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Chapter 17
Exploring, Displaying, and Examining Data

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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Learning Objectives
Understand . . . exploratory data analysis techniques provide insights and data diagnostics by emphasizing visual representations of the data how cross-tabulation is used to examine relationships involving categorical variables, serves as a framework for later statistical testing, and makes an efficient tool for data visualization and later decision-making

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Exploratory Data Analysis


This Booth Research Services ad suggests that the researchers role is to make sense of data displays Great data exploration and analysis delivers insight from data

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Data Analysis

Exploratory

Confirmatory

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Exhibit 17-1 Data Exploration, Examination, and Analysis in the Research Process

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Exhibit 17-2 Frequency of Ad Recall

Value Label

Value

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

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Exhibit 17-3 Pie Chart

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Exhibit 17-3 Bar Chart

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Exhibit 17-4 Frequency Table

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Exhibit 17-5 Histogram

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Exhibit 17-6 Stem-and-Leaf Display


5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 455666788889 12466799 02235678 02268 24 018 3 1 06 3 36

3
6 8

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Exhibit 17-7 Pareto Diagram

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Exhibit 17-8 Boxplot Components

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Exhibit 17-9 Diagnostics with Boxplots

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Exhibit 17-10 Boxplot Comparison

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Mapping

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Digital Camera Map

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Exhibit 17-11 SPSS Cross-Tabulation

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Exhibit 17-12 Percentages in Cross-Tabulation

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Guidelines for Using Percentages


Averaging percentages
Use of too large percentages Using too small a base Percentage decreases can never exceed 100%

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Exhibit 17-13 Cross-Tabulation with Control and Nested Variables

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Exhibit 17-14 AID Example

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Key Terms
Automatic interaction detection (AID) Boxplot Cell Confirmatory data analysis Contingency table Control variable Cross-tabulation Exploratory data analysis (EDA) Five-number summary Frequency table Histogram Interquartile range (IQR) Marginals Nonresistant statistics Outliers Pareto diagram Resistant statistics Stem-and-leaf display