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knocking combustion(Abnormal combustion) in CI engines

In CI engine, auto ignition of first part of droplet which is responsible to produce knocking and rough running of engine. Delay period is more, more droplets are accumulated in the combustion chamber That Accumulated fuels start burning with creates high rate of pressure rise. Heavy vibration accompanied by a knocking sound . Causing
Over heating of piston , Cylinder head Drop in power and damage to bearings Possible to piston seizure .

knocking/detonation prevention
Detonation can be prevented by any or all of the following techniques: the use of a fuel with high octane rating, which increases the combustion temperature of the fuel and reduces the proclivity to detonate; enriching the air-fuel ratio which alters the chemical reactions during combustion, reduces the combustion temperature and increases the margin above detonation; reducing peak cylinder pressure by decreasing the engine revolutions (e.g., shifting to a higher gear, there is also evidence that knock occurs more easily at high rpm than low regardless of other factors); decreasing the manifold pressure by reducing the throttle opening, boost pressure or reducing the load on the engine.

Comparison of Knock in SI and CI Engines

Comparison of Knocking in S.I. and C.I. Engines

In S.I. engines, the knocking occurs near the end of combustion whereas in C.I. engine, this occurs at the beginning of combustion. The knocking in S.I. engine takes place in an homogeneous mixture, therefore, the rate of pressure rise is high. In C.I. engines, the mixture is heterogeneous and hence rate of pressure is lower. The question of preignition does not arise in C.I. engines as the fuel is supplied only near the end of compression stroke. The knocking in S.I. engines is because of auto-ignition of the last part of the charge. To avoid this, the fuel must have long delay period and high self ignition temperature. To avoid knock in C.I. engine, the delay period should be as small as possible and fuel self ignition temperature should be as low as possible.

Factors which reduce Knocking in S.I. and C.I. engines

S. No. 1. 2. 3. Factors affecting Knock Self ignition temperature Delay period of fuel Compression Ratio S.I. engines High Long Low C.I. engines Low Short High

5. 6. 7. 8.

Inlet temperature
Inlet Pressure Speed Cylinder size Combustion chamber wall Temp

Low High Small Low

High Low Large High

Injection angle

Cetane number

Compression ratio