell as $ore su4stantial concert <or-s! .otti has co$)iled $an( details o3 olinoCs li3e! olino <as trained and ser%ed in orchestral )osts )la(ing o4oe and %iolaA 4ut at so$e ti$e )ursued guitar and 4eca$e <ell -no<n! 9n 1818 olino <ent to 6aris as "%iolinist o3 the =o(al Cha)el" 4ut ran into resistance to esta4lished ideas o3 )la(ing guitarA as conte$)orar( chronicles de)ict a "4attle" 4et<een the olino and the Carulli 3actionsA as olino had his o<n con%ictions a4out techniHue! olino later s<itched again to %iolin co$)ositions! .he collection includes I)ern =e%ue O15A an e8tended Fantas(A and "6I=.he ert. not 3ound else<here .highl( reco$$ended! & large collection o3 e8tended o)eratic 3antasies is a%aila4le 3ro$ 0onald Sauter in the *uitar $usic in the Li4rar( o3 Congress! .ational &irs o3 6eo)les o3 Guro)e o) 7#! .1708 .his also includes "&gathe I)22" <hich has 4een recorded 4( 0ennis Cinelli and others! eantone *uitar Studio has a late 19th c! antholog( 4( Shae33er 3or 3ree do<nload Edonations reHuestedF <ith 2 )ieces 4( ert.hese concert <or-s in )articular are su)er4 and <ell <orth e8)loring! & su$$ar( o3 olino is on the .GFGJ9LLG 3ur *uitarre-S)ieler" the e8tended title to <hich translates as "& s$all collection 3or guitar-)la(ers! Gas( and e33ecti%e entertain$ent )ieces in the 3igure o3 little 3antasies a3ter 3a$ous o)era and "Lied"ESongF-$elodies arranged 4( 1!2! ert. o3 ".ecla Gditions Site! Se%eral <or-s are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! I 9 Ild anuscri)ts N 9ncuna4ula has an e8cellent 3acsi$ile 4oo.na$el(A arrange$ents 4( ert.it consists o3 18 )ieces around 8 )ages or so eachA <hich are 4ased on o)era the$es si$ilar to the I)ern =e%ue series! .
2o(ember %.o3 )o)ularit( o3 the "-string guitarA it <as initiall( )u4lished 3or the $ore )o)ular 5-course instru$entA 4ut oretti later re-)u4lished the original "string %ersion in 1792A according to his $e$oirs! .s most esteemed musicians. Ir)heus Gnglish 6ageF carries 2 )ieces 4( oretti! Fonda.1 66.his is 4( 3ar the 4est source o3 olitorCs $usic 9 ha%e 3ound! 3ederico 5oretti .orthridge olitorCs $usicA es)eciall( the SonatasA is o3 high cali4er! 9t is rich and in%enti%eA taste3ul and interestingA e8citing and characteristic o3 the ti$e )eriod! &s an orchestral conductor and $ultiinstru$entalistA olitor <rote con%incing ense$4le $usic as <ell as solo $usic <hich ca)tures 3ull %oicing! <hough o4scure toda(A olitorCs i$)ortance to the guitarCs histor(A es)eciall( as a )ioneer o3 the guitar in ?ienna 4e3ore *iulianiA cannot 4e understated! an( <or-s 4( olitor can 4e )urchased at Fonda.18.and co$)ositional st(le <ith inde)endent %oicing <as dee)l( in3luential to Fernando SorA according to his ethod! J.ione &raniti Gditions <ith 60F 3iles sent 4( e$ail! .and died in +ienna 5ebruar$ 21.18*80 #is musical education began with his father and e(entuall$ was passed on to .his $ethod 4oo.1700 .ione &raniti Gditions carries the # )ieces suiteA the sa$e a%aila4le in 3acsi$ile 3ro$ 0onald Sauter Facsi$iles o3 *uitar $usic in the Li4rar( o3 Congress! 9 also ha%e another loose co)( 3acsi$ile o3 %ariations not a%aila4le else<here! .Molitor was born at 2ec7arsulum.9imon 5olitor .c#1700 .1848 / "@ne of +ienna.0r! =on 6urcellA usic 0e)art$entA *uitar &rea Cali3ornia State Jni%ersit(A .8 / 9talian guitarist and cellist oretti <as an i$)ortant 3igure in the de%elo)$ent o3 the "-string guitar! Sor )raises orettiCs co$)ositions 3or their co$)leteness o3 har$on( and %oices and credits oretti 3or his in3luence! Sor $entions that oretti )ro%ed the guitar <as ca)a4le o3 $usic <ith 3ull $elod( and acco$)ani$ent )artsA 3ull( %oiced! 9n 1792 oretti )u4lished a 5-course guitar $ethodA and in 1799 in adrid )u4lished the 3a$ous "-string $ethod! 'e li%ed in adrid until 18#8! 9t is regretta4le so 3e< )ieces sur%i%eD the( are high Hualit( )ieces! Federico oretti )la(ed a guitar <ith 7 single strings EUFA and 3or$ulated )rinci)les 3or "-string guitar )la(ing in 178"-7! 0ue to the lac.urtemburg.. Ir)heus and EJ.bbe +ogler0 5rom 1 &6-& he was orchestral conductor and the $ear following was emplo$ed in the war office of +ienna0 #e retired on pension and de(oted the rest of his life to music0" .
+ntonio 6a!a -177?-18BD/ .a%aCs $usic is orchestral and delight3ul .a%a also )u4lished sonatas and duets as <ell as a $ethod! 'e co$)osed in 9tal(A *er$an( as <ell as in 6aris and London!" .a%aCs suite o3 4 short Sonatas titled "Le stagioni dellCanno" or "Seasons o3 the Lear" ."9talian guitaristA singer and co$)oser! 'e <as one o3 4est guitarists <or-ing in 9tal( in the 3irst decades o3 the nineteenth centur(! 9n 1808A =icordi )u4lished 3our o3 &ntonio . )la(edA other than 4eing $ade in ?iennaA and %er( .art" a%aila4le 3ro$ J.highl( reco$$ended! J. Ir)heus Gnglish 6ageF carries a cou)le o3 . guitar! &lsoA o)us #4 "?aria. Ir)heusA is <ritten 3or solo ter. )la(ed a 10string guitar $ade 4( Friedrich Schenc.in ?ienna in 1841 E<ho ca$e 3ro$ the Stau3er <or-sho)F! .his instru$ent had 4 3loating 4ass strings E&ABACA0 4elo< the "th G stringFA and <as 4uilt to his s)eci3ications or "in%ention" .0elca$)!net Sheet usic . <as CroatianA 3irst learning the %iolinA 4ut u)on hearing *iuliani in 1818 in ?iennaA he decided to )la( guitarA and studied co$)osition <ith orgensternA gaining a re)utation as a %irtuoso! 9n 1829A 6ado%et.one o3 onl( 2 such )ieces -no<n! 9n generalA . settled in ?iennaA )u4lishing a nu$4er o3 <or-s and teaching! 9n 18#"A he 4egan to ha%e e(esight )ro4le$sA 4eco$ing 4lind 4( 1849A li%ing in )o%ert(A 4ut continuing to gi%e so$e concerts until his death in 187#! &ccording to )u4lished )hotos in the 6ado%ec Co$)lete Concert +or-sA 6ado%et.a%a <as trul( an e8cellent co$)oser! . guitar .a%a titlesA including the Four Seasons! =GM has 2 duos a%aila4le 3or ter.ioni So)ra Flauto aico di o.)ro4a4l( due to the de%ice <hich could raise the 4ass strings a hal3ste) Esuch 3loating 4ass string guitars <ere around $uch earlier in ?iennaF! 6rior to 1841 <e ha%e no in3or$ation a4out <hat instru$ent 6ado%et. Ir)heus and EJ.!an Pado!et> C Pado!ec C Padowet> -1800-187./ ?arious s)ellings e8istA 4ut 9 <ill use the s)elling on the original 19th c! editions a%aila4le 3ro$ =GM! Lou <ill o3ten see the )ronounced s)elling "9%an 6ado%ec"! 6ado%et.highl( reco$$endedA and it is a sha$e that $ore o3 his $aterial is not a%aila4le in $odern or 3acsi$ile editionA as it is high Hualit(! .it is a li%el(A in%enti%e suite that is a 3ine co$)osition 3ro$ a4out 1808A one o3 $( 3a%orite all-ti$e 19th centur( )ieces .a%aCs sonatas 3or guitar solo <ith the title "the seasons o3 the (ear"! 9t <as the 3irst o)us )u4lished 4( the i$)ortant ilanais editor! &ntonio .
also did not indicate an( use o3 the le3t hand thu$4! 10 6ado%et. co$)osed $aster3ul %ariationsA 3ull o3 cle%er ideas and good use o3 the instru$ent! &ll o3 the solo <or-s are 3or con%entional "-string guitar! 0es)ite )la(ing a 10-string guitarA regretta4l( 3or those o3 us <ho )la( 8-10 string guitarA 6ado%et.he$e and ?ariation or I)era Fantas( 3or$at! 6ado%et.he $usic <as )u4lished 4et<een 1829 to 18#7! & good article is 9?&. guitarA and 7 guitar scores 3or "-string guitar! .he Co$)lete Solo Concert +or-s" in 3acsi$ile re)rints o3 the original 19th centur( editions! .his is )ro4a4l( the onl( ti$e in histor( that the co$)lete <or-s o3 6ado%ec ha%e 4een $ade a%aila4leA and as such editions tend to go out o3 )rint Huic-l(A so (ou $a( <ant to gra4 a co)( <hile the( are still a%aila4le! *i%en the a$ount o3 $usic and 4iogra)hical in3or$ationA this edition is a good 4argain! .he =GM editions are good to see i3 (ou li-e the $usic and i3 it is <ithin (our )la(ing a4ilit(A and i3 soA 9 highl( reco$$end the 3ollo<ing $odern edition! . did not <rite an( e8tended range notes in his co$)ositions or indicate an( octa%e trans)ositions! an( o3 the duetsA ho<e%er Esee =GMF reHuire the use o3 a ter.er.he )u4lisher S(u-htun Gditions recentl( released a su)er4 edition called "9%an 6ado%ec: .he co%ers are la$inated and dura4leA and the edition is s)iral-4ound to allo< eas( )age turns and to -ee) the )ages o)en on a $usic stand! .li-el( 4eing 4( Stau3er! 0es)ite using a 10-string guitarA all o3 6ado%et.he greatest l9th centur( Croatian guitarist and guitar co$)oser 4( 6ro3essor Jros 0oBcino%icA <ho su))lied the 4iogra)hical notes 3or the a4o%e $odern edition! .here are also )ieces a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ BoiBe! .earl( all o3 the <or-s are .he S(u-htun Gditions )u4lication is su)er4l( done and is e%er(thing that a good edition o3 19th centur( <or-s should 4e! .he $usic is %er( reada4le <ith good t()e setting! 9t is a $eat( edition <ith 175 )ages o3 $usicA )lus #0 )ages o3 detailed 4iogra)h(A edition notesA and interesting historical )hotos! . guitar 3or the )ri$e guitar! .here are ga)s in the o)us nu$4ers 3ro$ 1-"1D so$e )ieces ha%e 4een 3ore%er lostA and 2 solo )ieces <ere o$itted 4ecause the( <ere didactic 4eginner <or-s! .C )u4lished <or-s are <ritten 3or con%entional "-string guitar! 6ado%et. 6&0I?GC: .he $usic sounds %irtuosicA 4ut is Huite )la(a4le 4( inter$ediate guitarists <illing to stud( the )ieces! 9t $a-es 3ull use o3 the 3inger4oard! . scores are a%aila4le 3ro$ =GMA including # duets 3or .he 6ado%ec )ieces are e8cellentA es)eciall( o)us 9A the ?ariations on a 'ungarian &ir! .his is the solo <or-s onl(A so $an( o3 the o)us nu$4er ga)s are duets! .
and his master$ of the instrument was so thorough and rapid that his performances became as celebrated as those of the guitar (irtuoso )egondi0 Schilling says of himP "Niccol8 2aganini is such a great master of the guitar that it is hard to decide whether he is greater on the violin or guitar.1840 .." *erdinand +arulli. the violin." =ouburg in his notice of 2aganini says. he put aside the (iolin. saw a remarkable change in his mode of life.he 9talian *uitar in the 19th-Centur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 .. respecting this period of his lifeP "%o those early days belong also the fact of 2aganiniFs passion for the guitar.so$e interesting thoughts 3ro$ this article: "%he year . arranging and amplifying them afterwards for . till after the lapse of three years.he( <ere also in %er( slo))( notationA nearl( i$)ossi4le to readA and onl( through the e33orts o3 Chanterelle to co$)letel( digiti. and for more than three $ears de(oted himself entirel$ to the stud$ of the guitar0 =uring this period he was living at the chateau of a lady of rank. says in his famous methodP F%he fact may not be generally known that 2aganini was a fine performer on the guitar and that he composed most of his airs on this instrument.6iccolH Pa)anini.e the entire setA ha%e the( co$e into the re)ertoire! .io)raphical . 178B .ottiF! Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric. but with the skill of a virtuoso. and the guitar was her favorite instrument.. 2aganini ga(e himself up to the practice of the guitar as eagerl$ and with the same amount of concentration as he had pre(iousl$ done on the (iolin.ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba. which had been the means of bringing him such fame. Notwithstanding his remarkably successful career as violinist. however.hese <or-s <ere tied u) in o<nershi) dis)ute and legal issues 3or o%er 150 (earsA and released onl( in the last 20 (ears to the )u4lic! .e played the guitar as an amateur.nformation1 6aganini is the $ost 3a$ous co$)oser to ha%e e%er li%ed <ho <rote 3or the guitar! 2no<n $ostl( 3or %iolinA 6aganini <as also a )roli3ic guitarist <ho <rote o%er 100 solo guitar )iecesU . nor did he resume in earnest that peculiar symbol of his greatness. the guitar virtuoso.he #7 Sonatas in )articular are e8cellent )ieces <hich are 4eginning to get recorded! .46.he $usic is accessi4le to inter$ediate guitarists! 6aganini also <rote $an( %iolin )ieces <ith guitar acco$)ani$ent! See also ." (iemann in his account of the artist saysP ".
ling 9talian st(leA 4ut is not as di33icult to )la( as it sounds! 6aganiniCs st(le is uniHue and $an( )ieces sound %iolinistic on the guitar! +ith onl( a cou)le o3 e8ce)tionsA 6aganini did not <rite o)eratic 3antasiesA 4ut instead co$)osed his o<n original the$es! +!aila%le Repertoire1 4 <or-s 4( 6aganini 3or %iolin and guitar are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! .4ut this <as concei%ed as a %iolin guitar duetA and the co$$onl( )er3or$ed %ersion is an arrange$ent o3 this )iece 3or solo guitar! . :aganini was a (er$ intimate friend of the guitar (irtuoso Auigi Aegnani and the$ often toured together gi(ing joint concerts0 !n the summer of .he #7 Sonatas are $ediu$ di33icult( and %er( accessi4le to inter$ediate )la(ers! . it is my constant companion on all my travels.459.he $usic is <ritten in the 3astA da. 2aganiniFs country residence. %his was the instrument he fondled and caressed during those long periods of illness.. .45M 0egnani spent several months at the 'illa Gajona. he repliedP F! love it for its harmonies.with but one e8ception. they appeared together at concerts in 2arma and other cities in northern !taly. and in 7ctober. 'uillaume the violin maker. and the guitar e ercised a great influence and fascination over his musical nature. 2aris. 'uillaume graciously placed this guitar at his disposal during his visit. 0ater this instrument was presented to .F :aganini was intimate and performed in public with the leading guitar (irtuosi of that time. who also was a guitar enthusiast and who placed his autograph on the top opposite to that of the other immortal name.i are eas( <or-s <hich $an( 4eginners can )la(! .F !n the year . =uring his whole career he employed it as his accompanying instrument with his pupils and musical friends# and the majority of his compositions published during his lifetime include a part for the guitar.. Chile in 2aris. where they occupied their time rehearsing new compositions..45. Chen ready to leave 2aris.he *rand Sonata is )erha)s the $ost challengingA <hich reHuires ad%anced techniHue . and today this historical instrument is preserved in the 3useum of the National +onservatory of 3usic.ector 1erlio". 2aganini returned the instrument after writing his autograph in ink on its unvarnished top near the left side of the bridge. 4t is a significant fact that all of the compositions of :aganini. %o an intimate friend in$uiring of 2aganini his reason for devoting so much attention to the guitar. ." " *eorge C! 2ric:ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 6aganini is -no<n as one o3 the greatest %iolinists o3 all ti$eA and one o3 the %iolinCs $ost cherished co$)osers! 6aganini also <rote o%er 100 )ieces 3or solo guitarA and used guitar to acco$)an( $ost o3 his %iolin )ieces! 6aganiniCs solo guitar <or-s do not reHuire the le%el o3 techniHue reHuired 4( his %iolin <or-sD in 3actA the( are o3 inter$ediate le%el! . but in the fall of . 1. and on one occasion took a fancy to a guitar made by Grobert of 3irecourt. this only e ception being the "%wenty&four +aprices for 'iolin. and his trip to Nice to avoid the winter of northern !taly proved his last journey. which it is not necessary to enumerate.46< 2aganini with his violin again started out on a concert tour and the following years were a series of brilliant triumphs.contained parts for the guitar. 2aganini fre$uently visited D.he *hiri4i.ill health compelled 2aganini to return to his native land.the violin according to his fancy. when his strength was not sufficient for him to resort to the more e acting position re$uired by the violin. 7p. Several trips to 2aris and 0ondon followed.
.Chanterelle through el Ba( usic 6u4lishers has released the #-%olu$e set o3 6aganiniCs solo guitar <or-s! .husA se%eral o3 6ettolettiCs )ieces are =ussian editions in =ussian 7-string tuningA although $ost are nor$al "-string )ieces! 29 6ettoletti scores are a%aila4le 3ro$ =GMA including se%eral duets <ith .. guitarA "-string guitar scoresA and =ussian 7-string scores in =ussian tuning! .his is an "urte8t" <or-A according to el Ba(A ".le audiences! .his $usic 3or $e <as a signi3icant disco%er(A a co$)oser <orth( o3 serious stud( and re%i%al! an( )ieces are %irtuosicsoundingA 4ut are not as hard to )la( as the( loo-A and thus ser%e to da.i E"<hi$s" or "3ancies"F easier )ieces 3or a$ateursD ?ol! 2 _ #7 SonatasA accessi4le (et serious <or-s deser%ing attentionD ?ol! # _ ?arious co$)ositionsA $ostl( inter$ediate le%el! 9 ha%e (et to 3ind a good 6aganini edition o3 %iolin and guitar $usic! 9t is 3rustrating that )u4lishers choose to issue onl( 1 or 2 )ieces rather than a co$)lete setA and 3urther$ore edit the $usic! G-$ail $e i3 (ou -no< o3 a good edition! Pietro Pettoletti -ca# 179?-1870/ &s =ichard Long statesA "6ettoletti <as an 9talian %irtuoso o3 the $id-19th centur( <ho s)ent $uch o3 his career in Scandina%ia and =ussia"! arco Ba.<o o3 these <or-s are =ussian Fantasies in nor$al "-string tuningA and are thus an insight in to the hauntingA $inor--e( 4eaut( o3 the =ussian 19th centur( st(le o3 )la(ing! In $( 8-string guitarA the 7string =ussian )ieces are )la(a4le <ithout retuning! ..he edition is <ell doneD a))arentl( 3ree o3 errors E9 ha%e not 3ound an(FA nice clear t()esetA good 4indingA etc!! .otti )oints out that 6ettoletti <as )ro4a4l( 9talianA later $o%ed to *er$an(A S<edenA and later St! 6eters4urgA =ussiaA <hich <as then a %i4rant center o3 19th centur( guitar <hich Sor %isited 3or se%eral (ears! +hile in =ussiaA 6ettoletti $et the reno<n =ussian 7-string guitarist &ndre( S(chraA <ho encouraged 6ettoletti to co$)ose 3or the 7-string =ussian guitar! .rue to the $aestroCs original scoresA no 3ingeringA d(na$ic signsA or )hrasing indications are gi%enA 3orcing the $odern )la(er to resort to hisQher o<n -no<ledge o3 )eriod )racticeA tasteA and $usical instincts!" ?ol! 1 _ 4# *hiri4i.er.
he 9talian *uitar in the 19th-Centur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies .he in3luence =egondi had u)on these later co$)osers is i$$ediatel( e%ident! =egondi )la(ed a Stau33er guitarA and 0a%id Staro4in 4reathes ne< li3e into the $usic on a Stau33er re)lica 4( South<ell E9 ha%e also had the )ri%ilege to hear Staro4in )la( =egondi in concertF! Because it is later ro$anticA )ushing the edge o3 "earl( ro$antic" .Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 .he *reat =egondi" C0 recordings ca)ture the 3uller out)ut! 9*=& &rticle See also .187B ..io)raphical . 18BB .ied %irtuosic dis)la(s and senti$ental $elod(! =egondiCs $usic see$s ahead o3 its ti$eD it re$inds $e a great deal o3 later <or-s 4( Barrios and the original )ieces 4( Llo4et! .ottiF! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 =egondi <rote 3or solo guitar onl(A and did not <rite an( )ieces to $( -no<ledge 3or guitar <ith other instru$ents! 'is <or-s reHuire considera4l( ad%anced techniHue and are %ie<ed as concert sho<casesA and 3rustrating to $ost inter$ediate or a$ateur )la(ers! ?er( 3e< )ieces 4( =egondi are -no<n to e8ist! .Giulio Re)ondi.ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba.it sounds e8cellent to $( ears on a $odern classical guitar .he Gtudes are e8cellent )ieces as <ell: %er( challenging 4ut .nformation1 =egondi <as an earl( child )rodig( <ho enBo(ed a success3ul career $ostl( in London! =egondi is the dedicatee o3 a Sor )ieceA <ith so$e )ossi4le connection to SorA so$e s)eculate )erha)s e%en earl( $usical training! =egondi <rote 3or guitar and also an instru$ent called the Concertina! 0a%id Staro4inCs ".e!g! the 4rilliant 1ohn 'ol$Huist recording o3 the etudes! 9t is so$e<hat di33icult to )la(A or at least reHuires a great deal o3 )ersistence to $aster the concert <or-s! .he etudes are the least challengingA 4ut e%en the( are Huite di33icult! +!aila%le Repertoire1 5 <or-s 4( =egondi 3or solo guitar are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! =egondiCs $usic is grace3ul and ro$antic in st(leA <ith ra)idA al$ost 3ren.he "9ntroduction et Ca)rice" and "Fete ?illageoise" are 4eco$ing standards o3 the earl( 19th centur( ro$antic re)ertoire! .
& %er( e8tensi%e collection o3 cello and guitar <or-s! 1ens sa(s ".he Ir)hee edition o3 the etudes is e8ce)tional in its scholarshi) and Hualit(! & ne<l( disco%ered <or.&4out hal3 shorterA eas( )ieces that 9 3ound too stereot()ical o3 the genre! .! 9 <ould rate =ung a ste) 4elo< his teacherA 0egen! .Co$)lete Cello and *uitar 0uos .Co$)lete 0uets .&ctuall( second )arts <ritten to e8isting )ieces 4( other co$)osers! 1ens )ro%ides the second )art onl( since the 3irst )arts are )u4lished solo )ieces! .he duo and trio $aterial is $uch 4etter than the solo $aterialA in $( %ie<! 9 )urchased ne<l( engra%ed urte8t scores o3 0egen and =ungCs co$)lete <or-s directl( 3ro$ 1ens Bang =as$ussen 4e3ore the( go to )rint e%entuall(! 1ens <as %er( eas( to deal <ith! .he other hal3 is longer )ieces <hich contained so$e real ge$sA $ore challenging and interestingA t<o in )articular $ade $( "& List"! 0egen .hese included: 0egen .hese scores are cris)A accurateA and nicel( done! .ecla Gditions to )ro%ide do<nloada4le $usic scores and 4iogra)hies 3ro$ t<o i$)ortant 0anish co$)osers .Co$)lete Solo +or-s )ieces! ostl( shorter )ieces and studiesA <ith so$e longer )er3or$ance .Co$)lete Solo +or-s . arranged 4( 0egen 3or t<o guitars! 0egen .=ung E1807-1871F 1ens Bang =as$ussen has <or-ed <ith .re<arding! .he collection 3or cello and guitar is the onl( $aBor collection 3or these intru$ents 3ro$ the nineteenth centur(! .0egen and =ung! =ungCs $usic is st(listicall( si$ilar to SorCsA 4ut <ith a Scandina%ian co$)onent! .he onl( -no<n <or-s o3 =egondi solo guitar $usic are the 3acsi$ile concert <or-s 4( Chanterelle through el Ba( usic 6u4lishersA and the recentl( disco%ered 10 Gtudes 4( Gditions Ir)hee! .<o )ieces include the 3irst and second )artsD an original arch 4( 0egenA and a rare )iano Q guitar )iece 4( ert.is the "&ir %ariP de lTo)era de Bellini 9 Ca)uleti e i ontecchi" also 4( Gditions Ir)hee E=egondi-Bellini lin-F! 'enri.he $usic is goodA 4ut the <riting is not on the le%el o3 the $aster co$)osers li-e Coste or ert.his is also the collection that is $ost interesting in his <riting and use o3 the 7-string guitar!" =ung .
his melodic in(ention original and although not (irtuoso wor7s000 it is thought that the$ will appeal to both ad(anced guitarists and to pla$ers of more modest abilit$0 " .17?B .Co$)lete 0uets .Si$on +(n4ergA 1981! .& good collection o3 original inter$ediate duets! =ung .s (alue as a composer is well demonstrated in these two pith$ classical /onatas0 #is modulations are strong.=ung .he Chanterelle sonatas <ere )u4lished around 179# and 3ollo< the classical $ode! 9n *er$an( at the turn o3 the 18th to 19th centur(A the "th string <as co$$onl( tuned u) to *A as is the case in this )u4lication! 0ue to tension concernsA 9 tune the entire instru$ent do<n a hal3-ste) and then the "th to *! .rios .& %er( good collection o3 trio $aterialD a <elco$e addition to the a%aila4le re)ertoire! Christian Gottlie% 9cheidler .hese 2 sonatas are 3antasticA <ell <orth it! "/cheidler.Co$)lete .181? / .Si$on +(n4ergCs 9ntroduction to ChanterelleCs )u4lication o3 ScheidlerCs t<o guitar sonatas in C and * )oint out that Scheidler co$)osed ta4lature )ieces 3or luteA and later the "-string guitar! 'e ser%ed in an orchestral )ost as a cellist and <as also a co$)oser and guitaristD around 180" he <as descri4ed in a )u4lication as ")ro4a4l( *er$an(Cs 3ore$ost lutenist and guitarist" and else<here as "auch Lautenist" .an indication that )erha)s he still )la(ed the near-e8tinct BaroHue Lute at the ti$e! .he )ieces in the Chanterelle edition are also a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ BoiBe! .
3ran> 9chu%ert - 1797 - 18B8 /
Schu4ert is one o3 the to) classical co$)osers o3 all ti$eA 3a$ous 3or his $an( %ocal <or-sA including the "&%e aria" and other Lieds EsongsF! Schu4ert )la(ed %iolinA )ianoA and guitarA and is de)icted in )ortraits )la(ing the guitar <hile singing! &lsoA Schu4ert co$)osed the "&r)eggione" Concerto no< )la(ed on "string guitar 4( 1ohn +illia$sD the ar)eggione <as an instru$ent 4uilt 4( Stau33er - tuned li-e a guitar 4ut 4o<ed! Schu4ert )la(ed Stau33er guitarsA and 4( %arious accounts <as an acco$)lished guitaristA and a close 3riend o3 *iuliani! Jn3ortunatel(A Schu4ert did not lea%e su4stantial guitar co$)ositions 4ehindA onl( si$)le acco$)ani$ent )arts! 0uring Schu4ertCs li3eA he <as not recogni,ed and li%ed nearl( in )o%ert(! 'e died in 1828A at onl( #1 (ears o3 ageA )ro4a4l( o3 s()hilis! Schu4ertCs $usic <as har$onicall( 4old and )ro%ed to 4e hugel( in3luential in the decades 3ollo<ing! "=iabelli published the first compositions of *ran" Schubert, when he was unknown as a musical composer, and these first publications were his songs with guitar accompaniment. Schubert was a guitarist, and wrote all his vocal works with guitar in the first instance. Some few years later, when the pianoforte became more in vogue, Schubert, at the re$uest of his publisher, =iabelli, set pianoforte accompaniments to these same songs." - 6hili) Bone
5are( =onrad 9o(olows(i -1818-188./A 6olish guitarist and co$)oser!
3ernando 9or, 1778 - 18.9
+lick the *ernando Sor portrait for the full&si"ed image, courtesy of Benneth Sparr. "Goubeau pin it. 0ithP de /ngelmann. 0itho.N par 1ordes". 0ithography by Gottfried /ngelmann H,I44&,45-J and Doseph 1ordes H,II5&,45<J after a lost painting by !nnocent&0ouis Goubaud. +a. ,4:<. %his print was bought from /7S 1uchanti$uariat, LQrich in :66:.
;io)raphical ,nformation1 Fernando SorCs <or-s ha%e re$ained )o)ular since the( <ere <rittenA and are still a$ong the $ost <idel(-recorded and <idel(-)la(ed )ieces in the re)ertoire! & Sor 4iogra)h( <as <ritten 4( 0r! Brian 1e33er(D 9 ha%e read this 4oo- and highl( reco$$end it! an( guitarists are sur)rised to learn that Fernando Sor <as not onl( a guitar co$)oserA 4ut also a co$)oser o3 large scale orchestral <or-sA and $usic 3or )iano and %oice! SorCs o)era ";ele$achus on the 9sland o3 Cal()so" <as success3ul! Sor taught and )er3or$ed as a %ocalistA and <as an acco$)lished )ianist! Sor <rote serious $usic <ith a high le%el o3 co$)ositional integrit(D and considered hi$sel3 a "har$onist"! SorCs $usic has a %ocalA l(rical Hualit( <ith )ro)er %oicing and har$onic structure! &ndre< 0al( Gssa( Fernando SorA 'is Li3e and 'is usic Fernando SorCs 6age 4( 1esds de las 'eras 1i$Pne, ;he 'istor( o3 the Classical *uitar - Sor
=o4 ac2illo)Cs Sor N 19th-Centur( *uitar 6er3or$ance Site dedicated in the $ain to )la(ing the $usic o3 Sor e %ideosA $)# 3ilesA essa(sA etc! Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric-: "*erdinand Sor was a composer of distinctive genius. Aside from those already mentioned he wrote numerous works for the theater&operas, ballets and pantomimes, amongst them "%he *air of Smyrna," FF0e Seigneur Genereu ," "0e Sicilien," "Gil 1las," and "+endrillon." 7f these "Gil 1las" and "+endrillon" were $uite popular for many years and were produced at the (oyal 7pera, 0ondon, and also in 2aris. As a composer for guitar, Sor stands above all others. 7ne critic of that time wroteP "Chat 3endelssohn is to the piano, Sor is to the guitar." 7thers have spoken of him as "%he 1eethoven of the guitar." ;p to the time when Sor came upon the scene, most so&called sonatas and other works for guitar contained long passages in single notes with occasional basses on open strings, although +arulli, Aguado and Giuliani had already cut loose from this system and had greatly improved the method of writing for guitar. Sor, with his thorough training in harmony and counterpoint and e perience in instrumentation, soon found that the guitar was capable of producing three and four part harmony# and his original compositions for guitar show the hand of the master. ;pon his method are built the modern school of %arrega and others. Cithout the study of SorFs "/tudes" and other guitar compositions, the present day guitarists cannot e pect to reach the top." - 4( *eorge C! 2ric- E1ul( 19#9F :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 Sor <as a ca)a4le co$)oser o3 o)erasA s($)honiesA 4alletsA cha$4er <or-sA )iano $usicA %oice $usicA and <or-s 3or solo and duo guitar! SorCs duets are a$ong the 4est <ritten! &s <as co$$on )racticeA Sor co$)osed around o)eras or 3ol- song the$esA in addition to original the$esA <ith $an( the$e N %ariation )iecesA 4ut Sor ele%ated this cra3t to a higher le%el than $ost o3 his conte$)oraries 4( <riting original co$)ositions around onl( a s-eletal sni))et 3ro$ the original sourceA <hile other co$)osers 4orro<ed hea%il( u)on the original $aterial! ;he 3a$ous o,art ?ariationsA o)us 9A is 4ased on a $oti3 <hich lasts onl( a 3e< seconds in the agic Flute o)era 4( o,artA <ith the entire co$)osition 4uilt around it! Li-e $ost guitarists o3 this eraA SorCs $usic can 4e classi3ied into 2 categories: %irtuoso concert <or-sA and a$ateur )ieces! an( o3 SorCs %irtuoso <or-s are su)er4 concert )ieces and real ge$s o3 the re)ertoire! ;he di33icult( le%el %aries considera4l(D the concert <or-s are usuall( ediu$ di33icult(A 4ut se%eral <or-s reHuire %er( ad%anced techniHue to )la( at 3ull s)eed <ith the intended inter)retation! ;he $usic <as <ritten <ith the co$)osition o3 3ore$ost considerationA <ith the result that not all o3 his $usic 3alls idio$aticall( to the guitar - it see$s to ha%e 4een ada)ted 3ro$ an original )iano conce)tion in $an( cases! Sor )u4lished $an( short and eas( )ieces 3or 4eginnersA including )ieces 3or 3irst (ear studentsA <hich re$ain the $ost )o)ular <or-s e%er <ritten! Sor is credited 3or <riting 4rilliant co$)ositions 3or 4eginner studiesA <hich is a di33icult 3eat gi%en the li$ited resources a%aila4le in that $ediu$! &ccording to a +i-i)edia article titled "List o3 co$)ositions 4( Fernando Sor"A SorCs <or-s also included 2 co$)lete o)erasA 7 co$)lete 4alletsA # co$)lete s($)honiesA and other cha$4er <or-s: 'peras %y 9or1 • ;ele$aco nellCisola di Cali)so E25 &ugust 1797A BarcelonaA ;eatre de la Santa CreuF • 0on ;rastullo flostg ;allets %y 9or1 • La 3oire dCGs$irne E1821A 6arisF • Gl seXor generoso E1821F • Cendrillon E1822A 6arisF
A and others! .o! 2 in G 3lat • S($)hon( .ecla series <ith the selected 3irst editions 3or that reason! .• • • • LCai$ant )eintre E182#F 'ercule et I$)hale E182"A Saint 6eters4urgF Le sicilien E1827F 'assan et le cali3e E1828F 'rchestral music %y 9or1 • S($)hon( .hese include a C0 o3 SorCs solo )iano <or-s E"Fernando SorA .hese are e8cellent recordings 4( to) guitarists toda( such as &da$ 'ol.$anA arc .he a<-<ardness is resol%ed <ith a shorter scale instru$ent li-e the guitars o3 SorCs ti$eA and $an( e8cellent recordings and )er3or$ances ha%e 4een done to )ro%e this is )er3ectl( )la(a4le on a "-stringA $odern guitar! Sor did use scordaturaA or re-tuning certain strings on occasionA and )erha)s inno%ated certain tunings that <e %ie< as standard toda( Esuch as 5_*F! Se%eral dro)-0 <or-s e8ist E"th string tuned to 0FA along <ith the 5th & string tuned do<n to * on a 3e< )ieces! .he$e ?arieA inuet O # 3ro$ 4 inuets <ithout I)usA o)! 2# O"A o)us 24 O2-7A o)! #5 e8! 12A and o)! #" O# and Chasse!F +!aila%le Repertoire1 &ll "# o3 SorCs )u4lished o)us nu$4ers 3or solo or duo guitar are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GMA and $an( are also in BoiBe! 'o<e%erA $an( o3 these editions are later 19th centur( editions and 9 )re3er the .here is s)eculation that the *rand Sonata o)! 14 used a 7-string guitar 4ecause the G is a stretch in )laces in dro)-0 tuningA 4ut in $( o)inion this is not the case: there are no other Sor <or-s 4e(ond " stringsA Sor )ro%ides co$$ents in the Sor ethod a4out guitars <ith e8tended rangeA such stretches are easil( $anagea4le on a ro$antic guitar <ith shorter scale o3 SorCs ti$eA and gi%en that ha%ing an o)en G )lus o)en 0 string on this )iece inter3eres <ith the stru$$ed indications 3or strings 4-"D thus 9 4elie%e o)us 14 this <as clearl( <ritten 3or a "-string instru$ent! .he <or-s tuned to F are: o)! 1 O" archA o)! 10 ?ariationsA o)! 11 O11 inuetA o)! 11 EsecondF .eclaCs edition is also enhanced 3or reada4ilit(: dar-er )rintingA and so$e tedious hand-editing o3 ste$s to $a-e the$ $ore reada4le than the 3aded originals! 9t should 4e noted that the .rit^ has )u4lished $an( o3 the orchestral and )iano <or-sA and $an( ground4rea-ing recordings o3 SorCs non-guitar $usic! .a8os Co$)lete +or-s o3 Sor is a%aila4le! .nstrumentation1 SorCs )u4lished co$)ositions 3or the guitar <ere entirel( co$)osed 3or the "string guitar! 9t is o3ten s)eculated that Sor 4egan )la(ing the "-courseA or 12-string guitar Ee!g! each string <as dou4ledFA as <as t()ical 3or guitars in S)ain in the late 1700Cs and earl( 1800CsA and then s<itched to " single strings later! .eichol.ota4l(A Sor calls 3or tuning the "th string u) a hal3-ste) to F in 14 )u4lished co$)ositionsA a tuning <hich is seldo$A i3 e%er seen else<hereA and <as )ossi4l( SorCs inno%ation! <hough $an( guitarists a%oid the "_F tuningA the tuning is %er( si$)le to use and it <or-s ideall( in certain -e(s! ost o3 the FCs are o)en stringA and the %er( 3e< notes that are 3retted on the "th string are si$)l( 1 3ret lo<er! E.he )iano3orte <or-s"FA and a C0 o3 SorCs <or-s 3or 3our-handed 3orte)iano E"F!Sor in London"F! .o! 1 in C • S($)hon( .he 18#" Gnglish translation o3 SorCs ethod 3or the S)anish *uitar is an essential treatise to understanding SorCs $usicA )hiloso)h(A and 19th centur( inter)retation! .o! # in F • ?iolin Concerto in * $aBor • # string Huartets • String trios <ith guitar .he co$)lete duets in 2 %olu$es is highl( reco$$ended also! ¬her guitaristA La<rence 1ohnsonA has recorded the co$)lete <or-s o3 Sor: htt):QQ<<<!crgrecordings!co$Qinde8!ht$! .here are no -no<n Sor co$)ositions using guitars <ith 7 or $ore courses! .
i$o3e(e% uses the uniHue earl(-19th-centur( =ussian guitar 3ro$ his collection!" <<<!talis$an$usic!org ¬her good article is .ars .he leading =ussian 7-string guitaristA and a 3riend o3 6ettoletti! 9t is %er( li-el( that Sor ca$e into contact <ith S(chra during his tra%els to St! 6eters4urg! r! .he *uitar o3 the C.eclaCs <e4 siteF! &n( serious guitarist should ha%e SorCs co$)lete <or-s in their li4rar(! Because o3 legal issuesA $ost o3 SorCs 4est <or-sA e!g! his later editionsA <ere onl( recentl( )rinted <ith the .ecla set includes all the )u4lished solo and duo <or-s -no<n to e8ist E<ith one e8ce)tionA 4elo<FA and thus 9 do not reco$$end an( other editions o3 SorA as <ith other editions (ou are 4u(ing single )ieces "a la carte" and $an( other editions are hea%il( 3ingeredA <here the editorCs 3ingerings $ight not 4e <hat Sor intendedA or $a( 4e 4ad 3ingerings in general Ethough so$e editors do a good Bo4F! & ne< disco%er( o3 Sor has recentl( 4een released <hich is not in the 1e33er( Q .i$o3e(e% has co$)iled $uch o3 <hat <e -no< toda(! " r! .he .$anCs recording! .ecla also released the ".he duet $aterial is so$e o3 the 3inest e%er <ritten 3or the guitar! .ecla is the )u4lisher o3 the Sor Co$)lete +or-s in a set o3 3acsi$ile editions! 9 o3ten re3er to the original )ri$ar( sources 3or re3erenceA e%en <hen using a ne<l( engra%ed edition! .hese are nice 4ecause the( are easier to read! .here are $an( ge$s <ell <orth unco%ering that ha%e had scant recordings $adeA des)ite their cali4er! .4( SorA at a4out 12 $inutes on &da$ 'ol.P! .e< Co$)lete +or-s" <hich are urte8t ne< engra%e$ents! .he original <as hand-<ritten and hard to readA thus this edition is ne<l( t()esetA and 9 3ound it to 4e 3ree o3 errors! ..2 )ieces arco Ba.i$o3e(e% decided to structure a )roBect around an 18## $anuscri)t co$)iled 4( &ndrei S(chra E177#-1850FA the 3ounder o3 the =ussian se%en-string guitar tradition! 9n this ne<l(-3ound sourceA S(chra collected so$e 42 $ost )o)ular songs and ro$ans( o3 his ti$e and arranged the$ <ith guitar acco$)ani$ent! Se%eral o3 these %ocal $aster)ieces are -no<n to an( =ussian EhSolo%eiAi hSredi dolin( ro%n(iaiFA 4ut so$e others <ere unBustl( 3orgotten 3or $ore than a centur(! an( are settings o3 )oe$s 4( 6ush-in and :hu-o%s-(A 4oth o3 <ho$ are 4right literar( stars 3ro$ =ussiaTs golden age o3 )oetr( and literature! G%er( )iece is e8)ertl( ada)ted 3or %oice and guitar 4( the $ost )roli3ic guitarist o3 the ti$eA creating a )leasant listening 3or an( audience! 9n addition to the %ocal ite$s on the )rogra$A ..he edition is not urte8tD it is 3ull( 3ingered 4( 6e)e =o$ero! So$e )eo)le ha%e o4Bected to <ithholding the original %ersion and i$)osing 6e)eCs o<n inter)retation o3 the 3ingering! 9n $( o)inion 6e)eCs 3ingerings <ere %er( goodA and generall( the $ost logical choices .he 3irst edition had errorsA so 9 reco$$end getting the second edition <ith 3i8es included Eerrata 3or the 3irst edition is a%aila4le on .-18?0/ .i$o3e(e% su))lies so$e o3 the $ost delight3ul guitar solos 4( S(chra hi$sel3 and his students! .4( 9tanislaw -9tanislaus/ 9>c>epanows(i -1811-1877/! r! I)hee has a good su$$ar( and an edition a%aila4le at Ir)hee Gditions .his is a 3ineA $aBor <or.ecla set! .ecla editionD Fantas( 0edicated to his student lle! 'ou.otti! .in 3actA Huite a 3e< cle%er ideasA <hich o%erall <ill sa%e a lot o3 ti$e learning the )iece Ealthough 9 did change a 3e< o3 his 3ingerings in $( co)(F! I%erall reco$$endedA in 3act it ran-s as one o3 $( )ersonal 3a%orite <or-s 4( Sor o3 the$ all! +ndrei 9ychra -177..
c.o<ards the close o3 18## he arri%ed in 6arisA studied so$e ti$e <ith Sor and also gained -no<ledge o3 har$on( and co$)osition! 9n 18#9A a3ter the death o3 SorA Sc.-(A <ho <as e8ceedingl( )o)ular as teacher and soloist! 'e suggested the lad should )la( the guitar and taught hi$ until he <as nineteen! 'e $ade such re$ar-a4le )rogress that 'oret.Fro$ 6!1!BoneCs C*uitar and andolinCA courtes( o3 =o4 ac2illo): "S.1909 .e)ano<s-i returned to Gdin4urgh and )ro%ed hi$sel3 a <orth( successor o3 his 3irst teacher! For a 3e< (ears he li%ed in Scotland $a-ing concert tours in the )ro%inces and London!" 3rancisco $arre)a. 18?B .e)ano<s-iA StanislausA 4orn in the 6alatine o3 Craco<A 6olandA and li%ing in 1852A <as a 6olish guitarist o3 rare a4ilit(! 0uring childhood his )arents taught hi$ to )la( the %iolin and at the age o3 si8 he )er3or$ed in )u4lic! 9n 1820 his 3a$il( $igrated to ScotlandA $ade their a4ode in Gdin4urgh and 4eca$e acHuainted <ith the 6olish guitarist 'oret.-( reco$$ended 3urther stud( under SorA the $ost 3a$ous o3 guitar %irtuosi and teacher! .
arr <as also an a%i transcri4erA including <orBeetho%enA &l4 and BachA <hic ha%e 3or$ed th te$)late 3or tod transcri)tions! +hile .arrega so$eti$es cred <ith in%enting %arious techniH it <ould 4e $o accurate to sa( ..arre <as taught 4( 1 &rcas and othe <ith an instruct lineage tracing .here is a great o3 4iogra)hical in3or$ation rea 3ound on the < site and $usica editions a4out .earl( e%e classical guitar <as dra<n to th guitar through h $usic and )la( so$e o3 his <o so$e o3 <hich the $ost 3a$ou )ieces in the en re)ertoire! .nformation1 .io)raphical .a is one o3 the $o )o)ular co$)o arrangers 3or th guitar e%en to t da(! .arrega $astere e8isting techniH and )assed the$ a ne< generatio guitarists! .arregaA so 9 < re)eat those de hereA 4ut 9 <ill instead o33er $ )ers)ecti%e! .
arrega <rote $ in the sa$e st( his conte$)ora in S)ain: Broca ?inasA &rcas an others <ho )rec hi$ )roduced t sa$e st(leA alth .directl( to 0ion &guado! .arregaCs students and undou4tedl( le their techniHue .arrega <as a n teacherA and his students 4eca$ 3oundation o3 th "$odern" Sego school: nota4l( Llo4etA Fortea a others! <houg is co$$onl( re)orted that Sego%ia <as se taughtA Sego%ia s)ent a lot o3 ti <ith .arreg )la(ed guitars 4 .arreg used 3ingernail the sa$e $ann &rcas and &gua shorter than $o $odern guitaris and late in his l con%erted to a n nails techniHue dri%en in large 3or $edical rea .arre co$)ositions d include large-sc <or-sA the( are char$ingA and re$ain )o)ular this da(! .arregaCs co$)ositions h <ithstood the te ti$e and contin dra< ne< listen and )la(ers! <hough .orresA the sa$ .
he ho$e residence in Barcelona increasingl( 4eca$e the $eeting )lace 3or 4oth local guitarists and those gi%ing guest )er3or$ances! 'ere the( $etA tal-edA )la(ed 3or and listened to each other! .ur-aA <alt.andA a4o%e allA a conductor at a great %ariet( o3 theaters in S)ain.in addition to his career as a guitarist! .or4ert Fischer o3 *er$an(! 5arco +urelio 8ani de 3erranti.his is <here the (oung Fracisco .arregaCs $usic! <ose Iinas -18B. 180B .Fro$ the 4oo-let o3: 1oachi$ *ass$ann: La LeonaA S)anische *itarren$usi. .here are original )ieces as <ell as $an( transcri)tions o3 )rinci)al co$)osers li-e Beetho%enA as <as co$$on )ractice! +!aila%le Repertoire1 Se%eral .arrega )ieces are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! Chanterelle has a t<o%olu$e series o3 3irst edition 3acsi$ilesA and $an(A $an( )u4lications are a%aila4le <ith .1888/! ". and tango are his 3a%orite 3or$s! 9n addition to theseA the 3antasias are o3 eHual i$)ortance!" .ogether <ith 1ulian &rcasA ?inas is estee$ed as one o3 his ageTs $ost signi3icant guitar %irtuosos! 'is inter)retation o3 the <or-s o3 &guado and Broca <ere considered to 4e e8e$)lar(A and he a))eared as a guest )er3or$er in a nu$4er o3 Guro)ean countries <ith $uch success in 1844! .arrega )resu$a4l( also introduced his 3irst <or-s! ?inasC altogether a$4itious co$)ositions de$onstrate that the( are co$)letel( rooted in the dance 3or$s t()ical o3 those ti$es: )ol-a and $a.des 19! 1ahrhundertsA &$4 979"4A contri4uted 4( .arrega <as li$ited to solo guitar <ith no out)ut 3or guitar <ith other instru$entsA or e%en duets! 'is <or-s %ar( 3ro$ 4eginner to those <hich reHuire ad%anced techniHue! .1878 .he $usical di%ersit( o3 1ose ?inas is i$)ressi%e! <hough 1ose Broca dedicated hi$sel3 co$)letel( to the guitarA ?inasA than-s to his e8traordinar( $usical talentA <as also a singer and co$)oser.-ind that <ere )la(ed 4( his instructor 1ulia &rcas! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 .
he co$)lete 4iogra)h( is )u4lished 4( Si$on +(n4ergA a%aila4le 3ro$ el Ba( usic 6u4lishers! See also .he $usic is t()ical o3 the 19th centur( guitarA and a little 4it $ore ad%anced! 5inor Composers an( o4scure co$)osersA o%er 1000 $anuscri)tsA 3or solo guitar or guitar <ith other instru$entsA .nformation1 .ottiF! 9*=& .ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba.Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 .io)raphical .he 9talian *uitar in the 19th-Centur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies .he( are largel( o)eratic 3antas( 3or$! +!aila%le Repertoire1 I)us nu$4ers 1 through 10 4( :ani de Ferranti 3or solo guitar are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM! Se%eral o3 these o)us <or-s are not in the Chanterelle series! Chanterelle through el Ba( usic 6u4lishers has )u4lished the collected <or-s! .otes Biogra)hical notes 4( *eorge C! 2ric-! :ifficulty 7e!el and 9cope1 Ferranti <as li$ited to solo guitar <ith little out)ut 3or guitar <ith other instru$ents! 'is <or-s $ostl( reHuire ad%anced techniHue and are 3rustrating to $an( inter$ediate or a$ateur )la(ers! ...
G=* ti$e )eriod o3 177"-1850 is the ti$e )eriod <hen the (oung &$erican nation 3lourished and recei%ed Guro)ean i$$igrants! 6erha)s so$eone <ill soon 4egin recording these )ieces! usic )u4lications <ere included in .ottiF! 'ther 9cottish Composers =o4 ac2illo)Cs <e4siteA <<<!ro4$ac-illo)!co$ contains an essa( on the G=* in Scotland! 'e has u)loaded a $anuscri)t 3ro$ Gdin4urgh in the 1840s 3ro$ a )u)il o3 'oret.ineteenth centur( in al)ha4etic order Eedited 4( arco Ba.ation 6roBect lin-s to se%eral on-line collections o3 19th centur( &$erican guitar $usic! .his is $erel( a list o3 the co$)osers <hose $usic is -no<n to $eA <ho$ 9 3eel <rote good $usic <hich in $( editorial o)inion is <orth( o3 stud( toda(! 'ther +merican Composers *uitar $usic in the Li4rar( o3 Congress 0onald Sauter has done ground-4rea-ing <or.the $aterial is %astA 4ut 9 did not 3ind an( serious co$)ositions here! 'ther .are a%aila4le 3or 3ree 60F do<nload 3ro$ =GM and BoiBe! .talian Composers .. .LC in order to recei%e co)(right! See the sheet $usic section 4elo<! eantone *uitar Studio has se%eral late 19th centur( collections o3 &$erican guitar editions 3or 3ree do<nloadA <ith donations reHuested! 9n addition to the &$erican $usicA one o3 the anthologies EShae33erF contained )ieces 4( 6ettolettiA LegnaniA and ert.he )ea.he arco Ba.Si8t( 4iogra)hies o3 9talian guitarist co$)osers o3 .he 9talian *uitar in the 19th-Centur(: Si8t( 4iogra)hies .he 19th Centur( &$erican Sheet usic 0igiti.-i <ho <as the $ain teacher in Scotland at that ti$e! Clic.on the side4ar 3or C.he err( +i%es o3 +indsor"! .to catalog and descri4e the earl( guitar $aterial in the JS& Li4rar( o3 Congress! .he 19th-centur( guitar in ScotlandC! =o4Cs site is $ainl( concerned <ith earl( Scottish $usic 3or lutesA and he has currentl( the onl( C0 de%oted to the 18th-centur( <ire-strung CguittarCA the $is-na$ed Gnglish *uitar! =o4Cs arrange$ents o3 SorCs ariettas 3or %oice and -e(4oard are 4eing )laced on Brian 1e33re(Cs 'e4e site! =o4 has recorded $an( o3 the )ieces 3ro$ the Gdin4urgh $anuscri)t on an original 6anor$o in the collection o3 Gdin4urgh Jni%ersit(! EJn3ortunatel( their instru$ents are in )oor condition and the( ha%e a )olic( o3 not ta$)ering <ith the$!F 'ther 9wedish Composers " usic 3or the *uitar 6rinted in S<eden 1800-18"0" and ".he *uitar in S<eden Jntil the iddle o3 the 19th Centur(" co$)iled 4( 2enneth S)arr! &lso $an( resources such as )aintingsA lin-sA in3or$ation etc!: 2enneth S)arr 'o$e 6age .including one un3a$iliar to $eA ".songs and eas( )arlor $usicA 4ut it is a good idea o3 household &$erican guitar $usic o3 this era! Start 4( searching 3or "guitar" ..otti 9talian site is an e8cellent resourceA <ith e8tensi%e 4iogra)hies and in3or$ation a4out 9talian 19th centur( co$)osers: .his is )o)ular $usicA nearl( all o3 it 3ol.here <ere $an( $inor co$)osers 3or the guitarA o3 %ar(ing Hualit( in the 19th centur(! Jn3ortunatel(A $uch o3 this $usicA 4iogra)hical in3or$ationA and other detailsA ha%e 4een lost o%er ti$e and scattered! 9 <ill not atte$)t to )ro%ide a co$)rehensi%e list on this <e4 )age! .he a$ount o3 earl( &$erican $usic is %ast and (et <idel( o%erloo-ed! .
lon'o /choff (1818-1&!*" after a painting b$ Charles /prague :earce (1851-1&1*"0 >arl$ 1&th centur$ 5rench guitar0 Courtes$ of Benneth /parr .>ngra(ing b$ /tephen .
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