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CIVIL ENQINEERING STUDIES .


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
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PROJECT REPORT ON

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DESIGN OF 111
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WATER TREATMENT PLANT . !!II

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~ACULTY ADVISOR PREPARED BY
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JAIN. NIKHIL.R. ,. ..
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I DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Sardar VallabhbhaiRegionalCollege of
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. Engineering c" Technology i =

I Surat-395007. [Gujarat)
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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SARDAR VALLABHBHAI REGIONAL COLLEGE


.OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
SURAT - 395007

CERTIFICA TE

This is to certify that the project,entitled "Design of Water Treatment Plant",

has beenpreparedby $-,./A. IJC~~./;/. 71. Roll. No 26. a final year student of

Civil Engineering, during the year 1998-99, as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for

the award of Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Civil Engineering of

SOUTH GUJARAT UNIVERSITY, SURAT. His work has been found to be satisfactory.

GUIDED BY:
---------.
~~'-'
. of B. K. Samtani) ( Dr. B. K. K'atti)
Acknowledgment

Right from the procurement of material to the cleaning of conceptual difficulties,

we cannot withhold our sincerest thanks to Prof. B.K.Samtani, Civil Engineering

department, SVRCET, Surat, without whose invaluable guidance and

cooperation the project would not have been accomplished.

we would also like to thank Dr. B. K. Katti, Prof. and Head, Civil Engg.

Department, whose support and encouragement are transparent in the work it

self.

Lastly, we would like to thank Mr. SUNIL MISTRY (Navsari) for preparing the
report.

I"
DEEPAK V.M. (15)
DESAI DHARMESHM. (16)
DHAMI VIJAY M. (17)
DINTYALA SRINADH (18)
DIWANJI NIBHRVTA R. (19)
G. CHANDRAMOHAN (20)
GAJJAR TEJAL S. (21)
GAlJRAV PARASHAR (22)
GHADIYALI MINESH S. (23)
GHOSH lITPAL (24)
GOPALAKRISHNANR. (25)
JAIN NIKHIL R. (26)
JAJlJ PRADEEPR. (27)
CONTENTS
Sr.No. Title
1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 BASIC DATA FOR THE DESIGN OF WATER SUPPLY
SYSTEM
3.0 SALIENT FEATURES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT
4.0 POPULATION FORECASTING
5.0 CALCULATION OF WATER DEMAND
5.1 Calculation of different drafts
5.2 Design capacity of various components
5.3 Physical and chemical standards of water
5.4 Comparison of given data and standard data
5.5 Suggested units of treatment plant
6.0 DESIGN OF UNITS
6.1 Collection units
6.1.1 Design of intake well
6.1.2 Design of pen stock
6.1.3 Design of gravity main
6.1.4 Design of jack well
6.1.5 Design of pumping system
6.1.6 Design of rising main
6.2 Treatment units
6.2.1 Design of aeration unit
6.2.2 Design of chemical house and calculation of chemical dose
6.2.3 Design of mechanical rapid mix unit
6.2.4 Design of cIarifiocculator
6.2.5 Design of rapid gravity filter
6.2.6 Disinfection unit
6.3 Storage tank
7.0 CONCLUSION
REFERENCES:
-.= lUG
(fr INTRODUCTION

Water, undubiously is a basic human need. Providing safe and adequate


quantities of the same for all rural and urban communities, is perhaps one
of the most important undertaking, for the public works Dept. Indeed, the
well planned water supply scheme, is a prime and vital element of a
country's social infrastructures as on this peg hangs the health and
wellbeing of it's people.

The population in India is likely to be Hundred crores by the turn of this


century, with an estimated 40% of urban population. This goes on to say
that a very large demand of water supply; for Domestic, Industrial, Fire-
fighting, Public uses, etc.; will have to be in accordance with the rising
population. Hence, identification of sources of water supply, there
conservation and optimum utilization is of paramount importance. The
water supplied should be 'Potable' and 'Wholesome'. Absolute pure water
is never found in nature, but invariable contains certain suspended,
colloidal, and dissolved impurities (organic and inorganic in nature,
generally called solids), in varying degree of concentration depending.
upon the source. Hence treatment of water to mitigate and lor absolute
removal of these impurities (which could be; solids, pathogenic micro-
organisms, odour and taste generators, toxic substances, etc.) become
indispensable. Untreated or improperly treated water, becomes unfit for
intended use proves to be detrimental for life.

The designed water treatment plant has a perennial river as the basic
source of water the type of treatment to be given depends upon the given
quality of water available and the quality of water to be served. However
such an extensive survey being not possible in the designed water
treatment plant. It is assumed that all kinds of treatment processors are
necessary and an elaborate design.
1
The design of water treatment plant for Mandvi situated in district Surat of
Gujarat has been done. Mandvi is located on the bank of river Tapti. The
latitude and longitude of the town corresponding 21.61 N, 73.118E
respectively. The population of the given year 2031 will be 61400. There
are many industries like diamond industries and chemical industries in the
town so, treated water supply for domestic and industrial uses are very
essential.

...
"

[I_
(ir BASIC DATA FOR THE DESIGN OF
WATER SUPPL V SVSTEEM

The given problem includes the design of water treatment plant and
distribution system and also the preparation of its Technical Report and
Engg. Drawings showing the required details of collection and treatment
units. The following Table gives the basic necessary data required for the
design of water treatment plant.
(Table No. 2.1)
No. Description
1. Name of the place - Mandvi
2. District - Surat
3. Location

(a) About 27 mile (43.2 kms) away from Kim railway


station of western railway.
(b) Nearest railway station is Mandvi station (9 mile, 14.4
kms) on Tapti valley railway
(c) On the right bank of Tapti.
4. Latitude (Lat.) 21.61 N
5. Longitude (Lon) 73.18 E

(Table No. 2.2)


Sr.No. Design Considerations Values
1. Design period (years) 30
2. Average rate of water supply (Ipcd) 135
3. Industrial demand (MLD) 0.6
4. Quality of raw water
I) Ph 7.5

..
II) Turbidity (mg/L) 50

III) Total Hardness (mg/L) [as CaC03] 550

IV) Chlorides (mg/L) 200

V) Iron (mg/L) 2.5

VI) Manganese (mg/L) 3.5

VII) Carbonates (mg/L) 110

VIII) M.P.N. (No.l100ml) 3.5


5. I Population of past four decades (In thousand)
Year 1961 07
Year 1971 12
Year 1981 15
Year 1991 22
6. I F.S.L. of river (R.L. in mts.) 27
7. I Ground level at ; (R.L. in mts.)
a) Jack well site 28
b) Location of aeration unit 29
8. I Invert level of raw material gravity intake pipe
(R.L. in mts. ) 24-
9. I Length of raw water rising main (mts.) 200
10. I Source supply:
A river with sufficient perennial flow to satisfy the
required demand.
11. I Highest G. L. in (m) 34
12. I Lowest G. M. in (m) 28
13. I Bed level of river (m) I 22
14. I H.F.L. of river (m) I 32

3
~-
r::tr SALIENT FEATURESOF

WATER TREATMENT PLANT


3.1. General
~ Populationof the town (In thousand)
Year 1991 :22
Year 2031 : 61.4
2. Average daily draft (M.L.D.) : 8.89
Maximum daily draft (M.L.D.) : 13.33
3. Design period (Years) : 30

3.2 Collection Works


Intake Works
Intake Well
No. of units :1
2. Dia. Of well (m) : 5.5
3. Ht of intake well :4
. R.L. of bottom well (m) : 24
5 R. L. of top of well (m) : 28
... Detention time (min) :10

Penstock
~ No. of penstockwell :2
2. Dia. Of penstock (mm) : 400

Bell mouth strainer


01 No. of bell mouth strainer :2

2. Dia. (m) : 0.9

4
- I

Gravity main
No. of units :1

'" Dia. (mm) : 550


3 Invert level (m) : 23.88
~ slope : 1:862

Jack well
No. of units :1
Dia. (m) : 6.15
3 Depth of water : 3.12
. Detention time (min) : 10

Rising main and pumping units


Rising :
~ Dia. (m) : 0.45
2 Velocity of flow (m/s) :1

Pumping unit:
Capacity of eachpump(HP) : 60
2. No. of pumps :1

3.3 Treatment works


Aeration unit
~ R.L. of aeration unit (m) (top) : 31.40
(Bottom) :29.40
2. Dia. Of top tray (m) :1
3. Dia. Of bottom tray (m) :5
4 Dia.of each tray decreasing by(m) :1
5. Rise of each tray (m) : 0.4
6. Tread of each tray (m) : 0.5

Dia.of central rising main pipe (m) : 1.0


8 No. of trays :5

5
Chemical storage house

1. Length (m) : 20

2. Breadth (m) : 12

3. Height (m) : 3.0

Chemical Dissolving Tank

1. No. of Tank :1

2. Length (m) :3

3. Breadth (m) :2

4. Depth (m) : 1.5

Flash Mixer

1 No. of units :1

2. Dia. (m) : 1.6

3. Detention time (min) : 0.5

4. Height (m) : 2.6

5. Depth of water (m) : 2.37

Clariflocculatoi

Flocculator :

1. No. of units :1

2. Dia. (m) : 10.16

3. Dia. of Inlet pipes (m) :0.45


: 3.5
4. Depth of water flow (m)
5. Velocity of flow (m/s) : 1.0

6
Clarifire :
1. No. of units :1
2. Dia. (m) : 23
3. Depth of water (m) : 4.4
4. Overall depth of tank (m) : 4.7
5. Slope of bottom :8%

Rapid Sand Filter


1. No. of units :2
2. Surface area (Sq. m) :58.48
3. Dimension of unit (m x m) : 8.6 x 6.8
4. Thickness of sand bed (m) : 0.6
5. Thickness of gravel bed (m) : 0.5
6. Dia. of manifold (m) :1
7. Laterals:
(a) No's : 86
(b) Dia. (mm) : 90
(c) Length (cm) : 2.9
(d) Spacing (cm) : 20
8. No. of orifices :16
9. Dia. of orifice (mm) : 13
10.Wash water tank :1

Disinfection House
1. ChlorinerequiredIday (kg) : 18.662
2. CylinderrequiredIday (no.) :2

3.4 Storage Units


Underground Reservoir
1. No. of units 1
2. Length (m) 14-

.>
3. Breadth (m) -14
4. Depth (m) : 4.5

Elevated Service Reservoir


1. No. of units :1
2. Dia. (m) : 12
3. Height (m) : 4.3
4. Capacity (Cu. m) : 450

..;
~
lUG
(ir POPULATION FORECASTING
4.1 Desian Period

.. ,'a:er supply project may be designed normally to meet the requirements


.
: 6'" a 30 years period after there completion. The time lag between
:esgn and completion should be also taken into account. It should not
:'"C'1arily exceed 2 years and 5 years even in exceptional circumstances.
-~e 30 years period may however be modified in regard to specific
:C"'lponents of the project particularly the conveying mains and trunk
~a "'ISof the distribution system depending on their useful life or the facility
;::~carrying out extension when required, so that expenditure far ahead of
_:. ty is avoided. However in our case the design period has been
~"'1sidered as 30 years per given data.

4.2 POlJulation Forecast


General Considerations
~e population to be served during such period will have to be estimated
.,:..t.~due regard to all the factors governing the future growth and
:e/elopment of the city in the industrial, commercial, educational, social
a"d administrative spheres. Special factors causing sudden immigration or
~ux of population should also be foreseen to the extent possible.

9
Calculation Of Population With Different Methods
(TableNO.4. 1)
Sr. Year Population Increase Increase Increament Decreas
No. (thousand) (thousand) % al increase ein%
(thousand) increase
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. 1961 7.48 - - - -
2. 1971 12 4.52 60.45 - -
3. 1981 15 03 25 -1.52 35.45
4. 1991 22 07 46.67 4.0 -21.67
Total 14.52 132.12 2.48 13.78
Average 4.84 44.04 1.24 6.89

Arithmetical Increase Method


Using the relation
Po = Pn + nc
Where,
Po = Initial population;
Pn = Population in dh decade;
n = No. of decades;
c = Average increase (refer table 2.1, col. 4)
P2031 = 36521+ 4840.33
= 41361.33

Geometrical Increase Method


Using the relation
Pn =Po(1+IG/100)n
Where, Pn = Population in the dh decade;
Pn = Population any decade ;
IG = Percentage increase ( Ref. Table 4.1, col. 5 )
N = No. of decade

P2031 = 65744.86 + ( 44.04 /100 x 65744.86)


= 94698.17

10
Incremental Increase Method
Using the relation
Pn = Po + ( r + i )n
Where, r = Average rate of increase in population per
decade (Ref. Table 4.1, Col. 5) ;
= Average rate of incremental increase per
decade
(Ref. Table 4.1, Col. 6) ;
Po = Populationin any decade;
Pn = Populationin n decade;
P2031 = 40239.49+ ( 4840.33+ 1239.5)
= 46319.32

Decrease Rate Of Growth Method


Year Expected population
2001 22000 + 39.78/100 x 22000 = 30751
2011 30751 + 32.39/100 x 30751 = 40865
2021 40865 + 26/100 x 40865 = 51490
2031 51490 + 19.11/100 x 51490 = 61330

4.3 Description Of The Various Methods


Arithmetic Increase Method
~'"'lSmethodis basedupon assumptionthat the populationincreasesat a
~stant rate and rate of growth slowly decreases. In our case also
:;opulationis increasingat a constantrate with slight decreasein growth
~e_

-=-.
so this method is more suitable for. very big and older cities whereas in
= case it is relatively smaller and new town.
S: results by this method is although good but not as accurate as desired.

11

...
-
Geometrical Increase Method
In this method the per decade growth rate is assumed to be constant and
which is average of earlier growth rate. The forecasting is done on the
basis that the percentage increases per decade willremain same.

This method would apply to cities with unlimited scope for expansion.

Incremental Increase Method


This method is an improvement over the above two methods. The average
increase in the population is determined by the arithmetical increase
method and to this is added the average of the net incremental increase,
once for each future decade.

This method would apply to cities, likely to grow with a progressively


i,creasing or decreasing rate rather than constant rate.

Decreasing Rate Of Growth Method


As in our case the city is reaching towards saturation as obvious from the
graph and it can be seen that rate of growth is also decreasing. Thus this
."ethod which makes use of the decrease in the percentage increases is
"lore suitable. This method consists of deduction of average decrease in
percentage increase from the latest percentage increase.

""'lus this gives weightage to the previous data as well as the latest trends.
Decrease in percentage increase is worked out average thus giving
...,portanceto whole data.

12
Logical Curve Method
This is suitable in cases where the rate of increase of decrease of
population with the time and the population growth is likely to reach a
saturation limit ultimately because of special local factors.

The city shall grow as per the logistic curve, which will plot as a straight
line on the arithmetic paper with the time intervals plotted against
population in percentage of solution.

Simple Graphical Method


Since the result obtained by this method is dependent upon the
'1telligence of the designer, this method is of empirical nature and not
"'luch reliable.

Also this method gives very approximate results. Thus this method is
useful only to verify the data obtained by some other method.

Graphical Comparison Method


~is involves the extension of the population time curve into the future
:)ased on a comparison of a similar curve for comparable cities and
~odified to the extent dictated by the factors governing such predictions.

13
Logical Curve Method
This is suitable in cases where the rate of increase of decrease of
population with the time and the population growth is likely to reach a
saturation limit ultimately because of special local factors.

The city shall grow as per the logistic curve, which will plot as a straight
line on the arithmetic paper with the time intervals plotted against
population in percentage of solution.

Simple Graphical Method


Since the result obtained by this method is dependent upon the
'r'1telligenceof the designer, this method is of empirical nature and not
"'luch reliable.

Also this method gives very approximate results. Thus this method is
...sefulonly to verify the data obtained by some other method.

Graphical Comparison Method


~is involves the extension of the population time curve into the future
:)ased on a comparison of a similar curve for comparable cities and
"'-'odifiedto the extent dictated by the factors governing such predictions.

13

..-
.
-= lUe
(jj= CALCULATION OF WATER DEMAND

5.1 Calculation Of Different Drafts


Expected population after 30 years = 61400
Average rate of water supply = 135 LPCD
(Including domestic, commercial, public and wastes)

Water required for above purposes for whole town = 61400 x 135
= 8.289 MLD
Industrial demand = 0.6 MLD

Fire Requirement :
It can be assumed that city is a residential town (low rise buildings)
Water for fire = 100 P x 10-3MLD
= 100 61.4 X 10-3MLD
= 0.78 MLD
(i) Average daily draft = 8.289 + 0.6
= 8.889
(ii) Maximum daily draft = 1.5 x 8.889
= 13.33
(iii) Coincident draft = maximum daily draft + fire demand
= 13.33 + 0.78
= 14.11 MLD
(Coincident draft < maximum hourly draft)

14

....
5.2 Desian CaDacitv For Various ComDonents
(i) Intake structure daily draft = 13.33 MLD
(ii) Pipe main = maximum daily draft = 13.33 MLD
(iii) Filters and other units at treatment plant
= 2 x Average daily demand
=2x8.889
= 17.778 MLD
(iv) Lift pump = 2 x average daily demand
= 17.778 MLD

5.3 Phvsical And Chomical Standards Of Water

. . . . - . - .,
Sr. Characteristics Acceptable Cause for
No. Rejection
1. Turbidity (units on J.T.U. scale) 2.5 10
2. Color (units on platinum cobalt scale) 5.0 25
3. Taste and odour Unobjection Unobjection
able able
4. PH 7.0 to 8.5 6.5 to 9.2
5. Total dissolved solids (mg/L) 500 1500
6. Total hardness (mg/L as CaC03) 200 600
7. Chlorides (mg/L as C1) 200 1000
8. 8ulphates (mg/L as 804) 200 400
9. Fluorides (mg/L as F) 1.0 1.5
10. Nitrates (mg/L as N03) 45 45
11. Calcium (mg/L as Capacity) 75 200
12. Magnesium (mg/L Mg) 30 150
13. Iron (mg/L Fe) 0.1 1.0
14. Manganese mg/L as MnO 0.05 0.5
15. Copper (mg/L Cu) 0.05 1.5
16. Zinc (mg/L as Zn) 5.0 15.0

15
17. Phenolic Compounds (mg/L as phenol) 0.001 0.002
18. Anionic Detergents (mg/L as MBAS) 0.2 1.0
19. Mineral oil (mg/L) 0.01 0.3
TOXIC MATERIALS
20. Arsenic (mg/L as As) 0.05 0.05
21. Cadmium (mg/L as Cd) 0.01 0.01
22. Chromium (mg/L as Hexavalent Cr) 0.05 0.05
23. Cyanides (mg/L as Cn) 0.05 0.05
24. Lead (mg/L as Pb) 0.1 0.1
25. Selenium (mg/L as Se) 0.01 0.01
26. Mercury (mg/L as Hg) 0.001 0.001
27. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 0.2 0.2
(mg/L)
RADIO ACTIVITY
28. GROSS Alpha Activity in pico Curie 3 3
(pCi/L)
29. Gross Beta Activity (pCi/L) 30 30

Notes :

. The figures indicated under the column 'Acceptable' are the limits upon
which water is generally acceptable to the consumers.
. Figures in excess of those mentioned under 'Acceptable' render the
water not acceptable, but still may be tolerated in the absence of
alternative and better source upon the limits indicated under column
'Cause for Rejection' above which the supply will have to be rejected.
. It is possible that some mine and spring waters may exceed these
radioactivity limits and in such cases it is necessary to analyze the
individual radio nuclides in order to assess the acceptability for public
consumption.

16
5.4 ComDarison Of Given Data And Standard Data

(Table No. 5.2)


Sr. Particulars Actual Standard Difference Means for
No. Treatment
1. pH 705 7 to 8.5 O.K. Not
necessary
2. Turbidity 50 2.5 47.5 Clarifier &
rapid sand
filter
3. Total Hardness 550 200 350 Softening
(mg/L)
4. Chlorides(mg/L) 200 200 50
5. Iron (mg/L) 2.5 0.1 2.4 Aeration
60 Manganese (mg/L) 3.5 0.05 3.45 Aeration

70 Carbonate (mg/L) 110 - - Softening


8. MPN (no.100) 3.5 0.0 3.5 Chlorination

17
5.5 Suaaested Units Of Treatment Plant

J ue to previous analysis following units are required to be designed for


,',Iatertreatment plant.

~) Intake Structure :
(a) Intake well
(b) Gravity main
(c) Jack well
(d) Rising main
(e) Pump

2I Treatment unit:
(a) Aeration unit
(b) Coagulant dose
(c) Lime soda dose
(d) Chemical dissolving tank
(e) Chemical house
'f) Flash mixer
(g) Clariflocculator
(h) Rapid sand filter
(i) Chlorination unit

.. Storage unit:
fa) Underground storage tank
b) Elevated storage
,.:.. ~ematic diagram of each of the unit is shown.

18

....
-.
-=lu0
~ DESIGN OF UNITS

6.1 Collection units


6.1.1 Design Of Intake Well
(a) Intake Well
Intakes consists of the opening, strainer or grating through which the
water enters, and the conduct conveying the water, usually by gravity to a
well or sump. From the well, the water is pumped to the mains or
treatment plants. Intakes should also be so located and designed that
possibility of interference with the supply is minimized and where
uncertainty of continuous serviceability exists, intakes should be
duplicated. The following must be considered in designing and locating the
intakes.

The source of supply, whether impounding reservoir, lake or river


(including the possibility of wide fluctuation in water level).
The character of the intake surrounding, depth of water, character of
bottom, navigation requirements, the effect of currents, floods and storms
upon the structure and in scouring the bottom.

The location with respect to the sources of pollution.


The prevalence of floating materials, such as ice, logs and vegetation.

Types of Intakes :
· Wet Intakes: Water is up to source of supply.
· Dry Intakes: No water inside it other than in the intake pipe.
· Submerged Intakes: Entirely under the water.
· Movable and Floating Intakes: Used where wide variation in surface
elevation with sloping blanks.

19
Location Of Intakes :
. The location of the best quality of water available.
. Currents that might threaten the safety of the intake structure.
. Navigation channels should be avoided.
. Ice flows and other difficulties.
. Formation of shoals and bars.

. Fetch of the wing and other conditions affection the weight of waves.
. Ice storm.
. Floods.

. Power availability and reliability.


. Accessibility.
. Distance from pumping station.
. Possibilities of damage by moving objects and hazards.
The intake structure used intake our design is wet-type.

(b) Design Criteria


1. Detention time 5 to 10 min.
2. Diameter 5 to10 m(maximum
15m)
3. Depth 4 to 10m
4. Velocity of flow 0.6 to 0.9 m/s
5. Number of units 1 to 3 (maximum 4)
6. Free board 5m

(c) Design Assumptions


Given F.S.L. =27m
Minimum R.L. =28m
Given invert level of gravity main = 24 m
Detention time = 10 min.

20
Design Calculation
Flowof water required = 13.33 MLD 13600 x 24
= 0.1543 m3/sec.
Volume of well = 0.1543 x 0 x 60
= 92.57 m3
Cross-sectional area of intake well = 92.57 14
= 23.14 m2

diameter of intake well (d) = ...J4x 23.14 In

= 5.42 < 10 m (O.K.)

provide 1 intake well of diameter 5.42 m ==5.5 m

(e) Summary
1. Number of intake wells 1 unit
2. Diameter of intake well 5.5m
3. Height of well 4.0m
4. R.L. of bottom of well 24m

6.1.2 Design Of Pen stock And Bell Mouth Strainer


(a) Pen stock
This are the pipes provided in intake well to allow water from water body
to intake well. These pen stocks are provided at different levels, so as to
take account of seasonal variation in water level (as H.F.L., W.L., L.W.L.).
Trash racks of screens are provided to protect the entry sizeable things
which can create trouble in the pen stock. At each level more than one
pen stock is provided to take account of any obstruction during its
operations. These pen stocks are regulated by valves provided at the top
of intake wells.

(b) Design Criteria


Velocity through pen stock = 0.6 t01.0 m/sec.

Diameter of each pen stock = less than 1 m


Number of pen stock for each intake well =2
21
.~

MANHOLE
., .- . ."..-. R. L. .2B M T

F.S.L..-I.-,.
R.L.
.-------- .-
(J:N M1"
----
--..---
:0=-

.'. .

Lw.L. --
3MT
- )

.. ,.-GRJ\VIIY MAIN (0..55)


'17 MT

. .. -.;----..
"... . ..

.....

:NT!-\I-<C \VrLL
(c) Design Calculation
Number of intake well =1
Number of pen stocks at each level =2
Velocity = 0.75 m/sec. (assumed)
CIS area of each pen stock = 0.1543/0.75 x 2
= 0.1029 m2
Diameter = 0.3619 m ==0.4 m

(d) Summary
1. Number of pen stock 1well 2 units
2. At each level 1m
3. Diameter of pen stock 0.4 m

Design Of Bell Mouth Strainer:


(a) Design Criteria
Velocity of flow = 0.2 to 0.3 m/s
Hole diameter = 6 to 12 mm
Area of strainer = 2 x diameter of holes

(b) Assumptions
Velocity of flow = 0.25 m/s
Hole diameter = 10 mm

(c) Calculation
1t d2
Area of each hole = - = 0.7853cm2
4
Area of collection = Area of pen stock
0.1543
= 0.7853 x N
0.25 x 2
N = 3929.7
Area of Bell mouth strainer= 2 x area holes

22
(c) Design Calculation
Number of intake well =1

Number of pen stocks at each level =2


Velocity = 0.75 m/sec. (assumed)
C / S area of each pen stock =0.1543/0.75x2
= 0.1029 m2
Diameter = 0.3619 m ==0.4 m

(d) Summary
1. Number of pen stock / well 2 units
2. At each level 1m
3. Diameter of pen stock 0.4 m

Design Of Bell Mouth Strainer:


(a) Design Criteria
Velocity of flow = 0.2 to 0.3 m/s
Hole diameter = 6 to 12 mm
Area of strainer = 2 x diameter of holes

(b) Assumptions
Velocity of flow = 0.25 m/s
Hole diameter = 10 mm

(c) Calculation
1t d2
Area of each hole = - = 0.7853cm2
4
Area of collection = Area of pen stock
0.1543
= 0.7853 x N
0.25 x 2

Area of Bell mouth strainer = 2 x area holes

22
= 2 x 3929.7 x 0.7853
= 6171.98
Diameter of Bell-mouth strainer = 88.64
Provide diameter of 0.9 m for bell mouth strainer.

6.1.3 Design Of Gravity Main


(a) Gravity Main
The gravity main connects the intake well to the jack well and water flows
though it by gravity. To secure the greatest economy, the diameter of a
single pipe through which water flows by gravity should be such that all
the head available to cause flow is consumed by friction. The available fall
from the intake well to the jack well and the ground profile in between
should generally help to decide if a free flow conduit is feasible. Once this
is decided the material of the conduit is to be selected keeping in view the
local cost and the nature of the terrain to be traversed. Even when a fall is
available, a pumping or force main, independently or in combination with a
gravity main could also be considered. Gravity pipelines should be laid
below the hydraulic gradient.

(b) Design Criteria


Diameters of gravity main = 0.3 to 1 m
Velocity of water = 0.6 to 0.9 m/s
Number of gravity main = number of intake well =1
Assumption velocity = 0.7 m/s

(c) Design Calculation


R.C.C. Circular pipe is used.
Conduit velocity = 0.7 m/s (assumed)
Area of conduit required = 0.1543 I (0.7)
= 0.2204 m2
Diameter of the conduit = 0.5297 m ==0.55 m

23
Using Manning's formula,
1
V= R 2138112-
n

n2V2 (0.013)2 X (0.7)2


8 -- --
R413 (0.55/4)413
= 1.59 x 10-4
8 = 1 : 862
Headloss = 100 / 862
= 0.116
R.L. of gravity main = 27 - 3
=24m
R.L. of gravity main at jack well = 24 - 0.116
= 23.88 m

(d) Summary
1. Number of gravity intake 1 unit
2. Diameter of gravity intake 0.55m
3. Invert level at intake well 24m
4. Invert level at jack well 23.88 m

6.1.4 Design Of Jack Well


(a) Jack Well
This structure serves as a collection of the sump well for the incoming
water from the intake well from where the water is pumped through the
rising main to the various treatment units.

This unit is more useful when number of intake wells are more than one.,
so that water is collected in one unit and then effected.
The jack well is generally located away from the shore line, so that the
installation of pumps, inspection maintenance is made easy.

24
(b) Design Criteria
. Detentiontime = 0.5 x detention time of intake well.(3 to 15 min.}.
=0.5)( 10
=5min.
. Suction head < 10m.
. Diameter of well < 20m.

(c) Design Calculation


Detention time =5m.
Assumingsuctionhead = 8 m.
Bottomclearance = 1.0 m.
Top clearance = 0.5 m.
Maximum depth of water that can be stored in condition when
water is minimumin rive
26 - 22.88 =3.12 m
Capacity of well =0.1543x10x60
= 92.58 m3
C / S area of well = 92.58/3.12
= 29.67 m2
Diameter of well = 6.14 m
R.l. of bottom of jack well = 22.88 m
R.l. of bottom of jack well when full = 22.88 + 7
= 29.88 m

(d) Summary
r:c- Diameter of jack well 6.15m
R.l. of bottom of jack well 22.88 m
3. R.l. top of jack well 29.88 m
4. Suction depth 2.12m
Top clearance O.5m

tE
6. Bottom clearance 1m

.25
/....
k'..

-
--...
.' I -0:..
:.....
J'
I ; I

- I.
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I

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.I'
.
REGULAI\NG' . I ..
:.-'Ii :: :: ~,.:
VALVE~ ;>-~-r'- _._l~:,,.._.
to.._I_~"",I_J _ _'." _ 4'"_"_... :
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PIAn

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_
RISING MAIN (
"iT
- . _. ,s R.L. ...
...: .".: .
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-", .. 0':~"',: .:., ','j: 4.2,q. €>B
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cu\VrLL AND PUMPJ-JOU£f


-
5.1.5 Design Of Pumping System
(a) Pumps
. in the water treatmentplant, pumps are used to boost the water from
thejack well to the aerationunits.
. The followingpointsare to be stressedupon.
. The suction pumpingshould be as short and straight as possible. It
should not be greaterthan 10m,for centrifugalpump. If head is more
+han 10 m ..v... ter i s converted i n+n ""' '' ~ +h, ,... i "' i n~ , n .
L I I, V g I , ILV yg poU r g, '''' LIIU,", I n''"' pI te VI LA v atlng

water head, vapour head is created and pump ceases to function.


. The suction pipe should be of such size that the velocity should be
about 2m / sec.
. The delivery pipe should be of such size that the velocity should be
about 2.5m./sec.

The fonowing four to/pes of pumps are generally used.


. Buoyancy operated pumps
. impuise operated pumps
. Positive displac.ementpumps
. Velocity adoptions pumps

The following criteria govern pump selection.


. Type of duty required.
· Present and projected demand and pattern and change in demand.
. The details of head and flow rate required.
· Selecting the operating speed of the pump and suitable drive.
o The efficiency of the pumps and consequent influence on power
consumption and the running costs.

(b) Diameter Of Rising Main


Q = 0.1543m3/sec.
Economical diameter = 0.97 --.fato 1.22 --.fa
-

= 0.97 "';0.1543to 1.22 .../0.1543


=0.38 to 0.48 m
Provide D = 0.45 m

(c) . Design Criteria


Suction head should not be greater than 10m.
Velocity of flow length = 0.7 to 1.5 mts
Top clearance =0.5 m
Bottomclearance =1m

(d) Design Calculation


Frictionallosses in rising main
Assumingvelocity = 0.9 mtsec.
F = 0.02
FPv2 0.02 x -190x (0.9)2
hf=- =
2gd 2 x 9.81 x 0.45
= 0.348
Head loss =0.35
Total head of pumping = hs + hd + hf + minor losses
= 2.12+4.88+.35+1
=8.35

Assuming two pumps in parallel


W.O.H. 1000 x 0.1543 x 8.35
W.H.P. = . = =17.17HP
75 75
W.H.P. 17.17
S.H.P. = = - =22.90HP
n 0.75
(e) Summary
: Provide 1 - 25 HP pump in parallel
, Diameter of pipe I0.45 m

2.7
--
y:

6.1.6 Design Of Rising Main


(a) General
These are the pressure pipes used to convey the water from the jack well
to the treatment units.

The design of rising main is dependent on resistance to flow, available


head, allowable velocities of flow, sediment transport, quality of water and
relative cost.

Various types of pipes used are cast iron, steel, reinforced cement
concrete, pre stressed concrete, asbestos cement, polyethylene rigid
PVC, ductile iron fibre glass pipe, glass reinforced plastic, fibre reinforced
plastic.

The determination of the suitability in all respects of the pipe of joints for
any work is a matter of decision by the engineer concerned on the basis of
requirements for the scheme.

(b) Design Criteria


Velocity =0.9 to 1.5 m/sec.
Diameter < 0.9 m.

(c) Design Calculation


Economical diameter, D = 0.97J a to 1.22.[0
= 0.38 to 0.48 m
Provide diameter = 0.45 m
V = alA = 0.97 m/sec.

Summary
Diameter of pipe I 0.45 m

28
6.2 Treatment Units
The aim of water treatment is to produce and maintain water that is
hygienically safe, aesthetically attractive and palatable; in an economical
manner. Albeit the treatment of water would achieve the desired quality,
the evaluation of its quality should not be confined to the end of the
treatment facilities but should be extended to the point of consumer's use.
The method of treatment to be employed depends on the characteristics
of the raw water and the desired standards of water quality. The unit
operations and unit processes in water treatment constitute aeration
flocculation (rapid and slow mixing) and clarification, filtration, softening,
defloridization, water conditioning and disinfection and may take many
different combinations to suit the above requirements.

In the case of ground water and surface water storage which are well
protected, where the water has turbidity below 10 JTU (Jackson Candle
Turbidity Units) and is free from odour and color, only disinfection by
chlorination is adopted before supply.

Where ground water contains excessive dissolved carbon dioxide and


odorous gases, aeration followed by flocculation and sedimentation, rapid
gravity or pressure filtration and chlorination may be necessary.

Conventional treatment including prechlorination, aeration, flocculation


and sedimentation, rapid gravity filtration and postchlorination are adopted
for highly polluted surface waters laden with algae or microscopic
organisms.

Based on the data given in second chapter, the following treatment units
and accessory units are designed to meet the quality and quantity
requirement of the project:

29
--
Aeration unit
Coagulant dose
Lime soda dose
Chemical dissolving tank
Chemical house
Flash mixer

Clariflocculator
Rapid sand filter
Chlorination unit
The detail design of the above units are discussed in subsequent sections.

6.2.1 Design Of Aeration Unit


Aeration Unit
Aeration is necessary to promote the exchange of gases between the
water and the atmosphere. In water treatment, aeration is practiced for
three purposes :

To add oxygen to water for imparting freshness, e.g. water from


underground sources devoid of or deficient in oxygen.
Expulsion of C02, H2S and other volatile substances causing taste and
odour, e.g. water from deeper layers of an impounding reservoir.
To precipitate impurities like iron and manganese, in certain forms, e.g.
water from some underground sources.

The limitation of aeration are that the water is rendered more corrosive
after aeration when the dissolved oxygen contents is increased though in
earlier circumstances it may otherwise due to removal of aggressive C02.
Also for taste and odour removal, aeration is not largely effective but can
be used in combination with chlorine or activated carbon to reduce their
doses.

30
The concentration of gases in a liquid generally obeys Henry's Law which
states that the concentration of each gas in water is directly proportional to
the partial pressure, or concentration of gas in the atmosphere in contact
with water. The saturation concentration of a gas decreases with
temperature and dissolved salts in water. Aeration tends to accelerate the
gas exchange.

The three types of aerators are :


Waterfall or multiple tray aerators.
Cascade aerators.
Diffused air aerators.

Design Criteria For Cascade Aerators


Number of trays = 4 to 9
Spacing of trays = 0.3 to 0.75 m c/c
Height of the structure =2m
Space requirement = 0.015 - 0.045 m2/m3/hr

Design Calculation
Qmax = 0.1543 m3/sec.
Provide area at tray = 17 m2
Diameter of bottom most tray =5m
Rise of each tray = 0.4 m
Tread of each tray =50cm

31
-.-1"R. L.{Jt.OO)
CASCADE.
i. (A. ~>
- R.'L(30t'c.:)
CA~CA[)E ~.Ct ~ ~

CASC.AbE 3.
- R..L., :roe ~C.)

. (3qSJ
,C-ASCADE ~ R.l(,2(h8~ ,-,
f4 .~)
R'L:(29; It 0)
<:'ASCI'obE

~(5#
~
2Cf -OD
"~
, .
Rl SING MAIN (0..1.,;:)
1N LE'T =-- MT ,r
PIA M ETE-R Of: G
: I
: I
R..L. IN MTS
CAse ADt; ~r<J MT5

AE RA\IQ\J UN\-r

~
Summary
Sr. Cascade Diameter R.L. (m)
No. of tray (m)
1. First 1 31.00
2. Second 2 30.60
3. Third 3 30.20
4. Fourth 4 29.80
5. Fifth 5 29.40
R.L. of ground at site = 29.00 m

Design Of Chemical House And Calculation Of Chemical Dose


The space for storing the chemicals required for the subsequent treatment
of water consists of determining space required for storing the most
commonly used coagulant alum, lime, chlorine, etc. for the minimum
period of three months and generally for six months.

The size of unit also depends upon the location, transport facilities,
weather conditions, distance of production units and availability of
chemicals. Chemical house should be designed to be free from moisture,
sap, etc. These should be sufficient space for handling and measuring
chemicals and other related operations.

It should be located near to the treatment plant and chemicals should be


stored in such size of bags that can be handled easily.

Alum Dose:
Coagulation
The terms coagulation and flocculation are used rather indiscriminately to
describe the process of removal of turbidity caused by fine suspension
colloids and organic colors.

32
Coagulation describes the effect produced by the addition of a chemical to
a colloidal dispersion, resulting in particle destabilization. Operationally,
this is achieved by the addition of appropriate chemical and rapid intense
mixing for obtaining uniform dispersion of the chemical.

The coagulant dose in the field should be judiciously controlled in the light
of the jar test values. Alum is used as coagulant.

Design Criteria For Alum Dose


Alum required in particular season is given below:
Monsoon = 50 mg/L
Winter = 20 mg/L
Summer = 5 mg/L

Alum required
Let the average dose of alum required be 50 mg/L, 20mg/L, 5 mg/L in
monsoon, winter and summer, respectively.
Per day alum required for worst season for intermediate stage
= 50 x 10-6x 555.48 X 103x 24
= 666.58 kg/day
For six months (180 days) = 666.58 x 180
= 119984.40 kg
Number of bags whence 1 bag is containing 50 kg = 2400
If 15 days in each heap = 160 heaps
If area of one heap be 0.2 m2,then total area required = 80 m2.

Lime-Soda Process:
Softening
A water is said to be hard, when it does not form leather readily with soap.
The hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium
ions in most of the cases. The method generally used are lime-soda

33
process. Softening with these chemicals is used particularly for water with
high initial hardness ( > 500 mg/L) and suitable for water containing
turbidity, color and iron salts. Lime-soda softening cannot, however,
reduce the hardness to values less then40 mg/L.

Design Criteria For Lime-Soda Process


It should be possible to remove 30 mg/L carbonate hardness and 200
mg/L total hardness by this process.
Lime And Soda Required
Lime required for alkalinity
Molecular weight of
CaC03 = 40 + 12 + 48
= 100
CaO = 40 + 16
= 56.
100 mg/L of CaC03alkalinity requires = 56 mg/L of CaO
110 mg/L of CaC03 requires = (56/100) x 110
= 61.6 mg/L of CaO

Lime Required For Magnesium


24 mg/L of magnesium requires = 56 mg/L of CaO.
1 mg/L of magnesium requires = 56/24 mg/L of CaO.
3.5 mg/L of magnesium requires = (56/24) x 3.5
= 8.2 mg/L of CaO.
Hence, the total pure lime required = 61.6 + 8.2
= 69.8 mg/L
Also 56 kg of pure lime (CaO) is equivalent to 74 kg of hydrated lime.
Hence, hydrated lime required = (69.8 x 74)/56
= 92.23 mg/L.
Soda (Na2C03) :
Soda is required fir non-carbonate hardness, as follows.

3+
100 mg/L of NCH requires = 106 mg/L of Na2C03
161.6 mg/L of NCH requires = ( 106/100) x 161.6
=65.59 mg/L of Na2C03
Total quantity of lime =(92.23 x 555.5 x 180 x 24 x 103)
=221329.86 kg
One bag contains 50 kg.
Number of bags required = 4426
If 15 bags in each heap, number of heaps = 295
If area of one heap is 0.2 m2. = 295xO.2
= 59 m2
Total quantity of soda required = 65.59 x 10-6x 555.5x103x 24 x 180
= 157400.25 kg.
Number of bags = 3148
If 15 bags in each heap = 209.86 heaps.
Total area of heap = 0.2 x 209.86
= 41.97 m2
Total area for all chemicals = 80 + 59 + 41.97
= 180.97 m2
Add 30 % for chlorine storage, chlorine cylinders etc.
Total area = 235.26 m2
Provide room dimension = 20 x 12
= 240 m2
provide dimension = 20mx 12m
Chemical Dissolving Tanks :
Total quantity of alum, lime and soda = 119984.4 +221329.86 +157400
= 498714.26/180
=19394.44 day
=387 bags
=25.8 heaps
Area required = 5.16 m2

Dimensions = 3.0 m x 3.0 m

35
Chemical Solution tanks:
Total quantity of alum, lime and soda required per day
= 2770.63 kg/day
Hence solution required per day = 2770.63 x 20
=55412 Lit/day
= 38.48 Lit/min

Quantity of solution for 8 hours = 38.48 x 8 x 60


= 18470 Lit
= 18.47 m3

Assuming depth of tank (1.2m) and 0.3m free board


Dimension of solution tank = 4.5 x 3.5 x 1.5
Summary
1. Per day alum required 666.58 k/j
2. Hydrated lime required 92.23 mql
3. Soda required 65.59 'M/A.-
4. Size of chemical dissolving 3x3
tanks

5. Size of chemical solution tanks 4.5 x 3.5 x 1.5

Design Of Mechanical Rapid Mix Unit


Flash Mixer
Rapid mixing is and operation by which the coagulant is rapidly and
uniformly dispersed throughout the volume of water to create a more or
less homogeneous single or multiphase system.

This helps in the formation of micro floes and results in proper utilization of
chemical coagulant preventing localization of connection and premature
formation of hydroxides which lead to less effective utilization of the
coagulant. The chemical coagulant is normally introduced at some point of

36
.
. iv '
hIIi gh ..U..l11.I
,..h u1Ience "nI +h"
LIIO
..Y'vater. T
II he SV" u"10c " OfI P"u,,,..
vnol
f"..
IVI
..~
IQ pl d m
iliA lng to
create the desired intense turbulence are gravitational and pneumatic.

T "
n,.. " ""' OCi+u
'

110
h In+LILY
ens ~' "f
VI
.vi
I
III All ~ Is d0 pendent
i
I I UpO'"II th
LII
" "
e tvllll-'VIQ , mIv" anI YOI ILY

gradient 'G'. This is defined as the rate of change of velocity per unit
distance normal to a section. The turbulence and resultant intensity of
mixingis based on the rate of power input to the water.
Flash mixture is one of the most popular methods in which the chemicals
are dispersed. They are mixed by the impeller rotating at high speeds.

Design Criteria For Mechanical Rapid Mix Unit


Detention time =30 to 60 sec.
Velocity of flow = 4 to 9 m/sec.
Depth = 1 to 3 m
Power Required cu.m/day
= 0.041 'r<J/vi"1000
Imeeller
. 8eeed
. = 100 to 250 rpm
Loss of head =O.4to;.O
Mixing device be capable of creating a velocity gradient
= 300m/sec/m depth
Ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter
= 0.2 to 0.4 : 1
D
I' a +in
uv
nf t
VI .. I ,
O
.
ank h""!g I It to rfi\..IIamo'"'tor". -
- J"+0 ':!
-I
v. . -I
I

(C) Design Calculation


Design flow = 13331.52 m3/day
Detention time = 30 sec.
Ratio of tank height to diameter = 1.5:1
Ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter = 0.3:1
Rotational speed of impeller = 120 rem
.
Assume temperature =200
1. Dimension of tank:
Volume = 4.629 m3
D = 1.6m
Height = 2.37 + (0.23 m free board)
Total height of tank = 2.6 m

2. Power Requirement:
Power spend =5.47 KW

3. Dimensions of flat blade and impeller:


Diameterof impeller = 0.65 m
Velocity of tip impeller = 4.08 m/sec.
Area of blade = As
Power spent =:h x CDx rox As x VR3
Let CD = 1.8 (Flat blade); VR = % XVT
5.47 x i 03 = % x 1.8 x i 000 XAs x % x 4.08
As = 1.99 m2
Provide 8 blades of 0.5 x 0.5 m = 2m2
Provide 4 numbers of length 1.5 m and projecting 0.2 m from the wall.

4. Provide inlet and outlet pipes of 250 mm diameter.


Summary
Detention Time 30 sec.
11.
2. Speed of Impeller 120 rpm
3. I Height of Tank (0.23 m free board) 2.6m
I

4. PowerRequired 5.47 t<JN


5. Numberof Blade(0.5mx 0.5m) 8 I
Number of baffles (length 1.5 m) 4
16.
7. Diameter of inlet and outlet 250

38

- ---
Design Of Clariflocculator
Clariflocculator
The coagulation and sedimentation processes are effectively incorporated
in a single unit in the clariflocculator. Sometimes clarifier and
clariflocculator are designed as separate units.

All these units consists of 2 or 4 flocculating paddles placed equidistantly.


These paddles rotate on their vertical axis. The flocculating paddles may
be of rotor-stator type. Rotating in opposite direction above the vertical
axis. The clarification unit outside the flocculation compartment is served
by inwardly raking rotating blades. The water mixed with chemical is fed in
the flocculator compartment fitted with paddles rotating at low speeds thus
forming floes.

The flocculated water passes out from the bottom of the flocculation tank
to the clarifying zone through a wide opening. The area of the opening
being large enough to maintain a very low velocity. Under quiescent
conditions, in the annular setting zone the floc embedding the suspended
particles settle to the bottom and the clear effluent overflows into the
peripheral launder.

(b) Design Criteria: (Flocculator)


Depth of tank = 3 to 4.5 m
Detention time = 30 to 60 min.
Velocity of flow = 0.2 to 0.8 m/sec.
Total area of paddles = 10 to 25 % of cis of tank
Range of peripheral velocities of blades = 0.2 to 0.6 m/s
Velocity gradient (G) = 10 to 75
Dimension less factor Gt = 104to 105
Power consumption = 10 to 36 KW/mld
Outlet velocity = 0.15 to 0.25 m/sec.

39
-- -

Design Criteria: (Clarifier)


Surface overflow rate =40 m3/m2/day
Depth of water = 3 to 4.5 m
Weir loading =300 m3/m2/day
Storage of sludge = 25 %
Floor slope = 1 in 12 or 8% for mechanically cleaned tank.
Slope for sludge hopper = 1.2:1 (v:h)
Scraper velocity = 1 revolution in 45 to 80 minutes
Velocity of water at outlet chamber = not more than 40 m/sec.

(c) Assumptions
Average outflow from clariflocculator
Water lost in desludging =2%

Design average period = 566.82 m3/hr


Detention period = 30 min.
= 30 S-1
Average value of velocity wadient

Design Of Influent Pipe


Assuming V = 1 m/sec.
Dia = 0.447 m
Provide an influent pipes of 450 diameter.
Design Of Flocculator : wall
Volume of flocculator = 566.82 x 30 160
= 283.41 m3

Providing a water depth = 3.5 m


Plan area of flocculator = 283.41/3.5
= 80.97 m2
D = diameter of flocculator = 10.16m
Dp = diameter of inlet pipes = 0.45 m
D =10.2m
Provides a tank diameter of 10.2 m

40
Dimension Of Paddles:
= G2X !l v x vol
= 302x 0.89 x 10-3X (1tf4x 10.22x 3.5)
= 229.08

Power input = % (Cd x P x Ap X (V-U)3


Cd = 1.8
P = 995 kg/m3(25°c)
V = Velocity of tip of blade = 0.4 m/sec.
v = Velocity of water tip of blade = 0.25 x 0.4
= 0.1 m/sec.
229.08 = % x 1.8 x 995 x Ap x (0.4-0.1)3
.. Ap = 9.47 m2
Ratio of paddles to cis of flocculator
[9.47/ P (10.2 - 0.75) 3.5] x 100 = 9.11 % <10 to 25 %

Provide Ap = 10.5 m2

Ap = [10.5ht (10.2-0.75) 3.5] x 100 = 10.1% ok


Which is acceptable (within 10 to 25 %)
Provide 5 no of paddles of 3 m height and 0.7 m width
One shaft will support 5 paddles
The paddles will rotate at an rpm of 4
V = 2 x x x r x x/60
0.4 = 2 x x x r x 4/60
r = 0.96m ==1m
r = distance of paddle from C1. Of vertical shaft
Let velocity of water below the partition wall between the flocculator and
clarifier be 0.3 m/sec.
Area = 555.48/0.3 x 60 x 60 = 0.51m2

Depth below partition wall = 0.51/x x 10.2


= 0.016m
Provide 25% for storage of sludge = 0.25 x 35
= 0.875m
41
-----

Provide 8% slope for bottom


Total depth of tank at partition wall = 0.3 + 3.5 + 0.016 + 0.875
= 4.69m ==4.7m

Design Of Clarifier
Assuming a surface overflow rate of 40m3/m2/day
Surface of clariflocculator = 555.48 x 24/40
= 333.29m2
Oct= Dia. of Clariflocculator
P/4 [Oct2 - (10.2)2] = 333.29
Oct = 22.99m ==23m

Length of weir = 1t X Oct

= 1tx 23 = 72.26m

Weir loading = 555.48 x 24/72.26


= 184.49m3/day/m
According to manual of Govt. of India. If it is a well clarifier. It can exceed
upto 1500m3/day/m.

Summary (Clariflocculator)
1. Detention Period 30min
2. Diameter of influent pipes 450mm
3. Overall depth of flocculator 3.5m
4. Diameter of tank 10.2m
5. No. of paddles (3 m height and 0.7 m width) 5
6. Distance of shaft from C.L. of flocculator 1m
7. Paddles rotation (RPM) 4
8. Distance of paddle from C.L. of vertical shaft 1m
9. Slope of bottom (%) 8
10. Total depth of partition wall 4.7m
11. Diameter of clariflocculator 23m
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6.2.5 Design Of Rapid Gravity Filter
(a) Rapid Sand Filter
The rapid sand filter comprises of a bed of sand serving as a single
medium granular matrix supported on gravel overlying an under drainage
system, the distinctive features of rapiq sand filtration as compared to slow
sand filtration include careful pre-treatment of raw water to effective
flocculate the colloidal particles, use of higher filtration rates and coarser
but more uniform filter media to utilize greater depths of filter media to trap
influent solids without excessive head loss and back washing of filter bed
.
by reversing the flow direction to clear the entire depth of river. .

The removal of particles within a deep granular medium filter such as


rapid sand filter, occurs primarily within the filter bed and is referred to as
depth filtration. Conceptually the removal of particles takes place in two
distinct slips as transport and as attachment step. In the first step the
impurity particles must be brought from the bulkof the liquid within the
pores close to the surface of the medium of the previously deposited
solids on the medium. Once the particles come closer to the surface an
attachment step is required to retain it on the surface instead of letting it
flow down the filter.

The transport step may be accomplished by straining gravity, setting,


impaction interception, hydrodynamics and diffusion and it may be aided
by flocculation in the interstices of the filter.

(a) Design Criteria: (Rapid Sand Filter)


. Rate of filtration = 5 to 7.5m3/m2/hr
. Max surface area of one bed = 100m2

· Min. overall depth of filter unit including a free board of 0.5m = 2.6m
· Effective size of sand = 0.45 to 0.7
· Uniformityco-efficientfor sand = 1.3 to 1.7

43
. Ignition loss should not exceed 0.7 percent by weight
. Silica content should not be less than 90%

. Specific gravity = 2.55 to 2.65


. Wearing loss is not greater than 3%
. Minimum number of units =2
. Depth of sand = 0.6 to 0.75
. Standing depth of water over the filter = 1 to 2m
. Free board is not less than 0.5m

(b) Problem Statement


Net filtered water = 555.48m3/hr
Quantity of backwash water used =2%
Time lost during backwash = 30min.
Design rate of filtration = 5m3/m2/hr
Length - width ratio = 1.25 to 1.33:1
Under drainage system = central manifold with laterals.
Size of perforations = 13mm

(c) Design Calculation


Solution: required flow of water = 555.48m3/hr

Design flow for filter = 555.48 x (1 + 0.02) x 24/23.5


= 578.65m3/hr
Plan area for filter = 578.65/5
= 115.73m2 ==116

Using 2 units,
Plan area = 58m2
Length x width = L x 1.25L
= 58
L =6.8m
Provide 2 filter units, each with a dimension 8.6m x 6.8m.

44
Estimation Of Sand Depth :
It is checked against breakthrough of floc.
Using Hudson Formula:
Q x d x h/L = 8 x 293223 11
Where, Q, d, hand 1 are in m3/m2/hr,mm, m and m, respectively.
Assume, 8 = 4 X 10-4(poor response) < average degree of pre-treatment
h = 2.5m (terminal head loss)
Q = 5 x 2m3/m2/hr(assuming 100% overload of filter)
d = 0.6mm(meandia.)
10 x (0.6)3 x 2.5/1 = 4 x 10-4x 293223
L>46m
provide depth of sand bed = 60cm

Estimation Of Gravel And Size Gradation:


Assuming size gradation of 2 mm at to 40 mm at bottom using empirical
formula :
P = 2.54 R (log d)
Where, R = 12 (10 to 14)

The units of Land dare cm and mm, respectively.


Size 2 5 10 20 40

Depth(cm) 9.2 21.3 30.5 40 49


Increment 9.2 12.1 9.2 9.5 9
Provide 50 cm depth of gravel.

Design Of Under Drainage System :


Plan area of each filter = 8.6 x 6.8
= 58.48m2

Total area of perforation = 3 x 10-3 x 58.48


= 0.17544m2
= 1754.4cm2

45

J
--

Total cross section area of laterals = 3 x area of perforation


= 3 x 1754.4
= 5263.2cm2
Area of central manifold = 2 x area of lateral
= 2 x 5263.2
= 10526.4cm2
Diameter of central manifold = ..J10526.4 x 4hc
= 115.76cm
Providing a commercially available diameter of 100 cm.
Assuming spacing for laterals = 20cm
Number of laterals = 8.6 x 100/20
= 43 on either side
D = ..J61.2 X 4ht

= 8.83cm ==90mm

Number of perforations /Iaterals = 86 units


Length of one lateral = % width of filter - % dia. of manifold
= %x6.8-%x 1
= 2.90 m
Let n be total no. of perforation of 13mm dia.
.. Total area of perforation = n x 1t/4 x (1.3)2
= 1754.4
.. n = 1321.76 ==1322
No. of perforation /Iateral = 1322/86
= 15.37 ==16

Spacing of perforations = 2.90 x 100/1.6


= 181.25cm clc
Provide 16 perforations of 13 mm diameter at 180 cm clc.

46
-

Computation of wash water Troughs:


Wash water rate = 36m3/m2/hr
Wash water discharge for one filter = 36 x 58.48
= 2105.28m3/hr
= 0.5848m3/sec.
Assuming a spacing of 1.8 m for wash water trough which will run parallel
to the longer dimension of the filter unit.
No. of trough = 6.8/1.8
=3.78=:4

discharge per unit trough = 0.5848/4


= 0.1462m3/sec.
For a width of 0.4 m the water depth at upper end is given by
Q = 1.376 b h312
0.1462 = 1.376 x 0.4(h)312
h = 0.41
Freeboard = 0.1m
Provide 4 troughs of 0.4 m wide x 0.5 deep in each filter.

Total Depth Of Filter Box:


Depth of filter box = depth of under drain + gravel + sand + water depth
+ free board
= 900 + 500 + 600 + 2200 + 300
= 4500mm

Design Of Filter Air Wash :


Assume rate at which air is supplied = 1.5m3/m2/min.
Duration of air wash =3min.

Total quantity of air required per unit bed = 1.5 x 3 x 8.6 x 6.8
= 263. 16m3

47
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(d) Summary
1. Number of units 2
2. Size of unit 8.6 x 6.8m
3. Depth of sand bed 60cm
4. Depth of gravel SOcm
5. Diameter of perforation 13mm
6. Diameter of central manifold 100cm
7. Spacing for laterals 20cm
8. Number of laterals 86
9. Diameter of laterals 90mm
10. Number of perforations 16
11. Number of troughs 4
12. Size of trough 0.4 x 0.5m
13. Total depth of filter box 4500mm
14. Duration of air wash 3min.
15. Total quantity of air required per unit bed 263. 16m;:!

6.2.6 Disinfection Unit


(a) Chlorination
Treatment method such as aeration, plain sedimentation, coagulation,
sedimentation, filtration, would render the water chemically and
aesthetically acceptable with some reduction in the pathogenic bacterial
content. However, the foregoing treatment methods do not ensure 100%
removal of pathogenic bacteria, and hence it becomes necessary to
'disinfect' the water to kill the pathogenic bacteria.

Disinfection should not only remove the existing bacteria from water but
also ensure their immediate killing even afterwards, in the distribution
system. The chemical which is used as a disinfectant must, therefore be
able to give the "residual sterilising effect" for a long period, thus affording
some protection against recontamination. In addition to this, it should be

48
- CHLORINE GAS

L.IQUID C1.1 TO CI~TRI~IJTION


c. YLINCEP- MAIN

cI. WEIGHING
o .sCALE
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OVER r:/..f:)/N STRoNG CJ.,). SOLUTION
To t:>AA/fIJ

WATeR 70 13€
I TflEAT EJ>

LINE DIAGRAM OF A. 'YPICAl .5oLUTION


FEED CHLORINA70R INSTALJ..ATloN
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harmless, unobjectionable to taste, ecomomical and measurable by
simple tests. 'Chlorine' satisfies the above said more than any other
disinfectant and hence is widely used.

(b) Design Criteria (chlorination)


. Chlorine dose = 1.4mg/L (rainy season)
= 1mg/L (winter season)
= 0.6mg/L (summer season)
· Residual chlorine = 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L (minimum)
· Contact period = 20 to 30min.

(c) Design Caculations


Rate of chlorine required, to disinfect water be 2 p.p.m.
Chlorine required. Per day = 13.33 x 106x 1.4 x 10-6
= 18.662kg
For 6 months = 18.662 x 180
= 3359.16kg
Number of cylinder (one cylinder contain 16 kg) = 3359.16 x 2/16
= 419.895
Number of cylinders used per day =2 cylinders of 16kg

(d) Summary
1 Chlorine required per day 18.662kg
2 Number of cylinder required per day 2 of 16kg

6.3 Storaae Tank


General

Distribution reservoirs also called service reservoirs are the storage


"eservoirs which store the treated water for supplying the same during
emergencies and also help in absorbing the hourly fluctuations in water
demand. Depending upon their elevation with respect to the ground they

49
-

are classified as under ground reservoir and elevated reservoir both of


these reservoirs designed for this project.

Storage Capacity
Ideally the total storage capacity of a distribution reservoir is the
summation of (i) balancing reserve (ii) breakdown reserve and (iii) fire
reserve. The balancing storage capacity of a reservoir can be worked out
from the data of hourly consumption of water for the town/city by either the
mass curve method or analytical method. In absence of availability of the
data of hourly demand of \AJaterthe capacity of reservoir is usually 114
to 1/3
of the daily average supply.

Underground Storage Reservoir (U.S.R.) :


(a) General
The reservoir is used for storing the filtered water which is now fit for
drinking. From this, the water is pumped to E.S.R. normally the capacity of
this type of reservoir depends upon the capacity of the pumps and hours
of pumping during a day. If the pumps work for 24 minutes then the
capacity of this reservoir may be between 30 minutes to 1 hour.

(b) Design Criteria (U.S.R.)


(i) Detention time = 1 to 4hr
(ii) Freeboard = 0.4 to 0.6m
(c) Design Calculations
Assuming that all pumps are working for.hours
Capacity of underground reservoir = 6hr capacity of average demand
= Qavg. x detentiontime
= 18 MLD x 4 x 106x 10-3/24
= 4500 m3

50

.........
-.

Assuming 6 compartments
Let depth = 4m
Area = 1125 m2
Area of each compartment = 190 m2
Dimension = 14 m x 14 m
Free board = 0.5m
Provide 6 compartments of 14 m x 14 m x 4.5 m
(d) Summary
1. Capacity of reservoir 4500 m;1
2. Total depth 4.5m
3. Compartments 6
4. Size 14 m x 14 m x 4.5 m
5. Detention time 4 hr

Elevated Service Reservoir (ESR) :


(a) General
Where the areas to be supplied with treated water are at higher elevations
than the treatment plant site, the pressure requirements of the distribution
system necessitates the construction of ESR. The treated water from the
underground reservoirs is pumped to the ESR and than supplied to the
consumers.
(b) Design Calculations
Assumingcapacityof ESR= 1/10 of underground storage
= 450 m3
Free board =0.3m
Overall depth =4m
Diameter = "450 x 4 In X4
.. d = 11.96m
Provide 1 ESR of overall height = 4.3m and Diameter = 11.96m

51
..

(b) Summary
1. Number of tanks 1
2. Depth of tank 4.3m
3. Diameter of tank 11.96m

52
_0_-

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4.3 :1°'lC
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COLUMN BERMS

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(iF CONCLUSION

The designed project deals with the design of a conventional water


treatment plant having a perennial river as the source. The design has
been done for a predicated population of 61400 expected after 30 (2001 to
2031) years. Although this project and its data is totally hypothetical, this
exercise will help us when we may come across some such design in
future.

The above treatment of the water makes it possible to safe guard the
health of the people.

53
rJfr REFERENCES

1. A.G.Bhole. "Low cost package water treatment plant


for rural areas"l.E. (I) Journal - EN 1995.
2. Birdie J.S. "Water supply and sanitary engineering",
Pub.: Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi, 1994.
3. Fair G.M. "Water and waste water engineering"
(vol.1&2) john Wiley & sons, inc. New York,
1967.
4. Garg S.K. "Water supply engineering" Khanna pub.,
New Delhi, 1994.
5. Govt. of India. "Manual on Water Supply & Treatment",
Ministry of works & housing, New Delhi, 1984.
6. Hudson H.E. Jr. l'Water Clarification process: Practical
Design & Evaluation" Van Norstrand
Reinhold Co., New York, 1981.
7. Steel E.W. & l'Water Supply & Sewerage" McGraw Hill
Mcggee T.J. Ltd., New York, 1981.
8. TwartA.C. l'Water Supply" Arnold International Student
Edition (AISE), Great Britain, 1985.

54
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