# Materials 101 Problem Set #4 1.

) The tensile stress-strain curve for a cylindrical specimen of brass is reproduced in Figure 1. A. Find the following: a) The work done to fracture per unit volume The work done to fracture per unit volume is the area underneath the Nominal Stress vs. Nominal Strain curve. If we had an equation to describe this curve, we could integrate the equation from zero to the strain at fracture. Since we don’t have this equation available, estimate the work done by estimating the area beneath the curve. Work done to fracture per unit volume ~ 20.5 boxes * 10 J/m^3/box = 205 J/m^3. b) The Young's modulus of brass The Young’s modulus is found from the slope of the Nominal Stress vs. Nominal Strain curve in in the linear regime where nominal strain is very small. In this case you should estimate the slope of the curve. E ~100 MPa/.0025 = 40,000 MPa. c)The ultimate tensile stress The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) occurs where the Nominal Stress vs. Nominal Strain curve shows a maximum. In this case the UTS ~530 MPa. d) The 0.2% offset yield stress To find the 0.2% offset yield stress, extrapolate a line with the same slope as the linear regime (which is equal to the Young’s modulus) from the x axis of Nominal Stress vs. Nominal Strain curve upwards until it intersects with the curve. The stress at this intersection is the 0.2% offset yield stress. Here it is ~ 150 MPa. e)The proportional limit The proportional limit occurs where the stress and strain stop being linear or proportional. This is sometimes used as a measure the yield stress (but not in this class) and is ~ 95 MPa. B. Suppose a similar specimen is given a tensile prestrain of 0.2. On subsequent testing this specimen you would find an approximate yield stress of 492 MPa ? When the specimen is loaded again, the stress would be proportional to the strain, starting at the 0.20 strain, until it hits the normal stress-strain curve. Applying this to the first σn-εn plot given, a nominal yield stress based on the original cross-sectional area Ao would be 410 MPa. However if as usual the cross-sectional area Ao1 is measured before the second test we need to find this area in order to get the correct stress from the value we read off the original stress-strain curve. We know this stress (the true stress) = 410 Ao/Ao1 , where Ao/Ao1 = Lo1/Lo = 1+εn = 1.20. The yield stress will be thus 492 MPa. Another way to look at this problem is as follows: The sample will not start to yield again (undergo permanent plastic deformation) until it reaches a stress equivalent to that stress it was experiencing the last time it was yielding. In this case yielding last occurred at a prestrain of 0.2. We know that permanent plastic deformation occurred during the prestrain, so we know that the area of the sample changed from Ao to Ao1. Yield stress (σy) is the point where elastic deformation stops and permanent plastic deformation begins. You can calculate the yield stress after the prestrain, by converting the nominal stress of the prestrain of 0.2 (this is the strain at which the sample last yielded) to what it would be with the new area Ao1. (As I stated earlier, the yield stress will occur at the a stress equivalent to the stress value it last yielded at. This calculation finds that equivalent stress.) However, as stated earlier, the sample has a new area, Ao1. So σy = F/Ao*( Ao/Ao1)= σn*( Ao/Ao1). Note, this is the same thing as calculating the true stress at a nominal strain of 0.2. What is the true strain and true stress at a point of a curve in Figure 1 that corresponds to 0.35 nominal strain? At the nominal strain of 0.35 we can find the true strain by using the fact that true strain = ln(L/Lo) = ln(1+ εn ) = 0.30. To find the true stress you need to multiply the nominal stress 520 MPa by Ao/A = 1+ εn = 1.35. This gives a true stress of 702 MPa. Why can't you compute the real ε and σ at the nominal strain of 0.45 from this curve? This is because at nominal strain of 0.40,where the nominal stress-nominal strain curve is a maximum, necking starts. Hence at 0.45 nominal strain, necking has already occurred. Because the curve is obtained by monitoring the variation of nominal strain from changes in the length, beyond 0.40 strain the data cannot be used to calculate the true strain.

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002 Nominal Strain 2 .5 0.020 0.600 500 Nominal Stress (MPa) 400 X Brass (25 °C) 300 Ultimate Tensile Stress 200 100 0 0 0.4 0.6 Nominal Strain 250 200 Nominal Stress (MPa) 150 Low strain region of the above curve 0.035 0.2 0.000 0.2% offset yield stress 100 50 The proportional limit 0 0.030 0.005 0.015 0.1 0.3 0.025 0.010 0.

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ii) From part i) (σt) at the UTS(strain) = 897(0. forming a neck. true strain curve. which comes from the following equation.) The true stress-strain curve for the steel in question 4 is given by . ε = m at necking since the UTS corresponds to the point at which the deformation starts to localize. which is the nominal stress. To get the ultimate tensile stress. σt=σ * (Ao/A) .01 (stress in MPa) i) What is the true strain at the ultimate tensile tensile stress? Assume τ=0 for part i). we can find the maximum with true strain from dF/dεt = 0 = A(dσt / d!ε ) + σt(dA/dεt) where A = Aoexp(-!εt). Additionally using the following relationship where σt = Kεm. we need to multiply σt by A/Ao.3)0.3 ( ε t) 0. . σt = 897 (εt) 0. ii) What is the ultimate tensile stress for the steel at a εt = 1 sec -1 ? Answer: i) The ultimate tensile stress occurs at the maximum in the force F vs.Problem 5 5. So we can solve for the nominal stress (σ)UTS = 625 *exp(-εt) = 625(.714) = 463 MPa.3 the strain hardening coeffficient.0" = 625 MPa =σt. Taking the derivatives we find that εt UTS = 0. Since F = σt A.3(")0.

9)=0. You examine a failed connecting rod and find the dimensions in the sketch below.3.50 inches in diameter i) What was the local true strain at fracture? ii) Is the appearance of the failed supporting rod consistent with its being constructed with the steel in part b above? Give quantitative reasoning.38 Part i) This unnecked diameter. SO it looks as if the wrong steel was used. 0. En=Ao/A-1=.Materials 101 Problem Set #4 6.95) = 0. implying τ during the failure was zero. is the key. killing 200 people.95/.64 ln(Ao/A) = 1. 1 . which is reduced from the original 1 inch diameter. But the strain hardening exponent given in question 3 (which should equal the strain at the UTS) is given as 0. There is no evidence of any torsional strain. Solve for nominal strain and convert to true strain according to: E(true) = ln (1+En).) The hotel balcony designed in Problem 4 collapses.9 Ao/A=(1/0.95 inches in diameter 0. Problem Set #4 Question #6 Part i) Ao = A (1+En) where En is the nominal strain.5-1= 0. This means that the true strain at the UTS (the last strain at which the sample was deforming uniformly) was -2ln(0.102.5)^2 = 4 Et=ln(1+0. It is suspected that the supporting rod was the cause of (or at least a contributing factor in) the failure.