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Autism Spectrum Disorders-A Handbook for Parents and Professionals 2007

Autism Spectrum Disorders-A Handbook for Parents and Professionals 2007

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Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders
Volume 1: A–O
Edited by

Brenda Smith Myles, Terri Cooper Swanson, Jeanne Holverstott, and Megan Moore Duncan

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Autism spectrum disorders : a handbook for parents and professionals / edited by Brenda Smith Myles, Terri Cooper Swanson, Jeanne Holverstott, and Megan Moore Duncan p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978–0–313–33632–4 (set : alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34632–3 (v. 1 : alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34634–7 (v. 2 : alk. paper) 1. Autism in children—Handbooks, manuals, etc. [DNLM: 1. Autistic Disorder—Handbooks. 2. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive—Handbooks. WM 34 A939 2007] I. Myles, Brenda Smith. II. Swanson, Terri Cooper. III. Holverstott, Jeanne. IV. Duncan, Megan Moore. RJ506.A9A92377 2007 618.920 85882—dc22 2007030685 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright Ó 2007 by Brenda Smith Myles, Terri Cooper Swanson, Jeanne Holverstott, and Megan Moore Duncan All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007030685 ISBN-13: 978–0–313–33632–4 (set) 978–0–313–34632–3 (vol. 1) 978–0–313–34634–7 (vol. 2) First published in 2007 Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.praeger.com Printed in the United States of America

The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


List of Entries Guide to Related Topics The Handbook Appendix A: Newsletters Appendix B: Journals Appendix C: Organizations Appendix D: Personal Perspectives Index About the Editors, Advisory Board, and Contributors

vii xv 1 425 429 437 451 471 503

List of Entries

Absurdities Accommodation Activities of Daily Living Adaptive Behavior Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile Adult Supports Advocate Age Appropriate Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social/Emotional Allergy Alternative Assessment American Sign Language (ASL) Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Amino Acids Amygdala Analysis of Behavioral Function Analysis of Sensory Behavior Inventory– Revised Edition Anecdotal Report Angelman Syndrome Animal Assisted Therapy/Assistance Dog Placements for Children with Autism Annual Goal Antecedent Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) Analysis Antianxiety Medications Antibiotics Antidepressant Medications Antipsychotic Medications Anxiety Disorders Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Apraxia Art Therapy Asperger, Hans

Asperger’s Disorder Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS) Asperger Syndrome Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) Assessment Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) Assistive Technology Assistive Technology Device Assistive Technology Service Association Method Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) Attribution Atypical Behavior Audiologist Auditory Integration Training Augmentative and Alternative Communication Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI-R) Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning–Second Edition Autistic Disorder

Baseline Behavior Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) Behavioral Objective Behavioral Rehearsal Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC)

LIST OF ENTRIES Behavior Health Rehabilitation Services (BHRS) Behavior Intervention Plan Behaviorism Behavior Modification Behavior Principles Bettelheim, Bruno Bias Biofeedback Bleular, Eugen Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst (BCABA) Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) Bolles Sensory Integration Bowel Problems Brushing Bullying Career Planning Cartooning Casein-free Catatonia CAT Scan Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) Central Coherence Chaining Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) Checklist for Occupational Therapy Chelation Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11=2 to 5 Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Children’s Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) Children’s Category Test (CCT) Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) Chronological Age Circle of Friends Classroom Reading Inventory Clinical Assessment (Educational) Clinical Assessment (Medical) Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool Clinical Opinion Clinical Practice Guidelines Clinical Significance Clinical Social Worker Clinical Trial Clostridium tetani Cognitive Behavior Modification Cognitive Learning Strategies Cognitive Processes Collaborative Team Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profiles (CSBS DP) Communication Board Co-morbid/Co-occurring Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language Comprehensive Autism Program Planning System (CAPS) Concrete Language Concurrent Validity Confidentiality Consent Consequence Constipation Contingency Contingency Contracting Control Group/Control Condition Correctional Facility Criterion-Referenced Assessment Curriculum Curriculum-Based Assessment Daily Living Skills Dance Therapy Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) Data Deep Pressure Proprioception Touch Technique Desensitization Detoxification Developmental Age Developmental Delay Developmental Disorder Developmental Individual-Difference Relation-Based Intervention (DIR) Developmentally Appropriate Practice Developmental Milestones Developmental Play Assessment Instrument (DPA) Developmental Quotient Developmental Surveillance Developmental Therapy Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition–Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Diet Diet Therapy Differential Ability Scales


LIST OF ENTRIES Differential Diagnosis Differential Reinforcement Dimethylglycine (DMG) Direct Instruction Direct Observation Disability Discrete Trial Training (Brief Definition) Discrete Trial Training (Extended Definition) Discrimination Discriminative Stimulus Distributed Practice Dopamine Double Blind Double Interview Due Process Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (DARD) Dysbiosis Dysphasia Early Coping Inventory Early Intervention Echoic/Verbal Behavior Echolalia: Immediate, Delayed, Mitigated Ecological Inventory Educational Placement Eisenberg, Leon Electroencephalogram Eligibility Elimination Diet and Food Sensitivities Embedded Figures Test (EFT) Embedded Skills Emotional Support Empiricism Encopresis Engagement Enuresis Environment Environmental Stressors Epidemiology Error Correction Escape Training Establishing Operation Evaluating Acquired Skills in Communication–Revised (EASIC-R) Evaluation Report Evidence Based Executive Functions Experimental Design Expressive Language Extended School Year (ESY) Extinction Eye Gaze Face Recognition Facilitated Communication (FC) Facility-Based Employment Fading False-Belief Paradigm Family Assessment Interview Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) Fast ForWord Feingold Diet Figurative Language Fine Motor Skills Fluency Four Steps of Communication Four Steps of Perspective Taking Fragile X Syndrome Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) Functional Behavior Analysis Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Functional Goals Functional Limitations Functionally Equivalent Alternative Behavior Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Functional Outcomes Functional Protest Training Functional Skills Functions of Behavior Functions of Communication Fusiform Gyrus General Case Programming Generalization Genetic Factors/Heredity Genotype Gentle Teaching (GT) Giftedness Gilliam Asperger Disorder Scale (GADS) Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) Gluten-free Good Grief! Graduated Guidance Graphic Organizer Gravitational Insecurity Gross Motor Developmental Quotient Gross Motor Skills Guided Compliance Habit Rehearsal Hair Analysis Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRPTB)


LIST OF ENTRIES Hand-over-Hand Assistance (HOH) Hand Regard Head Circumference Heavy Metals Hidden Curriculum High-Functioning Autism Hippocampus Hippotherapy Homebound/Hospital Bound Program Hormone Replacement Hug Machine Hyperlexia Hyperresponsiveness Hyporesponsiveness Idiosyncratic Language I LAUGH Model of Social Cognition Imagination Imitation/Modeling Immunoglobulin Immunological Tests Immunotherapy Impairment Incidence Incidental Teaching Incident Report Inclusion Independent Employment Indicators of Sensory Processing Disorder Individualized Education Program (IEP) Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Individualized Health Care Plan (IHCP) Individualized Transition Plan Individual Plan for Employment (IPE) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile Informal Assessment Integrated Employment Integrated Play Group Model (IPG) Intelligence Tests Internal Review Board (IRB) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) Interobserver Agreement/Reliability Intraverbal Irlen Lenses Joint Action Routines Joint Attention Journal Kanner, Leo Krug’s Asperger’s Disorder Index Lactose Intolerance Landau-Kleffner Syndrome Leaky Gut Syndrome Learned Helplessness Learning Disorder Learning Styles Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Leiter International Performance Scale Life Skills and Education for Students with Autism and Other Pervasive Behavioral Challenges (LEAP) Life Skills Support Limbic System Lindamood-Bell Local Education Agency Locomotion Low/Poor Registration Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Mainstreaming Maintenance Maladaptive Behavior Mand Massed Practice Masturbation Mean Length of Utterance Mediation Mental Age Mental Health Counselor Mental Retardation Mercury Metallothionein Milieu Teaching Mindblindness Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Mood Disorders Mood Stabilizing Medications Motivation Assessment Scale Motor Imitation Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) Multidisciplinary Evaluation (MDE) Multidisciplinary Team Music Therapy Mutually Acceptable Written Agreement Natural Language Paradigm Neurofeedback


80. Including Atypical Autism) Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II) Pesticides Pharmacology Phenotype Physical Therapist Physical Therapy Pica Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Pivotal Response Training Placebo Play-Oriented Therapies Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Postsecondary Education Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Power Card Strategy Pragmatics Praxis Precision Teaching Present Level of Educational Performance (PLEP) Presymbolic Thought Prevalence Priming Probe Procedural Safeguards Prompt Dependence Prompt Hierarchy Prompting Pronoun Errors Proprioception Prosody Proto-declarative Proto-imperative Prototype Formation Psychiatrist Psychobiology Psychoeducational Profile–Third Edition (PEP-3) Psychologist Psychometrics Psychopharmacology Psychosocial Punishment RDI Program Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood Receptive Language Reciprocal Communication/Interaction Red Flags Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Reinforcer Residential Facility Residential Supports Resource Room Respite Care Respondent Conditioning Response Cost Response Latency xi .LIST OF ENTRIES Neuroimaging Neurologist Neurology Neuromotor Neuropsychology Neurotoxic Neurotransmitter Newsletter No Child Left Behind Act 2001 (PL 107-110) No-No Prompt Procedures Nonverbal Learning Disability Normalization Norm-Referenced Assessment Notice of Recommended Educational Placement (NOREP) Nutritional Supplements Object Integration Test Objective Object Sorting Test Occupational Therapist Occupational Therapy Operant Conditioning Options (Son-Rise Program) Oral-Motor Skills Oral Sensitivity Overcorrection Overselectivity/Overfocused Attention Patterning (Doman-Delacato Treatment) Pedantic Speech Peer Reviewed Peptide Percentile Perseveration Perseverative Scripting Personal Perspectives Person First Language Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified Diagnostic Criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for 299.

Eric Screening Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) Secretin Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Seizure Disorder Selective Mutism Self-Advocacy Self-Contained Classroom Self-Determination Self-Help Skills Self-Injurious Behavior Self-Regulation Sensation Avoiding Sensation Seeking Sensorimotor Sensorimotor Early Childhood Activities Sensory History Sensory Integration Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT) Sensory Integration Dysfunction Sensory Integration Inventory–Revised (SII-R) Sensory Processing Sensory Processing Dysfunction Sensory Profile Sensory Sensitivity Sensory Stimuli Sensory Threshold Serotonin Setting Events Shaping Short Sensory Profile Sibling Support Project Sibshops Single-Subject Design Situation-Options-Consequences-ChoicesStrategies-Simulation (SOCCSS) Social Autopsies Social Behavior Mapping Social Communication Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Social Competence Social Faux Pas Social Gaze Social Play Social Scripts Social Skills Defined as Sharing Space Effectively with Others Social Skills Training Social Stories Social Thinking Social Validity Somatosensory Special Day School or Alternative School Speech Delay Speech Language Pathologist Speech Therapy Splinter Skills Spontaneous Play Standard Deviation Standardization Standardization Sample Standardized Tests Standard Score Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales–Fifth Edition Stereotypic Behavior Stimulant Medications Stimulus Stimulus Control Stimulus Overselectivity Storymovies Structured Teaching (TEACCH) Student Social Attribution Scale (SSAS) Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Supported Employment Surthrival Symbolic Play Symbolic Thought Symptom Syndrome Systematic Desensitization Tact Tactile Tactile Defensiveness Target Behavior Task Analysis Testimonial Test of Adolescent and Adult Language– Fourth Edition (TOAL4) Test of Language Competence (TLC) xii .LIST OF ENTRIES Restricted Interest Retrospective Video Analysis (RVA) Rett’s Disorder Rett’s Disorder–Diagnostic Criteria for 299. Bernard Rumination Syndrome Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised (SIB-R) SCERTS Model Schedule of Reinforcement Schizophrenia School Function Assessment Schopler.80 Rett’s Disorder Rimland.

Third Edition (TOLD-I) Test of Language Development–Primary (TOLD-P) Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL) Test of Problem Solving–Adolescent (TOPS-A) Test of Problem Solving–Elementary (TOPS-E) Theory of Mind Tic Disorders Time-out Toe Walking/Equinus Gate Token Economy Total Communication Touch Pressure Touch Therapy Tower of Hanoi (TOH) Toxicology Trail-Making Test Transition Planning Treatment Effectiveness Trial Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Twenty Questions Task Twin Studies Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) Vaccinations (Thimerosal) Validity van Dijk Approach Verbal Behavior Vestibular Video Modeling Video Self-Modeling Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales–Second Edition (VABS-II) Virtual Environment Viruses Visual-Motor Visual Strategies Vocational Rehabilitation Vocational Rehabilitation Programming Voting Wait Training Wechsler Individualized Achievement Test–Second Edition (WIAT-2) Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Welch Method Therapy Wilbarger Protocol Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery–Revised: Tests of Cognitive Ability Work Adjustment Period Yeast-free Zero Reject Ziggurat Model Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) xiii .LIST OF ENTRIES Test of Language Development–Intermediate.


Guide to Related Topics ASD AND ABA TERMINOLOGY ADVOCACY AND SELF-DISCLOSURE Advocate Discrimination Emotional Support Functional Skills Life Skills Support Person First Language Self-Advocacy Self-Determination PROFESSIONALS Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst (BCABA) Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) Certified Behavior Analyst Massed Practice No-No Prompt Procedures Operant Conditioning Overcorrection Prompt Hierarchy Prompting Punishment Respondent Conditioning Response Cost Response Latency Shaping Task Analysis Time-out Token Economy Wait Training TERMINOLOGY Antecedent Behavior Behavioral Objective Behavior Health Rehabilitation Services (BHR) Behaviorism Behavior Principles Consequence Contingency Desensitization Discriminative Stimulus Establishing Operation Functionally Equivalent Alternative Behavior Functions of Behavior Intraverbal Learned Helplessness Mand Prompt Dependence Reinforcer Schedule of Reinforcement Setting Events STRATEGIES Analysis of Behavioral Function Behavioral Rehearsal Behavior Modification Chaining Contingency Contingency Contracting Differential Reinforcement Discrete Trial Training (Brief Definition) Discrete Trial Training (Extended Definition) Error Correction Escape Training Extinction Fading Functional Protest Training Graduated Guidance Guided Compliance Habit Rehearsal Hand-over-Hand Assistance (HOH) .

GUIDE TO RELATED TOPICS Stimulus Stimulus Control Stimulus Overselectivity Systematic Desensitization Tact Target Behavior Trial Early Intervention Educational Placement Eligibility General Case Programming Generalization Impairment Inclusion Intelligence Tests Learning Styles Local Education Agency Maladaptive Behavior Multidisciplinary Team Notice of Recommended Educational Placement (NOREP) Transition Planning ASD AND EDUCATION ADULT ISSUES Adult Supports Career Planning Facility-Based Employment Independent Employment Integrated Employment Masturbation Postsecondary Education Residential Supports Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Supported Employment Vocational Rehabilitation Vocational Rehabilitation Programming Voting Work Adjustment Period SPECIAL EDUCATION LAW Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Due Process Extended School Year (ESY) Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Individualized Education Program (IEP) Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Individualized Health Care Plan (IHCP) Individualized Transition Plan Individual Plan for Employment (IPE) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Mainstreaming Mediation Mutually Acceptable Written Agreement No Child Left Behind Act 2001 (PL 107-110) Present Level of Educational Performance (PLEP) Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Zero Reject CONTINUUM OF SERVICES Correctional Facility Homebound/Hospital Bound Program Residential Facility Resource Room Self-Contained Classroom Special Day School or Alternative School DAILY LIVING Activities of Daily Living Daily Living Skills Environmental Stressors Functional Goals Functional Limitations Functional Outcomes Functional Skills Self-Help Skills SCHOOL TERMINOLOGY Accommodation Adaptive Behavior Annual Goal Behavior Intervention Plan Bullying Cognitive Processes Collaborative Team Curriculum Due Process ASD AND MEDICINE STRATEGIES Antianxiety Medications Antidepressant Medications Antipsychotic Medications Casein-free Chelation Detoxification Elimination Diet and Food Sensitivities xvi .

GUIDE TO RELATED TOPICS Feingold Diet Gluten-free Hormone Replacement Mood Stabilizing Medications Nutritional Supplements Yeast-free Pharmacology Phenotype Placebo Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Prevalence Psychobiology Psychopharmacology Psychosocial Rumination Syndrome Secretin Serotonin Stimulant Medications Symptom Syndrome Toxicology Treatment Effectiveness Twin Studies TERMINOLOGY Allergy Amino Acids Amygdala Antibiotics Bowel Problems CAT Scan Clinical Assessment (Educational) Clinical Assessment (Medical) Clinical Opinion Clinical Practice Guidelines Clinical Trial Clostridium tetani Co-morbid/Co-occurring Constipation Differential Diagnosis Dimethylglycine (DMG) Dopamine Dysbiosis Electroencephalogram Encopresis Enuresis Epidemiology Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Fusiform Gyrus Genotype Hair Analysis Head Circumference Heavy Metals Hippocampus Immunoglobulin Immunological Tests Immunotherapy Lactose Intolerance Leaky Gut Syndrome Limbic System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Mercury Metallothionein Neuroimaging Neurology Neuromotor Neuropsychology Neurotoxic Neurotransmitter Peptide ASD AND RELATED DISORDERS Asperger’s Disorder Autistic Disorder Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition–Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) High-Functioning Autism International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified Diagnostic Criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for 299. Including Atypical Autism) Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) BEHAVIOR Adaptive Behavior ETIOLOGY Diet Environment Genetic Factors/Heredity Pesticides Vaccinations (Thimerosal) Viruses RELATED DISORDERS Angelman Syndrome Anxiety Disorders Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) Catatonia xvii .80.

SOCIAL. LANGUAGE. EMOTIONAL ASSESSMENTS AND ASD AND RESEARCH Baseline Bias Clinical Significance Concurrent Validity Confidentiality Consent Control Group/Control Condition Data Double Blind Empiricism Evidence Based Experimental Design Incidence Internal Review Board (IRB) Interobserver Agreement/Reliability Maintenance Normalization Prevalence Testimonial Validity ASSESSMENTS AND ASD ACADEMIC ASSESSMENTS Classroom Reading Inventory Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (DARD) Wechsler Individualized Achievement Test–Second Edition (WIAT-2) Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC) Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11=2 to 5 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profiles (CSBS DP) Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language Developmental Play Assessment Instrument (DPA) Early Coping Inventory Evaluating Acquired Skills in Communication–Revised (EASIC-R) Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) Motivation Assessment Scale School Function Assessment Test of Adolescent and Adult Language– Fourth Edition (TOAL4) Test of Language Development–Intermediate. Third Edition (TOLD-I) Test of Language Development–Primary (TOLD-P) Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL) Test of Problem Solving–Adolescent (TOPS-A) Test of Problem Solving–Elementary (TOPS-E) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales–Second Edition (VABS-II) COGNITIVE ASSESSMENTS Absurdities Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) Children’s Category Test (CCT) xviii .GUIDE TO RELATED TOPICS Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Developmental Disorder Fragile X Syndrome Giftedness Landau-Kleffner Syndrome Learning Disorder Mental Retardation Mood Disorders Nonverbal Learning Disability Pica Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood Rett’s Disorder Schizophrenia Seizure Disorder Selective Mutism Sensory Integration Dysfunction Tic Disorders Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery–Revised: Tests of Cognitive Ability ASSESSING CO-MORBID CONDITIONS Children’s Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) Student Social Attribution Scale (SSAS) BEHAVIORAL.

Bernard Schopler. Eric Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile Psychoeducational Profile–Third Edition (PEP-3) SCREENING INSTRUMENTS Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social/Emotional Asperger Syndrome Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning–Second Edition Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II) Red Flags Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) COMMUNICATION INTERVENTIONS Communication Board PROFESSIONALS Audiologist Speech Language Pathologist TERMINOLOGY Concrete Language Dysphasia Echoic/Verbal Behavior Echolalia: Immediate. Bruno Bleular. Delayed. Leo Rimland. Mitigated Expressive Language Figurative Language xix . Leon Kanner. Hans Bettelheim. Eugen Eisenberg.GUIDE TO RELATED TOPICS Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) Differential Ability Scales Leiter International Performance Scale Object Sorting Test Social Faux Pas Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales–Fifth Edition Test of Language Competence (TLC) Trail-Making Test Twenty Questions Task Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children– Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) SENSORY ASSESSMENTS Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile Analysis of Sensory Behavior Inventory– Revised Edition Checklist for Occupational Therapy Indicators of Sensory Processing Disorder Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT) Sensory Integration Inventory–Revised (SII-R) Sensory Profile Short Sensory Profile SOCIAL COGNITION ASSESSMENTS Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language Test of Problem Solving–Adolescent (TOPS-A) Test of Problem Solving–Elementary (TOPS-E) DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS) Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) Gilliam Asperger Disorder Scale (GADS) Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) Krug’s Asperger’s Disorder Index TESTS IN RESEARCH PARADIGMS INTERVIEW INSTRUMENTS Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI-R) Family Assessment Interview Embedded Figures Test (EFT) Object Integration Test Prototype Formation Tower of Hanoi (TOH) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) PRE-ACADEMIC ASSESSMENTS AND VOCATIONAL BIOGRAPHIES Asperger.

GUIDE TO RELATED TOPICS Fluency Functions of Communication Joint Attention Mean Length of Utterance Pedantic Speech Pragmatics Pronoun Errors Prosody Proto-declarative Proto-Imperative Receptive Language Reciprocal Communication/ Interaction Social Communication Social Competence Social Gaze Speech Delay Symbolic Play Standard Deviation Standardization Standardization Sample Standardized Tests Standard Score MISCELLANEOUS TERMINOLOGY Age Appropriate Association Method Attribution Chronological Age Developmental Age Developmental Delay Developmentally Appropriate Practice Developmental Milestones Developmental Quotient Developmental Surveillance Direct Instruction Disability Distributed Practice Engagement Four Steps of Perspective Taking Perseverative Scripting Respite Care Retrospective Video Analysis (RVA) Social Skills Defined as Sharing Space Effectively with Others Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENTS Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) Analysis Functional Behavior Analysis Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised (SIB-R) TERMINOLOGY Alternative Assessment Anecdotal Report Assessment Clinical Assessment (Educational) Clinical Assessment (Medical) Criterion-Referenced Assessment Curriculum-Based Assessment Direct Observation Ecological Inventory Evaluation Report Incident Report Informal Assessment Intelligence Tests Mental Age Multidisciplinary Evaluation (MDE) Norm-Referenced Assessment Objective Percentile Probe Procedural Safeguards Psychometrics Screening Single-Subject Design Social Validity OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AREAS OF IMPACT Atypical Behavior Central Coherence Executive Functions Eye Gaze Face Recognition False-Belief Paradigm Hand Regard Hyperlexia Idiosyncratic Language Imagination Imitation/Modeling Mindblindness Perseveration Presymbolic Thought Restricted Interest Self-Injurious Behavior Social Play Stereotypic Behavior Symbolic Thought Theory of Mind Toe Walking/Equinus Gate xx .

GUIDE TO RELATED TOPICS TERMINOLOGY Gross Motor Developmental Quotient Locomotion Motor Imitation Praxis SENSORY INTERVENTIONS Bolles Sensory Integration Hug Machine Sensorimotor Early Childhood Activities PROGRAMS American Sign Language (ASL) Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Assistive Technology Assistive Technology Device Assistive Technology Service Auditory Integration Training Augmentative and Alternative Communication Cartooning Circle of Friends Cognitive Behavior Modification Cognitive Learning Strategies Comprehensive Autism Program Planning System (CAPS) Developmental Individual-Difference Relation-Based Intervention (DIR) Developmental Therapy Discrete Trial Training (Brief Definition) Discrete Trial Training (Extended Definition) Facilitated Communication (FC) Fast ForWord Gentle Teaching (GT) Incidental Teaching Integrated Play Group Model (IPG) Life Skills and Education for Students with Autism and Other Pervasive Behavioral Challenges (LEAP) Milieu Teaching Natural Language Paradigm Options (Son-Rise Program) Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Pivotal Response Training Play-Oriented Therapies Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Precision Teaching SCERTS Model Sensory Integration Sibshops Social Skills Training Structured Teaching (TEACCH) Total Communication van Dijk Approach Verbal Behavior Ziggurat Model PROFESSIONALS Occupational Therapist Physical Therapist TERMINOLOGY Apraxia Brushing Deep Pressure Proprioception Touch Technique Fine Motor Skills Gravitational Insecurity Gross Motor Skills Hyperresponsiveness Hyporesponsiveness Low/Poor Registration Oral-Motor Skills Oral Sensitivity Overselectivity/Overfocused Attention Proprioception Self-Regulation Sensation Avoiding Sensation Seeking Sensorimotor Sensory History Sensory Processing Sensory Processing Dysfunction Sensory Sensitivity Sensory Stimuli Sensory Threshold Somatosensory Tactile Tactile Defensiveness Touch Pressure Touch Therapy Vestibular Visual-Motor Wilbarger Protocol STRATEGIES Biofeedback Double Interview Embedded Skills Four Steps of Communication Good Grief! Graphic Organizer I LAUGH Model of Social Cognition xxi .

GUIDE TO RELATED TOPICS Irlen Lenses Joint Action Routines Lindamood-Bell Neurofeedback Patterning (Doman-Delacato Treatment) Power Card Strategy Priming Situation-Options-Consequences-ChoicesStrategies-Simulation (SOCCSS) Social Autopsies Social Behavior Mapping Social Scripts Social Stories Social Thinking Storymovies Surthrival Video Modeling Video Self-Modeling Virtual Environment Visual Strategies THERAPIES Animal Assisted Therapy/Assistance Dog Placements for Children with Autism Art Therapy Dance Therapy Diet Therapy Hippotherapy Music Therapy Occupational Therapy Physical Therapy Speech Therapy Touch Therapy xxii .

It includes responses to biological demands (e. hunger). or assisting with chores).g. but assist the student in making adequate progress. Such behaviors include eating. KATHERINE E.g. interpersonal requirements (e.g. personal responsibility).A ABSURDITIES Absurdities refer to the verbal and pictorial components of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales designed to test nonverbal knowledge. COOK ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING Activities of daily living refer to the ongoing behaviors that occur on a daily basis. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT ACCOMMODATION Accommodations are changes made to the general education curriculum or instructional techniques that do not substantially change the requirements of the curriculum or standards. ANDREA M. as well as social demands such as community expectations (e. Leland. For many school-aged students.. socialization). social interactions (such as leisure activities.. following rules. toileting.. communication. The accommodations are determined by the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team and are documented on the IEP. the skills to perform daily activities and develop independence for adult life may be included in the student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) as goals and objectives. using money. & Lambert. and other activities that one might routinely expect an individual to perform or participate in. preparing meals.. Nihira. 1992). BABKIE ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR Adaptive behavior refers to the manner in which a person copes with the demands of the environment. cooking. and practical challenges of daily living (e. attending school or work. Accommodations must be provided in all appropriate environments and subject areas. bathing.g. .

g. For example. For example. careful adaptive behavior assessment is necessary.g. McGinnis & Goldstein. Similarly. they may demonstrate a relative strength in reading or arithmetic.ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR A significant deficit in adaptive behavior is a key criterion in the diagnosis of mental retardation (APA. and complete it appropriately (e. Because the construct of adaptive behavior focuses upon participation in everyday activities. 2000). Waterhouse. as well as to identify ‘‘next step’’ instructional goals.. Independent of overall level of cognitive functioning. Through systematic instruction. Daily living skills. may be taught using task analytic procedures that break activities down into small units of instruction (Baker & Brightman.g. For example. because of the complex social and practical requirements of these tasks. These instruments are also used to determine the individual’s relative adaptive strengths and weaknesses. if it is determined that a child is using a spoon at mealtime.g. are often areas of relative strength. In adaptive behavior assessment. persons with autism may learn complex adaptive skills and eventually generalize those skills to relevant settings. Level of adaptive functioning is determined by both the repertoire of adaptive skills an individual possesses and his or her ability to use those skills at the appropriate times.. problem solving. such as dressing and toileting. Fein.. 1997). without taking ‘‘too much time’’ or requiring repeated prompting from others in a school or vocational setting). clinicians commonly use checklists and questionnaires that yield standardized scores comparing a person’s level of adaptive functioning with age-matched samples (see Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales). Morris.. individuals must be able to carry out the multistep skill of hand washing (e. 1997). turning on the faucet. Due to this ‘‘scattered’’ profile. 1997). and so on). picture-based prompts or directions). & Allen.. 2002. in order to keep their hands clean. For example. Self-care skills. it is a key consideration in comprehensive curricula designed to promote independence and quality of life. such as toileting and tooth brushing. use that skill when necessary Requesting help is an important adaptive skill. (e. specialized instruction is often necessary in these areas as well (VanMeter..g. persons with autism display significant deficits in the ability to apply the skills that they possess in adaptive ways. 1998). they may have relatively large vocabularies but use spoken language almost exclusively to make requests rather than to interact with peers. Frost & Bondy.. but not use the skill to participate in classroom activities (Carter et al.g. requesting help) may be taught through specialized curricula implemented with a combination of structured and incidental teaching (e. as well as specialized supports (e. 2 . before lunch). applying soap. however. consideration might be given to instruction in using a fork. communication and social skills (e.

The items on the profile address the areas of taste/smell.. L. Sparrow. Mesibov. McGinnis. The AAPEP is applicable to the needs and goals of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. F.ADOLESCENT AND ADULT PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROFILE REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. Schopler. Baker.. P. & Lambert. auditory... AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community: Examiner’s manual. leisure skills. and a School/Work Scale. C. 287–302. Washington. San Antonio. & Landrus. Inc. W. DANIEL W. An individual can self-evaluate by completing a Self-Questionnaire that addresses how an individual typically responds to various situations and experiences. A.. It is used to identify patterns of sensory processing consistent with those described in Dunn’s Model of Sensory Processing. D. Delay versus deviance in autistic social behavior..). D. text rev. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. A. C. & Goldstein. 557–569. Morris. N. TX: Pro-Ed. A.. semi-independent functioning in the home and the community. 28. Champaign. Newark. See Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders ADOLESCENT/ADULT SENSORY PROFILE The Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (Brown & Dunn. & Brightman. DE: Pyramid Educational Products. Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile manual. 3 .... (1998). DC: Author. Volkmar. Lord. functional communication. (1992). J..). a Home Scale. S. & Dunn. Wang. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Supplementary norms for individuals with autism.. L. REFERENCE Brown. It contains a Direct Observation Scale. Steps to independence: Teaching everyday skills to children with special needs. R. and interpersonal behavior. K. IL: Research Press. movement. The picture exchange communication system training manual (2nd ed. vocational behavior. Carter. Skillstreaming the elementary school child (2nd ed.). S. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. 1989) is an extension of the Psychoeducational Profile-Revised designed as an assessment instrument for the TEACCH program. Nihira.. Austin. L. independent functioning. Dawson. (1997). H. and activity level. B.. L. Schaffer. with each scale divided into six function areas: vocational skills. and is used to provide an evaluation of current and potential skills that are necessary for successful. 27. J.. & Bondy. LISA ROBBINS ADOLESCENT AND ADULT PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROFILE The Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile (AAPEP. G. et al. (1997). Fein. touch. S. (2002). E. visual. (2000). (1997). TX: Harcourt Assessment. Waterhouse. Leland. A. VanMeter. Frost. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. & Allen. R. MRUZEK ADHD. 2002) was designed to identify sensory processing patterns in individuals 11 years and older... (2002).

Day habilitation services provide a nonresidential setting. support groups. family. and maintain an Individualized Family Service Plan and to determine the level of support the individual and/or family needs. Crisis intervention is available in emergency situations when individuals experience specific and time-limited problems that threaten to disrupt their home. financial. or family therapy. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT ADULT SUPPORTS Individuals with autism transitioning into adulthood continue to require habilitation to prepare for community-based day and vocational programs and the possibility for competitive employment. extended care. Counseling supports are provided through face-to-face. travel training. respite care. separate from the individual’s home residence. job coaching. TX: Pro-Ed. job placement. and daily living skills is essential to increasing independence. Employment supports include all aspects of transitioning into the workforce and continued vocational support. Schaffer. technological aids. (1989). and health. with or without supports. employment.ADULT SUPPORTS REFERENCE Mesibov. 4 . Individualized assistance includes vocational training. to improve communication. Services may include job training. E. and to address behavioral. and social components. & Landrus. Services begin with a referral to a service provider. Extended care supports include recreation. parent advocacy and training. R. school. semiindependent group living. Parent support and education is provided through parent advocacy and training. Transition and adaptation skills are addressed according to skill levels and interests and assist in improving skill acquisition. and transportation to and from the workplace. and cognitive concerns. self-help. and employment maintenance. individual. including supervised group living. Sessions are designed to promote problem-solving skills. on. group. Family supports include licensed residential programs. Coordinators then use a person-centered process to develop. to enhance job duty performance. Austin. use of community resources. socialization. Services consist of supports ranging from counseling. Recreational supports offer leisure and social activities to promote interactions with members of the community as well as developing hobbies one can participate in independently at home or in the community. G. residential services may be sought. Social components are integrated throughout both recreation and day habilitation services.. emotional. and motor manipulation. Schopler. In the event an individual becomes unable to be cared for in the home.. communication. Adolescent and adult psychoeducational profile: Individualized assessment and treatment for autistic and developmentally disabled children. The service provider will then go through an intake process to identify needs and link to services after establishing eligibility. and other residential options. implement. retention. safety awareness. in-home services. Further development of social skills. or community situations. and service coordination. work behaviors. Individuals must be provided the opportunity to attain independence through a variety of services to include all realms of daily living across all environmental settings. More information is available at the local vocational rehabilitation office.. habilitative.or off-site. B.

or acts on behalf of another. Squires & Potter. and environment.. See also self-determination. 36. Depending upon the individual’s needs and insurance coverage. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT ALLERGY An allergy is an exaggerated reaction to a specific or multiple substances. REFERENCE Squires. Based on chronological age.C. affect. communication. 48. More information is available at the local Social Security Office. respiratory system. According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 (PL 101-336). dental. KATHERINE E.S. 2004) is a screening system used to evaluate social-emotional development at various stages (6. COOK 5 . and other health-related services. children with disabilities should be served in the same setting and environment with their nondisabled peers of the same or similar age.ALLERGY Financial supports offer guidance and consultation about sources of funding. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT AGE APPROPRIATE Age appropriate refers to the principles used for students with disabilities when a decision is required for placement. individuals with disabilities and their families may advocate for themselves or appoint another to do so. compliance. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. STACEY L. especially in a legal context. and entitlements. health care supports may consist of medical. 42 U. not mental age. setting. and 60 months). L. (2004). 30. KAI-CHIEN TIEN AGES AND STAGES QUESTIONNAIRES: SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social/Emotional (ASQ: SE. or the stomach and intestinal system. 12. Ages and stages questionnaires. 18. Symptoms to specific substances produce no ill effects or symptoms to the majority of individuals. J. Completed in approximately 15 minutes by parents or caregivers at the eight designated intervals. This reaction is specific to the immune system. the ASQ: SE screens the following behavioral areas: self-regulation. Allergic reactions occur through exposure via the skin. BROOKENS ADVOCATE An advocate is an individual who speaks. autonomy. benefits. More information can be obtained by contacting the individual insurance company. & Potter. 24. REFERENCE Americans with Disabilities Act. adaptive functioning. writes. §§ 12101-12213 (1990). and interaction with people.

sex. religion. Examples of alternative assessments include the portfolio assessment. ASL is usually learned through a peer transmission process. including libraries. Assessing learners with special needs: An applied approach. ADA provided full 6 . However. curriculum-based assessment. RASCHELLE THEOHARRIS AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) The most comprehensive legislation that protects the rights of individuals with disabilities is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Both of these laws guaranteed that people with disabilities would not be discriminated against in certain areas of their life. body. The production of ASL involves movement in space and is formed using hands. rather than through the passing on of a language from generation to generation within families. ASL relies on visual/manual properties and requires visual perception for decoding and encoding. however it varies greatly from the English language (which has auditory/spoken properties). 2001). FURTHER INFORMATION Overton. ASL has been compared and contrasted to many other languages and is reported as having a similar structure. bus stations. and the provision of state and local government services. authentic assessment.ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Alternative assessment measures are nontraditional approaches to obtaining information regarding a student’s strengths and needs. Prior to ADA. Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibited against discrimination of people with disabilities involved in a program or activity receiving federal assistance. NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. The most fluent users of ASL are children who have deaf parents and children who have attended schools for the deaf or residential schools. and national origin in employment. THERESA L. and criterion-referenced assessment. The Americans with Disability Act provided this protection by regulating the rights of people with disabilities in the public and private sectors. several laws served as the driving force in the creation of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (2003). A key difference from other languages is the way in which ASL is acquired. hotels. transportation systems. theaters. A decade later in 1973. The information gained from these measures directly relates to current and future curricular content. public accommodations. color. such as in being served at lunch counters. and as recipients of federal assistance. EARLES-VOLLRATH AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE (ASL) American Sign Language (ASL) is a special visual language that has existed for over 200 years. the Federal Rehabilitation Act protected the civil and constitutional rights of people with disabilities. and facial expressions. Upper Saddle River. these laws did not protect people with disabilities who sought employment where the company did not receive federal funding or assistance. restaurants. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination based on race. state and local governments. performance-based assessment. Individuals are able to communicate the meaning of a concept through a single sign or combination of signs. and stores (Fleischer & Zames. T. This legislation applies to both public and private sectors.

REFERENCES Americans with Disabilities Act. (b) a record of such an impairment. Turnbull. and other commuter authorities. but others must be obtained from food. The body is capable of producing some amino acids in the liver. and economic self-sufficiency for people with disabilities. hiring. & Zames. assuming equality of opportunity (Turnbull.. includes a provision prohibiting coercion or threatening people with disabilities from asserting their rights under ADA or retaliating against those that speak up for their rights. D. Applying for a job. or modifying equipment. and benefits are also covered under Title I. Turnbull. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. & Leal. restaurants. ADA also applies to those who have an association with an individual known to have a disability (such as a parent) as well as those who are coerced or subjected to retaliation for assisting people with disabilities. cheese. pay. 1990). This includes hotels. includes state and local government. such as restructuring jobs.S. Title IV. BRUCE BASSITY AMYGDALA A brain structure located deep in the temporal lobes. grocery stores. Vegetables and grains are considered incomplete proteins.C. gives rules and regulations to all new construction and existing facilities to be accessible to all people with disabilities. regulates that all telecommunication companies offering telephone service must have telephone relay services for individuals with disabilities. A. Title II. or Public Services. Fleischer. D.AMYGDALA citizenship. MELISSA L. and meat. the amygdala is involved in perceiving threats and producing a response to such threats.. The final title. In addition. & Leal. R. public transportations systems. TRAUTMAN AMINO ACIDS Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. (2001). NJ: Prentice Hall. eggs. COMPONENTS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT As stated in Section 3 of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Turnbull. altering the layout of workstations. M. addresses business accommodations. or Miscellaneous. Shank. and privately owned transportation systems. Shank. independent living. The disability rights movement: From charity to confrontation (pp. or Public Accommodations. 42 U. There are approximately 80 naturally occurring amino acids. (2nd ed. disability is defined as (a) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual. 1999) as well as the accommodations needed in public places for people with disabilities to use. or (c) being regarded as having such an impairment (ADA. or Employment.. Z. or Telecommunications.) Upper Saddle River. §§ 12101-12213 (1990). (1999) Exceptional lives: Special education in today’s schools. ADA is divided into five titles. The third title. Title 1. 88–109). Some food proteins contain all the necessary amino acids and are therefore considered to be complete proteins such as milk. F. It receives input directly and quickly from sensory pathways as well as from other areas of the brain that filter 7 . of which 20 are necessary for human growth and health..

PAUL G. LISA ROBBINS ANECDOTAL REPORT The anecdotal report is a technique used to describe behavior. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT ANALYSIS OF SENSORY BEHAVIOR INVENTORY–REVISED EDITION The Analysis of Sensory Behavior Inventory–Revised (ASBI-R. P. this hypothesis is tested with the implementation of strategies designed to replace the undesirable behavior with appropriate behavior. This provides rich information about behavior and should also include a description of the setting. Morton & Wolford. This is a data-driven process that often includes direct observation and the use of formal assessment measures designed to assess behavioral functions. (2003). FURTHER INFORMATION Alberto. He first named it ‘‘Happy Puppet’’ syndrome. what others say and do. REFERENCE Morton. BRUCE BASSITY ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIORAL FUNCTION Analysis of behavioral function is a process of determining the function of a challenging behavior. It assesses six sensory areas and is designed to evaluate both sensory-seeking and sensory-avoidance behaviors within each modality. A. & Wolford. The ASBI-R can be completed by anyone who is familiar with the individual and may be done individually or by a group. It is named after Dr.. Over the years. the pediatrician who discovered the common traits evident in three of his patients. 1994) is designed to collect information about an individual’s behaviors as they are related to sensory stimuli. based on several features characteristic to the three children. A. These tools are used to form a hypothesis regarding the function of the behavior. CA: Skills with Occupational Therapy. Harry Angelman. C. NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Results may be used to develop effective intervention strategies and accommodations. Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed). An observer watches a person or group of people and writes down what they observe during a specified time period. Analysis of Sensory Behavior Inventory–Revised. LACAVA AND RASCHELLE THEOHARRIS ANGELMAN SYNDROME Angelman syndrome is a rare (approximately 1 in 25. (1994). K. The amygdala is part of the limbic system. & Troutman.’’ 8 .ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIORAL FUNCTION the sensory input and put it into context so an appropriate response can be made. Upper Saddle River. the name was changed to the more respectful ‘‘Angelman syndrome. S. Arcadia.000 births) genetic disorder that results in severe neurological problems. and time notations.

awkward gait and large muscle movements Some unusual features. Since this is a syndrome. finding the proper medications for seizures. school. not all features will be present in each child with Angelman syndrome. they most likely will require constant supervision and not be able to live unassisted. 9 . Some children may be more or less affected than others. extreme hyperactivity Dual diagnosis of autism Misdiagnosed as having cerebral palsy. although use of best practices in a well-designed and implemented IEP via special education services can ensure a brighter future than was previously imagined possible. or a double portion from the father’s chromosome 15. including bursts of laughter and giggling Severe developmental delays (mental retardation) Disjointed. Due to impulse problems that impact sleeping and safety issues as well as extreme cognitive delays. or an imprinting defect. Parents report some of their greatest challenges as being sleep deprived due to their child’s insomnia. and in some cases. As these babies develop and grow. etc. getting good behavioral and medical supports to help with some of the traits of Angelman syndrome can vastly improve the quality of home life for the entire family. and somewhat flattened head Seizures of all kinds Sleep problems such as insomnia Impulsive behaviors. Again. Use of behavioral strategies that include applied behavior analysis and positive behavior supports can be used to teach new skills as well as help the individual learn to control disruptive behaviors. protruding tongue. the identifiable characteristics become apparent. and/or communication devices all can improve quality of life. there is no apparent cause found on chromosome 15. and teaching toileting skills. and community life. Making environmental changes that can help with impulsive behaviors and ensure personal safety can make it easier for the individual with Angelman syndrome to enjoy family. Students with Angelman syndrome can be included in neighborhood schools with special education supports.ANGELMAN SYNDROME Angelman syndrome is caused by one of several problems with gene material on chromosome 15. autism. including a distinct mouth. It is difficult to detect Angelman syndrome from birth to about three months of age. There may also be a mutation of this particular genetic material. The most frequently cited characteristics include: ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ Little or no spoken language. and there are varying problems on chromosome 15. Obsessions with water There is no cure or remediation for Angelman syndrome. One of the most common is a deletion or ‘‘turning off’’ of some genes from the maternal chromosome 15. Common prenatal tests cannot bring these genetics problems to light. signing. Use of augmentative and alternative communication systems such as the Picture Exchange Communication System. some can participate in athletic and leisure activities shared by the rest of the family. continual household chaos caused by the child’s hyperactivity. although receptive language may be somewhat better Unusually affectionate Very happy affect.

Children with autism may throw loud tantrums or fail to grant the body space that we unconsciously and consistently grant each other. Educated parental involvement. The same difficulties with communication that children with autism experience with people can exist with dogs as well. The primary emphasis in selecting an assistance dog must be on achieving a correct temperamental fit between the child and the puppy. not corrections based. as well as the teaching of the child. IL 60504. The concept of ‘‘time out’’ with an assistance dog reliably holding a down-stay position to provide comfort and support can be a positive way for a child with autism to regain control over his emotions. Suite A2265. the training of the dog. ANN PILEWSKIE ANIMAL ASSISTED THERAPY/ASSISTANCE DOG PLACEMENTS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM Intelligent selection of a canine partner is of central importance in creating a successful assistance dog placement for a child on the autism spectrum. Creating assistance dog placements for children on the autism spectrum differs from creating placements between assistance dogs and physically challenged adults. a puppy can easily learn to interpret a child’s unusual behavior as positive events that are predictive of reward. Phone: 1-800-432-6435. Dogs depend greatly on nonverbal communication. should be positive. along with having the puppy’s early socialization dovetail with his or her future role. FURTHER INFORMATION Angelman Syndrome Foundation. As the quality of the relationship they share matters more than any other variable. a puppy has no clue as to how to interpret autistic behaviors and therefore may react unpredictably. Aurora. Without specific exposure to the profile of a child with autism. as dogs take their cues from humans regarding how relationships are structured. It is important for the caretakers of a child with autism to understand that their role is to ensure that the relationship between child and puppy is consistently gentle and mutually enjoyable. as research has shown the mere presence of a trusted 10 . 3015 E. New York Street. Considerable energy should also go into teaching the child to interact appropriately with his or her dog. Specific task training takes a back seat to being certain the assistance dogs selected are safe and social companions to the children on the autism spectrum that they will serve. and are apt to be uncomfortable with a child’s violation of their ‘‘personal space’’ or with a child’s unusual sounds or movements. and proper supervision of the child-dog team are all essential elements in creating an assistance dog placement that is safe as well as effective. appropriate temperamental fit. Picture Exchange Communication System. and should move in tandem with both the dog’s and the child’s natural development. Fax: 630-978-7408. but with proper communication and appropriate early socialization. the communication between the puppy and child must be properly facilitated. E-mail: info@angelman.ANIMAL ASSISTED THERAPY/ASSISTANCE DOG PLACEMENTS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM See also augmentative and alternative communication.org. The job description of a dog slated to work with a child with autism should be individually tailored to meet the unique needs of the child.

Occasionally an assistance dog can also provide a safety role for a child with autism. or simply by providing motivation. D. 1995. Assistance dogs can be used to help meet other therapeutic goals. McNicholas. but in general children who tend to lash out physically are not good candidates for an assistance dog unless such tendencies are brought under strict control. Z. National Service Dogs (NSD) in Canada tethers assistance dogs to some children with autism who are prone to running off. (1995). The golden bridge: A guide to assistance dogs for children challenged by autism or other developmental disabilities. A. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on 11 . Geneva. often relax and rise to the challenge when a dog is available to help structure the questions and comments. (2006). September 6–9. For the right child on the autism spectrum. Animals. A.’’ As children with autism tend to be dependent on verbal cues provided by others. & Zygier. G. due to their overly selective attention and tendency to respond to only a limited number of cues. FURTHER INFORMATION Gross.. but this method of keeping a child safe can only be employed if the child is small enough to be physically stopped by the weight of the assistance dog. such as children who are aggressive.ANIMAL ASSISTED THERAPY/ASSISTANCE DOG PLACEMENTS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM dog can have a calming effect on a child. this technique can only be employed if a child is small enough in comparison to the dog to be safely blocked when in flight.net. more stable dog with the necessary guidance and supervision. Switzerland. Health and Quality of Life. West Lafayette. It should also be noted that people who may have shied away from the responsibility of starting a conversation with a child with autism. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions. either by being trained to deliver a warning bark when a child with autism wanders away or to shadow his or her charge (in which case a global positioning device and an easy-to-read name tag attached to the dog’s collar may well help a nonverbal child to be safely returned home). some children are not good candidates for placements involving a dog. a properly selected and trained canine companion can be a valuable tool in helping to achieve social. M.. Toeplitz. this positive and predictable social response is a valuable tool to help develop speech within natural settings in the home as well as the outside community. either directly. such as being brushed or fed by his or her child. Impact of keeping pets at home upon the social development of children. and safety goals. A technique known as blocking is also being developed at North Star Foundation. emotional.com E-mail: northstarfoundation@charter. P. Use of the assistance dog can be preventive. using an assistance dog as a tool for teaching pragmatic language at home as well as in the community can be as simple as rehearsing stock responses to the fairly predictable questions people are likely to ask when they see a well-trained dog wearing a vest with a patch that reads ‘‘Please Ask to Pet Me..) Children with autism often have great difficulty in generalizing learned speech to new situations and people. Matczak. educational. such as those established in occupational or physical therapy. North Star Foundation: www. A. Piotrowska. Unfortunately. IN: Purdue University Press. (1995). J. (One little girl took a break to pet her North Star dog after every 10 repetitions of a particularly grueling exercise. as a dog may be employed as part of a structured activity to reduce stress and avoid meltdowns. & Collis. as well as maintaining it. Relationships between young people with autism and their pets.NorthStarDogs.. Some children with poor impulse control may still be appropriate candidates for an older.

what occurs in the environment before the behavior (the antecedent) and after the behavior (the consequence) is often key to addressing or changing the behavior. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT ANTIANXIETY MEDICATIONS Antianxiety medications include various drug classes that are used depending on the severity of anxiety.. Geneva. R. They are written for a 1-year period and must contain either short term objectives or benchmarks. a process of analyzing the events that precede and follow a behavior. include the skill or behavior to be achieved and direction for the behavior. Peterson. 1995. such as on an Antecedent-BehaviorConsequence (ABC) Analysis. Drugs that have a mild sedative effect and are short acting such as hydroxyzine (Atarax) or diphenhydramine (Benadryl) are commonly used for short-term relief. REFERENCE Bijou. 175–191. annual goals is a statement of desired educational attainment for an individual student that is written based on information from the present level of educational performance. S. BRUCE BASSITY 12 . A method to integrate descriptive and experimental field studies at the level of data and empirical concept. The conditions may be modified to change the behavior. COOK ANTECEDENT The antecedent is the behavior that precedes a given situation or behavior. (1968). KATIE BASSITY ANTECEDENT-BEHAVIOR-CONSEQUENCE (ABC) ANALYSIS Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence analysis was first described by Bijou. M. Annual goals must be written in measurable terms.ANNUAL GOAL Human-Animal Interactions. F. September 6–9. Peterson. Health and Quality of Life. and Ault (1968) as anecdotal observation. Animals. Hypnotics like benzodiazepines (Valium family) are used along with some others for more significant agitation. KATHERINE E. See also antidepressant medications. PATTY DOBBS GROSS ANNUAL GOAL A required component of the Individualized Education Program. Switzerland. most functional behavior assessments include the observation and recording of antecedents.. 1. Since behavior cannot occur in isolation. The antecedent may provide insight into the purpose or function of behavior. A number of the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and antidepressants also have antianxiety properties and are specifically indicated for treatment of various kinds of anxiety. length of treatment. For this reason. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. W. H. and age. & Ault.

Jensen. Careful monitoring is required by the healthcare provider. and (c) others. Older antidepressants that are less used include tricyclics (TCA) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI). risperidone (Risperdal). haloperidol (Haldol).ANXIETY DISORDERS ANTIBIOTICS Antibiotics are medications used to treat infectious disease. This may involve treatment to eliminate microorganisms causing acute infection. Most antidepressants alter neurotransmitter activity. which include clozapine (Clozaril). which includes aripiprazole (Abilify). 1997. some of which can be irreversible. fluoxetine (Prozac). lose control or ‘‘go crazy’’ (Gelfland. There are three categories: (a) typical. and fluphenazine (Prolixin). Adolescents and adults are more likely to experience a panic attack—several minutes of terror where they feel they are about to have a heart attack. and sertraline (Zoloft). but some of the newer medications have broader uses. p. having tantrums. or narrow spectrum (specific for just a few microorganisms). obsessive compulsive disorder. Social phobia (or social anxiety disorder) is characterized by marked and substantial distress or discomfort in social situations such as meeting new people. and generalized anxiety disorders. or topical form. posttraumatic stress disorder. APA. BRUCE BASSITY ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS These medications are most commonly used for treating conditions such as schizophrenia. freezing. norepinephrine and dopamine. quetiapine (Seroquel). injectable. A diagnosis of social phobia should not be made in an individual with an autism spectrum disorder because degrees of anxiety are often present in this 13 . Children may not complain about their fears. and olanzapine (Zyprexa). intravenous. & Drew. The most prescribed class of these is known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) such as paroxetine (Paxil). Antibiotics may be used in oral. There are additional older and newer groups as well. which are the oldest medications and include chlorpromazine (Thorazine). ziprasidone (Geodon). 2000) states that for individuals under 18 years of age. but when placed in the feared situation may express their anxiety by crying. BRUCE BASSITY ANTIDEPRESSANT MEDICATIONS A variety of medications are prescribed to alleviate the signs and symptoms of depression and some have additional uses as well. the fear must persist for at least 6 months and be intense enough to interfere with normal activities. and speaking in public. (b) atypicals. specifically serotonin. or clinging. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. appearing for interviews. 174). All of these medications can have potentially serious side effects. BRUCE BASSITY ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders include social phobia. For something to be considered a phobia. Antibiotics may be broad spectrum (effective against many different microorganisms). or prevention or maintenance of a less acute or chronic infection.

M. anxiety disorders are not given as co-morbid diagnoses to ASD except in circumstances where the impact of the anxiety difficulties has become so pervasive and interfering with normal functioning that additional diagnosis and anxiety treatment measures are appropriate.. P. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a condition where either obsessions (abnormal thoughts. 1997. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) consists of uncontrollable. restlessness. Beidel. regression. contamination. text rev. DSM-IV-TR (APA. H. According to Beidel. PTSD can develop immediately following the event.. 2000) states that they must also meet the following: (a) are unrealistic and dysfunctional. 106–115. Christ. and disrupting other activities. and hypervigilance. 170–192).. loss of toilet training. or sleep disturbance.ANXIETY DISORDERS population. and maintaining order (Clarizio. natural catastrophe. Usually. occurring consistently for at least 6 months. 659–670. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Typical obsessive themes by school-age children involve aggression. there may be occasions when the distress and symptoms are so severe that diagnosis and treatment beyond the autism spectrum disorders are warranted. concentration difficulties. attention problems. Psychology in the Schools. While many difficulties with anxiety can be seen in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Washington. re-enacting of the traumatic event or avoidance of anything associated with it. (e) are timeconsuming. but may appear months or years afterwards. However. taking more than 1 hour each day. muscle tension. and Long (1991). pp. 19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: The secretive syndrome. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops following a traumatic experience such as witnessing a severe accident. therefore. and both children and adults are more likely to engage in rituals at home rather than in public. 28.). Clarizio. Somatic complaints in anxious children. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. DC: Author. 1991). Obsessions and ritualistic behaviors are often seen in autism spectrum disorders but do not usually meet the specific criteria for OCD as previously outlined and would not warrant a separate diagnosis of OCD in the majority of cases. G. & Long. D. C. impulses or images) or compulsions (repetitive acts that the individual feels they must complete) or both are present. Other characteristics required for the diagnosis include irritability. (d) are ritualistic and stereotyped. assault. life-threatening illness. 14 . and sexual or physical abuse. difficulty sleeping. irritability. (b) are experienced as unwelcome but irresistible. fatigue. exaggerated startle responses.. the differentiation here is due to the specificity of the anxiety difficulties. and pervasive in that it covers several events or activities. or clingy behaviors. (2000). Children may also show physical symptoms such as stomach aches or headaches. (1991). Christ. (1991). F. (c) are experienced as products of one’s own mind and not external in origin. J. the persistent disorder in childhood usually begins around 10 years of age and often co-occurs with depression. Treatments for anxiety disorders include psychotherapy and pharmacological treatments (Gelfland et al. Primary symptoms in children include agitated and disorganized behavior. excessive anxiety and worry.

APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA) Gelfland. Finally. Jensen. FURTHER INFORMATION Csoti. OCD in children and adults. limited social communication. the term applied means that ABA focuses on socially relevant outcomes. (1998). & Heward. In addition. and for promoting healthy lifestyles. conduct disorder.). associated features of ASD (characteristics such as delays in cognitive and self-help skills that are displayed by many but not all individuals with this diagnosis) are also viewed as behaviors. the term analysis as used indicates that decisions about interventions derive from an examination of data.. When ABA practitioners implement these interventions for a particular individual. Such research has identified an array of interventions that can help individuals with ASD. (2003). a primary goal was to enable these individuals to move out of institutional settings such as state hospitals (Lovaas. K. where most lived at that time. 1987) and improving relationships with peers and caregivers (Koegel & Koegel. and intense repetitive behaviors or narrow interests) are all considered behaviors. FIONA J. For example. ABA investigators conduct studies in which they systematically start and stop interventions to determine whether they reliably change behavior. M. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. W. for increasing productivity in the workplace. Heron. the defining features of ASD (problems with reciprocal social interaction.. Orlando: Harcourt Brace. including children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. schizophrenia. panic attacks and anxiety in children. S. An antecedent event is a change within the individual or in the external environment that occurs just prior to the behavior of interest and that acts as a trigger for the behavior. Thus. C. Wolf. In addition. 1973). & Long. when ABA interventions for individuals with ASD were initially developed in the 1960s and 1970s. School phobia. (1968). ABA is perhaps best known as an intervention for persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). 2005). J. According to Baer et al. March. and a consequent event either increases or decreases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again. 15 . As defined originally by Baer. Koegel. Simmons. R. M. and developmental delays. 1987). any action that can be measured is a behavior. but it is also used effectively for other populations. ABA is also used for teaching academic skills in both general and special education settings. ABA INTERVENTION STRATEGIES ABA studies show that many effective intervention strategies involve operant learning. Later ABA interventions centered on increasing opportunities for inclusion in community settings such as general education classes in public schools (Lovaas. SCOTT APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA) Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) employs principles of learning theory to help people change behaviors and learn new skills (Cooper. (1997). they collect objective data to evaluate whether the interventions are working.. The term behavioral in ABA reflects an emphasis on measurable outcomes. & Mulle. Operant learning occurs in all humans and many other organisms. & Drew. J. and Risley (1968). Thus. D. London: Guilford Press. It takes place when an antecedent event sets the occasion for a behavior. Understanding child behaviour disorders (3rd ed.

’’ To promote operant and related forms of learning. Other ABA strategies include incidental teaching. Prompts are gradually reduced and eventually eliminated as the individual masters the behavior. and then increasingly for better accuracy and sustained lengths of time. Other common procedures include task analysis. the student may not greet the instructor on subsequent occasions as the behavior was not reinforced. the individual is told about the antecedent-behavior-consequence relationship. modulating eye contact during conversations. when a student with ASD sees an instructor (antecedent event). The instructor begins each discrete trial with a brief instruction or cue (referred to as a discriminative stimulus). if the instructor walks by without acknowledging the greeting.APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA) A consequent event is a change that immediately follows the behavior of interest. After this exchange. a person with ASD might learn about greetings by hearing an instructor explain. In rule-governed behavior. the student is likely to greet the instructor in the future. such as looking back and forth between another person and an object or activity of mutual interest (a skill called joint attention). she may make eye contact and say. gestural. a person with ASD might learn how to make greetings by observing two people greet each other. in which steps are taught separately and subsequently linked together. the individual observes the antecedent-behavior-consequence relationship instead of experiencing it directly. For example. For example. For example. and shaping. ABA practitioners often use prompting. Consequent events that increase behavior are called reinforcers. For example. consequent events that decrease behavior are said to result in extinction. or verbal guidance on performing a behavior in response to a cue. Thus. then chaining. eye contact may be shaped by reinforcing the individual first for casting fleeting glances in the general direction of the communicative partner. 2001). During DTT. which typically lasts only seconds. in which successive approximations of a behavior are taught. ‘‘Hi. and alternating gaze among several communication partners. discrete trial teaching (DTT) simplifies instruction as much as possible by breaking down learning trials into their component parts and carefully planning how to implement each (Smith. The person with ASD then gives a response. on the other hand. The instructor immediately gives a consequence—corrective feedback for an incorrect response or positive reinforcement such as praise or access to preferred objects for a correct response. The shaping process may also be extended to more advanced skills. Some strategies are highly structured. there is a brief pause (intertrial interval) before the next trial. it’s important to make eye contact and say ‘Hi’ or ‘Hello’ to show you’re interested. In modeling. ‘‘When you greet others. which may include a prompt. Two related forms of learning are modeling and rule-governed behavior. Prompting involves systematically providing physical.’’ If the consequence is a smile and praise from the instructor (a reinforcer). However. an instructor often minimizes distractions by working individually with a person with ASD in a setting away from other activity. which consists of breaking down a complex skill into smaller steps. ABA FOR TEACHING NEW SKILLS Many ABA strategies have been designed to promote learning in individuals with ASD of all ages and developmental levels. which makes use of a person’s motivation for preferred items or activities to encourage communication or social 16 .

During these activities. the instructor generally withholds a preferred item. Strain. The instructor may prompt the child by asking. in an effort to individualize interventions and optimize outcomes. A token economy combines procedures for reinforcing appropriate behavior and withholding reinforcement for challenging behavior. indicating that the function of the behavior is to escape or avoid requests. Through assessment methods such as interview and direct observation. or for a behavior such as pulling objects off shelves. One aspect of the intervention is to reinforce behaviors that are alternatives to or incompatible with the challenging behavior. they may respond to screaming by placing the student in time-out. Todd.APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA) initiations (Fenske. written words. Having typically developing peers serve as models or tutors for the individual with autism is another commonly used approach (Strain & Schwartz. the instructor may withhold a puzzle piece so that the child is apt to request it. Along with reinforcing alternative behaviors. the aim is to provide opportunities to learn new skills and to have positive interactions with instructors. rather than relying exclusively on any one approach. For example. 2002). Additional ABA strategies involve providing instruction to groups rather than to one individual (Heflin & Alaimo. or having an individual work alone by following instructions presented in pictures. they may praise the student for raising his hand but not for screaming. a student can earn tokens for appropriate behavior and cash them in for a reinforcer such as additional time with a favorite peer. Others exhibit challenging behaviors when they cannot immediately get something they requested. ‘‘What do you want?’’ or simply waiting expectantly. thereby creating an opportunity for the person with ASD to use language to request it. & McClannahan. where no reinforcement is available. if a student throws a drink on the floor. Contemporary ABA programs blend these various strategies. practitioners can develop individualized interventions. she may be directed to clean up the spill and the surrounding area. some students are especially likely to display challenging behaviors when requests are made of them. for a time. & Reed. the student might be reinforced for putting her hands in her pockets. Another intervention is overcorrection. In this system. All of these strategies for 17 . For example. Across all strategies. For example. 1998). Alternatively. or snack. It is usually embedded into naturally occurring activities throughout the day such as work time. if the challenging behavior is screaming and the function is getting attention from others. 2006). Carr. he may lose a token for challenging behaviors such as aggression (a procedure called response cost). After identifying a possible function. Conversely. suggesting that the function is to gain access to preferred objects or activities. 2001). play centers. ABA FOR CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS Sometimes a goal of ABA treatment is to decrease or eliminate challenging behaviors while teaching more appropriate skills (Horner. For example. ABA practitioners seek to identify the various functions that challenging behaviors serve. 2001). Krantz. if a child is putting together a favorite puzzle. or audio-taped recordings (McClannahan & Krantz. ABA practitioners may withhold reinforcement for the challenging behavior. the student might be reinforced for raising his hand. For example. in which the student restores the environment to a state better than it was before the challenging behavior occurred.

P. R. EIBI typically consists of 20–40 hours weekly of ABA treatment. and may be employed for two to three years. individualized instruction to pre-teach or review skills to be addressed later in the day during group instruction and spend other portions of the day in typical academic group activities. & Risley. Groen. & R. T.APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (ABA) reducing challenging behavior are most successful when implemented in conjunction with instruction and reinforcement for more appropriate behaviors.. with active participation from parents and others in that setting. designed to address all areas of need. social interaction) or training parents. Foxx (Eds. specific set of goals. M. The learner may spend a portion of the day engaged in one-toone. or personnel in educational or occupational settings to implement ABA interventions. O.. Many studies document that. little information is available on long-term outcomes such as whether graduates of the programs succeed afterward in less specialized settings.. Comprehensive ABA treatment programs for older children and adults with ASD take place in specialized classrooms or occupational settings (Handleman & Harris. Incidental teaching: A not discrete trial teaching procedure. M. Studies indicate that EIBI can yield significant gains such as increases in IQ and other standardized test scores. peers. As a result. Cooper. 2001). Applied with children under 5 years old. Research continues on how to enhance its effectiveness. However. and educators can become proficient at implementing ABA interventions under supervision of a professional ABA practitioner.. REFERENCES Baer. additional research is necessary to confirm these exciting findings. guided practice in applying ABA methods. Green. parents. along with increased access to special education services (Smith. E. Fenske. 18 . Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. 1. D. much of it involving one-to-one instruction (Handleman & Harris. Austin. 2000). L. (2001). C. M. TX: Pro-Ed. EIBI often occurs in the home or child-care setting. Maurice. Research shows that persons with ASD in these programs learn many new skills. Heron. (1968). direction on how to collect data on the effects of intervention. (1987).. L. 91–97. Applied behavior analysis. T. E. 2006. assistance with identifying skills to teach.. & Heward. Training typically includes instruction on characteristics of ASD. MODELS FOR IMPLEMENTING ABA Some ABA intervention models for persons with ASD are comprehensive.g. ABA is an effective approach to teach many new skills and alleviate challenging behaviors. In C. G. M. and establishment of a system for communication and collaboration between the intervention setting and home. peers. Still. Such programs usually mix individual and group instruction throughout the day. & McClannahan. One comprehensive approach is early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Others are directed toward a more circumscribed. 1997). Columbus. W. Wolf. Making a difference: Behavioral intervention for autism (pp. CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS Though not a cure for ASD.. it has become an important intervention for persons with ASD. 75–82). J.). Krantz. E. J. with training. & Wynn. Holmes. OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Specific skill models may involve working directly with persons with ASD in a particular area (e.

R. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. American Journal on Mental Retardation. KELLY M.ART THERAPY Handleman. loss. S. (2005). Austin. W. E. L. Carr. 104. J. (1973). Activity schedules for children with autism: Teaching independent behavior. Groen.). NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. School-age education programs for children with autism. J. PETERSON AND TRISTRAM SMITH APRAXIA Apraxia is the inability to plan. K. & Harris. (2006). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. 86–92. psychiatrists became more interested in the artwork of their mentally ill patients. S. Lovaas. TX: Pro-Ed. 423–446. and carry out a physical. MD: Woodbine House. Strain. educators became interested in their students’ work as it showed differences in development (cognitive and emotional). It is through the creative process that art therapy has grown to be used in the assessment and treatment of individuals with various disorders as well as for promoting wellness. McClannahan. climbing on play equipment. Bethesda.. Koegel. R. (1987). 3–9.. O. addiction. Handleman. & Schwartz. P. L. disability. Todd. R.. D. (2000). S. Focus on Autism and Related Disorders. J. J. Students with autism spectrum disorders. 269–285. H.).... & Harris. S. Smith.. or skipping. T. D. TX: Pro-Ed.. Individuals with apraxia may have difficulty putting on their shoes. H. F. (1997). 32. Bethesda. & Koegel. (2001). 131–166. I. As popularity grew. 16. L. S. Upper Saddle River. and levels of wellness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. About the same time. abuse and domestic violence. (Eds. (2002). Austin. Strain. 55. I. Koegel. & Alaimo.. (2001). Q. I. Heflin. L. A. Problem behavior interventions for young children with autism: A research synthesis.. visual arts. relationship issues. & Wynn. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. art therapy began being offered alongside traditional psychoanalytic therapy programs. G. These clients range in ages (from children to older adults). Preschool programs for children with autism (2nd ed. Discrete trial training in the treatment of autism. Pivotal response treatments for autism: Communication. (2001). MD: Woodbine House. S. J.. K. social & academic development. Autism through the lifespan: The Eden model. 16. P. Horner.. 120–128. ABA and the development of meaningful social relations for young children with autism. Lovaas. Simmons. anxiety. and medical illnesses. organize. Art therapy is a mental health profession that uses art and the creative process to improve the lives of the clients who are served. mental illnesses. Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Holmes. 6. A. L. W. O. and counseling. E. It can be utilized with diagnoses such as depression. Focus on Autism and Related Disorders. S.. Smith. T. & Krantz. L.. (1998). (2006). CHRISTINE R. PRESTIA ART THERAPY During the 1940s. & Long. motor action. J. Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. 19 . & Reed. Art therapy combines the areas of human development. L. J. P. Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy..

professional.html. HANS In order to enter into the art therapy profession. Asperger identified the traits within this disability as: (a) social isolation and awkwardness. schools. The national organization for art therapists is the American Art Therapy Association. Asperger’s disorder (or Asperger syndrome) involves difficulties in three major areas: social interaction. treatment settings vary from individual sessions to group placements. (2006). This professional organization defines and regulates the educational. mental health facilities. See also Asperger’s disorder. In order to be considered a registered art therapist (ATR or ATR-BC) 1. A separate entity. communication. HANS Hans Asperger (February 18. nursing homes. he noted that four boys from his clinical practice exhibited distinctive characteristics that he labeled as autistischen psychopathen. and their unusual habits or behaviors that distinguishes them. (d) normal intellectual development. In his original findings. Art therapists work in a variety of settings including hospitals. 1998). and (e) normal communication development. org/about. (1991). TERRI COOPER SWANSON ASPERGER’S DISORDER Like all autism spectrum disorders. most children with Asperger’s disorder are not diagnosed until elementary school. This credential must be maintained with continuing education hours (American Art Therapy Association. or even much later (Attwood. private practice. Inc. It is the unusual quality of their language. U. and art studios.ASPERGER. 1906–October 21. REFERENCE American Art Therapy Association. 2006 from www. (AATA). The Art Therapy Credentials Board (ATCB) is the credentialing agency that defines the requirements for certification. (c) insistence on environmental sameness. Inc. In addition. 1980) was an Austrian pediatrician who published the seminal research on the disorder that is now called Asperger syndrome. (b) self-stimulatory responses. LYNN DUDEK ASPERGER. 1979). completion of a master’s degree in art therapy or with an emphasis on art therapy is required. Autism and Asperger syndrome. shelters. 20 . FURTHER INFORMATION Frith. correctional facilities. those with Asperger’s disorder are typically quite verbal.arttherapy. Retrieved July 24. While lower-functioning individuals with autism might show little desire for social interaction and spontaneous communication. Art therapists may work independently or as part of a treatment team. and behavior (Wing & Gould.000 hours of direct client contact must be accrued after graduation. their poor social skills. 2006). residential treatment centers. Because the symptoms are more subtle than those of classic autism. and ethical standards for art therapists. the Art Therapy Credentials Board (ATCB) awards registration as an art therapist (ATR) and after passing a written examination confers the credentialing of a board-certified art therapist (ATR-BC). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and often eager to share information.

at least two symptoms of ‘‘impairment in social interaction’’ and one symptom of restricted. or movie. Sometimes the area of interest may be typical for their age group—for example. APA. special interests. that Asperger’s disorder has more distinct characteristics than those covered in the DSM-IV-TR criteria. sensory processing difficulties. Metaphors and idioms (e. or cartoons—but the degree of interest sets the person with Asperger’s apart. to receive the Asperger’s diagnosis. or. even frightening. This is due to the fact that while most people automatically develop an understanding of social rules and nonverbal communication. language peculiarities. which publishes the official criteria used by psychologists and psychiatrists in the United States. 2000). exactly. Commonly mentioned ones include poor social skills. such as Mom asking. LANGUAGE Children with Asperger’s disorder are often described as sounding like ‘‘little professors’’ because of their often extraordinary vocabularies and their tendency to lecture. say. speech inflections and accents. repetitive interests or behaviors). Other experts argue. they are generally described as being very attached to parents and family members. sometimes. The pragmatics (social aspects) of speech—such as the ability to carry on back-and-forth conversations—often do not come naturally to people with Asperger’s. These interests go far beyond those of a normal hobby. Others’ inexact use of language. video game. in fact. However. a separate disorder in itself. ‘‘beating a dead horse’’) might be baffling. They need to be explicitly taught. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. they often tend to be overly literal in their use and interpretation of language. a cartoon. The amount of information on a particular topic that an individual with Asperger’s may acquire can be quite staggering. uses much of the same language to describe Asperger’s disorder and Autistic disorder (e.g. and must be explicitly taught.. however. in some cases. and can interfere with social skills. Other interests can be quite unusual. One distinctive language feature of many individuals with Asperger’s disorder is their love of perseverative scripting—telling the entire story line of. people with Asperger’s disorder do not. academics. shy. Given those criteria. While their speech may be superficially perfect. but a form of high functioning autism.ASPERGER’S DISORDER There is a certain amount of debate among experts today about what. SPECIAL INTERESTS Individuals with Asperger’s disorder often have one or more all-encompassing special interests. over and over again. Older children and adults with Asperger’s generally do want to establish friendships and relationships—but they lack the knowledge to do so.. baseball scores. many argue that Asperger’s is not. ‘‘Would you mind getting that?’’ when she really means ‘‘Get that!’’ can cause frustration and anger. such as vacuum cleaners or 21 . gross and fine motor problems. the individual may not have mental retardation and may not have had a significant delay in learning to talk. complete with exact dialogue and. Others may view them as quirky.g. and difficulties with self-help and organizational skills. constitutes Asperger’s disorder. SOCIAL SKILLS While small children with Asperger’s disorder may initially show little interest in playing with other children. video games. and work.

London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 11–29. Not every person with Asperger’s disorder manifests the same characteristics in number or degree. especially tags and sock seams. DESIRE FOR SAMENESS While many people love surprises. smells.g. it is important to keep in mind that Asperger’s disorder is a spectrum disorder. Going from class to class in middle school requires tolerating loud noise. ranging from relatively mild to quite severe. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Asperger’s syndrome: A guide for parents and professionals. and/or touch. Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. (2000). this is a form of perseveration. individuals with Asperger’s typically crave consistency. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.ASPERGER’S DISORDER train schedules.com. 2000) criteria. organizing and planning skills). Some seek out unusual sensory activities. DC: Author. 2006. tying shoes and getting dressed require fine motor skills.. clinicians today report that most individuals with Asperger’s disorder have difficulties in self-help skills and adaptive behavior (Attwood. (1998). T. such as handwriting.. These difficulties extend logically from the other difficulties characteristic of individuals with Asperger’s. ‘‘Sameness’’ seems to provide comfort and security in a world with so many unwritten rules to decipher. running. 22 . Wing. and other students behaving in unpredictable ways. These are all examples of difficulties with sensory integration dysfunction (also known as sensory processing dysfunction). SELF HELP AND ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS Contrary to the DSM-IV-TR (APA. and not even notice. a scraped knee that would set another child crying. or out of stock) and often some social interaction at the cash register. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association.g.tonyattwood. Attwood. (1979). When the person reads or views the same material over and over again. sound. jumping. Therefore. riding a bicycle) and tend to be clumsy. noise. L. shopping at the supermarket requires an ability to adapt to change (as groceries are often rearranged. Clothing. Many people with Asperger’s also have difficulties with gross motor skills (e. Attwood. text rev. Washington. 2006). T. One person might be so impaired that he or she is unable to live independently. such as spinning. Many people with Asperger’s disorder also have difficulties with executive functions (e.au. while another might be able to hold down a job—even be quite talented and successful at it—but still have significant difficulties in interpersonal relationships. 9. For example. say. SENSORY AND MOTOR DIFFICULTIES Many individuals with Asperger’s disorder seem to be overly sensitive to light. & Gould. Is there a difference between Asperger’s syndrome and high-functioning autism? Retrieved August 25.). may cause discomfort for them. Others seem to be less sensitive to sensory input than the average person. J. Parents and teachers report that a change in routine— even a ‘‘fun’’ one like a party or school assembly—can often trigger a ‘‘meltdown’’ in a child with Asperger’s disorder. Some also have difficulty with fine motor skills. from http://www. being bumped into..

T. (2001). Hagiwara. the true positive rate (those who score as having Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism on the instrument and who really do have the condition) is 62 percent with a false positive rate (those who score as having AS or HFA but who do not have the condition) of 10 percent. E. 34. A synthesis of studies on the intellectual. L. L. P. The epidemiology of Asperger syndrome: A total population study. Respondents indicate the presence or absence of certain characteristics in each area.. Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale.. B. C. S. R. B. Ehlers. S. and measure the characteristics of Asperger syndrome for research purposes. See also Asperger’s disorder. SCOTT 23 . Asperger syndrome & your child: A parent’s guide. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. D. and maladaptive.. & Simpson. The ASDS can be also used with confidence to document behavioral progress as a consequence of special intervention programs. REFERENCES Ehlers. Ehlers. Gillberg. academic. & Simpson. (1999). The ASSQ has cut-off scores for both parent and teacher ratings of the child’s behavior. 2000) is a norm-referenced measure that can help determine if a child or adolescent has Asperger syndrome. Austin. REFERENCE Myles. & Wing 1999) was designed to screen for possible cases of Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism in children. and there have been a range of studies published highlighting the validity of the instrument. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. Myles. For teacher ratings the true positive rate is 70 percent with a false positive rate of 9 percent.ASPERGER SYNDROME SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE (ASSQ) FURTHER INFORMATION Myles. 29. (2000). F.. R. See also Asperger’s disorder. F.. Griswold. and the resulting standard score shows the probability that the child or adolescent has s syndrome. LISA BARRETT MANN ASPERGER SYNDROME DIAGNOSTIC SCALE (ASDS) The Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS. cognitive. L. G. target goals for change and intervention of the child’s Individualized Education Program. J. FIONA J. Gillberg. 129–142. 1993. & Wing. S. Bock. New York: Skylight Press. (2002) Asperger syndrome: An overview of characteristics. (2002). A screening questionnaire for Asperger syndrome and other high functioning autism spectrum disorders in school age children. (1993). divided into five subscales: language. B. L. S. 132–137. social/emotional and sensory characteristics of children and youth with Asperger syndrome. Parents and teachers can complete the scale and share the results with their clinician. D. 36(3).. norm-referenced assessment.. R. It is composed of 50 items. Ehlers & Gillberg. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders... Barnhill. 1327–1350.. Myles. M. & Simpson. TX: Pro-Ed. C. Powers. Bock. & Simpson. & Gillberg. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. sensory-motor. 17(3). 304–311. SUSANA BERNAD-RIPOLL ASPERGER SYNDROME SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE (ASSQ) The Asperger Syndrome Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ. For parent ratings. social.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (b) Academic Skills. cognitive disabilities. incorporating verbal behavior strategies for teaching skills to students. & Sundberg. formal and informal evaluation measures. psychologists. The assessment of basic learning and language skills. The ABLLS is not designed to provide age norms or to compare students to their peers. and ongoing monitoring of student progress. Pleasant Hill. Educational research: Fundamentals for the consumer (4th ed. (c) Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. CA: Behavior Analysts. Inc. PAUL G. (2004). Assessment may involve many components including gathering background information. and making decisions based on what is learned. Within each section skills are identified within 25 domain areas (e. and many other areas as well. and (e) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization of 1997. M. Partington & Sundberg. the protocol becomes a curriculum tool individualized for the student. LACAVA ASSESSMENT OF BASIC LANGUAGE AND LEARNING SKILLS (ABLLS) The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS. (b) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990. a curriculum. 24 . receptive language.. and (d) Motor Skills.). BROOKE YOUNG ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY Several legislative acts or amendments have defined assistive technology (AT). teachers. Typically developing students completing kindergarten or first grade should know the majority of the areas covered. motor imitation. The introductory set for the ABLLS contains two books: The ABLLS protocol is used for each student to score how students perform on the skill sets and The ABLLS Scoring Instructions and IEP Development Guide. Applied behavior analysis is the theory around which the ABLLS is centered. (d) Tech Act Amendments of 1994. decision making. assistive technology device. Once completed. REFERENCE Partington. Parents. visual performance. direct observation. autism. The Scoring and Instruction Guide has strategies for teams to use to develop Individualized Education Programs for students. and a skills tracking system that can be used for students with language delays.ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT Assessment is the overall process of gathering information.. play and leisure). J. FURTHER INFORMATION McMillan. team problem solving. H. evaluating students. The ABLLS is built around skills students use in everyday activities and by using task analyses for the different indicators.g. (c) Self-Help Skills. 1998) is an assessment tool. J. (1998). These include (a) Technology Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (PL 100-407) (Tech Act). There are four sections that make up the ABLLS protocol: (a) Basic Learner Skills. and assistive technology service. interpretation of testing. and other team members can complete the ABLLS as long as they know the student. report writing.

§§ 12101-12213 (1990). 42 U. or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. and that a reasonable accommodation must be made to allow for the individual to work.buffalo.d. In the Reauthorization of IDEA 1997. turn things on. if so indicated.’’ AT can be anything that makes it easier for the student to participate in class. When an evaluation is being conducted. WI: Knowledge by Design. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 confirmed that AT is to be considered as part of a related service under special education and began the need for specific assessments in the area of AT for identification and selection. These acts ensure that AT needs must be identified on an individual basis and considered along with the child’s other educational needs. (n. Technology Related Assistance to Individuals with Disabilities Amendment Act of 1994 (P. the team should consider the following: fine-motor skills.S.C. FURTHER INFORMATION Assistive Technology Training Online: http://atto. Inc. Parents or IEP members can ask for additional evaluation or an independent evaluation to determine AT needs. natural environments. whether acquired commercially.buffalo. The handbook of special education technology research and practice. The Tech Act of 1994 offers further clarification to what AT can do specifically related to vocational supports. K. 103-218). get around. maintain. IDEA 1997 requires that AT must be considered as an option for all students that receive an IEP.. n.L. AT means ‘‘any item. modified or customized. & Boone. Edyburn. complete homework. and alternatives to traditional learning approaches.php. Lack of availability of equipment or cost alone cannot be used as an excuse for denying an assistive technology service. D. ADA ensures that employers could not and cannot discriminate due to disability. communication. and workplace supports.ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY First defined by the Technology Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (PL 100-407). assistive technology services and assistive technology devices must be provided at no cost to the family and. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 ensures access to buildings and employment. piece of equipment. and communicate with friends and more (Assistive Technology Training Online. AT is seen as a critical tool to provide further access to the general education classroom for all students. TERRI COOPER SWANSON 25 . 103-218). Retrieved November 29. R.d.). from http://atto. that is used to increase. Technology Related Assistance to Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (P. REFERENCES Americans with Disabilities Act. AT should also be a required consideration in vocational training and in the workplace to increase independence. If included in the IEP. Higgins.). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization of 1997 (Public Law 105-17). 2006. off the shelf. or product system. devices must be allowed to go home with the student.. Parents always have the right to appeal if assistive technology services are denied. Whitefish Bay.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/intro/index.edu. Introduction to AT. It follows up on the provisions of ADA and further supports AT considering the advances in technology. (2006).L. In addition ADA ensures that AT devices and services are included under this legislation to provide that reasonable accommodation. Identification of AT needs must involve family members and a multidisciplinary team. Assistive Technology Training Online.

selecting. Examples include video cameras. coordinating and using other therapies.edu. where appropriate. such as pencils or pens with a special grip. timer. or use of an assistive technology device. or. and easy to use such as dry erase boards. fitting. and training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education and rehabilitation services). applying. Mid tech includes battery-operated devices or simple electronic devices requiring limited advancements in technology. hand made. Hightech devices are complex technological support strategies—typically ‘‘high’’ cost equipment.buffalo. or services with assistive technology devices. purchasing. training or technical assistance for an individual with disabilities. or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of individuals with disabilities. such as a tape recorder. may include: (a) visual support strategies—typically low cost. customizing. Lowtech devices. clipboards. manila file folders.buffalo. which do not involve batteries or any type of electronics. overhead projector. FURTHER INFORMATION Assistive Technology Training Online: http://atto. Language Master. employers. or other individuals who provide services to. This may also include the evaluation of the needs of an individual with a disability. and complex voice output devices. the family of an individual with disabilities. or simple voice output device. FURTHER INFORMATION Assistive Technology Training Online: http://atto. computers and adaptive hardware. 3-ring binders. acquisition. repairing.ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVICE ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVICE There are a wide variety of assistive technology devices ranging from low tech to high tech. including a functional evaluation of the individual in the individual’s customary environment. calculator. and photos. interventions. TERRI COOPER SWANSON ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY SERVICE Any individual with an Individualized Education Program can receive assistive technology services. or replacing of assistive technology devices. designing. TERRI COOPER SWANSON 26 . Assistive technology service means any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection. maintaining. and (c) communication boards—portable communication boards allow the nonverbal student the means to be able to express their wants and needs. such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs. or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by individuals with disabilities. leasing. (b) tools to aid in writing. employ. adapting.edu.

apraxia-kids. Gillberg (2002. to basic sentences and questions. The key issue is in the lack of control over levels of activity. KLEIN ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDERS (ADHD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are developmental disorders that include attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Commonly associated features include aggressive. 2004). Tonge. to words of gradually increasing length. more antisocial. conduct disorder. Also. p. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADHDS Hyperactivity disorders are characterized by substantial restlessness. In fact. and inattentiveness (Goodman & Scott. There have been some arguments that hyperactivity disorders are part of the autism spectrum. visual.ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDERS (ADHD) ASSOCIATION METHOD The Association Method is a phonics-based. the curriculum progresses from sounds to syllables. this does not indicate that these disorders in their own right are part of the autism spectrum. Behaviors include fiddling with objects or clothing. Brereton.org/faqs/responsefromJcotler. impulsiveness. What is the association method? Retrieved October 17. and then more advanced sentence structures. or defiant behaviors such that classification with 27 . getting up and walking about when the child should be seated. and were more disruptive. (2004). conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. and more anxious than their nonspectrum peers. JAN L. such behaviors when seen in children with ASD do not necessarily require an additional diagnosis. Ultimately. & Stewart (1999) found that children and adolescents with autism spectrum conditions presented with more psychopathology. or a tendency to switch activities frequently. This method develops and systematically associates each of the specific skills that must be coordinated for the development of the ability to understand and use oral communication. often have very different underlying motivations and a different quality to them. 2005). Multisensory teaching includes the use of auditory.html. While attention difficulties are seen in many children with autism spectrum disorders. being easily distractible and having difficulty staying on task. M. This is dependent on the degree to which difficulties and behaviors interfere with functioning over and above the ASD. REFERENCE Kotler. 2006. rather than the activity itself. However. In a recent Swedish study. from http:// www. Matched to the strengths and needs of each individual child. and multilevel curriculum designed to teach oral and written communication to people with severe communication disorders (Kotler. presentation of difficulties in ‘‘pure’’ ADHD. research does indicate the prevalence of such difficulties among children diagnosed with ASD. including autism spectrum disorders. 48) reports that the majority of children meeting diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome also met criteria for ADHD. when sufficient language skills have been achieved. fidgeting or squirming when seated. Gray. while overlapping with behaviors seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). a transition is made to traditional textbook formats for instruction. tactile. and motor-kinesthetic cues for learning. and oppositional defiant disorder. multisensory. antisocial.

(f) stealing with force. 94. A. Taylor. E. (b) often starting fights. (i) destroying other’s property. (c) often defying adult requests or rules. Tonge. threatening. 2000) is that there has been at least 12 months with at least three of the following behaviors: (a) often bullying. (e) being physically cruel to animals. FIONA J. aggression. Antisocial behaviour by young people. A guide to Asperger syndrome. S. L. Other associated difficulties in some children with hyperactivity disorders include specific learning difficulties. FURTHER INFORMATION Rutter. (m) often going out at night without permission. Criteria for conduct disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR (APA. Clinical foundations of hyperactivity research. (e) often shifting blame to others. Goodman. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. feelings. Behavioural Brain Research. (k) conning others. R. (f) often touchy or easily annoyed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. and by wandering in the classroom. (n) running away from home overnight at least twice. the ability to represent mental states such as thoughts. Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder are characterized by antisocial behavior. 3. Child psychiatry (2nd ed. and (h) often spiteful or vindictive. V. (2005). C. with truanting beginning before age 13..).. Brereton. both hyperactivity disorders and ‘‘pure’’ conduct or oppositional disorders are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. (g) forcing someone into sexual acts. (l) stealing without force. & Scott. (c) using serious weapons in fights. Behavioural and emotional disturbance in high-functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. (g) often angry and resentful. M.). soft neurological signs such as general clumsiness. (d) often deliberately annoying others. E. J. (2000). M. Washington. Gray. text rev. Autism: International Journal of Research and Practice. (d) being physically cruel to people. or intimidating. Children with hyperactivity disorders often have difficulties with social relationships. Such perspective-taking deficits are a basis for the quality of social behaviors most frequently observed for this 28 . & Stewart. (1998). (j) breaking into cars or houses. 2005). 117–130. and (o) often truanting. (b) often arguing with adults. They may be rejected by peers who find the impulsive behaviors and interruptions during class and other activities a nuisance. and defiance. However. K. and a history of developmental delay. (1998). (h) fire-setting to cause damage. 2000) can often lead to a dual diagnosis of ADHD and conduct disorder or ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder in many children (Goodman & Scott. or beliefs is impaired among individuals with autism. DC: Author. SCOTT ATTRIBUTION According to Frith (1991). Criteria for oppositional defiant disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR (APA. Gillberg. (2002). APA. 2000) is that the child has shown at least four of the following behaviors for at least 6 months: (a) often losing temper.. failure to control behavior in a socially acceptable way. (1999). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.. There may be inappropriate calling out or rude or cheeky comments to adults and authority figures. 11–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.ATTRIBUTION the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. B.

Jolliffe & Baron-Cohen. 1986) and lend itself to the development of clinical depression as proposed in the reformulated Learned Helplessness Theory (Metalsky. it is not impossible to see how individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are challenged daily in many ways as they attempt to successfully interact in the social world around them. and if left untreated could cause that person to become defensive or develop ‘‘hostile’’ attribution over time in an effort to avoid unpleasant interactions. 66). they consistently share significant concerns about their children’s skills. 2000). These aggressive or hostile attribution patterns can be maladaptive when considering the potential for future behavior changes (Baumeister. Goldstein and Siegel. Abramson. they show no significant concerns (Barnhill. Attribution patterns can be defined as how individuals under differing circumstances assume causation of words or deeds. increasing the potential to severely affect problem solving and reasoning skills (Minshew. Along with the 29 . 1997. 1985). & Peterson. Hagiwara. A key component of our theory of mind. Myles. (1971). p. Seligman. maladaptive attribution styles. 1986). or deeds on a regular basis that it may cause frequent misunderstandings during social interactions. & Simpson. So where is the connection between attribution and the world of autism? One study shows that a third of adolescents with Asperger syndrome have pessimistic. The results concluded that attributions are clearly related to motivation and affect performance (Weiner. Our ability to manipulate these attributional beliefs about the sources and causes of success and failure allows us to maintain some control over our own experiences and is directly related to our self-esteem and successful self-determination (Covington. Barnhill (2001) and Baron-Cohen have spent a considerable amount of time advancing research that individuals with autism spectrum disorders are universally affected by deficits in theory of mind. Originally tested in the learning disabilities community to determine factors influencing academic achievement. Weiner. which is our ability as a person to assume the emotions or activities going on in another person’s head.ATTRIBUTION population (Meyer & Minshew. It is also interesting to note that when parents are asked about their children’s performance in these areas. It is widely thought that people with autism do not enjoy what is referred to as the Shared Attention Mechanism. One area that holds promise for improving social function is that of attribution retraining. A substantial research effort in the early 1970s resulted in the Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation pioneered by Weiner et al. when the children are asked to rate themselves in the same areas. Semmel. it is the drive we should have toward establishing what is a shared interest between oneself and another person. 1982). However. 1997). words. Just from this sampling of research findings. Further review of current research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome have a heightened awareness for details coupled with deficits in organization of information. 1989. Baron-Cohen refers to these activities as mentalizing and on numerous occasions has found that individuals with ASDs are not able to take on the perspective of others and accurately determine their thoughts or motivations. 1999). It is a way to get on the same ‘‘wave length’’ with each other (Baron-Cohen. researchers were looking to explain the link between the children’s causal ascriptions for achievement outcomes and their behavioral responses to academic success and failure. It is reasonable to suggest that if a person does not correctly attribute someone else’s thoughts. 2002.

The solution using attribution retraining would go something like this: 1. As you can see.. A baby near me is having trouble and crying. R. (1985). G. T. It is possible to use this methodology to improve the person’s attribution pattern so that they are more consistently able to assess their circumstances and then select an appropriate response. Focus on Autism and Other Disabilities.ATTRIBUTION previously mentioned deficits.. The problem is outside of me. Frith. The Strange Stories Test: A replication with highfunctioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. it should be thought of as an integral part of the successful problem solving experience. To incorporate attribution retraining as the first of many steps to increase social fluidity. V. R.. Self-related cognitions in anxiety and motivation. if those with autism are not ‘‘hard wired’’ necessarily to have that ability or interest in establishing a common ground socially with others. Sooner or later the baby will have to stop crying. 395–406. F. 16.. B. Hagiwara. Social attributions and depression in adolescents with Asperger syndrome. I do have some control over the situation in that I can ask to leave the room. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. The situation really isn’t stable. (1991). Schwarzer (Ed. Baron-Cohen. Is it controllable or uncontrollable? Can you do anything about it? Here is a real life example: You are sitting in a restaurant and there is a screaming baby at the table next to you! The average individual with Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS is likely to think that the screaming is internal to them because it hurts their ears. it is easier to imagine that misunderstanding or perceiving social situations could occur regularly. Covington. Hillsdale. leaving room for the possibility of resolution to everyone’s benefit without notions of purposeful or hurtful behaviors and emotionally charged responses. Asperger syndrome: A study of the cognitive profiles of 37 children and adolescents.). While attribution is not the entire process of social problem solving. 2. S. S. Is the issue stable or unstable? Is it something you think will always happen? 3. Barnhill. Is the issue internal or external in locus? Did it happen because of something about you or something else? 2. S. Masochism and the self. (2000). 15. Myles. that it will NEVER stop and that they have no control over it. & Baron-Cohen. (1997). (1989). example diagrams illustrate the following three variables in attribution retraining as identified by Weiner (1986): 1. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. U. Anatomy of failure-induced anxiety: The role of cognitive mediators. Baumeister. Cambridge. use selfcalming strategies or maybe change the table in order to make it less offensive to me. Jolliffe. M. L. MA: MIT Press. 29. G. 146–153. REFERENCES Barnhill. Autism and Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. (2001). In R. 30 . & Simpson. 3. T. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. this assessment is still an uncomfortable situation but much more positively assessed. Hillsdale. (1999). essentially coming up with a depressing or negative assessment of the situation. 45–53.

Goldstein. MELANIE D.. G. 81–92.. autism. P. (1986).. HARMS AUDIOLOGIST The role of an audiologist is to evaluate an individual’s hearing to determine if there is a hearing loss.. (1997). S. and communication. 3.. as he dealt with his own loss of hearing. assistance from a medical professional. 17. AIT is intended to decrease auditory sensitivities and slightly improve overall hearing. J.. Neuropsychological functioning in autism: Profile of a complex information processing disorder. Meyer. central auditory processing disorder.. but it is not recommended to be given prior to age 5 as the ear is not fully developed until then. R.. N. Y. social behavior. Semmel. attention. Seligman.. Focus on Autism and Other Disabilities. the audiologist will make recommendations for services needed. C. Minshew. 303–316. senses and movement.. B. 43. A. Weiner. New York: Springer-Verlag.. Perceiving the causes of success and failure. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. attention. Rogers. J.AUDITORY INTEGRATION TRAINING Metalsky. N. self-stimulation and self-injury. vocal and oral behavior. S. AIT was created by ear. L. E. typically done in two half-hour sessions a day over 10–12 days. & Peterson. M. which might include speech therapy. (1982). & Pennington. play. It can be used for both children and adults. & Rosenbaum. Having studied briefly under 31 . Asperger’s syndrome: Diagnosis. social interactions. A. (2002).. Kukla. S. 1081– 1105. Szatmari. It is purported to aid individuals with a variety of disabilities including ADHD. and throat physician Dr. ADD. or an amplification device. & Minshew. Frieze. New York: General Learning Press. B. Consisting of 10 hours of listening to electronically modified music on headphones. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. Areas of atypical behaviors commonly presented by individuals with autism spectrum disorders include temperament. nose. B. treatment and outcome. SHERRY MOYER ATYPICAL BEHAVIOR Atypical behavior refers to any behavior or combination of behaviors found to be extreme.. An update on neurocognitive profiles in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. 612–617. Rest. I. G. Once a hearing loss has been detected. D. (1991). I. FURTHER INFORMATION Ozonoff.. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology. It is also thought to positively influence behavior. Asperger syndrome: Evidence of an empirical difference from high functioning autism. Attribution theory of motivation and emotion. (1991). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 152–160. 1. Weiner. attachment. 14. Reed. and dyslexia. KATHERINE E. M. and neurobehavioral state. 32. Attributional styles and life events in the classroom: Vulnerability and invulnerability to depressive mood reactions. COOK AUDITORY INTEGRATION TRAINING Auditory Integration Training (AIT) is an intervention designed to help those with auditory processing problems. (1971). L. Guy B erard in France in the 1960s. Abramson. & Siegel.

translated and published in English in 1993). It should be noted that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved AIT devices for marketing. by law no claim can be made as to the effectiveness and safety of AIT. Over 5 years. who was ‘‘cured’’ after receiving AIT from Dr. However. which is electronically processed in two possible ways (can be used separately or both simultaneously). whereby using wide-band filters the AIT device randomly dampens different frequencies of the music as it plays. it is better to not use the narrow-band filters rather than risk using the wrong ones. If there is any doubt of the accuracy of audiometric tests. including the American Speech-Hearing-Language Association (ASHA) and the American Academy of Audiology. he never carried out any research or took data. Georgianna. diagnosed with autism. While there are several proposed explanations for improvement as a result of AIT. However. B erard administered AIT to over several thousand individuals before retiring and reports great success. much skepticism finds its justification in the lack of understanding of how and why AIT is effective. Based on these tests the child then listens to music through headphones. Audiograms are usually given again in the middle of treatment and finally 3 months after treatment has finished. Proponents and skeptics alike. B erard’s idea was to develop a sort of physical therapy for the auditory system. Although B erard himself never carried out any research regarding the efficacy of AIT. He published a book explaining AIT and the theory behind it titled Hearing Equals Behavior (originally published in French in 1982 as Audition  egale comportement. Finally. Some critics assert that explanations given by B erard are contrary to current accepted science in the field. then came to produce the AudioKinetron and the Earducator. Dr. Before intervention is begun. Other tests may also be conducted to find the decibel level to be used as well as other measurements of hearing and auditory sensitivities. he built his first AIT device. Alfred Tomatis but unsatisfied with his approach. B erard. there is still a great deal of controversy regarding this technique and its efficacy. Practice of AIT requires a special investigative 32 . Dr. this requires accurate audiometric measures that may be difficult to attain depending on the functioning level of the child. a child is given an audiogram to determine the frequencies to which the child is hypersensitive. There are now other AIT devices on the market as well. These filters dampen the frequencies to which the child is hypersensitive. The delay in giving the final exam is B erard’s observation that results often take up to 3 months to appear. B erard also reports that during. One is through modulation. there have been over 20 studies conducted since the early 1990s. emphasize that AIT is still in the investigative stages and should only be undertaken if this is clearly understood by the family or individual seeking therapy. Therefore. control groups. Frequent critiques arise because of the lack of sufficient numbers of participants. Stehli wrote about her daughter. there is no proof for any of them. The dulling of one frequency may last from a fraction of a second to a few seconds. it was the book Sound of a Miracle by Annabel Stehli (1991) that brought public attention to this intervention. represented by auditory peaks in their performance on the test. and for several weeks after the intervention. Although not always done. Nonetheless. objective assessments.AUDITORY INTEGRATION TRAINING Dr. and adequate. a client’s behavior may worsen. Both sides of the debate find serious flaws in opposing studies and there is certainly a lack of studies that can stand up to rigorous scientific scrutiny. the music may also be modified through narrow-band filters. however.

(1993). S. The systems either supplement the existing communication modality or are the primary form of communication. 3(2). American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology: A Journal of Clinical Practice. 118–129. & Watling. Language. Mudford. S.asha. 3(2). Auditory integration training: A double-blind study of behavioral and electrophysiological effects in people with autism.. p. from http://www. (1994). visual. 2004. J. Cross. Parsons. Sholar. S. B. and charges should be nominal and not result in profit for the professional administering AIT. 8). (2000). (1991). Bauman. S. (2000).. Auditory integration training: The magical mystery cure. aids.. J. G. (1999).. frustration. 25–29. Interventions to facilitate auditory. 415–421. (1994). 30(4). 73–81. American Journal on Mental Retardation. and strategies (ASHA. Lukas.. A. Is theory better than chicken soup? American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. & Drager. 2005)... S. AAC systems include symbols. B. ASHA Supplement 24. B. Auditory integration training for children with autism: No behavior benefits detected. Sound of a miracle. and establish social etiquette (Light. (1999).. KATIE BASSITY AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) refers to an array of systems designed to compensate for oral or written communication impairments (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA]. A.. Frequently these difficulties coincide with the emergence of behavioral difficulties. M. Breen.. Light. Edelson. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders demonstrate an array of communication difficulties including limited comprehension and use of language and the nonverbal aspects of interactions.. 3(2). 38–40. New Canaan. 30(5). 14(2). 105(2). (1994). Rimland. 16–24.org/NR/rdonlyres/ A0067509-9F38-458A-A065-1B9312ECF990/0/v1PSAIT. S. & Douglas. FURTHER INFORMATION American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. REFERENCES B erard.AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION device exemption (IDE) filed with the FDA. transfer information. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. and/or withdrawal. The purpose of AAC is to enable individuals to express wants and needs. New York: Doubleday Dell. 1988. Hearing equals behavior.. techniques. J. & Edelson. & Rimland. A system can be developed to meet the needs of a child who is just beginning to understand cause-and-effect relationships and the turn-taking aspects of human communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. R. D. Reeves. 378–383. G. M. Auditory Integration Training. Tharpe. 2005. O. Gould. CT: Keats Publishing. D.. 2002) so that they can ‘‘efficiently and effectively engage in a variety of interactions and participate in activities of their choice’’ (Beukelman & Mirenda. The varied AAC options currently available allow for individualization in the selection and design of an AAC system for a child or an adult with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). 2005). Retrieved June 27.. Auditory integration training: Placing the burden of proof. in press. 2005. Rimland. support interpersonal closeness. and motor integration in autism: A review of the evidence. Arin. B. M. Systems can also change over time to address the communicative ability of individuals who are able to 33 .. Dawson.pdf. Speech & Hearing Services in Schools. Gravel. (2004). Stehli. C. Cullen. The effects of auditory integration training on autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. J. & Edelson. Rudy.

vocational. clearly representing an idea. sign language. The concrete object paired with the verbal cue provides the child with comprehension support. depending upon the level of computer technology involved. event. and facial expressions. the level of representation can change over time from concrete objects to iconic symbols or gestures as the individual’s symbolic thought or language ability grows. or color pictures. Some commercially available symbol programs include Boardmaker (Mayer Johnson LLC. 2005). life-size or miniature objects. 1995). events. and graphic symbols so that representation of ideas within the system best matches the individual’s ability. Over time and with consistent presentation. graphic representations such as photos. Systems can integrate multiple sensory components where an object or graphic symbol is paired with texture and/or an auditory dimension. 2005). medium. social. symbol comprehension and use is taught and enhanced. Interdisciplinary team assessment and intervention practices guide professionals and families in identifying.’’ AIDS AAC systems also include a variety of aids or devices referred to as low (unaided). varies across symbols. vests. flip charts. The level of abstraction. 2004) and DynaSyms (Poppin & Company. Other symbols are abstract. These types of symbols include words. Low-technology. iconic line drawings. and literacy needs. and utilizing AAC systems. learning. as well as more abstract and complex iconic systems such as Blisssymbols (Silverman. The comprehension and use of symbols is integral and essential to language development and thus successful use of an AAC system. Doing so can support comprehension and learning and result in increased meaningful use of the system. a young child with minimal language skills may use a miniature bus affixed to a voice output device that sings ‘‘the Wheels on the Bus’’ when depressed. or within binders are all medium-technology aids (Beukelman & Mirenda. or words organized on concrete displays such as poster boards. For example. alphabet boards. These types of symbols include natural gestures and signs. the child is more likely to spontaneously use the device to signal ‘‘time for the bus. or leisure contexts. some gestures. or opaque. 2000). electronically unaided systems include natural forms of communication such as functional gestures. developing. or transparent.AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION express wants and needs as well as construct unique utterances specific to educational. Given that people with ASD possess difficulties with symbolic thought or language (APA. Medium-technology aids consist of physical and graphic symbols in the absence of electronic technology. gestural. where the referent or relationship between the symbol and the event is not immediately apparent. Consequently. 34 . iconic representations. 2005). or representation. Objects or photographs. Teams should monitor progress and modify the system based on therapeutic evidence in order to address the changing needs of the individual. color or black and white line drawings. it is important to consider the available array of concrete objects and oral. Therefore. or object. or objects. AAC systems for individuals with ASD address behavioral. and Rebus symbols. wallets. SYMBOLS Many AAC systems use symbols that represent ideas. as well as some line drawings and Rebus symbols (Beukelman & Mirenda. In the process of developing and implementing an AAC system. or high (aided) technology. language. Symbols can be concrete.

2005). STRATEGIES The strategy with which specific symbols are stored affects the timing of the communicative act. dynamic. Messages can be arranged by levels. Strategy refers to the amount of information or number of messages an SGD can hold. and strategic competence. 2005). which ranges from a single message (single-hit device) to hundreds of messages arranged according to topics. & Yoder. 2002. or overlays. similar to computer files and stored within the device’s electronic system. Timed and release activation options can be adjusted to assist individuals who tap repeatedly or those with low muscle tone that results in difficulty depressing symbols (Beukelman & Mirenda. and the rate of communication (Beukelman & Mirenda. and enlarged pictures.. Warran. Direct selection options include physical pressure. operational. auditory. formulation of ideas. high-technology devices utilize electronic and/or computer technology and voice output.AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION Finally. and motor skills. 2005). Some contemporary high-technology SGDs include Tech Speak (Liberator Co. use of eye gaze or index finger to point to the symbol. 2005). 2002) discuss 35 . Visual scanning uses a light to highlight symbol options and auditory scanning uses a tone. and social functioning of children with ASD have been positive (Beukelman & Mirenda. touch. release activation. Macaw (ZYGO Industries. TECHNIQUES The technique used to activate symbols on medium. Symbol selection depends upon the individual’s visual. 2005. Dynamo (DynaVox Technologies.. tactile options such as raised grids to separate symbols can support successful activation of desired symbols. Fixed displays include overlays where symbols occupy a fixed location. Dynamic display devices use LCD screens that allow the symbols to be manipulated using various functions on the device. visual or auditory scanning. Cress. these systems can also be combined. as well as speech recognition systems (Beukelman & Mirenda. linguistic. Light et al. Complete messages can be stored individually within one symbol. 2005). 2005). Symbols representing single. Harwood. 2005). 2005). 2005). Many devices allow flexibility in moving from single-hit productions of complete utterances to chaining of ideas and spelling options. Various activation options include timed activation. Some AAC experts (Beukelman & Mirenda. 2002. or hybrid visual display. Hybrid systems incorporate both fixed and dynamic symbol displays. Speech-generating devices (SGD) produce speech via synthesized (electronic) or digital (recorded) productions paired with some type of symbol represented on either a fixed. Chat PC (Saltillo. SELECTION OF AAC DEVICE AAC must address the individual’s changing needs.or multiple-word messages may be sequenced together or ‘‘chained’’ in order to formulate more novel ideas. Results of research on the effect of SGDs on the behavioral. Linguistic competence involves identifying the individual’s ability to understand and use symbol systems. and some SGDs integrate a spelling keyboard function. Light (1989) provides a framework that includes analysis of the individual’s linguistic. Finally. or removal of symbols.and high-technology systems varies across devices. social. and ChatBox (Prentke Romich Co..

develop. messages. creating predictable routines. 1993. careful selection of symbols. while increasing adaptive. joint attention. or ‘‘not yet. 2005). consideration of the behaviors a child with ASD uses to protest and gain attention is important. and is therefore an essential programming component. and elaborations (Siegle & Cress. Turn-taking ability and use of the device to ask questions. 2005). These children are ready to use object and graphic symbols to make choices and requests. 2005). attention gaining behaviors (Durand.and medium-technology AAC is initially beneficial (Beukelman & Mirenda. For example. expansions. ‘‘no thanks’’. Mirenda. and end conversations using the AAC device. and acknowledge emerges along with communication breakdown coping strategies (Light. recognizing and interpreting communicative attempts. protest or reject.AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION linguistic competence by separating the beginning communicator who does not understand or use symbols and the beginning communicator with emerging symbolic understanding from the communicator with more advanced academic needs. and modeling language using simplified utterances. ‘‘don’t touch me’’. Successful communication development at this stage requires that the communicative partner learn facilitative strategies such as optimizing responsiveness. imitation. At this point. Systems must be adaptable to account for anticipated growth but be useable in the present. Operational competence considerations balance the demands of the individual’s developmental and chronological ages in order to support functional and meaningful interactions. focusing on what the child is attending to. As mentioned earlier. research has shown that integrating AAC with Functional Communication Training (FCT) is effective in reducing maladaptive. repair. social and strategic competence as defined by Light (1989) emerges and can be therapeutically addressed.’’ Additionally. maintain. Given the severity and range of language impairments found among individuals with ASD. and aids that support social and strategic competence is critical for individuals with ASD. the wording of messages and the voice used to transmit the message on the SGD must match that of the individual using the system and his/her social network (Beukelman & Mirenda. and use of a natural gestural system. Additionally. and self-select symbols (Beukelman & Mirenda. the inherent human behavior of gaining attention can be addressed. Since adaptive social functioning is essential to programming for children with ASD. 1999. 1997). That is. Individuals who are beginning communicators with minimal symbolic understanding require support to develop foundational communication skills including cause-effect and object permanence awareness. gain attention. Portability and durability of the device are critical considerations affecting access across communicative contexts. comment. the cultural background. 2002). age. 36 . Increased access translates to increased opportunity for use. Indeed. As children develop into beginning communicators with emerging symbolic skills. low. this distinction is important. commenting. answer. AAC systems can assist individuals with ASD in developing adaptive protesting behaviors using messages such as ‘‘I want to be alone’’. and gender of the individual must be considered. which promotes increased skill. ‘‘it is too loud in here’’. At this stage. medium-technology AAC may be beneficial. children are ready to learn how to initiate. 1989).

Frost & Bondy. For example. Over time. Assessment tools such as the Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative Assistive Technology Assessment (WATI. 1996) examining parental concerns have identified that parents of children who use AAC worry about acquiring additional knowledge of and training in the use. hearing. and computer access. behavioral. 1995. Angelo. Addressing personal characteristics involves formal and informal analysis and treatment of the individual’s cognitive. allow the individual to type out short answers and affix them to worksheets.. funding. Thus.AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION TRANSDISCIPLINARY TEAM Assessment and intervention requires a transdisciplinary approach. 1990). 2004) and the Augmentative Communicative Assessment Profile (Goldman. or assistant. 2002) allow for analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic variables when considering high. and literacy abilities. Beukelman and Mirenda (2005) propose use of the Participation Model. specifically access to written communication and literacy support. studies (Angelo. 37 . For example. Given the research. et al. or facilitator. This method utilizes prescribed applied behavioral analysis (ABA). including ASHA. & Jones. sharing communication with a partner is emphasized. vision. and programming of AAC devices along with the ability to plan for the future and integrate the device across settings. or assistive technology. the level of prompts and reliance on the assistant is faded. who prompts the individual to physically remove a symbol and give it to the communicative partner. involves the use of a second person who manually supports or facilitates the use of the AAC system with the person with ASD (Biklen. numerous professional organizations. literacy development. have issued position statements indicating that FC should be viewed as an experimental method. Touch screens provide access to computer technology and are an effective tool in supporting teaching of concepts.and low-technology systems for children. Angelo. With this model. Jones. AAC METHODS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH ASD Various AAC methods have been discussed in the literature specifically for use with individuals with ASD. and use of symbols for a variety of social-communicative purposes is expanded. whereby very systematic verbal productions are paired with the use of tangible symbols. Kokoska. assistive technology devices. Word processors are considered assistive technology when used to compensate for fine-motor difficulties. 2002). Another method used with children with ASD is the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS. Community awareness and support. individual independence. 1995. Kokoska. like label makers. et al. Finally. Facilitated Communication (FC). motor. Jones. AAC systems. Controversy surrounding this method has focused on the authenticity of the messages produced. & Kokoska. PECS requires use of a supportive third person. maintenance. 1996). also support more advanced academic and communicative needs. Individual independence involves analysis of the level of support and prompts needed for successful utilization of the AAC system. and opportunities of use are cohesively addressed. personal characteristics. One method. The team must also consider and plan for extrinsic strengths and challenges. parent and professional training and accessibility to devices are other concerns expressed by parents (Angelo. language. which considers intrinsic and extrinsic variables influencing AAC use.. social.

Some higher functioning individuals with ASD can benefit from using high technology. which are different and separate from systems used for oral communication. ASHA Supplement. and social skills is essential to identifying a system that matches his/her current ability. A. language. 11. Retrieved June 1. 2006. Angelo. (2005). 12.org. Reichle. Kokoska. text rev. 9. S. R.. linguistic. M. Functional communication training using assistive devices: Effects on challenging behavior.). Pittsburgh. PA: Author. (2005). Frost. Newark.. Durand. Exemplary practice for beginning communicators: Implications for AAC (pp. Durand. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. Augmentative and Alternative Communication.. communicative.). R. Beukelman. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologist with respect to alternative communication: Position statement. Varied AAC systems are available to enhance the social. Augmentative and alternative communication: Supporting children and adults with complex communication needs (3rd ed. 291–314. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. D. & Bondy. 24. D. 1–17. (1993). DynaVox Technologies. Expanding children’s early augmented behaviors to support symbolic development. V. Harvard Educational Review. DC: Author. S. Roles and responsibilities of speechlanguage pathologists with respect to augmentative and alternative communication: Technical report. Schedules can also represent steps needed to complete a particular task. Beukelman. Jones. 219–272). M. Washington. Light (Eds. behavioral. 1989). academic. P. DE: Pyramid Education Products. An interdisciplinary team approach is necessary to assist in identifying the AAC system best suited to meet an individual’s current needs. Schedule boards can integrate objects. Family perspective on augmentative and alternative communication: Families of young children. 60.. 13–22. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Schedule systems used to represent part of or an entire day are referred to as macroschedules.. C. and are referred to as microschedules (Quill. C. Picture exchange communication system training manual (2nd ed. 32. (1999). or print (Quill.asha. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Family perspective on augmentative and alternative communication: Families of adolescents and young adult. (2002).. V. L. (1990). (1995). and vocational lives of individuals with ASD.AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION speech-recognition word processing systems are also available and may prove to be an effective tool for some individuals with ASD. 1989). & Mirenda. Additionally. pictures. such as hand washing. & J. S. D. & Kokoska.. S. (2004). 38 . D. from http://www. motor. Successful and consistent integration of AAC systems across the multiple environments a person encounters can elicit and support adaptive functioning and consequently learning and socialization. & Jones. 193–201. (2005). Initially. Angelo. AAC systems are not static and should be modified as the individual grows and gains skills. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Functional communication training using assistive devices: Recruiting natural communities of reinforcement. (1996). (2000). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2002). planning must consider strategies that will support the individual’s further growth as a communicator and learner. AAC systems used to organize time and create predictability include various schedule boards.). 168–176. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. D. Communication unbound: Autism and praxis. Cress. Biklen. In J. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. J. Dynamo. computerized scheduling systems such as a Palm Pilots or Blackberries. an assessment of the individual’s cognitive.). 247–267.

2006. Autism screening instrument for educational planning. In J. (1995). ME: Author. 137–144. (1997). D. Tech Speak. Krug.. C.T. C.org. 187–218). Retrieved June 1. Beukelman. F.). Quill. Augmentative Communication Assessment Profile. Beukelman.. (2005). P. OR: Author. Needham Heights. Supporting individuals with challenging behavior through functional communication training and AAD: Research review: Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Light. Unity. Overview of the emergence of early AAC behaviors: Progression from communicative to symbolic skills.AUTISM BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST (ABC) Goldman. R. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. Light (Eds. Parsons. (1993). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. 59–96). (2002). J. The ABC is a subtest of the Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning (ASIEP-2). Exemplary practice for beginning communicators: Implications for AAC (pp. R. (1988). K. D.). Silverman. 4. OH: Author. Portland. OH: Author. Prentke Romich Company. Interaction involving individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems: State of the art and future directions. (2004). P. Solana Beach. Wooster. K. (2002). 66–78. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. CA: Author. TX: Pro-Ed. See Autistic Disorder AUTISM BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST (ABC) The Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC. BROOKE YOUNG 39 . Exemplary practice for beginning communicators: Implications for AAC (pp. (2005). MacCaw. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Saltillo. J. (2005). NY: Delmar. Assistive Technology Assessment. REFERENCE King. Light. J. Zygo Industries. C. The importance of responsivity in developing contingent exchanges with beginning communicators. Educating children with autism. Arick. In J. Siegle. & Almond. (2002). J. R. C.. Reichle.wati. DynaSyms. Reichle. Millersburg. Mayer Johnson LLC. ChatBox. Communication for the speechless (3rd ed. MA: Allyn & Bacon. (2002). AUDET AUTISM.A. (2005). Beukelman. J. 13(4). D. In J. P. Mirenda. D. ‘‘There’s more to life than cookies’’: Developing interactions for social closeness with beginning communicators who use AAC. & Cress. H. R. (1989). E.. London: Speechmark Publishing. & Yoder. Chat PC.. 1993) is an independent autism screening tool of 57 items completed by parents. Exemplary practice for beginning communicators: Implications for AAC (pp. (1989). Albany. & J. S. K. R. This tool is designed to assist in the diagnosis of autism rather than provide programming information about treatment. Poppin & Company. A.). & Almond.). Boardmaker. Reichle. Light (Eds. London: UK: Author. Harwood. from http://www. Arick. 25–57). J. (2004). (2005). & J. & Drager. Toward a definition of communicative competence for individuals using augmentative and alternative communication systems. Liberator Company.. 5. A.I. Warren. Austin. Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative. & J. W. The assessment relies on direct observation of the student and historical information provided by parents and other people knowledgeable about the student. Light (Eds. C. LISA R. 207–225. B.. Light.

et al. and presentation of repetitive and stereotyped behaviors coupled with poor imagination or symbolic play skills. 30(3). Lord. & LeCouteur. (2002). L. It has four modules depending on the child’s level of communicative functioning. C. & Lord. H... (b) phrase speech. B. Lord. Leventhal. 1994. C. 2002) is designed to measure presentation of behavioral response and communicative attempt as compared to the triad features of autism. Like the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI-R). L. impairments in communication. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Generic. Risi. & LeCouteur. 659–685. and combined use offers 99 percent accuracy in classifying autism.AUTISM DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW–REVISED (ADI-R) AUTISM DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW–REVISED (ADI-R) The Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI-R. but unlike the ADI-R it covers both autism and autism spectrum.. A. DiLavore. & Lord. C. C. 2000.. S. Both instruments require training before use.. REFERENCES Lord. & Risi. The interview covers early developmental history and current and early behavior presentation in each of the triad areas of the autism spectrum.. SCOTT 40 .. E. The ADOS requires training prior to use. with research indicating a positive result on both instruments is 99 percent accurate for diagnosis of autism. P.. P. REFERENCES Lord. C. Lord. Rutter. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised.. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders. Rutter. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. and severity of presentation of symptoms. The ADOS was designed for use alongside the ADI-R. & Risi. S. A. (2003). SCOTT AUTISM DIAGNOSTIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (ADOS) The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS. covering (a) preverbal/single words. Lord et al. but it does not in itself differentiate between core autism and the broader autism spectrum presentations. FIONA J. (1994). LeCouteur. LeCouteur. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Rutter.. DiLavore. Rutter. and (d) fluent speech adolescent/adult. and includes algorithms that allow the assessor to categorize presentation of autism features as measured against DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 requirements. Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Rutter. It enables the examiner or clinician to record the range of various presentations of the core triad features of autism spectrum disorders—namely impairments in social interaction. 2003) is a detailed parental history interview designed to identify individuals with autism. 205–223. The ADI-R has been shown to be good at distinguishing autism from non-autism in clinical populations. (2000). Rutter. M. as well as provides extra non-algorithm information to enable appropriate diagnostic subtypes on the spectrum to be identified. M.. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. C. DiLavore.. 24. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.. FIONA J. (c) fluent speech child.. M. the ADOS uses algorithms to classify individuals. Jr. Lambrecht.. Cook.

. and restricted. which together provide a clear picture of the individual’s functional abilities and instructional needs. have significant cognitive impairment. 1996) is an individually administered instrument designed to help professionals evaluate autistic individuals (18 months of age through adulthood) and develop appropriate instructional plans in accordance with the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (PL 94–142). Autism screening instrument for educational planning. REFERENCE Krug. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT AUTISM SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE. P. body concept. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. & Almond. Kanner’s autism. and Pervasive Developmental Disorder– Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS. D. It can also be used for differential diagnosis. and prognosis of learning rate. Arick. The other four diagnostic PDD labels include Asperger syndrome (AS). but are in need of significant support. Some with autism have no language. Arick. childhood autism. classifies autism as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The entire test can be administered by a professional with experience with children with autism in 11=2 to 2 hours. Autism’s three main areas of impact are in the domains of social interaction.. educational assessment (language performance and communicative abilities through signed or verbal responses). Individuals with autism present on a continuum of expression with cognition across all IQ levels and possession of individual strengths and needs. Still others have average to above-average intelligence and their 41 . 2000). This PDD term refers to a group of disabilities with similar core characteristics and a wide range of manifestation and prognosis. and each is individually normed. interaction assessment (social interaction based on observable behaviors). The psychiatric handbook of mental disorders. and are in need of constant care. Rett’s Disorder (also known as Rett syndrome). the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR: APA. relating. or autism. J. Each subtest employs a different format. Others have limited language and mild cognitive impairments. is currently understood as a developmental disability that begins before the age of three. It yields percentiles and summary scores for each subtest.AUTISTIC DISORDER AUTISM SCREENING INSTRUMENT FOR EDUCATIONAL PLANNING–SECOND EDITION Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning–Second Edition (ASIEP-2. as it distinguishes individuals with autism from those with other severe handicaps. a sample of vocal behavior (spontaneous verbal behavior). also known as atypical autism). Autism has been known by several other names over the past decades including: early infantile autism. The ASIEP is composed of five subtests: Autism Behavior Checklist (sensory. and stereotyped interests and behaviors. repetitive. The scale looks at five aspects of behavior. Krug. & Almond. and classical autism. See Social Communication Questionnaire AUTISTIC DISORDER Autistic disorder. (1996). communication. and social self-help behaviors). Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (also known as Heller’s syndrome). language.

It has been inferred that these behaviors are due to a need to respond to sensory input or as a means to deal with stress. be married. The term HFA has been used to describe those with autism who are less impaired compared to those with severe cognitive impairment. a child with PDD-NOS might have average IQ. The previous examples are merely attempts at detailing the wide range of presentations for similar disabilities. and the difficulties facing a person who may have limited communication and/or means to have needs met. Other concerns include possible co-occurring medical conditions. and more medical. or unique talents and abilities that seem unusual when compared to adaptive or other functioning levels. and insist on familiarity. an adult with AS might have a high IQ. an 8-year-old child with autism may not be toilet trained but be able to do puzzles at amazing speed. but significant and pervasive communication issues. Some with autism have splinter skills. Those with AS have average to above-average cognition and speech development that is typical. but have intense social needs and anxieties as well as some repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. For example. sensory processing difficulties. use limited sign language to communicate. The distinctions between these labels can be subtle. and behaviors). with many having cognitive impairment (IQ less than 70). have epilepsy. For example. For example. are resistant to change. but generally those with PDD-NOS meet at least one of the criteria of autism but lack other criteria to qualify for the autism diagnosis. systemizing skills. and physical development. For example. Generally. those with autism have challenges with verbal and nonverbal communication. less or no verbal language ability. Another ongoing debate in the field is whether or not AS is a distinct disability or just a form of high-functioning autism (HFA). a teenager with autism might have cognitive impairment and limited adaptive skills. no language ability. anxiety. Today. each is unique in how the impairments and strengths are expressed. and self-injurious behaviors. many use the term autism to refer to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or the clustering of three of the most common PDDs (autism. Or an adult with autism may be nonverbal but be able to play a musical instrument with expertise. but have social and behavioral impairments. hold a job in a computer company. finger twisting.AUTISTIC DISORDER difficulties are less noticeable. Although each individual with autism has impairments in the three main areas (social. body posturing. lack of positive supports. or confusion. relating to others. many professionals use the terms PDD and ASD interchangeably. light filtering. AS. Since AS was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1994 (APA). or those with average or even superior IQ. there has been debate about whether AS and HFA are the same or different diagnoses. and behavioral needs. Some individuals with autism exhibit odd repetitive behaviors such as hand flapping. 42 . Approximately one-third of those with autism experience seizures at some point. or complex movements of the body. These behaviors are often the result of inappropriate teaching. good social skills. communication. in personality and in potential. individuals with autism who have an IQ above 70. and PDD-NOS). Today. sensory. Autism tends to be the most challenging of the group. and behavioral deficits and/or excesses. difficulty learning by traditional methods. rote learning. Common strengths in autism include visual/spatial abilities. Others with autism may have selfinjurious or aggressive behaviors. proclivity for routine-oriented behaviors.

learning. it remains one of the most perplexing. some children are home-schooled or 43 . speech-language therapy. as high as 9 to 1 for AS). Since the inclusion and deinstitutionalization movements and passage of national laws. and social skills training have all become avenues to teach individuals with autism. Historically. although they are much closer today than when autism was first described in the literature by Leo Kanner in 1943. Today the total autism population in the United States has been estimated at approximately 1. From the 1960s onward. In the middle of the 1900s. visual/environmental supports. Initial prevalence statistics estimated that 4 to 5 out of 10. Some believe that autism is predetermined genetically and that the impact of the disability will depend on the number of genes affected in any one individual.AUTISTIC DISORDER Although autism has been one of the most studied disabilities of childhood. youth. Although Kanner and others first posited that autism was a condition that was present at birth or developed soon after. However. Still others believe that autism is caused when various environmental toxins get into a child’s body. Currently. Since that time. From the mid-1940s into the 1960s. Both historically and currently autism is much more common in males than females (4 to 1 for autism. Autism has been conceptualized in a number of ways over the past 60 years. and the negative term ‘‘refrigerator parent’’ (often the mother was implicated) was used to label the parents of children with autism. psychotherapy and/or removal of the child with autism from the home were seen as possible treatments. applied behavior analysis (ABA). positive behavior support. there is currently no medical test for autism and it is diagnosed only after observations of the child and interviews with caregivers. Others believe that autism is caused by environmental factors that combine with affected genes to cause the disability. counseling. How and why the prevalence rate is changing are controversial questions. Even though most today agree that autism is a spectrum of disorders that range from mild to severe presentations.5 million children. professionals missed some telltale signs (such as if parents could not bond with their child with autism. structured teaching. cognitive behavior modification. autism was thought to be a psychogenic condition of childhood caused by parents’ inability to bond with their children. This evidence came in the form of family and twin studies. and characteristics of individuals with autism are different from typically developing individuals because the biology of the brain is different due to genetic and/or environmental influences. and the immune system is unable to process these materials. and adults (Autism Society of America. Although biological in nature. evidence was presented that began to overturn this unfortunate beginning.000 children had autism. many individuals with autism were placed in institutions. and other designs that described autism as a biological disorder that had genetic roots. most individuals with autism now live at home and go to public schools. 2006). What causes autism is still beyond the understanding of scientists.000. why did they have other children who developed without having autism?). physical therapy. brain research. occupational therapy. and chose rather to blame the parent. there is still debate on how autism develops. special education. autism is one of the most diagnosed disabilities of childhood with a prevalence rate of approximately 2 to 6 per 1. some blame the environment and others conclude that the broadening of the autism spectrum accounts for the increase. What most agree on is that the behavior. Autism was once thought an extremely rare condition of childhood.

What is autism? [Brochure]. a portrayal of an adult with autism and his brother as they journeyed across the country. have spoken out against curing autism. degree of strengths and impairments. The future for individuals with autism remains variable depending on education. families. possible environmental contributors. Environmental factors may also be identified as contributors to autism with appropriate responses following. the autism research community was focusing on a number of areas including. and communities. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. In the early twenty-first century. Bethesda. One of the biggest and later controversies in autism pertains to the question of potential cures for this disability. They aren’t arguing against helping and teaching persons with autism. visual supports. Some believe that those with autism can and should be cured. magazine articles. Temple Grandin. supports. is one of the most well known adults with autism in the United States. For example. (2000). and many families augment public school education by providing their children with private services at home. and how autism develops. and so forth have all helped to spread awareness about autism and its impact on individuals. documentaries. (2006). early intervention. Washington. MD: Author. which was produced in 1988. For example. other professionals. Other new or existing methodologies will be identified as best practice for teaching those with autism.). the ethical question of whether or not autism should be cured will continue to be debated. Others. brain research.). autism has become better known to the public. genetics. continued advances in the field of brain studies may also bring about treatments to change neurology. Autism Society of America [ASA]. treatment and education. educators. Television shows. many people have seen or heard of the award-winning motion picture Rain Man. Although considered a lifelong disability. 44 . speech therapy. American Psychiatric Association. both those with autism and their advocates. text rev. This remains highly controversial. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. motion pictures. many with autism have made significant progress and contributions. Since the controversy over the increased diagnosing of autism and related disorders in the 1990s to today. however they argue that curing autism would take away the uniqueness and future contributions of those with autism. Furthermore. DC: Author. See also self-injurious behavior. It is very possible that in the next 50 years the specific genes responsible for autism will be located and that therapies will be created to address these chromosomal differences both in utero and postnatally. availability of services. and the ethical question of whether or not autism should be cured has been asked. Grandin has become an expert in livestock handling and is well known internationally for her expertise in this area as well as being a speaker and advocate for those with autism. DC: Author. (1994). and other factors. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Included within this discussion will be the moral imperative to treat those with this disability with dignity and respect. Washington. newspaper stories. If an eventual cure for autism is discovered. Professor of Animal Sciences at Colorado State University.AUTISTIC DISORDER attend special schools.. They believe that autism is a culture and that curing autism would be eradicating these persons and their way of life.

PAUL G. Educating children with autism. Johnson. MD: Woodbine House. Herbert. (director). 2. Gillberg. M. C. Rockville. B. (1989). Kanner. (Ed. National Research Council. Clinical Neuropsychiatry. M. (2000). M. Quill. Do watch listen say: Social communication intervention for children with autism. M. & Levinson.). The Nervous Child. A. London: Keith Mac Press. (producer). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Grandin. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism.. United States: United Artists. 354–379. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. U. R. New York: Vintage Books. T. Oxford: Blackwell. (1988). Washington. Autism: A brain disorder. Children with autism (2nd ed. Thinking in pictures and other reports from my life with autism. Powers. & Coleman. (1995). The biology of the autistic syndromes (3rd ed. Autistic disturbances of affective content. (2000). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. D. (2001). LACAVA 45 . Rain Man [Motion Picture]. K. L. (2005). 217–250. or a disorder that affects the brain [Electronic Version]. (2000). 2. (1943).).AUTISTIC DISORDER FURTHER INFORMATION Frith.). DC: National Academy Press.


The recording of a baseline is very important because the baseline data serves as the standard against which change elicited by the experimental treatment is assessed. he is reacting to the external situation. is a form of communication. Boston: Pearson Education. This means that behavior is a form of communication and can be a reaction to either an external or internal situation. as well as serving a selfregulating function. M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ‘‘The starting point for most experimental analyses of behavior is the establishment of a baseline’’ (p. Kennedy. For example. p. & Pennypacker. 1993. Any intervention for a targeted behavior will be unsuccessful if it does not address what the individual intended the behavior to communicate. Strategies and tactics of behavioral research (2nd ed. In other words. On the other hand. J. KATIE BASSITY . (1993). Hillsdale. if a room is noisy and the child covers his ears. Single-case designs for educational research. baseline refers to the occurrence of a response in its freely occurring or natural state.B BASELINE ‘‘Baseline conditions serve as the background or context for viewing the effects of a second type of condition’’ (Johnston & Pennypacker. which may or may not change this response.). It is the observations of a dependent variable response prior to the administration of a treatment condition. KAI-CHIEN TIEN BEHAVIOR Behavior is the observable manifestation of internal functioning. H. C. It is the measure against the result of the treatment to see whether the dependent variable changes or not. It is important to remember that all behavior. 225). Inc. REFERENCES Johnston. (2005). H. self-stimulatory behavior is widely considered to serve the function of stimulating the individual’s mind and senses. including undesired or inappropriate behavior. 35). These behaviors would be a response to internal conditions.. Kennedy (2005) further explained. S.

To utilize behavioral rehearsal. while verbal rehearsal incorporates verbal processing of the situation. desirable behavioral outcomes might be specific phrases (‘‘Can I play with you?’’ or ‘‘Do you want to play?’’). Covert rehearsal presents a situation for the individual to mentally practice. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT 48 . such that anyone reading it would be able to clearly identify the behavior being addressed. H. television clips. planning. The individual should be encouraged to implement this skill in real-world situations to promote generalization. and attention. After observing these demonstrations.. helping an individual reach maximum independence and integration. Behavioral objectives should also be stated in positive terms and should be socially valid. W. an individual will appropriately gain and sustain the attention of peers. & Evans. a desired objective (behavior) is identified. Several modalities of behavioral rehearsal can assist in the acquisition of the skill in this context. Alderman. Therefore. P. N. Emslie. organization. B. The BADS helps determine whether an individual has a general impairment of executive functioning or a specific kind of executive disorder. It assesses capacities for everyday living that reflect the real-life demands that occur when people need to solve problems. DES includes disorders of planning. etc. J. REFERENCE Wilson. Wilson. UK: Thames Valley Test Company. & Evans. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVE A behavioral objective is a definition of a desired behavior toward which a child is working. closely resembling what was once called ‘‘frontal lobe syndrome. a behavioral objective must also include criteria that define what it means to accomplish or meet the objective. as well as assess if the objective has been met. Bury St.. Burgess... and verbally) and demonstrated. Alderman.. Behavioural assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome. the individual engages in structured practice of this skill while coaching and feedback guide performance. It should be observable and measurable. For the child with difficulties asking other students to play. particularly one related to social competence. and adapt behavior to changing situations. Positive manifestations of this skill are then described (visually with pictures. problem solving. (1996). Emslie. for example.BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF THE DYSEXECUTIVE SYNDROME (BADS) BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF THE DYSEXECUTIVE SYNDROME (BADS) The Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome Battery (BADS. A. set priorities in the face of competing demands. and organizing behavior over an extended period of time.’’ The BADS includes items that are specifically sensitive to frontal lobe damage and to those skills involved in problem solving. Burgess. Edmunds. J. KATIE BASSITY BEHAVIORAL REHEARSAL Behavioral Rehearsal is a method employed for the acquisition of skills. Overt rehearsal involves role-playing or modeling the skill. 1996) is designed to assess adolescents and adults with dysexecutive syndrome (DES).

However. As such. C. Identifying ADHD subtypes using the parent and teacher rating scales of the behavior assessment scale for children. a Self-Report Inventory. BASC encompasses five components: a Teacher Rating Scale (TRS).BEHAVIOR HEALTH REHABILITATION SERVICES (BHRS) BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS. 1992). MN: American Guidance Service. Reynolds & Kamphaus. but also strengths and adaptive behaviors. which means a practitioner may practice behavior analysis without certification from the BACB. C. W. Generally.. C.com. The certification process is voluntary. Behavior Assessment System for Children–Manual. a Parent Rating Scale (PRS). KATIE BASSITY BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SCALE FOR CHILDREN (BASC) Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC) is an assessment tool designed to identify emotional disturbances and problem behaviors in children and adolescents (Manning & Miller. FURTHER INFORMATION Board Analyst Certification Board: http://www. D. See Contingency Contracting BEHAVIOR HEALTH REHABILITATION SERVICES (BHRS) Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services (BHRS). R. school. and Board Certified Behavior Analyst. S. the BASC is used to make educational evaluations. and intervention plans. and Therapeutic Staff Support (TSS). R. 5(1). The BACB currently offers two levels of certification: Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst. Reynolds. these services are provided through the Office of Medical Assistance Programs and are put in place for those individuals who require more than outpatient services and otherwise might need a more restrictive environment. YU-CHI CHOU BEHAVIOR CONTRACT. sometimes called wraparound services. Journal of Attention Disorders. a Student Observation System (SOS). REFERENCES Manning. BHRS is composed of three levels of support: Behavioral Specialist Consultants (BSC). not only problem behaviors. and community settings based on the recommendation of a psychiatrist or psychologist. and a Structured Developmental History (SDH. (2001). 41–51. (1992). 2001). Circle Pines. clinical diagnoses. & Miller.bacb. KATIE BASSITY 49 . See See Applied Behavior Analysis BEHAVIOR ANALYST CERTIFICATION BOARD (BACB) The Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BCBA) is a nonprofit corporation that sets international standards for certification in behavior analysis. in addition to the psychologist or psychiatrist.. are behavioral services provided in home. This multidimensional assessment is thought to include many aspects of behavior. Mobile Therapists (MT). the board and its certification process are intended to promote high quality practitioners in the field of behavior analysis as well as standards for consumers. & Kamphaus.

KATIE BASSITY BEHAVIOR PRINCIPLES Behavior principles are the main findings on which behaviorism is based.BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLAN BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLAN A Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) is a detailed plan that identifies the student’s maladaptive behavior. This may include the use of proactive or antecedent interventions. others do not. W. Applied behavior analysis. J.. NJ: Pearson Education. W. FURTHER INFORMATION Cooper. F. Skinner. J. Upper Saddle River. For example. This controversy continues today. COOK BEHAVIORISM Behaviorism is the philosophy regarding the science of behavior and is considered one aspect of study within the science of behavior. Applied behavior analysis. & Heward. KATIE BASSITY 50 . Heron. These principles express a functional relationship between behavior and something that controls it. KATIE BASSITY BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Behavior modification is the application of operant conditioning principles in everyday situations.. particularly by educational practitioners. and strategies to teach new socially appropriate behaviors. In other words. but across other species as well. A BIP is framework to assist educators in using proactive teaching strategies when confronted with a target behavior. Behavior principles have been shown to be true across thousands of situations and people. some of which acknowledge the existence and influence of internal states and processes.. (1987). reinforcement and punishment are two principles of behavior. the function of behavior. T. NJ: Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. Heron. These interventions focus on occurring prior to a behavior in order to prevent it. & Heward. which generally refers to any interventions that seek to change behavior. However. A method that puts a principle of behavior into practice is referred to as a behavior change procedure. There are several different kinds of behaviorism. Although there are few behavior principles. It is this aspect of behaviorism that has created controversy. (1987). these may be considered laws of behavior. T. each has many forms of application in practice. behavior modification is a widely used term. FURTHER INFORMATION Cooper. behaviorism finds its greatest influence from the work of B.. particularly as the application of applied behavior analysis in education with individuals with autism and other disabilities and disorders has found substantial research support. KATHERINE E. Beginning as a school of thought within the field of psychology.

The equipment measures and records physiological functions and provides the individual with information about them. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. one referring to something considered very undesirable and the other referring to something that is occasionally desirable. The external 51 . problematic behavior and habits or inefficient patterns of coping into positive behaviors. the word bias means that an estimator has been averaged over. Inc. 1903–MARCH 13. BRUNO (AUGUST 28. caused severe damage to thousands of families who believed his untested claims. COOK BIAS Shadish.or under-estimated (Cohen. but that it instead was mainly influenced by the upbringing of mothers who did not want their children to live. NY: John Wiley & Sons.. (2001). (2002). 505). Explaining psychological statistics (2nd ed. a tone or both may be used to indicate when blood pressure is below the predetermined level. & Campbell. B. Biofeedback is a form of self-management.BIOFEEDBACK BETTELHEIM. R. To be more specific. Some examples of bodily functions could be breath. a visual display on a computer screen. He was convinced that autism had no organic basis. skin temperature. muscle tension. W. This theory. usually in the sense of having a predilection to one particular point of view or ideology. It is a statistical sampling or testing error caused by systematically favoring a particular outcome over others. and feelings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. a bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense. Danvers. and Campbell (2002) define bias as systematic errors in an estimate or an inference (p. and heart rate. which in turn caused them to restrain contact with them and fail to establish an emotional connection. Heart rate can also be measured and individuals can learn the association between the pace of the heartbeat and relaxation. An individual would be hooked up to a heart rate monitor. For example. D. Any mental condition that would prevent an individual from being objective and impartial is called bias. physical reactions.). In statistics. 1990) Bruno Bettelheim rose to prominence as a psychologist in the United States. Shadish. either consciously or unconsciously. VIRGINIA L. Biofeedback works when a person is hooked up to electromechanical equipment. This is done by essentially changing destructive. T. and is developed to empower people to feel better about themselves. Cook. such as a blood pressure monitor. It has at least two different senses. often called the ‘‘refrigerator mother’’ theory and now soundly repudiated by science. H. T. Bettelheim’s significant theory claimed that unemotional and cold mothering was the essential cause of childhood autism. Cook. By providing information about a bodily state frequently. KAI-CHIEN TIEN BIOFEEDBACK Biofeedback refers to a continuous auditory or visual feedback of changes in bodily reactions or functions brought about by changes in an individual’s thoughts or emotions.. the individual can learn to recognize the link between thoughts. REFERENCES Cohen. D. 2001).

Biofeedback involves providing the individual with information about physiological processes of which they are normally unaware. a BCABA must have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree. The feedback equipment informs the individual when their body is producing too little or too much of the state it is measuring. asthma. 1940). learning voluntary control over these states. This learning increases the individual’s self-control by returning the responsibility for one’s health to the individual and allows the individual to control their own stress responses. This learning occurs through the biofeedback training through increased awareness of other physical sensations. 52 . However. an individual with high blood pressure can learn to regulate their heart rate by being hooked up to a heart rate monitor. and learning to use these new skills in everyday life. Once they learn to lower their blood pressure by using the biofeedback. Biofeedback involves developing an increased awareness of body states. This can involve increased knowledge and attunement with their bodily sensations of higher and lower blood pressure during the biofeedback training sessions. and a standardized exam. a Swiss psychiatrist. TERRI COOPER SWANSON BOARD CERTIFIED ASSOCIATE BEHAVIOR ANALYST (BCABA) The Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst (BCABA) certification is a combination of coursework. insomnia. 1857–February 9. With the benefit of this additional information they can learn to bring voluntary control over physiological conditions that otherwise may have been potentially harmful to their health. was appointed professor of psychiatry at the University of Z€ urich in 1898 and director of the University Psychiatric Hospital from 1898 to 1927. tension and migraine headaches. In practice. Considered one of the most influential psychologists of his time. EUGEN Eugen Bleular (April 30. experience supervised by a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA). epilepsy. Bleuler is best known today for his introduction of the terms schizophrenia in 1908 and autism in 1912. stroke. then they can achieve the same outcome without the equipment. the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) strongly recommends that a BCABA practice under a BCBA according to the standards of the Board. The individual can use relaxation techniques to lower the blood pressure. Biofeedback is essentially a step-by-step process for self-control and makes use of many of the same techniques used by behavior therapists. An auditory tone or a visual display can indicate the current rate. For example. psoriasis. STEPHANIE NICKELSON BLEULAR. In addition. a BCABA may supervise behavior analytic intervention and train others in behavioral interventions in areas similar to his or her training. hypertension. diabetes. Biofeedback and relaxation training techniques have had efficacious applications and success for reducing anxiety. EUGEN electronic monitoring device (EKG) would give the individual an immediate and continuous readout of the beating heart. and cardiac arrhythmia.BLEULAR. chronic pain. The goal is for the individual to use the new skill to control the bodily state without the biofeedback instruments.

and integrate sensory information. process. have difficulties producing stools. and vestibular stimuli into one sensory experience to facilitate effective sensory integration. Constipation. This specialized intervention combines specific visual. See also Behavior Analyst Certification Board. experience supervised by a BCBA. to re-educate and remediate an individual’s ability to process and integrate sensory information. Eicher. Faecal incontinence in adults. Additionally. 1997). strain to move their bowels. 18(8). 2005). KELLY M. Mild dehydration: A risk factor of constipation? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 45–54. auditory. This approach stimulates particular sensory systems to learn or relearn the ability to receive. Approximately 20 percent of children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders reportedly experience constipation (O’Moore. 2003. a BCBA may create and implement behavior analytic interventions based on current research. an occupational therapist. 53 . REFERENCES Arnaud. PRESTIA BOWEL PROBLEMS Fecal incontinence and constipation are the common symptoms of bowel problems.com. and burp or belch frequently (Kerwin. 1978). Children who experience bowel problems may produce loose stools. Boyd-Carson. train others in behavioral principles and interventions.bacb. To date. W. 1995). M. Nursing Standard. pass gas frequently. which usually causes urgency or passive leakage (Boyd-Carson. KATIE BASSITY BOARD CERTIFIED BEHAVIOR ANALYST (BCBA) The Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) certification is a combination of coursework.bacb. J. Supplement 2. certification requires a minimum of a master’s degree.BOWEL PROBLEMS FURTHER INFORMATION Behavior Analyst Certification Board: http://www. on the other hand. FURTHER INFORMATION Behavior Analyst Certification Board: http://www. (2003). also known as Bolles Sensory Learning Method. occurs when there is a reduction in the frequency of passing stools and increased straining in passing stools (Arnaud. analyze. and conduct. This certification requires more credit hours and longer experience than the Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst (BCABA). and a standardized exam. (2003). Fecal incontinence occurs when feces are passed involuntarily and inappropriately (Royal College of Physicians. S88–S95. and interpret a variety of behavioral assessments and data. & Gelsinger. 2003). Storrie. In practice. was developed by Mary Bolles. move their bowels three times per week or less. KATIE BASSITY BOLLES SENSORY INTEGRATION Bolles Sensory Integration.com. 57. Bolles Sensory Integration is not supported by empirical data.

bullying experiences are severe. management and provision of services. and/or sensory challenges. 2000).BRUSHING Kerwin. 2000). Storrie. or physical in nature. nearly all students say they have been teased and harassed at school (National Association of Attorneys General. See also Wilbarger Protocol. Biofeedback: A first-line treatment for idiopathic constipation. A specific protocol for brushing was developed by Patricia Wilbarger. Verbal bullying is the most common type of bullying for both boys and girls. every school day. Eicher. London: Royal College of Physicians. social. p. Children and adults may have more difficulty understanding differences that cannot be seen such as significant social. Incontinence: Causes.. (1997). Little. P. Approximately 10–15 percent of children who are targeted for bullying fall into this high-risk group. Almost one third of students are involved in moderate to frequent bullying either as a target or aggressor (Nansel et al. 2003. causing them distress’’ (Heinrichs. act. or educational. behavioral. Bullying is pervasive in our schools and communities. Irish Journal of Psychology. verbal. HIGH-RISK STUDENTS For some students. B. children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often make statements that are 54 . or think differently tend to suffer more bullying and exclusion than does someone with a physical challenge. Parental report of eating problems and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders. 33–52. rhythmic pressure with a stiff brush in an attempt to reorganize an individual’s sensory system to prepare them for learning. Furthermore. A smaller proportion (5–10 percent) are so seriously targeted that without significant support from adults and peers. (1978).. O’Moore. 27). M. 152–158. As a group. and kids who talk. 2001).. ‘‘Educational bullying is when adults who perform as members of the school staff in some function use their power to either intentionally or unintentionally harm students. which can either be social. psychological. children with special needs are more frequent targets of bullying. especially when these same individuals exhibit cognitive/academic strengths (Kavale & Forness. M. 2002). J. 6. 1996). chronic. 34(3). and frequent. Royal College of Physicians. & Gelsinger. 221–234. For example. emotional. 1996.000 students miss school because they are afraid of being bullied (Fried & Fried. (2005). YU-CHI CHOU BRUSHING Brushing refers to a general technique of applying gentle but firm. Children’s Health Care. PRESTIA BULLYING Experts define bullying as repeated negative actions intended to harm or distress a target and characterized by a power imbalance. 4. J. 160. According to anecdotal reports. Bullying can take many forms. British Journal of Nursing. KELLY M. they will most likely not be able to overcome the consequences of their experiences and progress positively (Pepler & Craig. (1995). including physical.

BULLYING interpreted as rude because of their social deficits and tendency toward literal interpretations. Compared to studies of the general population. Clearly. This study suggests that peer victimization and bullying of all kinds are pervasive among children diagnosed with AS. 2000.’’ Students are expending energy on trying to predict behaviors in order to feel safe.. when they could predict someone’s behavior based on past experiences. 2003). and locker areas). BULLYING AND CHILDREN/YOUTH WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD) There is little research on bullying and children with ASD. HOW CHILDREN COPE WITH BULLYING Recent research on bullying experiences in school that explore the social world of students indicates that our children do not feel safe (Garbarino & deLara. 2002. severe. Because of bullying and peer shunning. peers and adults may have little tolerance for this characteristic manifestation of their disorder (Heinrichs. placing them in the 5–10 percent of high-risk students who will need a significant amount of support and intervention from adults to progress positively in their school and community (Heinrichs. communication. kids with AS were four times more likely to be bullied. National Association of Attorneys General. children and youth with autism spectrum disorders are at considerable risk for bullying due to the innate characteristics of their disability related to their social. This is energy that detracts from their ability to learn. Garbarino and deLara (2002) determined that students are ‘‘overfunctioning’’ trying to stay safe in school while adults seem to be ‘‘underfunctioning. restrooms. hallways. 2003). children with AS may be excluded or have negative experiences when involved with the activities that commonly make up the social lives of our children. about bullying. Rigby. sitting alone at lunch. The authors concluded that adults need to take more responsibility for providing a safe learning environment so students can attend to learning. Ninety-four percent of the parents indicated that their child had been bullied at least once during the previous year. The survey also indicated that children with Asperger syndrome and NLD experience a very high level of peer shunning that increases with age and peaks in high school—a time when peers are becoming more important in the lives of adolescents. behavioral. They are more likely to experience frequent.g. and sensory challenges. This included identifying ‘‘unowned spaces’’ or ‘‘hot spots’’ that should be avoided—typically less-supervised areas identified by students as being potentially unsafe (e. In other words. 55 . they felt safer and could determine how to stay out of harm’s way. Because these children may look ‘‘normal’’ physically. and chronic bullying. 1996). ranging from 4 to 17 years. Peer shunning is the act of ignoring or excluding children and includes such examples as not being invited to parties. Liza Little (2002) surveyed over 400 parents of children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disability (NLD). Garbarino and deLara’s work with teenagers found that the students did not feel safe in school and that their main coping mechanism is trying to predict the behavior of their peers and teachers. which set them apart from their peers and make it more difficult for them to recognize and respond when targeted by others. and being picked last for activities.

p. 2003. p. E. New York: M. 2003). their social-communication disability renders them less skilled at effectively protecting themselves when bullying occurs’’ (Heinrichs. Evans and Company. & Fried. Perfect targets: Asperger syndrome and bullying: Practical solutions for surviving the social world. class. Special attention and modifications must be considered when dealing with students with exceptionalities so they can be safe and continue to learn. 2003). And words can hurt forever: How to protect adolescents from bullying. (2003). Adults are key to bullying prevention and our dedication to providing a safe environment for children to learn will ultimately make a difference for children with ASD and for all children. 15).BULLYING IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS If typical students are spending too much time and energy trying to predict behaviors so they can feel safe. Inc. we can assume that children with ASD expend even more time and energy predicting behavior. R. Effective bullying prevention needs to involve the entire community of children/ youth and adults and include steps at the school. can help provide an accurate picture of their bullying and social experiences (Heinrichs. New York: The Free Press. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Co. Critical components of a successful bullying prevention program include: (a) identifying high-risk areas and increasing supervision with trained adults. (2002). Shawnee Mission. understanding. S. individuals with ASD have difficulty taking the perspective of others or predicting what others may be thinking or feeling in social situations (Theory of Mind). P. to bear the burden of ‘beating the bullies’ or to somehow figure out how to change his or her behavior in order to create a safer school environment’’ (Heinrichs. REFERENCES Fried. This is especially true for high-risk students with ASD ‘‘because compared to their neurotypical peers. They are more frequently targeted for bullying and exclusion. Garbarino. a long-term commitment to making bullying prevention a priority. 15). Characteristically.. This puts them at a great disadvantage. harassment. involving parents. J. and because of the innate characteristics of their disability will have more difficulty predicting the behaviors of others. Heinrichs. Drawing on best practices that will enable children with ASD to have more success in the social arena is also of great importance. and as a result they will expend a great deal of time and energy trying to stay safe with very little success. and individual level. Bullies and victims: Helping your child survive the schoolyard battlefield. Using special assessment tools such as the Modified Inventory of Wrongful Activities to accurately identify the extent of bullying in children with ASD.. (c) promoting social-emotional learning for all students. KEY COMPONENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL BULLYING PREVENTION PROGRAM Successful bullying prevention programs must include a strong emphasis on awareness. Ultimately. (b) adults modeling appropriate behaviors. the targeted child. and emotional violence. ‘‘we cannot expect the least empowered person. Consequently. and willingness on the part of all adults to be proactive and do what is necessary to provide a safe environment for all children. & deLara. and (d) most importantly. (1996). 2003. 56 . this may increase their already higher levels of anxiety and may eventually lead them to express negative feelings about school or even begin to exhibit school refusal (Heinrichs. along with periodic social interviews.

Bruised inside: What our children say about youth violence. 43–57. R. C. (1993). W. Rigby. K. L. FURTHER INFORMATION Gray. REBEKAH HEINRICHS 57 . D. Ruan. 25. W. 2004. P. Report 60: Making a difference in bullying. (2000). Jenison Autism Journal. Retrieved July 7. Pepler.. & Forness.. Olweus. (1996). T.. Overpeck. 226–237. & Scheidt. Middle-class mothers’ perceptions of peer and sibling victimization among children with Asperger’s syndrome and nonverbal learning disorders. (1996). 2094–2100. S. Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Bullying in schools: And what to do about it.. M. Journal of the American Medical Association. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. and what we need to do about it.ct. (2001). D.gov/ag/lib/ag/children/bruised. Social skills deficits and learning disabilities: A metaanalysis.S. Little. 29. K. Gray’s guide to bullying. J. from http://www. Toronto: LaMarsh Centre for Research on Violence and Conflict Resolution. R. Bullying behaviors among U. Pilla. A.. B. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. & Craig. (2000). (2002). Simons-Morton.pdf. (2004).. Nansel. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing.BULLYING Kavale. Journal of Learning Disabilities. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.. National Association of Attorneys General. 285. Spring 2004. what causes it.


Second. and the incorporation of individual choice (Winking. interests. 1989). support. it is essential that caregivers. 2004). 1992). leisure. and input become more critical as their child enters into adulthood. teachers. and vocational skills training. a plan for posttransition services. case management services. Literature on career/transition planning presents a consensus of best practices. when the student reaches adulthood. parents. and the individual’s participation in job sampling. comprehensive planning is a necessity and must include the individual. 1992). Parental advocacy. or (c) transition evaluation. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA. and community supports ensure individuals with autism have the opportunities to acquire the skills necessary to be successfully employed in a desired profession. Items are grouped in relation to (a) transition planning. prepare a portfolio for potential employers and seek out .C CAREER PLANNING Prior to adulthood. short-term objectives. educational staff. and structured community experience (DeStefano and Wermuth. Given the complexity and long-term needs of these individuals.or four-year college to receive the necessary training for a professional career. attend a two. Transition implementation includes vocational. and a timeline for transition activities. Considerations for ongoing support services throughout adulthood must include a structured community experience. community-referenced behavior management and social skills training (Berkell. and residential options. and agency representatives (IDEA. preferences. 1992). To obtain suitable employment there are several routes that an individual with ASD can choose. However. First. (b) transition implementation. Transition planning includes development of long-term goals. Transition evaluation comprises long-term support and follow-up of specific outcome evaluations (Stowitschek. The career planning process is based on individual needs. O’Reilly. the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and Americans with Disabilities Act mandate only equal access and not the provision of necessary services and supports once access is obtained. The most important contribution to transitioning is the parents’ role as an advocate for their child (Friedlander. comprehensive vocational assessments. 1993). transportation training. family input. & Moon. money management. 2004) mandates that each student with a disability will begin to transition from the classroom to the workforce no later than age 16.

and policy (pp. IL: Sycamore..S. R. 3. DeStefano. 1993). 1995). Transition from school to adult life: Models. 519–536). L. linkages. Rusch. STACEY L. and Social Mapping (Curtis & Dunn. Simon BaronCohen refers to this as an inability to ‘‘mind read’’ (Baron-Cohen. (1989). Cartooning may be used to illustrate the order in which certain events will happen. linkages. Friedlander. Szymanski (Eds. 1999). 20 2004. Examples of cartooning include comic strip conversations (Gray. and job training. & E. Talking bubbles. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. J. Rusch.CARTOONING mentors in the business community that recognize their abilities and potential to enhance their skill base. Sycamore. J. Szymanski (Eds. drawn from the character’s head. linkages. 537–549). (1992). Chadsey-Rusch. R. unspoken thoughts. L. E. IL: Sycamore. L.). Most importantly. & Moon. Rockville. L. Becoming an advocate. Stowitschek.). The social disorder in autism is perhaps the least understood aspect of the autism disorder (Klin & Volkmar. (1992). J. J. Children on the autism spectrum do not appear to understand why people do what they do. A. contact a local vocational training center to apply for services in a sheltered workshop setting. R. and cues about what is going on. IL: Sycamore. L. Chadsey-Rusch. why they think the way they think. BROOKENS CARTOONING Cartooning is a visual interactive strategy that can be designed to assist a person in his understanding a social situation. In F. [section] 1400 et seq. Sycamore. Sycamore. & E. Chadsey-Rusch. to assist in organizing tasks. DeStefano. B.). Fourth. T. 27–42... and policy (pp. Phelps. O’Reilly. 460–472). REFERENCES Berkell. Children with autism: A parent’s guide (pp. Why does a teacher make the decisions she makes? Why does a peer play with you one day on the playground but not the next day? Why do some teachers ignore misbehavior and others promptly call attention to it? When. Powers (Ed. J. (1993). DeStefano. Public Law 108–446. L. R. Tony Attwood explains this as ‘‘lacking the ability to think about thoughts’’ (Attwood. Szymanski (Eds. or to problem solve a particularly difficult social conflict. Third. In M. D. 231–252). to tell a story. MD: Woodbine House. to clarify what people mean when they use certain words. is it okay to swear? Why do people want 60 . IDEA (PL 101–476): Defining second generation of transition services. Phelps. if ever. 1998). M. In F. Transition issues for secondary school students with autism and developmental disabilities. Code. A person who has difficulty in this area of social understanding is likely to find school and other social settings threatening and difficult to interpret. 1993). A. and policy (pp. L. PREFERENCE: The missing link in the job match process for individuals without functional communication skills. Transition from school to adult life: Models. or why they make the decisions they make (Baron-Cohen & Howlin. and thinking bubbles. Winking. 1995). all of these options can be incorporated into a student’s Individual Service Plan and begin working on discovering the best career option when they turn 16. B. DeStefano. Policy and planning in transition programs at the state agency level. S. are used to illustrate verbal expression. In F. & E. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. contact vocational rehabilitation services to set up a work evaluation for assessment of job skills. Phelps.). 1994). A. Transition from school to adult life: Models. D. This is done in the same way as in traditional comics. job sampling. cognitive picture rehearsal (Groden & LeVasseur. & Wermuth. U. Rusch. L. (1992). which are drawn from the character’s mouth.

Cartooning can be used to teach new or alternative behavior. the person with ASD may misinterpret a person’s nonverbal social language (facial expression. When using cartooning strategies. When confronted with a social problem. A comic strip conversation was used to clarify for John what had happened. it is important to recognize and validate the perspective of the person with ASD even if you consider that perspective irrational. so they laughed. John misinterpreted their laughter to mean that his behavior was funny. A comic strip conversation as defined by Gray (1994) can be used to visually review the conflict situation. or as a teaching tool prior to a situation that typically causes problems. As illustrated in Figure 1. or peers often occur because of a communication breakdown or a misinterpretation. while John was at his fifth-grade environmental retreat. etc.CARTOONING me to say ‘‘hi’’ to them in the hallway? These and other everyday questions surrounding social behavior can be directly taught through the use of cartooning. This frustration can heighten when a parent or teacher attempts to correct the problem. he decided to take off all of his clothes and run naked through the cabin. For example. Perspective taking is a two-way street. cartooning is best used proactively. and confused. embarrassed. Behavioral conflicts between individuals with ASD and their parents. and a face-to-face confrontation can increase the frustration and stress even more. Using cartooning strategies to explain what went wrong and to offer solutions can take the ‘‘edge’’ off such otherwise volatile situations. COMIC STRIP CONVERSATIONS A way of making social language and social behavior more concrete. The other boys in John’s cabin were mortified. teachers. tone of voice. For example. stick figures Figure 1 Comic Strip Conversations for the Individual’s Perspective 61 . students with autism often become anxious and frustrated. and without mutual understanding and respect.) or her reaction to a particular situation. it can be difficult to motivate the person with ASD. He continued to do it even though his counselor told him that the behavior was inappropriate.

Many individuals with ASD have difficulties understanding another person’s perspective or how another person feels about certain situations. consider the example of John at camp. The environment was labeled. John was then asked to fill in his thinking bubble. Again. For example. This method of processing an incident increased the accuracy of John’s thinking about what happened and how others were affected. Now the counselor was able to acknowledge John’s perspective. If one of the other boys had said to John that his behavior would make him really popular with the other boys. the adult working with John may consider the use of color to more clearly demonstrate the boy’s motivation for saying those words. In this case John’s words should be blue to illustrate their honest motivation. Honest or innocent words may be defined as being blue. that he was being sarcastic. and the words of each person were written in their talking bubbles. The ability to understand that your actions have an impact on those around you and that others can contribute to making your experiences pleasurable is at the core of social 62 . ‘‘How do you like me now?’’ he reports that he was serious and wanted an honest answer.CARTOONING Figure 2 Comic Strip Conversations for the Peers’ Perspectives were drawn to illustrate the situation. He was able to fill in the thinking bubbles with his ideas. On the other hand. This can be particularly helpful for the student who has difficulty ‘‘reading’’ nonverbal social cues such as tone of voice. For example. Edward’s words are red to clearly illustrate for John that he did not mean what he said literally. teasing or sarcastic words may be defined prior to the conversation as being red. John was then asked to guess what might have been in the other campers’ thinking bubbles when he ran naked (see Figure 2). this enabled the counselor to acknowledge John’s perspective and give him more information by filling in other ideas about how others felt about his behavior. When John tells the adult that he said. Gray (1994) expands on the comic strip conversation by suggesting that color be added to help clarify the intent of someone’s words (see Figure 3).

An example of how this might work would be the situation with Claire.CARTOONING Figure 3 How Color Can Clarify the Intent of Words understanding. in a concrete visual way. Prior to using this method. what happens after the unwanted behavior is exhibited. it is important to analyze the behavior being addressed so that you can accurately describe when it typically happens. 1999) is a strategy used to review social situations. Although social maps 63 . 1995) combines cartooning with repetitive practice to teach self-control. and so on. a 4-year-old with ASD who consistently screams and hits other children during morning groups (see Figure 4). the teacher reviews the story with Claire repetitively. If a person with autism does not understand another person’s contribution to a social interaction. field trips. The teacher has determined that the breakdown occurs while she is waiting for her turn. under what conditions it typically happens. After drawing a cartoon. events. family reunions. The teacher knows that allowing Claire to hold a preferred toy helps her to relax while waiting. SOCIAL MAPPING Social Mapping (Curtis & Dunn. and how do those around her react. A social map clearly illustrates the contributions of all the people involved. The goal is to teach a skill or response to replace an unwanted behavior. This story can be varied over time to teach new routines within the same group time. This method involves presenting a behavioral sequence in the form of cartoons with a written script. he may be less likely to seek out interactions or recognize the value of social interactions. The method also builds in the direct teaching of relaxation by prompting the use of relaxation strategies when faced with a stressful situation. especially immediately prior to group time. COGNITIVE PICTURE REHEARSAL Cognitive picture rehearsal (Groden & LeVasseur.

The process begins by writing what Gray has called a fear-reducing story (1994). The story might mention who the child will be sitting next to on the bus or car ride. particularly photos of the person with ASD having fun with a peer or family member. cartooning can be an effective way to present the information including the use of stick figures. Each person takes a turn and shares what he or she recalled on the worksheet. Photographs. the person with ASD fills out a worksheet designed to prompt thoughts about the trip and. ultimately. formulate his or her contribution to the social map. and glue. The map can be hung in the classroom or at home to be reviewed and studied over time. After the event. markers. peer or parent is hoping or looking forward to. can add interest to the map. This sets the stage for a more relaxing event. while it highlights some of the ways another person may influence the social outing. and what the teacher. 64 .CARTOONING Figure 4 How Cognitive Picture Rehearsal Can Teach Skills are not limited to cartoons. The end product is a visual representation of a social event that displays pieces of information from everyone’s perspective. Each person involved with the trip fills out a worksheet of their own and brings it to the group meeting or family gathering after the trip. not unlike a photo album of someone’s family vacation. This is a story made up of descriptive sentences about the upcoming event. The person organizing the event should bring a large sheet of paper or poster board. using it as a visual guide. The social map is created using stick figures labeled with each person’s name and details of each person’s input based on the meeting. what the child is hoping or anticipating about the event.

whether it hurt someone’s feelings or not. Cartooning was used to help her understand that even though she might think these things. By drawing what is going on using talking bubbles and thinking bubbles. She has the partners work together to help each other by prompting memories. Mrs. Emily announced to her mother that she got it. and reread. A wonderful example of how this can assist in comprehension comes from my friend. cartoons can also be drawn in a crisis situation when verbal processing is not productive. However. that the best way to not hurt others’ feelings was to ‘‘not pop your think bubble!’’ 65 . Mrs. After the museum trip. the words should stay in her thinking bubble and not get into her talking bubble. She asks for input prior to writing the story so that she can include some other perspectives. cartooning is best done proactively. she writes a brief story about what the children will see at the museum. Emily had a tendency to say what was on her mind. Smith carefully corrects any unrealistic hopes and clarifies any rules that would be helpful to remember. Smith gathers her class into a group and creates a social map using the information from the worksheets. so she includes the fact that they will be taking a large bus (and includes the bus company name). She puts thoughts in the thinking bubbles based on the worksheets and adds pictures to increase understanding and motivation (see Figure 6). When the worksheets are completed. Mrs. Emily. Like all good teaching strategies. Prior to the trip. The story is then sent home with each student to be shared with parents. She writes that she is very excited about the dinosaur exhibit and about eating lunch at the park.CARTOONING Figure 5 Social Map Worksheet An example might be Mrs. She knows her student with ASD is concerned with buses. read. Smith hands out the social map worksheet (Figure 5) and assists her students in filling it out. Smith taking her third-grade class to the local museum. you can eliminate the need to talk out loud. She assigns each student to a travel partner and states this in the story. The vocabulary used in cartooning is less abstract and more direct than language typically used in social situations. Creating time to draw and review cartoons throughout the day is beneficial.

& Dunn. (1999. In understanding other minds’ perspectives from autism (pp. Curtis. In understanding other minds perspectives from autism (pp.com. Cambridge. P. (1993). In S. and protein enriched products. high protein. (1998). When a person needs a casein-free diet. Quill.. T. In teaching children with autism (pp.CASEIN-FREE Figure 6 Classroom Social Map REFERENCES Attwood. A. Baron-Cohen. The links between social stories. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Comic strip conversations. 287–306). M. H. Arlington. Spring). H. Cognitive picture rehearsal: A System to teach self-control. TX: Future Horizons. KARI DUNN BURON CASEIN-FREE Milk contains three major components: lactose (which is milk’s sugar). and fat. Baron-Cohen. protein. S. & Howlin. The theory of mind deficit in autism: Some questions for teaching and diagnosis. Baron-Cohen. Gray. K. Social mapping. comic strip conversations and the cognitive models of autism and Asperger syndrome. that person needs to avoid milk because of the proteins within the milk. C. 466–480).). Some families of children with ASD have decided to try a 66 .. New York: Delmar Publishers. (1994). Groden. caseins (which are mild proteins).. 2005. & Volkmar. P. F. Klin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hidden milk ingredients include whey. (1995). Tager-Flushberg. one needs to become extremely mindful of reading product ingredients. In K. & D. S.. from www. J. The Morning News (pp. 40–55). MA: MIT Press. Baron-Cohen. 7–8). sodium caseinate. Tager-Flushberg. Social development in autism: Historical and clinical perspectives. Retrieved on October 17. Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind.tonyattwood. Cohen’s (Eds. (1993). Jenison. In S. MI: Jenison Public Schools. Cohen (Eds.). sodium lactylate. & LeVasseur. & D. Although this seems rather simple. (1995).

negativism. The symptoms of CAPD can vary greatly. Repetitive odd movements of the fingers or hands. although the activity seems to have no purpose.gfcfdiet. FURTHER INFORMATION www. The individual may become dehydrated and malnourished because food and liquids are refused. A variety of symptoms are associated with catatonia. while the person is lying flat on a table. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CAT SCAN Computed axial tomography (CAT scan or CT scan) is a radiological study that essentially takes a rapid series of x-ray pictures from many angles. BRUCE BASSITY CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER (CAPD) Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a dysfunction of the coordination between the ears and the brain but is not a hearing impairment. or excessive movement. Catatonic excitement. In catatonic stupor. but often include the following: (a) sensitivity to loud sounds. These studies may be done with or without contrast dye to enhance the image of the specific organs or body systems. There are two distinct sets of symptoms that are characteristic of this condition. and rarely. Recognition of catatonia is made on the basis of specific movement symptoms. The images are then run through a computer. Other signs and symptoms include violence directed toward oneself. spelling. and animallike noises. Catatonic stupor is marked by immobility and a behavior known as cerea flexibilitas (waxy flexibility) in which the individual can be made to assume bizarre (and sometimes painful) postures that they will maintain for extended periods of time. Additionally. and frequent and severe ear infections. Some parents report that removing gluten and casein from their child’s diet results in increased attention as well as reduced tantrums. or speech and 67 . lead poisoning. (b) difficulty with reading. hopping and skipping. sometimes the causes of CAPD cannot be determined. selective mutism. writing. The individual is extremely hyperactive. the individual experiences a deficit of motor (movement) activity that can render him/her motionless.CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER (CAPD) gluten-free/casein-free diet as they believe the gluten and casein may adversely affect their child’s neurological processes. the assumption of inappropriate posture. as well as imitating the speech or movements of others. There are many possible causes for CAPD including head trauma. facial grimaces. Among the more common are echopraxia (imitation of the gestures of others) and echolalia (parrot-like repetition of words spoken by others). also may indicate that catatonia is present. which generates a series of three dimensional views or ‘‘slices’’ that can show organs and soft tissues as well as bones.com: This Web site has resources for parents of children with ASD who wish to implement a gluten-free/casein-free diet. These include odd ways of walking such as walking on tiptoes or ritualistic pacing. is associated with violent behavior directed toward oneself or others. MAYA ISRAEL CATATONIA Catatonia is a condition marked by changes in muscle tone or activity associated with a large number of mental and physical illnesses.

Because all children with CAPD have unique strengths and areas of difficulty. FURTHER INFORMATION Friel-Patti. persons within the autism spectrum tend to process only parts or details of the information. For example. and (e) difficulty following conversations. The consequences of a poor central coherence. generalizing and applying new knowledge to different situations. When taking tests. 345–352. materials. However.g. understanding math problems. CAPD can occur in conjunction with other disabilities making the diagnosis of CAPD difficult. Persons who process information in typical ways show a tendency to use the context to make sense of the events. A child displaying the symptoms of CAPD may be misdiagnosed as ADHD due to the commonality of symptoms. 14(2). S. Clinical decision-making in the assessment and intervention of central auditory processing disorders. (1999). (d) difficulty with organization. following complex directions). (b) auditory discrimination problems (difficulty hearing the difference between words that sound similar). schedule of events. provide an area away from loud noises (e. Maintain a positive attitude and do not blame the child for displaying the previously mentioned difficulties.. 139–142. the child is referred to a speech pathologist. When required to complete important tasks. Make sure the child understands the directions by asking specifics required in the assignment. MAYA ISRAEL CENTRAL COHERENCE Central coherence refers to the tendency to process information in a global way by integrating and connecting all sources of information to elaborate higher levels of meanings. or inflexibility in their points of view. (c) difficulty comprehending abstract information. Rosen. and so on). provide a quiet study area. reduce background noise as much as possible. Speech. A riddle in a mystery inside an enigma: Defining central auditory processing disorder. and other areas that are difficult for the child to keep organized. the following is a list of suggestions that may be helpful. Language. when studying. Develop a system of organization for school materials. (c) auditory figure-ground problems (difficulty maintaining attention where there is background noise).CENTRAL COHERENCE language. 68 . and Hearing Services. Ask the child to repeat important directions to make sure they have understood them completely. and (d) auditory cohesion problems (difficulty drawing conclusions. S. 30(4). for example. Once a child is diagnosed with CAPD. not near the cafeteria!). (2005). There are several things teachers and parents can do to help children with CAPD. In addition. are the inability to see connections among themes and experiences. However. American Journal of Audiology. disregarding the context or failing to process the information as a whole. Help the child recognize that he or she must look at and attend to the person talking. there is no generic list of accommodations that can help all children with CAPD. The main areas of difficulty for children with CAPD are: (a) auditory attention problems (not remembering directions. The only way of obtaining a diagnosis of CAPD is through an audiologist who performs central auditory processing tests to determine if there is a problem.

V. Real life skills and preferences. Journal of Child Psychiatry. F. See Board Certified Behavior Analyst CHAINING Chaining requires that a task be divided into several smaller steps. However.. Leach... and the previous steps are completed by another individual or are prompted. SUSANA BERNAD-RIPOLL CERTIFIED BEHAVIOR ANALYST. and five short observational tasks. and research is now underway to revise the instrument into the Q-CHAT (Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers). & Frith. Cumine. a practical guide for teachers. 158–163. (2001) Exploring the cognitive phenotype of autism: Weak central coherence in parents and siblings of children with autism: II. SCOTT 69 . and the process continues. T.. A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: A six year follow up study. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. (2000)... the individual is then taught the second-to-last step. 168. Other adaptations include the M-CHAT (Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers). K. & Stevenson. T. Baird et al. Swettenham. U. J. Wheelwright. Autism explaining the enigma... London: David Fulton Publishers. Asperger Syndrome. 2000) is a screen for autism given at around 18 months of age. In reverse chaining. A. F. 1996. U. N. Autism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. G. British Journal of Psychiatry. Cox.. 42. & Baron-Cohen. 6. 694–702. G.’’ This is a similar process to task analysis... G. S. A. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Research indicated that if a child failed the CHAT it was 97 percent likely that they had autism spectrum disorders (ASD). 309–316. A.CHECKLIST FOR AUTISM IN TODDLERS (CHAT) FURTHER INFORMATION Briskman. A test of central coherence theory: Can adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome integrate fragments of an object? Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 193–216. (1998).. Happe.. & Drew. REFERENCES Baird. the CHAT in its original format missed many cases of Asperger syndrome and subtler ASDs. S. either reverse or forward. T. KATIE BASSITY CHECKLIST FOR AUTISM IN TODDLERS (CHAT) The Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT. J. The steps are then taught in order. Happ. Baron-Cohen. Baird. Baron-Cohen. A. but steps are always taught in the context of the whole task. (1996). and consists of nine short questions asked of the parent about the child’s behavior... S. As each step is mastered. Cox. Drew. Jolliffe. a new step is added onto the ‘‘chain. Psychological markers in the detection of autism in infancy in a large population. the last step is taught first. The CHAT is administered by parents or a primary health care worker. Charman. (2001). Morgan. 3..... Frith. 216–222.. Nightingale. (2003). Swettenham. FIONA J. J. S. 39. (1999). & Charman.. Once able to complete the last step independently and on a consistent basis. L. Baron-Cohen et al.

The items look at behaviors that can be related to sensory processing difficulties (movement. B. sight. Baron-Cohen. General child behavior rating scales. Williams et al. and ALA (alpha lipoic acid) to remove heavy metals such as mercury. arsenic. touch). 1997) is a series of four checklists—infant. The tool requests that parents rate their child on a scale of not true. asking for simple yes/no information as 70 . & J. and adolescent-adult—providing information about certain behaviors and whether they are seen frequently or not. FURTHER INFORMATION Autism Research Institute: media@autismresearchinstitute.).org. and lead from the body. COOK CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST FOR AGES 11=2 TO 5 The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11=2 to 5 years is the most widely used general behavioral scale for assessing children. 2002.CHECKLIST FOR OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY CHECKLIST FOR OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY The Checklist for Occupational Therapy (OTA-Watertown. occupational therapists. from http://www.com/sensintdys.uk. self-regulation. (1999).html. Administration time ranges from 10 to 20 minutes (Hart & Lahey.. preschool. Williams et al. DMPS (2.com. In D. The Child Behavior Checklist is a test consisting of 99 items designed to assess a child’s behavior and social competency. E. Lucas. C. Richters (Eds. or true on a variety of social issues. Watertown. iron. 65–87). REFERENCE Occupational Therapy Association [OTA]-Watertown. National Autistic Society: www. whereas the adolescent-adult checklist can be rated on a 1–5 scale with 1 being never and 5 being always. 2006) is a 37-item parental report questionnaire for children ages 4 to 11 years. school-age. & Brayne. The instrument can be completed by teachers. The infant-through-school-age checklists ask whether a behavior occurs frequently or not. KATHERINE E.. Retrieved September 17. as reported by the parents. 1999). & Lahey. Shaffer. Checklist for occupational therapy. New York: Guilford Press. although the categories of behaviors change across the age ranges. REFERENCE Hart. or physical therapists without specific prior training. It provides descriptions of problems and disabilities as well as what concerns parents most about their child and the best things about the child. sometimes true. 2005. which include DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid).3-dimercapto1-propanesulfonic acid).otawatertown. day care providers. (1997). sound. LISA ROBBINS CHELATION Chelation is a highly controversial medical procedure that involves the use of chelating agents. Chelation is often administered by intravenous infusions or by swallowing oral pills. AMY BIXLER COFFIN CHILDHOOD ASPERGER SYNDROME TEST (CAST) The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST. Scott.nas. Bolton. 2006. Diagnostic assessment in child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. MA: OTA-Watertown.

auditory responsiveness.. 9–31. nonverbal communication. intellectual functioning. Bolton. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Test accuracy. imitation. D. S. C. S.. & Rogers. C. & Montecchi.. J. J. Schopler.. & Brayne. F. use of body. F. C. DeVellis. These items are rated by the specialist using a 7-point system based on the degree to which the child’s behavior deviates from that of a typical child in the same age group. S. & Renner. Williams... B. & Daly.. J.. FURTHER INFORMATION DiLalla. activity level. F.. (1988). Allison. SUSANA BERNAD-RIPOLL 71 . identified children are further classified into categories ranging from mild and moderate to severe. 10. Baron-Cohen. Based on these scores. or behavior that includes relationships with people.. SCOTT CHILDHOOD AUTISM RATING SCALE (CARS) The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is a standardized instrument designed to assist in the diagnosis of autism. E.. E. and the clinician’s general impression. Stott. Carbone.. F. Each of 15 items covers a specific characteristic. C. J. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary school age children. FIONA J. 6. REFERENCES Scott. J.. 24. (2002)... D. Journal of Autism and Developmental-Disorders. Research indicates that those who are misidentified typically have some other difficulty with language or social skills. Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). anxiety reaction. Baron-Cohen. R. Trillo. The rating scale can be used with children as young as 2 years of age.. misidentifying 3 percent as having possible ASD). relation to nonhuman objects. Schopler. E. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-retest reliability. Autism. R. P. (2006). Reichler. C. Research indicates the CAST has a sensitivity of 100 percent (it can detect every case of ASD). the CAST has been validated for use with a nonclinical sample and can therefore be used as a screen for ASD prior to referral into services.CHILDHOOD AUTISM RATING SCALE (CARS) to whether the child shows certain social or communicative behaviors that are thought to be associated with Asperger syndrome or broad autism spectrum disorder (ASD). R. (1994) Domains of the childhood autism rating scale: Relevance for diagnosis and treatment. S. 91–103. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. R. C.. Bolton. Reichler. & Brayne. verbal communication. ability. C. Scott.. (2004) Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC): Correspondence and conflicts with DSM-IV criteria in diagnosis of autism. J.. Children who score above a predefined level are categorized as having autism. P. 9. 34. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Stott. P.. visual responsiveness. Rellini. S.. Tortolani. 703–708. See also standardization. Unlike many other screening tests. J. with a specificity of 97 percent (it tends towards being overinclusive. 115–128. 415–427.. (2005). K. (1980).. F. A total score is computed by summing the individual ratings on each of the 15 items. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. affect. Autism.. 10.. S. Allison. Baron-Cohen. Autism. adaptation to environmental change. Scott. 45–68. Williams. Bolton. near-receptor responsiveness. & Brayne.

1977). inability to initiate or sustain conversation. whereas in CDD there was clearly normal level of skill followed by loss of that previously acquired skill. 1959). E. including motor stereotypes and mannerisms. Prognosis of the condition is generally poor. and in terms of a diagnosis specific neurological diseases should be ruled out. British Journal of Psychiatry. repetitive. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. there must be abnormalities of functioning in at least two of the following areas: (a) qualitative impairment in social interaction (e. In addition. 1992. and with known medical conditions such as measles encephalitis. DC: Author. Harris. Corbett. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. 211–219. & Trimble. neurolipidoses (Malamud. 72 . It is clear from the previous description that there is a substantial degree of overlap in presentation between CDD and autism spectrum disorders. 2000) specifies that following at least 2 years of normal development as manifested by age-appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication.. lack of varied make-believe play). All the children required special education and commonly received services in residential facilities. (c) bowel or bladder control. 1975). and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Heller (1908) did not include any known conditions as being associated with CDD. 109. who first reported on the condition. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Jamison. and (c) restricted. Childhood psychosis: A review of 100 cases. However. (d) play. text rev. impairment in nonverbal behaviors.. (b) social skills or adaptive behavior. 1963). and other professionals have since emphasized deterioration in self-help skills (Volkmar. Heller (1908).. negativistic behaviors. Progressive disintegrative psychosis of childhood. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. although there has been some association noted with neurological disorders (Evans-Jones and Rosenbloom.. 1994). Harris. M. The distinct difference is that in autism spectrum disorders a child may not develop appropriate skills. with overall functioning in the moderate to severe range of mental retardation.g. Those that should be excluded include tuberous sclerosis complex (Creak. and activities. social relationships. These characteristics are not emphasized in the DSMIV-TR (2000) description. The etiology of the condition is not yet clear. (1963). interests. R. delay or lack of spoken language. (1977). APA. and (e) motor skills.CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare disorder with distinctive clinical features.). metachromatic leukodystrophy (Corbett. 1978). and is sometimes associated with encephalopathy.g. stereotyped and repetitive use of language. 18. and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (Rivinus. also noted that children presented with anxiety and affective symptomatology such as moody. 84–89. and reported that a minority showed minimal improvements while three quarters showed a static course of presentation. Volkmar (1992) followed up on 76 cases over a period of 1 to 22 years. M. (b) qualitative impairments in communication (e. & Trimble. and play and adaptive skills there is a clinically significant loss of skills in at least two of the following areas: (a) expressive or receptive language. J. & Graham. Taylor. Taylor. E. Creak. often has a poor prognosis. Washington. failure to develop peer relationships. lack of social or emotional reciprocity)...

3. T. or emotional handicaps.. 1984) is designed to assess attributional style in children ages 8–13. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CHILDREN’S CATEGORY TEST (CCT) Children’s Category Test (CCT. verbal or motor deficits. Alloy. M. The CCT may be used to determine whether a child is able to perform these learning-based processes despite the existence of learning disorders. and modify hypotheses. T. the CCT directly assesses the cognitive processes required for successful academic achievement by measuring the child’s ability to learn. J. Attributions for each dimension are computed by calculating the number of internal. REFERENCE Boll. & Tanenbaum. 119–129. Volkmar. (1959). The Children’s Category Test. T. (1984). TX: PsychCorp. the CCT can be used to assess a wide range of children for whom other. 116. Childhood organic neurological disease presenting as psychiatric disorder. Kaslow. The 48 items are divided equally between positive (‘‘You get an A on a test’’) and negative events (‘‘You break a glass’’). and each option represents the presence or absence of an attribution dimension (e. Heller. and nonmotor format. (1994). C.. D. J. 2. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. & Graham. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT 73 . Y. Peterson. stable.. L.. Childhood disintegrative disorder: Issues for DSM-IV. F. Respondents select between two possible causes for the statement. (1908). internal or external cause). Childhood disintegrative disorder. (1975). F. and to benefit from experience. Because of its nonverbal nature. to solve problems. 1993) is an individually administered instrument designed to assess nonverbal learning and memory. Rivinus. Because of its nonverbal. 22. 625–642. It provides information on the child’s ability to change problem-solving strategies. N. Zeitschrift fur die Erforschung und Behandlung des Jugenlichen Schwachsinns [Journal for Research and Treatment of Juvenile Feeblemindedness]. 462–470. Volkmar. FURTHER INFORMATION Abramson.. test. Boll. (1992). Dementia infantalis. or global responses. 141–165. Jamison. & Rosenbloom. N. R.CHILDREN’S CATEGORY TEST (CCT) Evans-Jones. L.. L. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. concept formation. 115–119. 20. R. FIONA J. 235 –238. R. E. Malamud.. This constellation of mental processes is highly related to fluid intelligence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America.g. Thus. to develop alternative solutions. B. San Antonio. the CCT is less educationally dependent than verbal reasoning measures. psychometric procedures are inappropriate. L. In addition. and to develop. L. the child’s reasoning ability can be assessed independently of his/her expressive language skill level. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Disintegrative psychosis in childhood.. 93(2). M. (1978). P. G. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. Seligman.. or those abilities that involve problem solving with novel material. untimed. neurological deficits. Heller’s disease and childhood schizophrenia. 215–218. Attributional style and depressive symptoms among children. (1993). 50. more traditional. and problem-solving abilities in children ages 5–16 years. SCOTT CHILDREN’S ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE QUESTIONNAIRE (CASQ) The Children’s Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ: Seligman et al. L.

Most classmates will have several friends in the Friendship circle. (1992). 1997) is a program for children who have difficulties making friends. M. Pearpoint. Often the Friendship circle has few people. For example. The Children’s Depression Inventory. The CDI contains six scales commonly associated with depression (Negative Mood. affective. Chronological age is also sometimes used to compare an individual with a normative sample of others of the same chronological age. To determine an individual’s chronological age. Ineffectiveness. 2010. In the second circle are friends (Friendship). and Anhedonia). or teacher. In the center of the social map is the child. North Tonawanda. A facilitator is required and could be a parent. NY: Multi-Health Systems. subtract his or her birth date from a specific date. The fourth circle contains people who may interact with the child in passing such as policemen. and child psychiatric settings. and it is designed for a variety of situations. Volunteers are asked to be in the child’s Friendship circle. KAI-CHIEN TIEN CIRCLE OF FRIENDS Circle of Friends or Circle of Support (Falvey. 1992) is a self-report test that assists in the assessment of the cognitive. such as behavior and intelligence. The system is explained to the class by one or two classmates who have volunteered to be mapped. Then the map is drawn for the child with disabilities. counselor. This map of circles lists the social contacts of the child. REFERENCE Kovacs. Kovacs. and behavioral signs of depression in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old. His chronological age should be five-and-half years (or 66 months) on December 25. firemen. This map is drawn on the board. and counselors (Participation). JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CHRONOLOGICAL AGE Chronological age refers to the number of days or years a child has lived since birth. Negative Self-Esteem. The third circle represents people who may participate in the child’s life such as doctors. including schools. & Rosenberg. Interpersonal Difficulties. Once it is determined who is in each of the rings a meeting is held for the entire class. teachers. Inc. The object is to make sure the child is included in activities and feels a part of a group. These children then act as mentors for the child. This assessment takes approximately 15 minutes to complete with the respondent selecting the statement that best describes his or her feelings for the past 2 weeks for 27 different items. pediatric practices. Jacob was born on June 25. and neighbors (Exchange). child guidance clinics. Forest. are measured. These 74 . In the first circle are the people who are the closest to the child such as family (Intimate). Chronological age is frequently used in psychometrics as a standard against which certain variables. See Figure 7 for an example of a social map. 2005.CHILDREN’S DEPRESSION INVENTORY (CDI) CHILDREN’S DEPRESSION INVENTORY (CDI) The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI. A social map is prepared for the child with the child’s help.

circles. training.CLINICAL ASSESSMENT (MEDICAL) classmates make sure they greet the child. walk to class with him. psychiatric. This is a program that can be written into a child’s Individualized Education Program. REFERENCE Silvaroli. & Rosenberg. (2000). THERESA L. and possibly testing of the individual with the problem (along with family members) in order to arrive at a diagnosis. scholastic aptitude. and then they discuss behaviors that may have caused problems and suggest ways to correct them. Ontario: Inclusion Press. J... Classroom Reading Inventory. specific cognitive abilities. M. or psychological problem by a qualified health professional based on examination/observation. and paths. or trial treatment. BRUCE BASSITY 75 . Forest. Pearpoint. There are weekly meetings (usually 15–20 minutes) in which the mentors talk about what the good things were that happened that week. The CRI includes a pretest and a posttest. (1997).. word-recognition abilities. The child also participates and tells what he or she liked and didn’t like for that week. N. M. A. interview. M. The goal is a situation in which everyone learns and friendships develop. IA: Brown and Benchmark Publishers. L. and experience to form a diagnostic impression that may be tentative pending further testing. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CLINICAL ASSESSMENT (EDUCATIONAL) Clinical assessments are tests that are administered on an individual basis by a trained professional or specialist. All my life’s a circle: Using the tools. inferential and critical reading skills. Treatment recommendations or a treatment plan are given as part of a clinical assessment. Dubuque. and oral language development. 2000) was designed to be used by teachers of all experience levels to test reading comprehension. or be friendly or helpful in other ways. REFERENCE Falvey. maps. Silvaroli. Figure 7 Circle of Friends TERRI COOPER SWANSON CLASSROOM READING INVENTORY Classroom Reading Inventory (CRI. observation. These measures typically assess general intellectual ability. Clinicians draw on prior knowledge. R. EARLES-VOLLRATH CLINICAL ASSESSMENT (MEDICAL) Clinical assessment refers to assessment of a medical. and thinking abilities. J.

norm-referenced test developed to identify. Clinical significance does not rely on statistical tests to determine effectiveness. TERRI COOPER SWANSON CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES Clinical practice guidelines are a standardized approach to the diagnosis and treatment of a specific diagnostic entity. & Semel. & Semel. A variety of subtests provide in-depth assessment of a child’s language skills as well as a preliteracy scale and phonological awareness subtest. BRUCE BASSITY CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Many researchers use statistical significance to determine the efficacy of a research project. families. these guidelines are supported by outcome-based research. These guidelines are modified over time to reflect new findings and improvements. rather. San Antonio.. Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool. Typically. 1992) is an individually administered. TX: PsychCorp. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CLINICAL OPINION Clinical opinion is established through the evaluation and assessment of an individual and is often required for eligibility requirements for services. Clinical opinion may be established by professionals such as medical or health service providers. E. E. a pragmatics profile helps to describe the child’s language use at school or at home. Clinical significance refers to a judgment about whether the intervention made a real and important difference in the lives of the individuals who participated in the research and/or whether the results will be useful or applicable to the population in general. (1992). W. See also norm-referenced assessment. H. Social workers 76 . it relies on the true effects of the intervention on the individual or on any other problem identified as a relevant priority in the field. Administering the CELF-P takes approximately 30–45 minutes..CLINICAL EVALUATION OF LANGUAGE FUNDAMENTALS–PRESCHOOL CLINICAL EVALUATION OF LANGUAGE FUNDAMENTALS–PRESCHOOL Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool (CELF-P. and use in follow-up evaluation of language and communication disorders in preschool children ages 3 to 6. REFERENCE Wiig. diagnose. EARLES-VOLLRATH CLINICAL SOCIAL WORKER A clinical social worker is a licensed practitioner who helps individuals. Additionally. Statistical significance relies on the use of statistical tests to determine whether or not the results meet an accepted criterion level. which is often developed or adopted by health professional organizations or government agencies. Secord. or communities improve or restore their competence in social functioning. Wiig. Secord. THERESA L.

More recently. 2006). JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI Clostridium tetani is the organism that causes tetanus (Mylonakis. limited self-control. Tetanus.. which follow Food and Drug Administration approval. involve the post-launch safety surveillance and ongoing technical support of an intervention. & Myles. Retrieved September 22. 1994). The resulting toxin is what causes the painful spasms. anxiety. 100–300) and are designed to assess clinical efficacy of the therapy as well as to continue Phase I assessments in a larger group of volunteers and patients. (July 18.and long-term outcomes monitored. Phase III studies are randomized. 2002. skin. panic disorders. substance abuse. and in 10 to 25 percent of human gastrointestinal tracts (Mylonakis. LYNN DUDEK COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Cognitive Behavior Modification (CBM) is a technique that allows an individual with exceptionality to function independently in his or her daily life (Quinn. drug. depression. borderline personality. 2005). Lochman. 77 .. Larson & Lochman. device. Phase I trials involve a small number of participants (e.g. bipolar disorder. 2006). Leahy & Beck.g. clothing. especially in comparison with currently available alternatives. & Myles. Mayer. and cultural institutions. Mortality rates are from 13 to 52 percent. Clinical trials usually include four phases.COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION must understand the dynamic interaction of social.000–3.g. 1994). controlled trials on large patient groups (1. the ‘‘lockjaw’’ symptom. from www.com.000 or more) and are aimed at being the definitive assessment of the efficacy of the new intervention. dirt. 2006). 20–80) to assess the safety and side effects of an intervention. REFERENCE Mylonakis. STEVE CHAMBERLAIN CLINICAL TRIAL A clinical trial is a research method used to determine the effectiveness and safety of a new intervention (e. They assist people in managing everyday life stresses in addition to helping them overcome more traumatic events. E. this technique has also been applied successfully with individuals with autism who exhibit a range of skills (Quinn. A trial typically involves the use of the new intervention with one group of people.. The tetanus organism is found in infected manure. 2006. Once the initial safety of the therapy has been confirmed in Phase I trials. Phase II trials are performed on larger groups (e. rigidity of voluntary muscles. Because the disease is so fatal. Tetanus is extremely fatal in humans. 1988. It has been widely used in a variety of settings with individuals addressing issues of aggression. Swaggart. while others receive placebo treatment with short. widespread immunizations have taken place in the United States. Most cases of tetanus result from small puncture wounds or cuts.emedicine. and eventual death. Swaggart. 1993. therapy. economic. & Acker. or other intervention). and related problems (Kendall. schizophrenia. Phase IV trials. which become infected with the Clostridium tetani spores. poor social problem solving.

e. the teacher or supervisor strives for the activation of a student’s cognitive processes in a behavior change system to alter his or her thinking as well as behavior. 1991. First. and the S-R psychology moved toward S-O-R psychology (Mahoney. and 1970s as a result of the following three factors. perception. pace. the strategy is designed to provide specific steps to facilitate appropriate cognitive processing during the completion of a task. educationally speaking. Sharpening the historical focus on these developments. 1974). considered the evolution of CBM as occurring in three stages over several decades. 1998) stated. self-monitoring. 1988). Next. and (c) an individual is an active participant in his or her learning. psychology in the 1970s had ‘‘gone cognitive. Mayer. expectations. The strategy of CBM is known by a variety of other names. the development of the comprehensive cognitive therapeutic procedures was completed and the cognitive-behavioral therapy. 1980). in a very broad and basic sense..COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION CBM unites cognitive theory with behavior modification (Mahoney. Bower. To be more specific. 1960s. Organism-specific variables (O) became important. or performance. An early demonstration of CBM was used by Meichenbaum and Goodman (1971) when they introduced cognitive approaches to behavior modification to a group of 78 . it concentrates on activating an individual to act as his or her won behavior agents’’ (p. started to obtain its own right. and delivers self-reinforcement at established increments of time. consideration of mediation processes in a stimulus-response model was seen in the work of Hull and Tolman. behavior. The CBM approach emphasizes the modification of thinking as a means of changing feelings and behavior (Corey. Later on. 1988. rather. self-instruction. 224). as a prerequisite to behavior change. self-instruction. further argued that CBM can be seen as having emerged in the late 1950s. Third. In other words. Mayer et al. including self-management. drawn from the research of Bolles. images. in CBM. CBM is a combination of cognitive and behavioral learning principles to shape and encourage desired behaviors. and beliefs). 1974). being recognized as a field. Hughes (2000) defined that CBM refers to a diverse assemblage of theoretical and applied orientations that share three underlying assumptions: (a) an individual’s behavior is mediated by cognitive events (i. think and behave and (b) the impact their behavior has on others (Meichenbaum. individuals must develop their ability to notice (a) how they feel. as cited in Wahlberg. and Neisser (Kazdin. Kneedler and Hallahan (1981. In addition. and cognitive mediation processes. the early focus was on purely observable stimulus-response (S-R) phenomena. the premise of CBM is that. The third assumption recognizes the reciprocal relationships among an individual’s thoughts. Thus far. A third stage of development assembled thinking. Harris. in which explicit and observable behaviors were considered the only acceptable data allowed in research. and problem-solving protocols. thoughts. 1994). 1978). and Acker (2005). motivation. and metacognition (Quinn et al. ‘‘CBM is not an external structure to manipulate behavior. Lochman. (b) a change in mediating events results in a change in behavior. CBM is a technique that teaches individuals to monitor their own behavior.. To be more specific. research in self-control had gone beyond traditional behavior therapy approaches to include a specific cognitive component. Hughes.’’ with particularly significant developments in modeling. and his or her environment and views the individual as a positive participant of environmental influence. Those names also reflect characteristic components of a CBM procedure identified by Lloyd (1980). Concurrent with the work of early behaviorists.

self-instruction is essentially students teaching themselves. Okay. 1998). 1998). Educationally. the results are 79 . or self-instruction for solving the task (How should I do it?). CBM techniques have been shown to be effective ways to help children and young adolescents deal with a variety of functional difficulties (Kazdin. ‘‘What do I need to make a peanut butter sandwich? I need peanut butter. the individual is taught to regulate his or her behavior through selftalk. Furthermore. (b) attending to important events or cues. talk through the steps while making the sandwich. 103). The student is still thinking about the steps in his or her head (silent self-guidance). (1994) reviewed the literature on CBM for persons with autism from 1989 to 1994 and found that although the research is limited to a small number of investigations. Finished. The teacher is there to help the student with what he or she is doing correctly and incorrectly. A large amount of research has been done focusing on CBM in working with children and young adolescents (Walberg. (b) plans. (c) focusing on specific goals. and (d) self-evaluation (How did I do?). The questions are of four types: (a) the nature of the problem (What is it I have to do?). now I have to put some peanut butter on one piece of bread and spread it out with my spread knife easily and slowly. 1991. He proposed that self-instruction would support the development of the following skills: (a) controlling impulsive behavior. 1982). Step 1: Demonstrate by Model As a teacher. and a knife. students can use ‘‘self-speech’’ to control behaviors. In self-instruction. speak aloud about the steps you are going through to reach a solution to a problem or situation. (d) coping with stressors. if the task is to make a peanut butter sandwich. The student is still saying the steps aloud. Meichenbaum (1977) stated: ‘‘The focus of self-instruction training has been on the child’s conscious self-regulatory ability’’ (p. For example. Step 5: Modeling with Covert Self-Guidance At this point. 1998). Step 4: Modeling with Faded Self-Guidance The only difference between this step and the previous step is that the child is now whispering the steps to himself or herself.COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION hyperactive children who demonstrated poor self-control (Wahlberg. The next step is to put another piece of bread on top of it. With the help of teachers or other professionals. Meichenbaum’s work on self-instruction has contributed a foundational element to CBM (Craighead. Quinn et al. two pieces of bread. Step 3: Modeling with Overt Self-Guidance The student now approaches the problem without the teacher. The individual is taught to ask and to answer covertly questions that guide his or her own performance. Wahlberg. Meichenbaum outlined five steps in his self-instruction model to teach individuals to use self-speech as part of self-instruction. and (e) managing verbal and nonverbal behavior. I did it!’’ Step 2: Modeling with Overt Adult Guidance The student will begin to independently approach a problem or situation while saying the steps aloud. the student can now approach the problem independently. (c) self-monitoring (Am I using my plan?).

‘‘This procedure is most appropriate for students who have the skills necessary to independently perform a particular task but are unable to complete it due to attending difficulties’’ (p. Quinn et al. or otherwise records the occurrence of the target behavior. stated. providing prompts if necessary. CBM Instructional Sequence for Traditional Autism Steps 1.’’ The student resumes work immediately. Modeling 2. the student self-question. however. In terms of CBM implementation for individuals with autism. the student places a chip on a board. CBM Instructional Sequence for Traditional Autism Steps 1. The instructional sequences are delineated in Table 1 and Table 2. ‘‘Am I paying attention?’’ The student quickly assesses whether or not she or he was attending. ‘‘Get back to work. he or she circles ‘‘no’’ on the self-monitoring sheet. Following modeling.’’ If the student was off task. In addition. Quinn et al. If the student was off task. After the picture sequence or after the self-monitoring has been completed. If the student was attending. Quinn et al. 3. Put-through What to do? The teacher verbalizes aloud what he or she is doing while demonstrating the strategy steps of a task. After following a signal or visual representation of a step. 3. The teacher collects data and monitors the process until the student is able to master the task at the pre-established criteria. 4). it is also an effective strategy to promote academic and vocational skill acquisition by individuals with autism. Self-rewarding positive: ‘‘All of the studies reviewed indicated that CBM is an effective strategy for helping to monitor social and vocational skills while teaching independence’’ (p. the teacher puts the student through the process. Self-rewarding 80 . he or she circle ‘‘yes’’ on the selfmonitoring sheet.COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Table 1. Self-recording What to do? The student listens to the audio/ape signal. respectively. outlined instructional sequences for individuals with traditional autism and individuals with high-functioning autism. This procedure is performed on a daily basis until the student performs the task with minimal prompting. he or she will silently prompt himself or herself by saying. places a mark on a self-monitoring sheet. 2). Self-monitoring 2. further proposed that one solution to the dilemma of attending difficulties exhibited by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is to teach them to maintain a record of on-task behavior through the use of CBM. the student self-rewards from a menu of preferred reinforces. the premise is that children must possess the skills necessary to complete assigned work. Table 2. when he or she hears a signal. Self-recording 4. ‘‘Good job. The student provides a self-reward for on-task behavior by saying.

1993. School Psychology Review. 83–88. Lochman. (1980). store. 11. A. Craighead. Deshler & Lenz. Helping schoolchildren cope with anger: A cognitive behavior intervention. (1994). (1978). 1. 223–253. (1991). 197–212. J. Mahoney. 9(4). 2000. L. A. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Training impulsive children to talk to themselves: A means of developing self-control. L.). S. 214–267).). Meyen. 407–409). Kendall. Exceptional Education Quarterly. J. Cognitive-behavioral modification for children and young adolescents with special problems. Bock. F. E. (1977). New York: Plenum. (1988) Cognitive-behavior modification: Application with exceptional students.COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES REFERENCES Corey. J.. New York: Guilford Press. Cognitive therapy of depression and mania. Exceptional Education Quarterly. A. current status. Cognitive-behavioral modification: An integrated approach. Denver: Love Publishing Company. P. Behavioral Disorders. New York: J. R.. Academic instruction and cognitive behavior modification: The need for attack strategy training. (2005). (1988). & Beck. (1980). L. Effective instructional strategies for exceptional children (pp. W. M. Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. 61. J. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. J. N. Meichenbaum. Baltimore: University Park Press. Cognitive behavior therapy. J. (2002). 2005). Effectiveness of psychotherapy with children and adolescents. Encyclopedia of special education: A reference for the education of the handicapped and other exceptional children and adults (pp. J. 235– 247. 53–63. C. Hughes. (1998). G. Lloyd. Cognitive behavior therapy with children in schools. Quinn. Larson. & R. (1988). J. Kazdin. A brief clinical history of cognitive-behavioral therapy with children. In E. Whelan (Eds. (1971). T. New York: Elsevier. and how to learn and problem solve effectively (Alley & Deshler. 115–126. (1993).. and emerging developments. In C. 2006) by guiding the ways they acquire. Focus on Autistic Behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. A cognitive learning strategy consists of a series of specific steps that must be completed in the order specified. & Myles. MA: Ballinger. 1989). W. E. R. R. Cognition and behavior modification. K. An acronym is often used to help students remember the 81 .. Kazdin. In short. 1979. New York: Pergamon Press. B. History of behavior modification: Experimental foundations of contemporary research. D. & Acker. 785–798. Harris.). (1991). Cambridge. Meichenbaum. Swaggart. Advances in Special Education. 11. Mayer. Introduction to the special issue: Cognitivebehavior interventions with students with EBD. Wiley & Sons. V. CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 253–268). D. cognitive learning strategies teach students how to modify their thinking and problem-solving skills. N. 2006. J. E. Reynolds & E. B. KAI-CHIEN TIEN COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES Cognitive learning strategies are principles or rules that help students solve problems or complete learning activities independently (Friend & Bursuck. 1979. 77. Salend. Belmont. (2000). Feltcher-Janzen (Eds. 89. R. D. Vergason. T. Leahy. (1982). Meichenbaum. & Lochman. A. and use information (Alley & Deshler. In A. 30. Wahlberg.. retrieve. Gorgotas & R. 2005.. M. Hughes. Depression and mania (pp. Implementing cognitive behavior management programs for persons with autism. 5–13. 1–13. & Godman. (1974).. Cognitive-behavioral therapies with youth: Guiding theory. E. C. Deshler & Schumaker. Cancro (Eds. 1. Cognitive-behavior modification: A promise yet unfulfilled.

They then use a graphic organizer to organize these ideas. teachers guide students in verbally rehearsing the strategy. 2004. the daily reading assignment). reading fluency. Schumaker.. completing multiplechoice tests. 2004). 2000. 1992). S Search for the structure.. Bulgren. For instance. Ellis et al. in the reading comprehension strategy. This research also supports use of cognitive learning strategies across all subject content areas (e. Teachers then provide practice and feedback using practice materials developed specifically for Step 5. 2004.COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES strategy steps (Bender... Students then search for the structure of the reading assignment. Research has identified eight steps teachers should follow when providing learning strategy instruction (Bender. 1991). These materials often come directly from current class assignments (e.g. In Step 3. students also begin to memorize the strategy steps and acronym. 1991). Schumaker & Deshler. Bender. Once 82 . students summarize the main idea from the reading. This helps students learn how the learning strategy guides the teachers’ thinking. Deshler. teachers pretest the students to identify students who do not have effective learning strategies and solicit commitment from these students to participate in learning strategy instruction. teachers model use of the strategy. mathematics) and many academic activities (e. POSSE (Englert & Mariage. Boudah. they first predict the ideas that will be discussed in the reading passage. Finally. when students use POSSE. Schumaker. teachers describe the learning strategy. Thus. Lenz. The strategy instruction steps are as follows: Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: Pretest and commitment Describe the strategy Model the strategy Verbal strategy rehearsal Controlled practice and feedback Grade-appropriate practice and feedback Posttest and communication to generalize Generalize the strategy In Step 1. 2006. teachers provide practice and feedback using grade-appropriate materials. 2000. In Step 2.g. After reading the assignment. In this step. In Step 4. E Evaluate your understanding. Bock. Lenz. & Clark. Ellis. the acronym POSSE represents the strategy steps as follows: P Predict ideas. 2005. S Summarize the main idea. reading comprehension. teachers also share their thinking behaviors. spelling. students evaluate their understanding of the reading assignment. & Deshler.g. O Organize the ideas. Research investigating cognitive learning strategies has demonstrated that they work very well with students who present strategy production deficiencies due either to developmental immaturity or executive dysfunction (Bender. taking notes. 1991). 2004. Once students demonstrate mastery of strategy use on the controlled practice materials. In doing so. writing.

problems keeping several tasks going at the same time and switching between them. if a student has difficulties participating in the activity period. the learning strategy story should describe activity period and how to use the strategy to participate in activity period. Cognitive learning strategy instruction is one way to teach these students how to use effective meta-cognitive (or learning) strategies. Russell. teachers go on to Step 7. Finally. The final instructional step involves helping the students generalize strategy use to all relevant content areas. strategies should include both acronyms and visual icons representing each strategy step (see Figure 8). 2006. Ozonoff & Griffith. watching the teacher model strategy use may not be beneficial for them. During this instructional step. Consequently. 1997). strategy story.. This often involves teaching classroom teachers the learning strategy and asking them to remind students to use the strategy when giving assignment instructions. Many students with ASD are not able to understand others’ thoughts and actions. and problems inhibiting inappropriate impulsive actions.e. The cognitive learning strategy in Table 3 includes a strategy graphic organizer. However. Instead. Most students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present signs of executive dysfunction (i. and strategy teaching script. A graphic organizer should also be used to clearly delineate each of the strategy steps.COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES students demonstrate mastery of strategy use Figure 8 Story Graphic Organizer on the grade-appropriate materials. For instance. Ozonoff & Griffith. the unique information processing skills of students with ASD (Bock. 2000. posttest and communication to generalize. The posttest evaluates students’ strategy recall and application to grade-appropriate materials. 2005. teachers also discuss the need to generalize this strategy to all class assignments. SODA was used to help a student 83 . Russell. Executive dysfunction leads to strategy production dysfunction. 1997) require several strategy modifications: Modification 1: Visual supports Modification 2: Learning strategy story Modification 3: Strategy teaching script Since many students with ASD are visual learners. teachers should create a learning strategy story that provides a ‘‘thinking model’’ from the student’s perspective that is derived from the lived experience of the student who will learn the strategy. problems making high-level decisions to resolve conflicting responses. teachers should develop a specific teaching script—a specific set of questions and responses teachers will use to teach SODA to students with ASD. 2000. problems overriding automatic behavior.

Jones. too. space. but then Ms. Deliberate. Sometimes they stop playing their game and ask me a question about space travel. I will Stop. When I enter my homeroom for activity period. 84 . Ms. Jones and the other students feel when I do and say these things?’’ (They will feel happy. Jones may smile and thank the students who form groups and begin playing their game right away. Joe likes to visit about NASA. I will ask myself. ‘‘What are Ms. Jones and the other students to hear what they are saying. ‘‘What would I like to say?’’ (I now realize that we can visit as we play games. . They want me to do this. And I won’t be sent to the principal’s office. listen to Joe and his friends talk about cars they like during the game. When I go back to activity period.) Finally. tell Joe that I want to play that game too and ask if I can play the game with him.’’ This confuses me because I am always willing to get along with the other students. like the basketball game or their favorite music group. I’m going to use SODA to help me figure this out. ‘‘What is the routine?’’ (I will look at the board in the front of the room to see what games or activities Ms. Sometimes they ask me to go away. While observing I will ask myself.) I ask myself. Jones and the other students saying?’’ (I will listen to Ms. my activity period teacher. Ms.’’ The students may be saying what they want to play.COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES Table 3. ‘‘How will Ms.) I will ask myself. space. I would like to play a game with Joe. Jones has planned for today. Observe. ‘‘What are Ms. Jones and the other students say and do these things?’’ (Ms.) I will ask myself. Jones and the other students act this way?’’ (They want to play games and visit during activity period. ‘‘What happens when Ms. Jones and the other students to see what they are doing. I talk about NASA. and space travel as we play a game. To help me deliberate. If I play a game and visit about things that interest the other students. ‘‘Where should I go to observe?’’ (I will sit at my desk to observe. Then Ms. Jones sends me to the principal’s office. willing to get along with the other students. space.) And finally. When I go to activity period I plan to: walk up to Joe and ask what game he wants to play today. and space travel.) After I’ve completed my deliberations. Making Sense of Activity Period (Stop.) I will also ask myself.) I will then ask myself. Sometimes when I go to activity period I get into trouble and am sent to the principal’s office. This makes them mad. I will then ask myself.) I will ask myself.) I will then Deliberate about my observations. I will ask myself.) I will then Observe. Ms. Jones and the other students act when I do and say these things?’’ (They will let me join a group and play a game. they will feel happy and want me to stay and play the game with them. I will ask myself. tells me that I should stay in the principal’s office until I am ‘‘. Then they ask me to go away and leave them alone. I would like to visit with Joe about NASA. ‘‘Why will Ms. Jones sends me to the principal’s office. I will not be sent to the principal’s office. ‘‘How will Ms. That’s why they won’t tell me to go away. Jones may be asking who wants to play ‘‘Clue. The students may be reading the game directions. During activity period I talk with all the other students. The students may be deciding who they want to play with and what game they want to play. Sometimes they tell me to leave them alone. ‘‘What would I like to do?’’ (I now realize that we go to activity period to play games. . ‘‘What is the room arrangement?’’ (I will notice if there is any change in the room arrangement. and space travel. I leave when they ask me to leave. I think I am getting along with the other students during activity period. They will not tell me to leave them alone. raise your hand to let your teacher know you are ready to discuss the story. I can now see that when I walk around the room talking to the other students about NASA. Act) Directions: Read the following story silently. I will decide how I will Act during activity period. space. I go to another student and talk about space travel. When you are finished. Jones and the other students doing?’’ (I will watch Ms. The students may be talking about other things. The students may smile and laugh as they play their games. and space travel during activity period that they cannot play games or visit with each other. Jones may be showing us what games we will play today.

Bring the SODA graphic organizer and a blank sheet of paper to cover it up. What is the room arrangement? I will notice if there is any change in the room arrangement. identification.. [Teacher uncovers the SODA icons on the left side of the SODA graphic organizer. OR Correct any questions the student missed. What was the name of the strategy that you used to help you figure out what to do during activity period? Student: SODA.COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES talk about cars I like during the game. O.’’ O represents ‘‘observe. and A represent.) Now tell me what the letters S. Teaching the learning disabled adolescent: Strategies and methods. O. G.’’ D represents ‘‘deliberate. 85 . D. Strategy teaching script. Teacher directions: Introduce the student to this activity by saying.] When you go to homeroom for activity period. D. Learning disabilities: Characteristics. Teacher directions: Complete this teaching script immediately after the student has read the strategy story. D. you must stop. Student: S represents ‘‘stop. Additional stories and teaching scripts were developed for lunch and cooperative learning.) Now tell me what the letters S. understand how to participate in activity period.’’ REFERENCES Alley. what three questions must you ask yourself? Student: Where should I go to observe? What is the room arrangement? What is the routine or schedule? Teacher: Right again! [Teacher uncovers the ‘‘stop’’ self-questions on the left side of the SODA graphic organizer. What is the routine or schedule? I will look at the board in the front of the room to see what games or activities Ms. Please read the story silently and raise your hand when you are finished so we can talk about it.] When going to activity period. Bender. and then act. While stopped. and help Joe put the game away at the end of the period. talk about how space travel has led to improvement in these cars over recent decades. (2004).’’ Teacher: Exactly! [Teacher uncovers the SODA icons on the left side of the SODA graphic organizer. This teaching script follows the same pattern through all four sections of the SODA graphic organizer. (1979). (You will gradually uncover sections of the graphic organizer as directed below. ‘‘SODA is a strategy some people use to figure out what to do and say when they are confused. W. and cooperative learning during English class. The following short story shows how you can use SODA to figure out what to do and say when you go to activity period. (If the answer was incorrect. observe.] OR The strategy was called SODA.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Strategy story. deliberate. lunch.) Teacher: You just read a story about your participation in activity period. and teaching strategies (5th ed. Teacher: That’s right! (If the answer was correct. The teaching story and script were developed for activity period. Denver: Love. you must stop and ask yourself: Where should I go to observe? I will sit at my desk to observe. Jones has planned for today. & Deshler.’’ A represents ‘‘act. and A represent.

. Deshler. Elementary School Journal. University of North Dakota. Wong (Ed. (1991). 94. University of North Dakota. E. Friend. Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices for all students (5th ed. The strategies instructional approach. D. (2000). standardized instrument used to assess infants. J. The impact of social behavioral learning strategy training on the social interaction skills of eight students with Asperger syndrome. 203–244. Wetherby & Prizant. and preschoolers at risk for communication delays and impairments. Unpublished manuscript. Manuscript submitted for publication. 123–138. J.). B.COGNITIVE PROCESSES Bock. Validation of learning strategy interventions for students with learning disabilities: Results of a programmatic research effort. Ellis.). E. 32(3). Englert. Collaborative teams can occur through coordination of services. Upper Saddle River. D. D. KATHERINE E. & Deshler. In A. and Education. Volkmar. (1991). This assessment is used during natural play routines and other adult-child interactions. Schumaker. The 22 five-point 86 . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Development... C. (1989). F. 2002) is a norm-referenced. M. 72–96). SODA: Learning strategy intervention for a child with Asperger syndrome.. (2000). Neuropsychological function and the external validity of Asperger’s syndrome. Bock.. Asperger’s syndrome (pp. (2005). Sparrow (Eds. Bock. S. BOCK COGNITIVE PROCESSES The ability to think about a task including intellectual abilities. consultation among professionals. Bulgren. In B. B. W. NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.. Lenz. where education professionals work together to assess and educate students with disability. Y.). 1–14. Schumaker. D. D. Boudah.). and teaming during service provision. Teaching Exceptional Children... (1993).. KATHERINE E. (2006). Russell. J. 6(3). (2005). (2000).. COOK COMIC STRIP CONVERSATIONS. T.. Focus on Exceptional Children. toddlers. 22–46). Ozonoff. such as memory and the ability to solve problems and make judgments based on past experiences and the context of the situation. Deshler. Contemporary intervention research in learning disabilities (pp. Salend. F. SODA strategy instruction: Demystifying social interactions for students with Asperger syndrome. (Ed. 48–57. S. 24(1). Manuscript in preparation. & Schumaker. Klin. & S. B. Making students partners in the comprehension process: Organizing the reading ‘‘POSSE. Strategy mastery by at-risk students: Not a simple matter. R. & Lenz. New York: Springer-Verlag. Don’t water down! Enhance content learning through the unit organizer routine. 153–157. See Cartooning COMMUNICATION AND SYMBOLIC BEHAVIOR SCALES (CSBS) The Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS. An instructional model for teaching learning strategies. & Griffith. D. International Journal of Disability. Deshler. Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (4th ed. & Clark. & Mariage..’’ Learning Disability Quarterly. J. S. Schumaker. 14. (1992).. COOK COLLABORATIVE TEAM Collaboration is a necessary practice in special education. Autism as an executive disorder. Lenz. (2006). (1997). J. M. MARJORIE A. & Bursuck. M. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. L. J.).. M. & Deshler. New York: Guilford.

and as a guide to indicate areas that need further assessment. which are demonstrated by the children’s gestures. If the scores resulting from the Checklist indicate concern. M. It is the first step in routine screening to decide if a developmental evaluation is needed. facial expressions. A.. The tool is administered by a certified speech-language pathologist.. Clinicians may also present the questions in an interview format. & Prizant. The early childhood professional then takes a direct sampling of the child’s communicative behaviors in structured and unstructured play situations in the child’s natural environment. A parent or a primary caregiver who nurtures the child on a daily basis can complete the Checklist’s 24 multiple-choice questions in approximately 5 to 10 minutes. can be used independently or with the other components of the CSBS DP. sounds. psychologist. words. The Infant-Toddler Checklist. early interventionist. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT COMMUNICATION BOARD A communication board is an assistive technology device and a visual strategy that promotes expressive communication. B. as an outcome measure to help determine the efficacy of intervention.COMMUNICATION BOARD rating scales survey children’s language skills as well as their symbolic development. Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales. The CSBS should be administered by a speech-language pathologist. The CSBS DP contains three components. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT COMMUNICATION AND SYMBOLIC BEHAVIOR SCALES DEVELOPMENTAL PROFILES (CSBS DP) Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profiles (CSBS DP. Wetherby and Prizant. Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile. The assessment takes approximately 50–75 minutes to administer with the parents or caregivers completing a Caregiver Questionnaire. & Prizant. M. The CSBS DP may be used as a starting point for Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) planning. early interventionist. B. (2002). the child is further evaluated with the Caregiver Questionnaire and a Behavior Sample of the child interacting with the clinician and caregiver is taken. and play behaviors. which provides background information that serves as a baseline against which to evaluate a child’s performance. psychologist. (2002). or other professional trained to assess developmentally young children. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. and play) of children with a functional communication age between 6 months and 24 months (chronological age from about 6 months to 6 years). 2002) is a norm-referenced screening and evaluation tool designed to help determine the communicative competence (use of eye gaze. understanding. or other professional trained to assess developmentally young children. pediatrician. REFERENCE Wetherby. gestures. A. REFERENCE Wetherby. for use with children from 6 to 24 months of age. Depending upon the individual’s need the 87 . M.

Circle Pines. expression. needs. they may have difficulty expressing themselves if they were to get pulled over by the police. and ideas across. or photographs. with any aged person and with a variety of abilities. See also augmentative and alternative communication. and retrieval) in four language structure categories: lexical/semantic. syntactic. and facilitate the individualized planning of interventions to meet the social. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF SPOKEN LANGUAGE The Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL. REFERENCE Carrow-Woolfolk. dyslexia. and pragmatic. the CASL battery is ideal for measuring delayed language. They are designed to help the individual be successful in getting their wants. supralinguistic. Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. and educational needs of 88 . One benefit to the CASL is that the need for reading and writing is replaced by verbal or nonverbal (pointing) responses. MN: American Guidance Services. This process is designed to promote the acquisition of core content. The CASL takes approximately 30–45 minutes to administer the 15 tests that measure language processing skills (comprehension. E. who they are. 2007) is a process approach that is focused on designing and implementing a comprehensive intervention program specifically for individuals with autism spectrum disorders.CO-MORBID/CO-OCCURRING communication board may use letters. This may mean that the individual does not have the ability to verbalize or may have difficulty finding the right words when in stressful situations. Carrow-Woolfolk. (1999). For the young child a communication board may be used so that they can make simple requests such as asking for their favorite toy or letting their teacher know their need to go to the bathroom. and aphasia. or community based. A communication board is typically used with individuals with limited verbal ability. They can be used in any setting. oral language disorders. Therefore. oral language assessment battery for ages 3 through 21. and where they live. sensory. vocational. To assist with their communication they could have a communication board in their car that included information related to their disability. whether it is educational. communication. 1999) is an individually and orally administered. line drawings. words. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT COMPREHENSIVE AUTISM PROGRAM PLANNING SYSTEM (CAPS) The Comprehensive Autism Program Planning System (CAPS. Communication boards can be simple to complex and take a variety of forms. TERRI COOPER SWANSON CO-MORBID/CO-OCCURRING Co-morbidity refers to the existence of one (or more) disorders occurring simultaneously with a primary disorder. commonly needed phrases. For the adult with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism who drives a car. Henry & Myles.

Figure 9 Comprehensive Autism Planning System (CAPS) Child/Student:__________________________ Program Manager:_______________________ Date:_____________ Time Activity Targeted skill short-term objective Specially Designed Data collection Communication / Sensory Strategies Instruction forms Social Skills Instructional Materials Generalization Plan 89 .

JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT COMPUTED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY.. S. specially designed instruction (materials need to aid instruction. a visual schedule). sensory issues. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CONFIDENTIALITY Confidentiality is the act of ensuring that information is accessible only to authorized individuals. occupational therapists.e. See Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery CONCRETE LANGUAGE Concrete language is characterized by using specific and observable terminology to describe a person. support services (i. COOK CONCURRENT VALIDITY Concurrent validity refers to a parameter demonstrated when a test correlates positively with a previously validated measure. See CAT Scan CONCEPT FORMATION TEST FROM HALSTEAD-REITAN BATTERY.. According to the procedural safeguards created by the Individuals with 90 . place. i. Specific words are chosen and used that make the communicative message visual. REFERENCE Henry. share information with interested parties. The two measures may be for the same construct.e. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. physical therapists).e. A team of individuals. KATHERINE E. and administration (i.. and generalization (see Figure 9). and generalization. B. but presumably related constructs. (2007).COMPUTED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY persons with ASD. such as issues related to motivation. & Myles. complete the CAPS planning matrix for an individual’s ‘‘typical’’ day at school. social and communication skills. Shawnee Mission. This individualized team planning approach aims to create consistency across time and setting. or thing. including parents. or for different. which can include the following categories: time. These components inform the completion of the planning matrix. instructional materials. and organize an individual’s program with many methodologies that target the core challenges faced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. target skill/short-term objective. data collection. home. versus abstract language that utilizes vague and general vocabulary where the listener is responsible for their own interpretation of the message. sensory issues. Comprehensive autism planning system. communication. general and special education staff. See CAT Scan COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY. This process begins with informal information gathering about factors directly related to the individual’s program success.. activity. or the workplace. local and regional). speech language pathologists.

S. intestinal obstruction. unintentional. § 1232 et seq. and difficult to pass. Consent must be given voluntarily by parents who have sufficient information and who have the capacity to give consent. THERESA L. THERESA L. consent can be revoked at any time while the activity for which consent was given occurs. REFERENCE Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).CONSTIPATION Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). it is important to be aware of the function of behavior before assigning a consequence. (2006). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). ranging from 2–3 times a day to 1–2 times per week. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). § 1439(639)]. disrupting class.S. 20 U. In this case. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA). and medications. For example.S. EARLES-VOLLRATH CONSEQUENCE A consequence is what happens immediately after a behavior or response. EARLES-VOLLRATH CONSENT Consent is the act of giving written permission by an individual who is fully informed on information relevant to the proposed activity. 1996). the consequence shapes the behavior that precedes it. § 1401 et seq.S. REFERENCES Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) 20 U. M. positive.S. psychological problems. There is a wide variety on ‘‘normal’’ frequency of bowel movement. In addition to IDEA. written parental consent is required prior to the following: initial evaluation. 1975) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability act (HIPPA. including the right of parents to written notice of and written consent to the exchange of such information’’ [20 U. two other major pieces of legislation regulate third-party access to educational and medical records: the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA. placement of students in special education. 20 U.C. BRUCE BASSITY 91 . 20 U. Numerous factors can contribute including diet.C.C. change of placement. there is a ‘‘right to confidentiality of personally identifiable information. The law and special education (2nd ed). a student who disrupts math class and is consequently sent from the room may be escaping math class. L. FURTHER INFORMATION Yell. § 1414(a) (1) (D)). dry. KATIE BASSITY CONSTIPATION Constipation is a condition in which the passage of stool decreases in frequency and/or stools become hard. NJ: Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River.C. lack of appropriate schedule. Therefore.C. Regardless. and release of records (IDEA. § 1414(a) (1) (D). A consequence may be intentional. or negative. In addition. the consequence is exactly what the student desires and only serves to strengthen the behavior.

removed. Salkind. norm-referenced assessments measure how much one knows. REFERENCE Ferster. C. 17. one group of children would receive the intervention that is being studied while the control group would not receive the intervention and would either receive an alternate treatment or no treatment at all. LACAVA CORRECTIONAL FACILITY A court appointed facility for juvenile offenders where education services are provided for an established time period set by the juvenile court system. J.g. Exploring research (6th ed. 92 . JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING A contingency contract is an agreement between two individuals. These assessments provide information regarding what a student knows related to a standard or criteria. Also known as a behavior contract.CONTINGENCY CONTINGENCY A contingency is the relationship between a behavior and its associated consequences. FURTHER INFORMATION Everitt. N.). B. The Cambridge dictionary of statistics (2nd ed. Upper Saddle River. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. B. 1965). KATHERINE E. Psychological Record. KATIE BASSITY CONTROL GROUP/CONTROL CONDITION The control group (also called control condition or comparison group) is used to compare the different groups in an experimental research study. For example. (2002).. NJ: Prentice Hall. usually a student and teacher or other adult. (2005).). 341–347. or withheld following the occurrence of a specific behavior. Arbitrary and natural reinforcement. S. A contingency exists when an event is consistently presented. or they can be contrived (e. (1965). in contrast. Educational services are continued if the student had an Individualized Education Program (IEP) at the time of entrance into the juvenile system. when a piece of food is given for an appropriate response). it is usually written out and explicitly names a desired behavior that the student commits to in return for explicitly named reinforcement that the teacher or other adult will provide when the desired behavior occurs. Contingencies can occur naturally (Ferster. PAUL G. COOK CRITERION-REFERENCED ASSESSMENT A criterion-referenced assessment measures a student’s mastery of specific content or skills. A contingency contract is generally put in place to encourage a positive behavior in place of an existing undesired behavior. The purpose of the control group is to increase the strength by which researchers can claim that the intervention (the independent variable) caused the changes in subject behavior and that other factors were not involved. in an investigation of a reading intervention.

West Nyack. G. An advantage of this assessment method is that the results relate directly to instructional objectives and materials. CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. NY: Center for Applied Research in Education. L. COOK CURRICULUM-BASED ASSESSMENT Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA) is an ongoing. THERESA L. Belmont. and remediate specific difficulties. R. FURTHER INFORMATION Scheuermann.CURRICULUM-BASED ASSESSMENT FURTHER INFORMATION Pierangelo. See CAT Scan CURRICULUM Curriculum is the subject matter that is to be taught by the teacher and mastered by the student. Curriculum is usually described in terms of its scope and sequence. (1998). (2002). Assessment of exceptional students: Educational and psychological procedures (7th ed. to determine whether it matches the Individualized Education Program of a student who had been recommended to receive services there. Taylor. MA: Allyn and Bacon. B. One might examine the curriculum of a special school. Needham Heights. KATHERINE E. & Webber.). (2006).. R. Special educator’s complete guide to 109 diagnostic tests: How to select and interpret tests. EARLES-VOLLRATH 93 . EARLES-VOLLRATH CT SCAN. alternative method of assessing student performance that compares the student’s abilities with the curricular sequence he will be taught or the content that has been taught. Autism: Teaching does make a difference. THERESA L. for example. & Giuliani. J. use results in IEPs.


(b) manage personal finances (counting money. and using banking services independently). and physical disorders (ADTA. (c) care for personal and home needs (bathing independently. ANDREA M. or mental handicaps. self confidence. easing chronic pain. (f) social interaction skills (interpersonal skills. Life centered career education: A competency based approach (4th ed. BABKIE DANCE THERAPY Dance. decreasing muscular tension. making change.). trusting personal impulses. . VA: Council for Exceptional Children. and enhancing the circulatory and respiratory systems. communicating with others appropriately). or movement therapy. One of the guiding ideas behind dance therapy is the connection between the mind and body and how this connection influences a person’s well-being and mental functioning. doing laundry. and encouraging self-expression. and cleaning the house). visual or hearing impairments. 2006). is the therapeutic use of movement and dance as a method to treat emotional. (1997). social. Dance/movement therapy can be a tool for stress management. (e) understand health and safety issues (knowing who to contact in an emergency). being able to make short trips.D DAILY LIVING SKILLS Daily living skills are those behaviors that are required for independence in the current environment and in adult life. FURTHER INFORMATION Brolin. D. cognitive. Depending on age and ability level. self-advocacy. It can also benefit those with diagnoses including learning disabilities. the prevention of physical and mental health problems. these skills may be included in school learning in order to ensure the individual achieves the greatest self-reliance and independence in adult life. Reston. this movement is physical and provides the benefits of exercise and improved health. This type of therapy promotes improvement by creating bonds between clients. (d) navigate the community using various means of transportation (knowing where one lives. For many students identified with ASD. and (g) decision making/problem solving. In addition. and using public transportation or driving a car). daily living skills may include knowledge to: (a) purchase foods and prepare meals.

simultaneous. is a prerequisite for learning and memory. Dance/movement therapists can work with clients on an individual basis or in a group setting in general hospitals. The Academy of Dance Therapists Registered (ADTR) is an advanced designation and is reserved for those individuals who have completed 3. and completed 700 hours of a supervised clinical internship. Who we are. REFERENCE Naglieri. Arousal. Alertness can be sustained for a period of time and is selective. REFERENCE American Dance Therapy Association 2006. The relationship between all the component parts must be incorporated into some complete pattern or idea. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DATA Data is a large class of practically important statements collected from each subject or the variables through measurements or observations. PASS consists of four cognitive components (planning. (1999). developmental centers. Attention tasks in the CAS require the individual to selectively attend to one and ignore the other aspect of a two-dimensional stimulus.). Those statements may comprise numbers. LYNN DUDEK DAS-NAGLIERI COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (CAS) Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (Naglieri. New York: Wiley. mental health centers. words. schools.adta. and successive processes) that form a complex and interdependent system. Data on its own has no meaning. The CAS is appropriate for use with individuals between the ages of 5 and 18. have a master’s degree. J.com. Planning tasks in the CAS require an individual to develop some approach of solving the task in an efficient and effective manner. Attention implies that the individual is alert. Successive processing refers to the person’s ability to keep things in a particular order. 2006. or alertness. Referrals and/or recommendations may come from a primary care physician regardless of whether the dance/movement therapist is an independent provider or part of a treatment team. Simultaneous processing refers to the person’s facility in relating and integrating discrete pieces of information. from www. Retrieved September 20. Simultaneous tasks in the CAS require the individual to interrelate the component parts of a particular item to arrive at the correct answer. Essentials of CAS Assessment (Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series). psychiatric hospitals. 1999) is a norm-referenced measure of intelligence based on the PASS theory of cognitive processing.640 hours of supervised clinical work as well as other supervision requirements by a dance therapist who has received the Academy of Dance Therapists Registered designation. and rehabilitation centers. Planning refers to a set of decisions or strategies an individual adopts and modifies to solve a problem and to reach a goal. attention. or images. It only takes on 96 . (n.d. Successive tasks in the CAS require the individual to either reproduce a particular sequence of events or answer some questions that require correct interpretation of the linearity of events.DAS-NAGLIERI COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (CAS) The designation of Dance Therapy Registered (DTR) is for individuals who are at the entry level.

PRESTIA DEMENTIA INFANTALIS. A common application of desensitization is the pairing of an aversive stimulus with a reinforcing stimulus with gradual. See Childhood Disintegrative Disorder DESENSITIZATION Desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an individual’s negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. For example. desensitization (or graduated exposure therapy) is a process for mitigating the harmful effects of phobias or other disorders. KELLY M. It also occurs when an emotional response is repeatedly evoked in situations in which the action tendency that is associated with the emotion proves irrelevant or unnecessary. desensitization is the loss of responsiveness to the continuing or increasing dose of a drug. People or computers can find patterns in data to perceive information. increased exposure to what is aversive. adaptive responses. In psychology. In other words. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DEVELOPMENTAL AGE Developmental age is an index of development stated as the age of an individual and determined by specified standardized measurements such as motor and mental tests and body measurement. See also chelation. heavy metals. developmental age is the physical.DEVELOPMENTAL AGE meaning and becomes information when interpreted by some kind of data processing system. social. Detoxification is not currently supported by empirical research. This information helps the individual organize his body and movements into more purposeful. an individual who fears snakes would begin by looking at a snake from afar and gradually working to hold the snake. KAI-CHIEN TIEN DEEP PRESSURE PROPRIOCEPTION TOUCH TECHNIQUE Deep pressure proprioception touch technique is a method of intervention that provides sensory information to the joints and larger muscle groups in the body through firm touch and pressure. and intellectual growth changes that have occurred within a particular child. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DESIRED BEHAVIOR. poisons). See Target Behavior DETOXIFICATION Detoxification is a practice that purportedly removes toxins from the body in order to improve functioning and/or reduce symptoms related to the presence of toxins (heavy metals. emotional. It is a measure of a child’s development or maturation in different domains expressed in terms of age norm. In pharmacology. neurological. and information can be used to enhance knowledge. vaccinations. Those growth changes are unique to the child and make the child different from every other child. All children mature at slightly 97 .

27–28). In terms of the pervasive developmental disorders. Thus developmental disorders do not cover the whole range of childhood psychiatric or mental health difficulties that are seen (Goodman & Scott. depression. Disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (also known diagnostically as pervasive developmental disorders) are considered primarily as neurodevelopmental disorders with neurological or genetic factors influencing the cause. 2000) to include the following: Autistic disorder. and anxiety disorders.pdf. (1991).DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY different rates. These include speech and language delay. REFERENCE Division of Early Childhood. Retrieved October 17. the division between these groupings is somewhat spurious and due more to convenience than to any defined difference between the developmental status of the conditions. JAN L. all of the disorders reported in disruptive behaviors and emotional disorders can be seen in children and present during development. generalized learning disabilities. A child’s developmental age may or may not correspond with his or her chronological age. Rett’s disorder. pp. and so on. It does not refer to a condition in which a child is slightly or momentarily lagging in development. these are currently listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR: APA.org/pdf/positionpapers/PositionStatement_DevDelay. reading delay. and encopresis. presentation. early onset schizophrenia. 2005. The latter two conditions are different than the former three in that they are thought to be of 98 . anorexia nervosa. Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified. enuresis. and hyperactivity (grouped as disruptive behavior disorders). oppositional-defiant disorder. KLEIN DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER Developmental disorder is the term used to describe a diagnostic grouping of conditions seen from childhood and into adulthood. phobias. from http://www. obsessive-compulsive disorder.decsped. and progress of the disorder. those developmental disorders that incorporate autism. Developmental delay can be diagnosed by the child’s pediatrician through a series of tests or checklists. However.’’ Without early or special interventions it is likely that educational performance at school age will be affected. ‘‘developmental delay is a condition which presents a significant delay in the process of development. 2006. KAI-CHIEN TIEN DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY As defined by the Division of Early Childhood (DEC) in 1991. Indeed. and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. In addition. so are often also referred to as developmental. Asperger’s disorder. there are other disorders seen in childhood that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned groupings: Tourette’s syndrome. They are a heterogeneous group that are characterized by abnormality or delay in the development of functions and abilities that normally are seen during childhood development or maturation. attachment disorders. and somatization (grouped as emotional disorders). Other disorders that are usually grouped elsewhere are conduct disorder. autism spectrum disorders.

These activities are incorporated in the development of the child’s milestones. & Scott. 1993.. (2005). (c) specific therapies. The general approach of the DIR model is to assist children in developing logical understanding of the world around them through a variety of interventions including floor time. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. (2000).).DEVELOPMENTAL INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCE RELATION-BASED INTERVENTION (DIR) different origin or etiology to autism disorders. 1990). Korkman. emotional. 1998. Chelune. and motor skills according to typical developmental landmarks helps determine and address the developmental delays associated with pervasive developmental delays such as autism (Greenspan & Wieder. 1995. Child psychiatry (2nd ed. the desire to differentiate between similar presentations. independence. autism is considered as a form of developmental delay (Greenspan & Wieder. and academics. sequencing. Talley. Finally. however. DC: Author. DIR focuses on several components as part of the intervention program. S. (b) school programming. language. Johnson. This is done through using emotional and motivating experiences to help the child master the building blocks of social skills. but are included under the general term of pervasive developmental disorders due to the similarity in features. according to Greenspan. and (c) sensorimotor activities. Kay. Goldstein. For example. 99 . the floor time component is only part of the approach. Kirk. These include: (a) home programming.). DIR is a framework for assessment and intervention for children with challenges related to social relatedness and communication. Washington. & Minshew. learning specific concepts. 2001) are consistent across autism and pervasive developmental disorders. and the fact that the difficulties seen are pervasive. failure to attain the capabilities of joint attention (Reed. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. 2002) and social reciprocity (Conners & Multi-Health Systems Staff. (d) biomedical interventions. (b) semi-structured problem-solving interactions. Stone & Lemanek. text rev. Heaton. cognitive. language. SCOTT DEVELOPMENTAL INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCE RELATION-BASED INTERVENTION (DIR) Developed by Stanley Greenspan and Serena Wieder. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. and symbolic functioning required for pretend-play also indicate possible autism or a related condition (Greenspan & Wieder. OVERVIEW OF THE DIR MODEL Greenspan and Wieder believe that teaching children through the DIR model enables them to become independent thinkers. Other missed milestones in functional language and early motor capacities. Additionally. charting the social. Goodman. modulation of sensory input is also highly correlated with autism and other pervasive developmental delays (Kientz & Dunn. R. FIONA J. 2003). along with planning. developmental individual difference relation-based intervention (DIR) is often referred to as floor time.. home and school programs should consist of the three following learning experiences: (a) floor time sessions. Minshew & Goldstein. 1997. 2003). & Kemp. 1998. & Curtis. Within the DIR model. 2003). and (e) family support. As with physical development. 2001.

Due to the developmental nature of the stages. or isolationist behaviors. logical thought. 100 .DEVELOPMENTAL INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCE RELATION-BASED INTERVENTION (DIR) Greenspan and Wieder (1998) identify six developmental milestones children with autism need to master in order to develop the necessary skills of communication. Failure to reach and work through this developmental phase stems from issues of sensory integration leading to difficulties in motor planning. and hearing) and two inner (vestibular and proprioception) senses to gather information from the environment while self-regulating the strength and quality of the input for successful interaction with the environment. or perhaps watches from the sidelines appearing that they would like to get involved. Failure to master this level of development results in a child that can be hard to engage. smell. Milestone 2: Intimacy Success in this stage means the child demonstrates interest in interacting in a warm. whereas the response to another person’s intent to interact is considered as closing the circle of communication. thinking. each milestone must be mastered before attempting to reach the next level. and reading the behavior of others without direct (often intensive) instruction. This child now conceptualizes behavioral sequences that he or she can use to convey wishes and intentions as well as reading them in others. Success in this stage presents a child who feels secure in his interactions with others as a prerequisite for understanding that his communicative intent affects others’ reactions and that he has an impact on the world. resulting in defensive. 1998). joyful. and coping with the world on a cognitive-emotional level. SIX DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES Milestone 1: Self-Regulation and Interest in the World Success in this stage means the child is able to use his five outer (sight. taste. seems oblivious to the environment. and loving manner with their peers as well as others. scary. Two-way communication occurs with single gestures to initiate (open) and to respond to (close) circles of communication (Greenspan & Wieder. necessitating outside help in facilitating interaction and taking initiative. Many children who experience difficulties at this stage prefer the company of older people because adults are more able to scaffold conversations and other interactions with them. touch. For some children. Milestone 3: Two-Way Communication The initiation of interaction is considered as opening the circle of communication. Difficulty in reading nonverbal and pragmatic information impinges on successful two-way communication. or painful. due to lack of perceptible data from the environment. the child becomes more overwhelmed and confused. Failure to master this level of development—likely due to sensory processing difficulties—results in the environment becoming confusing. As the complexity of two-way communication increases. irritable. Milestone 4: Complex Communication The child who successfully navigates this level has mastered the basics of two-way communication and developed a vocabulary for expressing wishes. Other children. will take little interest in their environment and seem detached. failure to master this stage demonstrates itself in becoming overwhelmed with sensory input resulting in irritable behavior or shutting down.

S. C. Chelune. Conners continuous performance test. N. C. G.DEVELOPMENTAL INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCE RELATION-BASED INTERVENTION (DIR) Milestone 5: Emotional Ideas—‘‘The Ability to Create Ideas’’ The child begins to engage in appropriate representational play at this stage (Greenspan & Wieder. R. G. A baby doll will be fed and told ‘‘night night’’ when it is time to sleep.. (2001). According to Greenspan and Wieder (1998). (2003). accidents. Hollander (Ed. Assessment and early identification. G. 57–86).. Autism spectrum disorders (pp.. MA: Addison Wesley. For example. and repairs rather than turning it upside down to spin the wheels.. R. The child with special needs: Encouraging intellectual and emotional growth. New York: Marcel Dekker. & Curtis.. & Wieder. J. S. after the doll goes to sleep. & Minshew.. REFERENCES Conners. K. Greenspan. travel. 2000). (1998). S. and emotional coping’’ (p. Miller & Eller-Miller. In E. For example. Stress is placed on the child mastering each developmental level before attempting to complete the next level as opposed to chronological age as a consideration. S. Johnson. 89) and decreases the negative impact the autism spectrum disorder has for the person’s development.. Greenspan. Inc. & Multi-Health Systems Staff. the two activities are now connected. Toronto: MHS. how his or her actions affect another person. & Wieder. The child who is unable to master this milestone continues to have difficulties with intimate and two-way communication. 1989. events. communication occurs only when motivated. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders. The child also begins to narrate these activities. The child now uses toy cars for pretend races. the child can now say. G. and ideas. J. FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. The child develops a greater understanding of self. and vice versa. and words now have meaning rather than being just symbols of objects. 31(4):433–440.’’ and can interact on higher levels of emotionality as verbal and spatial skills increase. Milestone 6: Emotional Thinking A child who is at stage six is able to connect the islands of emotional expression and sequence several representative pretend-play events. (1993). Talley. people. 1998. Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) manual revised and expanded. thinking. The previous emotional milestones seem to have been achieved at times but often fall apart under stress and result in being unable to close circles of communication. mastering these developmental milestones gives the child a foundation of ‘‘critical basic tools for communicating. Heaton. J. however. Goldstein. K. (1995). The child can use words to explain thoughts and feelings. Reading. Attentional processes in autism. G. For example. 101 .). Odessa.. While he or she often shows an interest in toys and can keep calm. Emotional islands of expression are formed around these activities. instead of playing with the toy cars and doll as explained previously as separate events. ‘‘I am happy that you gave me cookies and milk. and to create stories. L. Kay. mommy and daddy doll may bring her into the car for a drive to the ice cream store or a friend’s house where the baby doll may wake up to play with friends or to eat. The child who is unable to reach this stage remains unable to link the emotional islands described earlier. He or she may use one-word requests for wants and needs but will rarely use items for representative play or create a story..

513–522. 63–76..). DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Wieder (Eds. STEPHEN SHORE DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE Professionals who adhere to developmental models such as those based on Piaget’s theories often refer to their philosophy as developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). J. & Goldstein. 530– 537. L. 39–56). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 489–516). 1987. U. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. & Eller-Miller. Bredekamp. E. NJ: Ablex. Bredekamp & Copple.). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. W. S. Talk with teachers of young children: A collection. Miller. A comparison of the performance of children with and without autism on the Sensory Profile. New York: Wiley-Interscience. toddlers and children with developmental challenges (pp. Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. From ritual to repertoire: A cognitive-developmental systems approach with behavior-disordered children. In S. (2000). 1095–1101.. & Eller-Miller. (2000 November). W. Can my baby learn to dance? In L. (2002). Autism screening and neurodevelopmental assessment. Autism spectrum disorders (pp. C. text rev. 51. This practice is based on knowledge about what is typically expected of and experienced by children of different ages and developmental stages. As Katz (1995) states. Norwood. Washington. Katz. Spence. T. 14(1). & Kemp. TX: The Psychological Corporation.. Minshew. S. New York: Marcel Dekker. & Dunn. L. 98–128). (1990). Inc. 20. S. Asperger syndrome in adolescence: The ups. Reed. and inbetweens (pp. 42. K.. downs.). 1997).. J. D. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th. KAI-CHIEN TIEN 102 . A. (1997). H. (2001). Greenspan & S. A developmental neuropsychological assessment. (1995). Korkman.. S. TX: Future Horizons. social and communication issues. Gutstein.. A. ed. (1989). E. (1997). (2003). FURTHER INFORMATION American Psychiatric Association. (1998). ICDL clinical practices guidelines: Revising the standards of practice for infants. MD: The Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders. (2000). & Copple. M. Autism Aspergers: Solving the relationship puzzle: A new developmental program that opens the door to lifelong social & emotional growth. Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs. The Miller method: A cognitive-developmental systems approach for children with body organization. 109). Arlington. S. S. In E. Visual perspective taking as a measure of working memory in participants with autism. Kirk. N. Miller. & Geschwind. S. Parental report of social behaviors in autistic preschoolers. L. Bredekamp. Gutstein. Stone. Bethesda. The philosophy and the guidelines for DAP are described in widely disseminated materials published by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC. Washington. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. Washington. DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. A.). G. & Lemanek. San Antonio. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. Willey (Ed. A. (2003).DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE Kientz. DC: Author.. Hollander (Ed. REFERENCES Bredekamp. (1987). The pattern of intact and impaired memory functions in autism. ‘‘what should be learned and how it would best be learned depend on what we know of the learner’s developmental status and our understanding of the relationships between early experience and subsequent developments’’ (p..

DEVELOPMENTAL SURVEILLANCE DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES Developmental milestones are a set of functional skills that most children can do at a certain age range as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics. S. REFERENCE Lifter. (n. K. 2006.. Retrieved October 17. 139–159. & Cowdery. (1993). Lifter.g.. Play activities have been identified as critical to the development of language. and 12 months. motor skills. During the first year. Anderson. and teachers) as well as parents or other family members. 17(2). KLEIN DEVELOPMENTAL PLAY ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT (DPA) The Developmental Play Assessment Instrument (DPA. continuous process whereby knowledgeable professionals perform skilled observations of children during the provision of health care. and social interaction in children with developmental disabilities. and personal-social skills (e. balancing. Teaching play activities to preschool children with disabilities: The importance of developmental considerations. from http://www. JAN L. alertness. Journal of Early Intervention.cfm. adaptive behavior (e. sitting).org/ healthtopics/stages. The DPA identifies a child’s current level of performance in the play curriculum and then determines the steps necessary for that child to acquire more developmentally challenging play activities. See also standardization tests.. 6. but DQ is also used for estimates of mental age based on the impressions of professionals (e. Sulzer-Azaroff. the actual age when a normally developing child reaches that milestone can vary. & Cowdery.g. dressing). feeding. Sulzer-Azaroff.. The overall developmental score relates to performance in four domains: motor skills (e. providing an evaluation of the quality of a child’s toy play skills in relation to those of typically developing children. the milestones are usually assessed at 3.g. pediatricians.d. These milestones can be broken down into the following areas: (a) motor skills.). (b) sensory and thinking skills. The components of developmental surveillance include: (a) eliciting and 103 . 1993) is designed as a curriculum-based assessment of children’s play activities. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DEVELOPMENTAL QUOTIENT Used to express a developmental delay. B. Although each milestone has a corresponding age level. exploration).g. REFERENCE American Academy of Pediatrics.. language use. Anderson. the adaptive Developmental Quotient (DQ) is a ratio of the developmental (functional) age to the chronological age and is expressed as a percentile. These milestones are used by qualified professionals to check developmental progress. G.. JAN L. KLEIN DEVELOPMENTAL SURVEILLANCE Developmental surveillance is a flexible.aap. child psychologists. and (c) language and social skills. DQ can be calculated on the basis of standardized developmental tests suitable for young children.

Developmental therapy matches teaching strategies to a student’s needs. and producing recognizable single words or meaning sequencing of words. To accomplish this. responding to verbal cues. and then evaluates the progress. display no problem solving skills. The stages included in the program are as follows: ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: Responding to the environment with pleasure Responding to the environment with success Successful group participation Investing in group process. aggressions. JAN L. stage one’s main goal is for the students to use words to gain their needs. responds to an adult when his or her name is called. attends to other’s behaviors. KLEIN DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY Developmental therapy (DT) is a program designed to enhance social functioning during interactions between people. and indicating recall of routine without assistance. responding to a verbal stimuli with a motor behavior. with concern for others Using individual and group skills in new situations Students in stage one may be impulsive. The components that DT addresses are: behavior. the student indicates an awareness of others. In the area of communication. independently responding to play materials. (c) making accurate and informative observations of children. socialization. socialization. helps create an understanding of uneven or splinter skills. and conveys a beginning awareness of self. deprivation. demonstrates an understanding of a single verbal request or direction. responding to stimuli. These communication milestones prepare a child for work toward the socialization goal of trusting and communicating with adults. and/or display self-injurious behaviors when problems occur. communication. This structured teaching program can be used for students from birth to age 16. and (d) sharing opinions and concerns with other relevant professionals. and academics—used in developmental therapy. Behavioral milestones in stage one include indicating awareness of sensory stimuli. and uncertainty. This lack of ability to handle problems may be attached to anxiety. aggression. especially in students with an autism spectrum disorder. assists in revising program strategies. The four components address several milestones during each stage—behavior. each stage consists of four components. attending to the person speaking. using recognizable word approximation or words to describe.DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY attending to parental concerns. communication. spontaneously moving from area to area. The last 104 . stemming from feelings of abandonment. label. (b) obtaining a relevant developmental history. interacts with an adult nonverbally or verbally to have needs met. and academics. helplessness. have tantrums. Misunderstandings of social situations may lead to withdrawal. with various disabilities. Milestones in the communication component include producing sounds. engages in organized and solitary play. and lower self-esteem. Pediatricians often use age-appropriate developmental checklists to record milestones during preventive care visits as part of developmental surveillance. or request. Developmental therapy consists of five stages.

and maintaining acceptable physical and verbal behavior in a group. Students share materials. take turns. and numeration. and participate in sitting and movement activities without intervention helps strengthen skills. These concerns include pleasing adults. imitate appropriate behavior of peers. While focusing on the skills needed to interact and participate appropriately in groups. spontaneously using words to share information with adults and other children. limited awareness of cause and effect. wait without physical intervention by an adult. the student develops self-help skills and motor coordination comparable to the level of a 5-year-old. the time Stage 3 students take to progress varies. low confidence or self-esteem. impulsive behaviors. Teaching students to play with materials appropriately. The students need to show that they are able to spontaneously describe personal experiences and ideas. Socially. participate in group discussions. spontaneously imitate simple. Milestones in this area show spontaneous short-term memory for people and objects. An improvement in the student’s communication skills directly affects their socialization goal of finding satisfaction in group activities. The overall goal of stage two. lead or demonstrate a group activity. The behavioral milestone for stage two focuses on participating in routines and activity with success. understanding the rules and reasons that regulate behavior. spontaneously using simple word sequences. The student also concentrates on language. the students in this stage work on initiating imaginative play and appropriate social movement towards peers and participating in sharing activities and interactive play with peers. The concern with looking good to others motivates students and recognition of fair play and a preoccupation with law and order makes the introduction of rules a smooth transition. Academically.DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY component’s goal. is accomplished by addressing the concerns of the students. using 105 . The students’ motivation to gain adult approval and seek recognition allows the adults to address the four components in this stage. identifying own body parts. and participate in activities suggested by other students. These beginning level skills of Stage 3 help students develop a friendship with a peer and spontaneously seek out assistance from peers (social milestones serve as the end goal). describe attributes of themselves and others. up to the number 10. refraining from unacceptable behavior when others are losing control. tangible characteristics of oneself and others. mental processes of discrimination. such as answering questions or requests with relevant words. Stage 3 students vary from being able to perform at the level of a 6-year-old to reading and writing simple sentences. and sorting two types of similar objects with slightly different attributes. During these activities. ineffective responses to adults and peers. classification. requires the student to respond to the environment with intentional body movements and basic mental processes of memory. adults encourage the students to use words constructively. and indicate an understanding of names of familiar objects. matching shapes of objects with corresponding space. and receptive language. Academically. academics. indicating comprehension of others. and frustration directed toward adults. show positive and negative feelings appropriately. familiar actions of adults. and describing simple. show fineand large-motor skills associated with an 18-month-old developmental level. sequencing. responding to the environment with success. and recognize the feelings of other students. Instructors teach and evaluate skills such as completing individual tasks independently.

TX: Pro-Ed. 106 . Stage 5. MELISSA L. the last component in Stage 4. Academics. Participating in new activities with control. The activities that are incorporated into DT help students feel successful and produce social-emotional competence while promoting responsible behavior in students. suggesting group activities. These students are concerned with meeting the expectations of others. and pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified.DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS addition and subtraction involving time and money. and feelings. Overall. FURTHER INFORMATION Wood. M. writing to communicate information. regrouping. M. developmental therapy emphasizes structured activities that help students promote their social-emotional functioning.). Asperger’s disorder. Developmental therapy–developmental teaching: Fostering social-emotional competence in troubled children and youth (3rd ed. TRAUTMAN DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS– FOURTH EDITION–TEXT REVISED (DSM-IV-TR) The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). such as computing values for money up to 10 dollars. The student learns to express their feelings appropriately in a group and explain the cause-and-effect relationships between feelings and behaviors. and problem solving all signal the student’s accomplishment of the socialization milestones in Stage 4. is a guidebook most commonly used by mental health professionals in the United States to diagnose mental disorders. Developmental therapy serves as a useful teaching method for students on the autism spectrum. Real-life experiences and group activities are used with Stage 4 students to address the goal of investing in group processes and demonstrating concern for others. Austin. implementing acceptable alternative behaviors. teaches skills students need in new situations. Both communication and socialization goals target group communication and participating successfully as a group member. pervasive developmental disorder includes autistic disorder. and reading for pleasure and personal information. use appropriate words to establish and enrich relationships. childhood disintegrative disorder. These skills help students respond to life experiences with constructive behaviors. and socialization milestones continue to be taught and addressed in this stage. When presented with a problem. covers skills needed for successful social group experiences. academics. events. For example. Behavior. they accept responsibility for themselves and vacillate between conforming to the peer group or standing apart. initiate and maintain effective interpersonal relationships independently. Rett’s disorder. The final stage. The behavioral milestones in Stage 4 address skills that enable the student to contribute to the group’s success. and accepting responsibility for their actions and attitudes are the skills taught to achieve the behavioral goal. using place value. (1996). The DSM uses medical concepts and terminology and classifies criteria-based disorders into distinct categories and subcategories. and multiplication to solve problems. expressing awareness of other’s actions. published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). and utilize academic skills for personal enrichment. Listening to group members. communication.

Current dietary interventions for the treatment of autism include the use of vitamins and minerals. S. and much more research is needed in this area for parents and professionals to make important decisions. some believe that dietary changes may lessen the effects of autism spectrum disorder. yeasts. This is 107 . de Boer-Ott. R. E. dimethylglycine (DMG) supplements.. carbohydrates. Intestinal disorders can interfere with the proper absorption of some vitamins and minerals. et al. rye.DIET THERAPY REFERENCE American Psychiatric Association. B.. and families treated thrush. Autism spectrum disorders: Interventions and treatments for children and youth. Dietary interventions have been used to address several major concerns for those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DIET Diet has been a focus for many families and professionals who attempt to help those with autism. L. well-controlled. and various foods prepared by curing or drying. K. The rationale behind using vitamins and minerals is the idea that these children may have absorption problems and/or nutritional deficiencies due to dietary difficulties (ASA. some individuals with autism have difficulties breaking down certain proteins such as gluten or casein.). text rev. a typically found yeast-producing disease in humans. diet therapy has been used to treat or lessen the effects of certain conditions from heart disease to autism. Sailors used limes or vinegar to treat scurvy (for the vitamin C). gluten-free. See also diet therapy. R. VITAMINS AND MINERALS Through anecdotal reports. 2006). (2000). Washington... with buttermilk. Thousand Oaks. For example. CA: Corwin Press. DC: Author. T. consistent. K. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. FURTHER INFORMATION Simpson. While there is no diet or medication that can cure autism. (2004). gluten/casein-free foods. PAUL G. While some of these methods may show improvement in a child’s behavior and/or language skills. LACAVA DIET THERAPY The use of specific foods and special diets to treat diseases and conditions has existed for hundreds of years. and dairy products. empirically based research does not exist in sufficient amounts to warrant widespread use. Other well-known diets include the ketogenic and Feingold diets. an oral yeast overgrowth. Today. Myles. This diet would reduce or eliminate certain sugars.. barley. S. D. Although there is limited and mixed supportive evidence for special diets. Griswold. and secretin therapy.. many have used this method. The gluten-free or casein-free diet has been one of the most used for those with ASD. Cook. Special diets have been used to treat infections from fungi such as Candida.. Otten. oat. this diet eliminates wheat. families have shared the benefits of using vitamin and mineral supplements in children on the autism spectrum.

GLUTEN/CASEIN-FREE This diet is the removal of all foods that contain gluten (the protein in wheat) and casein (the protein in milk). infusions of secretin were believed to decrease the symptoms of autism. By eliminating these foods. an opiate-like compound. LYNN DUDEK DIFFERENTIAL ABILITY SCALES The Differential Ability Scales (DAS.gfcfdiet. 6 months through 17 years. Retrieved September 20. GFCF Diet. Because the DAS covers such a wide age range. The DAS was designed to measure specific. a physician and/or health care professional must examine the child. Some children with autism have difficulties breaking down certain proteins (GFCF Diet. definable abilities and to provide interpretable profiles of strengths and weaknesses. and School-Age (6 years. 11 months). 11 months).d. This compound is also believed to augment immune responses. (2006). Retrieved September 20. Introductory FAQs. DMG is produced in the cells and aids in the metabolism of certain chemicals in the body.). (n. which allows direct ability-achievement 108 .DIFFERENTIAL ABILITY SCALES what drives some to believe that children with autism may have deficiencies in vitamins A and several B complexes as well as minerals like magnesium. 1990) is an individually administered battery of cognitive and achievement tests for children and adolescents ages 2 years. behaviors. Sturmey. DIMETHYLGLYCINE Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid that is naturally found in plant and animal cells (and in foods like brown rice and liver). The DAS also contains three achievement tests. 2006. n. 2006. will be eliminated and thus improve the functioning of children with autism. SECRETIN THERAPY Secretin is a hormone that is found naturally in the body (ASA. P. 6 months through 3 years. Upper Preschool (ages 3 years. Secretin is an ineffective treatment for pervasive developmental disabilities: A review of 15 double-blind randomized controlled trials. the child’s physician must be consulted. 5 months). Claims have been made that it aids in the management of autism because it is an oxygenator of brain and body tissues (citation). 2005). As with any dietary manipulation.com. 2006).org. and reactions as some vitamins may be toxic at certain levels. it is divided into three levels: Lower Preschool (ages 2 years. 87–97. Biomedical and dietary approaches. Before beginning vitamin therapy. Since that time. 26. REFERENCES Autism Society of America (ASA). from www. 0 months through 17 years. More human-based studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of this compound.). Elliott. 11 months. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 6 months through 5 years. (2005). Over the past few years. research has shown that the use of secretin to treat autism is ineffective (Sturmey. from www. Throughout vitamin therapy the child’s doctor should monitor blood levels.d.autism-society. co-normed with the cognitive battery. it is believed that the by-product of the breakdown of gluten and casein.

Heron. diagnostic.DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT discrepancy analysis. 2. REFERENCE Elliott. if a child is reinforced for having hands in his lap when the behavior of concern is doodling. 3. See also normalization. the possibilities can be narrowed down and more specific diagnostic testing or possible treatments can be instituted. (1990). or achievement tests. or a target behavior is reinforced under certain conditions but not others. & Heward. TX: PsychCorp. The following are the five types of differential reinforcement: 1. but the words are an alternative behavior to the aggression. Differential Ability Scales. 1999). 1983). The DAS is considered suitable for use in any setting in which the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents are to be evaluated. D. Having hands in your lap and doodling cannot occur at the same time. Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA): reinforces an appropriate and functional alternative to the inappropriate behavior (Alberto & Troutman. while the diagnostic subtests are those considered important and useful in the interpretation of an individual’s strengths and weaknesses. 109 . but which do not assess complex mental processing well. The two behaviors are not incompatible. For example. Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI) is the reinforcement of a behavior occurring at a time when it is impossible for the target behavior to occur (Deitz & Repp. By comparing signs and symptoms of similar diseases/conditions. The focus is on a behavior never occurring as opposed to one occurring and then being reinforced. 1961). The appropriate words and aggression are not incompatible. The core cognitive subtests are those used to compute the GCA and cluster scores. C. The DAS contains a total of 20 subtests grouped into core cognitive. Differential reinforcement of low rate of behavior (DRL): reinforces target behavior when it is present at a low rate (Cooper. having his hands in his lap would be an incompatible behavior to be reinforced. The DAS cognitive battery yields a composite score labeled General Conceptual Ability (GCA) that is defined as the general ability of an individual to perform complex mental processing that involves conceptualization and transformation. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO): reinforcement given when after a predetermined period of time the target behavior has not occurred (Reynolds. 1999). JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Differential diagnosis is a list of any and all conditions that might be the cause of the particular signs and symptoms under investigation. 1987). a student may be reinforced for using appropriate words to express emotion instead of using aggressive acts. which increases positive behavior and decreases inappropriate behavior (Alberto & Troutman. although many of the DAS subtests are not appropriate for students with severe sensory or motor disabilities. BRUCE BASSITY DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT Differential reinforcement occurs when a target behavior is reinforced while another behavior is not. San Antonio. For example. 4.

Dimethylglycine (DMG). 279–289. Heron. A. Belyakova. The steps of a direct instruction include: (a) the teacher giving a lecture. B-15 entered the United States market. outlawing B-15 and permitting the sale of DMG as a food. G. A. E. C. Upper Saddle River. REFERENCE Rimland. NJ: Prentice Hall. Cooper. NJ: Merrill. the children began to use simple sentences. 57–71. not as a drug or vitamin. JESSICA KATE PETERS AND TARA MIHOK DIMETHYLGLYCINE (DMG) Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a non-protein amino acid found naturally in animal and plant cells. 4(2). & Repp. L. See Developmental Individual-Difference Relation-Based Intervention DIRECT INSTRUCTION Direct instruction is used to describe a lesson where the teacher has control. W. 3. It is the main component of calcium pangamate. E.. and autism. their general mental state improved. P. While anecdotal evidence exists supporting the benefits of DMG for children with autism. S. & Heward.DIMETHYLGLYCINE (DMG) 5. published a report showing considerable improvement in the speech of 12 of a group of 15 mentally handicapped children who had not been able to use speech to communicate (Rimland.. & Heward. L. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. In addition to enriched vocabulary. Behavioral contrast. T. Reducing behavior through reinforcement. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DIR/FLOOR TIME. 34–46. 3. a nontoxic metabolite. C. (1987). and it is available in many health food stores without a prescription. Blumena and T. Deitz. (1961). M. there is no clear empirical research supporting such claims. Applied behavior analysis for teachers. D. and best known as vitamin B15. A. See also diet therapy. and there was better concentration and interest in toys and games. B.. Exceptional Education Quarterly. The history of DMG began in 1965 when two Russian investigators. The children had been treated with a substance variously known as calcium pangamate. 1987). Concurrently. O. Applied behavior analysis. Heron. also called pangamic acid. DMG is legally classified as a food. The Food and Drug Administration was forced to intervene. G. (b) the teacher guiding the students through a complex problem with the problem broken down into 110 . Reynolds. (1983). Upper Saddle River. An American psychiatrist used DMG on children with autism produced similar results. J. (1999). (1990). with manufacturers claiming to have replicated the Russian formula. 4. 1990). REFERENCES Alberto.. & Troutman. Differential reinforcement of high rate of behavior (DRH): reinforces target behavior when it is present at higher rates (Cooper. Autism Research Review International.

).. Many times this instruction will be given during direct instruction. Taras. the teacher gives the student an instruction. 1996). LACAVA DISABILITY A disability refers to restrictions or lack of ability to perform an activity within a range that is considered typical. Maurice. KLEIN DIRECT OBSERVATION Part of the assessment process. Taras. Luce (Eds. R. JAN L. & Cannon. Clear instruction eliminates misinterpretations and can greatly improve and accelerate training. G. Green. (1996). social interaction. and (d) the students are given one or many simple problems to accomplish on their own. KLEIN DISCRETE TRIAL TRAINING (BRIEF DEFINITION) Discrete trial training is a behavioral method stemming from the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) and is commonly used in the field of autism. or even a group. The teaching method includes several key steps. O. Teaching new skills to young children with autism. several persons. REFERENCE Anderson. B. In C. L.DISCRETE TRIAL TRAINING (EXTENDED DEFINITION) simple steps. S. one may observe specific behaviors (such as the number of times a student raises his hand in class) or overall general behavior. but can also be given during other routines or incidental teaching. direct observation is a common method of collecting information by formally observing an individual. JAN L. & S. It provides a model of instruction that emphasizes the use of carefully planned lessons designed around a specific knowledge base and a well-defined set of skills for each subject. 181–194).. & Cannon. Each sequence of steps is considered to be one discrete trial. disability may refer to impaired development in communication. In direct observation. and behavior. M. Behavioral intervention for young children with autism (pp. Austin. the simple steps to carry out on their own. (c) the students are given. The primary goal of direct instruction is to increase student achievement through carefully focused instruction. one by one. This type of instruction is only one method within the field of applied behavior analysis (Anderson. A disability can be temporary or permanent and typically produces difficulties when attempting to function in society. First. The child is then expected to respond to the teacher who then follows the response by giving corrective feedback and/or reinforcement for correct or approximated responses. PAUL G. TX: Pro-Ed. For a person with autism. TARA MIHOK DISCRETE TRIAL TRAINING (EXTENDED DEFINITION) Discrete trial training (DTT) is a highly structured teaching method that involves carefully manipulated sequences of antecedents and consequences in order to elicit a 111 .

‘‘throw away’’) due to language difficulties. however. we actually train a child to wait until he hears an instruction for the third or fourth time before he responds.g. This consistency must be maintained across all team members. Initially. behavior. holding up a card for the student to read and follow directions). At the onset of teaching a new skill. The discrete trial has also been referred to as a three-term contingency for the three main components: antecedent. and then the educator adds the next step. and beginning play and social skills. Later. self-stimulatory behaviors) should not be present at the time of the response. imitation. It is equally important to avoid repeating an antecedent without providing a consequence. The student 112 . they can become more complex (e. self-help. DTT should and typically does occur in a designated ‘‘work area’’ free of distractions (e. consequence (or ABC). A child responds to his name but it should be set apart from other instructions. It is important to avoid pairing the child’s name with the antecedent. behavior/response (R). The skills that can be taught using DTT include: compliance. The level of prompting decreases the student being able to respond independently. By repeating an antecedent. consequence (SR-reinforcing stimulus). ‘‘Throw away your plate and put your cup in the sink’’).g. the child associates his name as part of the sequence of the trial. THE ANTECEDENT/INSTRUCTION (SD–DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS) The antecedent initiates a discrete trial.. when a student acquires more language skills.g. Extraneous behaviors (e. it is imperative that a consistent format and planned wait time is used.g.. DTT requires the teacher to break down skills into small and specific instructional steps.g. When this is done. Most antecedents are verbal in nature and need to be delivered with an authoritative instructional voice. a table or space where student and teacher sit directly across from one another). the teacher uses an errorless teaching approach heavily prompting the student to avoid incorrect responding. language.. THE RESPONSE/BEHAVIOR (R) Consistent criteria must be used to determine an appropriate response. preacademic/academic. hence the term discrete. If the response is incorrect. Otherwise. an error correction procedure involving prompting will occur. antecedents should be simple (e. Therapists primarily use DTT with children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Educators teach each part in isolation until the child masters the skill.. A non-response is considered incorrect and may occur for several reasons. a child learns that a delayed response is acceptable and provides time for off-task behaviors to occur. a prompt (SP-prompting stimulus) will also be present when teaching a new skill (errorless teaching) or in an error correction procedure. If more than one person works with a particular student. The antecedent may also be nonverbal (e.. The components of a discrete trial include: antecedent/instruction (SD-discriminative stimulus). Again.DISCRETE TRIAL TRAINING (EXTENDED DEFINITION) target behavior. Each trial has a clear beginning and a clear end. motor. The time that lapses between the delivery of the antecedent and the child’s response should not extend 3–5 seconds. DTT can be used with other children as well. and the intertrial interval (ITI). The steps are taught through repeated trials. attending. and any changes to either should be a team decision.

verbal. position. Systematic fading of prompts is also necessary to avoid prompt dependency. The predetermined criteria for mastering a step must be met before adding the next step. then the elbow. Provide high levels of reinforcement while introducing and shaping (accepting closer and closer approximations) a response and then fade reinforcement to a more intermittent schedule. and limit the use of the reinforcer outside of the work session.g. A reinforcer should always be paired with social reinforcement in order to train ‘‘praise’’ as a reinforcer in itself. maximizing therapy times. reduce the reinforcement for prompted trials (e. edibles). Changes in the criteria need to be agreed upon by all team members. Pay particular attention that you are not inadvertently prompting a child with your body language. Once a child has mastered a skill. Positive reinforcement occurs when something preferred is delivered to the child (e. model. fade a physical hand over hand prompt to a prompt at the wrist. or finds the response aversive. ‘‘escape’’). With this system. conduct regular reinforcement inventories. Conducting a reinforcement inventory on a regular basis allows a teacher to determine the most highly preferred reinforcers (primary) versus less preferred reinforcers (secondary)..DISCRETE TRIAL TRAINING (EXTENDED DEFINITION) may not be ready. It must be short enough to avoid eliciting avoidance or undesirable behaviors.. offer a secondary reinforcer) and provide primary reinforcers for independent responses only. It should be just long enough to signal the end of one trial (consequence provided) and the beginning of the next (antecedent given). Using a token economy reinforcement system (e.. In order to avoid prompt dependency. When teaching independent functioning skills. THE CONSEQUENCE (SR–REINFORCING STIMULUS) The consequence consists of a reward for correct responses to strengthen a desirable behavior or an informational ‘‘no’’ and the removal of a reward to weaken an undesirable behavior. physical).g. more trials can be completed before a reinforcement break is given. On the other hand. Prompted trials should always be followed by unprompted trials to ensure independent responses. then the shoulder. children with autism tend to associate verbal prompts as part of the skill sequence and become dependent on the verbal cue. it is important to prompt physically rather than verbally. It is imperative that the consequence immediately follows the response in order for the child to correctly associate the direction and behavior.g.g. Otherwise. visual. 113 .. THE INTERTRIAL INTERVAL (ITI) The intertrial interval is simply a brief pause between trials. Particular attention should be paid to not satiate any one reinforcer.. Often times. may not know the correct response. a teacher utilizes brief time to record data and reset the teaching items needed for the next trial. negative reinforcement occurs when something unpleasant to the child is removed (e. For example.g. blocks in a cup or a penny board) teaches delayed gratification. Vary the reinforcement provided. THE PROMPT (SP–PROMPTING STIMULUS) A team decision determines the sequence of prompting used to teach a specific skill. prompt least to most (e. and then an independent response.

. MICHELE MULLENDORE DISCRIMINATION Discrimination is the act of making distinctions between stimuli on the basis of a particular category (i. materials. L. The SD 114 . B. Sundberg. (1998).. the discriminative stimulus is usually referred to as the SD. S.. TX: Pro-Ed. I. S. C. Green. Luce. G.. R. Lovaas. FURTHER INFORMATION Leaf. Maurice. Pleasant Hill. Teaching developmentally disabled children: The me book. it is imperative that a teacher programs or plans for generalization of skills. & Myles. gender). JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS In the field of applied behavior analysis.. when a label is mastered expressively.g. When teaching items are mastered and moved to maintenance-level programs. (1999). TX: Pro-Ed. M. (1996). and antecedents as language skills increase. For example. The SD is an antecedent trigger that signals that a specific behavior will be either reinforced or punished based upon past experiences. New York: DRL Books. CA: Behavior Analyst. race. W. Behavior analytic approaches focus heavily on the development and reinforcement of making correct discriminations. (1998). (1981). & Partington. R. shape. color. Austin. (2003). Generalization must occur across individuals. discrimination is critical in the development of language (pronoun usage) and social competence (social cues).. Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals. Lovaas. Austin. materials—different pictures of the same item) that would eventually include all four areas listed herein. J. See also differential reinforcement. Baltimore: University Park Press.e. Teaching individuals with developmental delays: Basic intervention techniques. L. the original teaching picture can be put in a maintenance program while the ‘‘label’’ is moved to generalization programs (e..DISCRIMINATION PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER The order of the discrete trial can thus be represented as: SD fi R fi SR fi ITI (SP) -orA fi B fi C fi ITI Antecedent Behavior Consequence Intertrial Interval GENERALIZATION Due to the highly structured nature of DTT. J. I. environments. Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities. O. Simpson. & McEachin. TX: Pro-Ed. A work in progress: Behavior management strategies and a curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of autism. More generally. C. Inc. they are typically introduced into target generalization programs in one or more of the previous areas depending on the child and the skill. Educating children and youth with autism: Strategies for effective practice. Austin. O.

TARA MIHOK AND ANDREA HOPF DISINTEGRATIVE PSYCHOSIS. or sounds that cue the person that reinforcement will occur if the stimulus is followed by correct behavior (Lovaas. P. 2005). See also experimental design. M.DOUBLE BLIND can be signals such as words. (2005). Distributed practice does more than simply increase the amount learned. the bell ringing at the end of the day is the discriminative stimulus for them to leave the classroom to go home (assuming that leaving school is reinforcing to the child).). Discrimination between stimuli is often learned by a behavior being reinforced following one trigger and being punished in the presence of another (Driscoll. Frequent distributed practice helps students maintain and develop concepts and skills that were previously introduced in a sequence and gives the students the time needed to find appropriate and meaningful ways of integrating information from a variety of sources. REFERENCES Driscoll. 2003). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed. For example. It has several functions in the body including regulation of circulation and blood pressure and as a neurotransmitter in the brain. reinforcer. TX: Pro-Ed. JAN L. Austin. The purpose of the double-blind study is to increase the strength of claims by researchers that the intervention (the independent variable) caused the change in behavior for participants who received the treatment and that other factors were not an issue. in a medication investigation. assuming that he or she follows the instruction with the knowledge that reinforcement will follow. Boston: Pearson Education. KLEIN DOPAMINE Dopamine is a substance that is synthesized by the adrenal glands (located on top of the kidneys). BRUCE BASSITY DOUBLE BLIND Double blind is a type of experimental research design where both the researchers and the participants do not know who is receiving the treatment. For other children. 115 . the phrase ‘‘Sit down’’ can be a discriminative stimulus to the child. O. neither the researcher nor the participants know who is receiving the drug under investigation or who is receiving the placebo. See also punishment. See Childhood Disintegrative Disorder DISTRIBUTED PRACTICE Distributed practice is a strategy in which the student exerts or distributes effort over time rather than concentrating effort within a short period. Teaching individuals with developmental delays: Basic intervention techniques. (2003). For example. Inc. I. it frequently shifts the learner’s attention away from the verbatim details of the material being studied to its deeper conceptual structure. in teaching a child to sit down. Lovaas. It is an immediate precursor to the formation of norepinephrine. gestures.

etc. etc. J. N. Unpublished Masters Thesis. eye contact. Zweber. (2005). But I realize that you don’t know very much about me.). It is often very difficult for the clients to ask any questions. PAUL G. (2002).). but the assessor is also evaluating the student’s nonverbal aspects of communication (e. the client struggles given that this is one aspect of social thinking that is a great challenge for him or her. C. At this point it is very common for the client to have a much more difficult time generating language. As the client answers.’’ Preliminary research. they then say. 116 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ‘‘I can’t do this!’’ Given that this task requires the client to shift perspective and focus on the assessor. University of Kansas. NJ: Prentice Hall. Unpublished Masters Thesis. University of Kansas. the assessor is to consider not only the client’s ability to narrate a solid response to provide the assessor with a range of novel information.g. Once the assessor has completed their interview with the client.). (2004). Exploring research (6th ed. J.). The assessor can also try and make the task easier on the client by providing pictures that give some information about the assessor by showing the client pictures of the assessor’s family. Double interview: Assessing the social communication of adolescents with Asperger syndrome. ‘‘OK. B..’’ The assessor then waits and observes. After providing this extra support. (2004). or to ask follow-up questions to gain access to more information about the client.DOUBLE INTERVIEW FURTHER INFORMATION Everitt. I just learned a lot about you (They can then state specifics of what they have learned) by interviewing you. REFERENCES Miller. A.’’ The interviewer then reviews with the client that an interview consists of asking questions to the person who is being interviewed about that person. What are your hobbies? Do you have any siblings? What do you like/ dislike about school? etc. this is a good time to interview me. tone of voice. K. It is not uncommon for the client to start to explain that he or she ‘‘can never do this’’ and they ‘‘never know what to say to people. and they may say. writing down any response or question that the client provides. Double interview task: Assessing the social communication of children with Asperger syndrome. S. Salkind. ‘‘Wow. The assessor is careful to only ask questions and to only provide brief responses to show interest in the client. body language.g. LACAVA DOUBLE INTERVIEW The double interview is an informal assessment technique to explore one’s capacity to shift perspective and the focus of one’s language from talking about one’s self to talking about another person. done at the University of Kansas by Miller (2004) and Zweber (2004) demonstrated that the double interview helps to differentiate our clients with social cognitive deficits from their peers at age 8 years old and beyond. they exclaim. The first task in the double interview is for the assessing clinician to interview the client by asking specific questions to the client about the client (e. The Cambridge dictionary of statistics (2nd ed. so I thought it would only be fair if I let you interview me. It is expected that the client should be near his or her communicative best when talking about himor herself.. Upper Saddle River.

J. bloating. sounds in isolation. San Jose.. Good bacteria within the intestinal tract is responsible for detoxification. letter names and letter writing. production of vitamins. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty. cramps) or chronic (loose stool. D. rheumatoid arthritis. fibromyalgia. (2002). allergies. COOK 117 . MICHELLE GARCIA WINNER AND JAMIE RIVETTS DSM-IV. word recognition and analysis. There are three main causes of dysbiosis: parasites. identifying letter names in spoken words. www. Procedural safeguards: Due process hearings. Characteristics can be acute (diarrhea. nausea. listening vocabulary. syntax matching. prereading phonics abilities. gas. constipation. Dysbiosis is the opposite of symbiosis and is the medical term for an imbalance in the gastrointestinal tract. and copying.DYSBIOSIS FURTHER INFORMATION Winner. D.S. listening comprehension.ed. & Catterson. TX: PsychCorp. H. identification of sounds in words. Department of Education. KATHERINE E.pdf. REFERENCE Durrell. See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition–Text Revised DUE PROCESS Due process is a procedure guaranteed by federal law for families and school professionals for resolving disputes regarding special education services that cannot be resolved through mediation. spelling and phonic spelling. and poor diet. (2004). abdominal pain. visual memory of words. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT DYSBIOSIS Symbiosis is the medical term for the balance between a person’s intestinal tract and good bacteria. Durrell & Catterson. and protection from unfriendly organisms. KATHERINE E. M. CA: Michelle Garcia Winner. (1980). COOK DURRELL ANALYSIS OF READING DIFFICULTY (DARD) The Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (DARD. San Antonio. fungus overgrowth. food cravings. Thinking about you thinking about me. FURTHER INFORMATION U. 1980) is an individually administered assessment for children ages pre-kindergarten and older designed to assess the reading abilities in the following skill areas: oral and silent reading. and chronic fatigue syndrome). phoneme awareness.gov/ policy/speced/guid/idea/tb-safeguards-3.

which is responsible for speech and language. Although individuals with dysphasia typically do not have impaired intellect. COOK 118 . they are often viewed as mentally impaired.DYSPHASIA DYSPHASIA Dysphasia is a speech disorder characterized by impairments in expressive speech. This disorder arises from damage to the left side of the brain. Aphasia is a severe form of dysphasia. and impairments in comprehension of spoken and written language. KATHERINE E. writing.

G. Early coping inventory. The 48 items in this inventory are divided into three categories. S. IL: Scholastic Testing Service. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT EARLY INTERVENTION Early intervention is the purposeful application of resources with the aim of developing or improving interactions between an individual and the environment (Hooper & Umansky.. facilitate teamwork. It applies to children from birth to school age that are discovered to be at risk.. Sensorimotor organization behaviors are those skills used to regulate psychophysiological functions as well as to integrate sensory and motor process. Self-initiated behaviors are autonomously generated. and measure child progress. 1988) is an observation instrument used for assessing the coping-related behavior of children who function developmentally from 4 to 36 months. have disabilities. self-directed actions used to meet personal needs and to interact with objects and people. The ECI can also be used to support staff development and training to increase observation skills. home-based. G. In addition. See also homebound/hospital bound program. Bensenville. or a combination. Williamson. Professionals as well as nonprofessionals who are knowledgeable in infant development may administer and score the inventory. style. The findings can then be used to create educational and therapeutic interventions.E EARLY COPING INVENTORY The Early Coping Inventory (ECI. Reactive behaviors are actions used to respond to the demands of physical and social environments. . they should observe the child at least three times in different situations. & Szczepanski. or other special needs that may affect their development. If observers are not familiar with the child. & Szczepanski. Early intervention may be center-based. Williamson. expand their domain of concern. hospital-based. Analysis of a child’s scores on this instrument provides information about level of coping. Zeitlin. 2004). M. the ECI can be used to involve parents in its use as a means of increasing knowledge of the child and communication with staff. (1988). REFERENCE Zeitlin. Inc. and specific strengths and weaknesses.

The student’s abilities are then compared to the assessed demands of each of the target environments and a list of skills is identified for use as instructional priorities. this is a form of delayed echolalia. L. TERRI COOPER SWANSON ECHOLALIA: IMMEDIATE. school. NJ: Prentice Hall. Hamre-Nietupski. The echoic behavior would be repeated and eventually the child would learn that the word has the specific function of getting his or her need met. Immediate echolalia refers to words or phrases that are repeated immediately or very soon after the model of the utterances was first heard. vocational) of the learner’s current and future environments. For example.. Inc. (2004). & Fox. delayed. E. & Gruenewald. 13. leisure. L. Upper Saddle River. S. Journal of Special Education. There are three different forms of echolalia: immediate. Instruction of students with severe disabilities (8th ed. 81–90. in recent years practitioners have realized that echolalia often serves a communicative function for the individual. Certo. N. M. community.. (2004). B. R. I. Upper Saddle River. domestic.). Historically echolalia was viewed to be noncommunicative. Young children with special needs. For example. S.. ‘‘Do you want ketchup on your fisherboys?’’ to indicate that he was frustrated. A strategy for developing chronological-age-appropriate and functional curricular content for severely handicapped adolescents and young adults.. FURTHER INFORMATION Brown. and mitigated. in verbal behavior the child would use echoic behavior to request a desired item. M.. D. KAI-CHIEN TIEN ECHOIC/VERBAL BEHAVIOR Echoic behavior is when a child uses verbal imitation. after hearing his mother one evening at dinner repeatedly ask with a tone of frustration if William wanted ketchup on his fish sticks (fisherboys). KATHERINE E. Branston. EARLES-VOLLRATH 120 . W... Teaching students with severe disabilities (3rd ed. COOK ECOLOGICAL INVENTORY This highly individualized assessment analyzes all aspects (i. & Umansky. Delayed echolalia refers to the echo of words or phrases after a lapse of time.. L. THERESA L.e.). Upper Saddle River. (2006). Pumpian. The third form of echolalia is referred to as mitigated where the speaker clearly is repeating a phrase. (1979). but it is not an exact repetition. However. William starting using the phrase. Until William was taught a more appropriate and understood phrase he used. F.. Snell. & Brown. DELAYED. NJ: Pearson Education. Westling. L.ECHOIC/VERBAL BEHAVIOR REFERENCE Hooper. Some children repeat one or numerous phrases from video clips. NJ: Prentice Hall. ‘‘Do you want ketchup on you fisherboys?’’ in any setting and situation where he felt anxious or frustrated. MITIGATED Echolalia is the repeated use of words or phrases used by others.

Dr. F. In 1993. The electrical brain activity is measured by placing electrodes onto the scalp of the patient. Depending on the child’s need. 2006 from www. He took a fellowship in child psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. I. Regression in pervasive developmental disorders: Seizures and epileptiform electroencephalogram correlates. 99(4). at home. publishing research together on autism. LEON Leon Eisenberg received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania (1946) and took his internship at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. his Individualized Education Program may be carried out in general education. FURTHER INFORMATION Harvard Medical School Department of Social Medicine.. the parents have the right to be a member of the group that decides the educational placement of the child.edu/dsm/WorkFiles/html/people/ faculty/LeonEisenberg. in an institution. 26. KATHERINE E.d. in special education.hms. and 9 edited books. Retrieved on November 24.. (1956). R. If a student meets eligibility. Maryland. FURTHER INFORMATION Tuchman. TERRI COOPER SWANSON ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM An electroencephalogram (EEG) measures the electric activity in the brain. 55–65. he moved to Harvard as chief of psychiatry where he became chair of the Department of Social Medicine and Health Policy in 1980. (1997). L. Pediatrics. Faculty: Leon Eisenberg. under the direction of Professor Leo Kanner (1954). In 1967. an IEP is written and implemented. COOK 121 . 130 book chapters.harvard. & Eisenberg. Eisenberg worked closely with Kanner during this fellowship. and they became colleagues. In all cases. Early infantile autism. TERRI COOPER SWANSON ELIGIBILITY Eligibility is the process where the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team evaluates formal and informal assessment results to determine if a student qualifies for special education services. Kanner L. Eisenberg has published more than 250 articles in refereed journals.ELIGIBILITY EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENT There are different types of educational placement for children with autism. Eisenberg reached emeritus status at Harvard Medical School and continues to work full time. KAI-CHIEN TIEN EISENBERG. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. See also homebound/hospital bound program.). 560–567. (n. or in other settings.html. & Rapin.

. A. 548–554. more complex configuration. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT EMBEDDED SKILLS Embedded skills are present within naturally occurring activities and allow for opportunities to practice learning objectives. Witkin. sugar-free. The duration of the diet varies by the sensitivity of the patient and by the success or lack of success detecting which food or foods are the causes of the patient’s sensitivities..ELIMINATION DIET AND FOOD SENSITIVITIES ELIMINATION DIET AND FOOD SENSITIVITIES This medically supervised diet is used to identify food sensitivities and allergies. Retrieved August 18. J. R. ROCK EMBEDDED FIGURES TEST (EFT) An embedded figures test presents an individual with a simple (target) shape in isolation and then asks this person to find this same shape in a larger. Faterson. Le Breton. R. 9. Parents of children with Asperger syndrome: What is the cognitive phenotype? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. which is a medically supervised reintroduction of a suspected problem food to determine whether or not a food sensitivity exists. The patient or caregiver keeps a daily food diary noting the foods eaten and any responses. Dyk. Diet and intervention in autism: Implementing a gluten free and casein free diet: A guide for parents. D. B. Elimination diet should not be confused with the Gluten-free/Casein-free Elimination Diet or the Candida Elimination Diet. New York: Harper & Row. milk-free. to practice letter recognition. (2001). 1997) has illustrated that males are significantly faster than females at locating the embedded figure. The allergy self-help cookbook: Over 325 natural foods recipes. Food allergies/intolerances. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Faterson. Goodenough. S. the variety of foods consumed is restricted to the least reactive foods (those foods that cause the least digestive problems for the majority of people) such as rice and potatoes. Additional foods are gradually and systematically added according to the plan specified by the health care provider. & Karp. J. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT 122 . A..about. Personality through perception. FURTHER INFORMATION Hurt Jones. F.com/cs/foods/a/blfood. a child would be allowed to select only movie titles with a particular letter present. & Hammer. 2006. S. free of all common food allergens: Wheat-free. Tidwell. Goodenough. H. G. the physician may suggest a challenge. New York: Rodale Books. Dyk. corn-free.. BaronCohen & Hammer. they allow for new skills to be practiced in the presence of already learned or ongoing skills. While food intake levels are maintained. (1962). & Karp. 1962. (2006). After time. (1997). yeast-free. egg-free.htm. Marjorie (2001).. from About health and fitness Web site: http://allergies. H. Research (Witkin. M. MYRNA J.. For example. REFERENCES Baron-Cohen. As such. & Kessick.

peers. Friendships and partnerships with family. This is often a result of chronic constipation or retaining of stools. See also experimental design. Empiricism’s origins in the West in its most developed form are in the philosophy of Aristotle. social workers. BRUCE BASSITY ENGAGEMENT Engagement is the amount of time that children spend involved with the environment (adults. JAN L. See Empiricism EMPIRICISM Empiricism is a Western concept that espouses knowledge can be derived through careful observation and cataloging of phenomena and extrapolating laws or principles from these observations. See also age appropriate. Empirical evidence of the observed behaviors of individuals with autism further expands the understanding and knowledge of the disorder. and medical doctors are mental health professionals often enlisted by individuals to provide therapeutic support. whose theories on intellectual inquiry first introduced the process of experiment or a controlled. Nocturnal (night time) enuresis is the most common form in children. MELANIE D. The resultant knowledge areas are then grouped to further designate experimental sciences. mental age. The process of replication enables others to build a knowledge base by testing for the truths of the laws and theories. replicable experience. either professional or familial. HARMS ENCOPRESIS Encopresis is the involuntary passage of stool taking place over at least 6 months in duration and in an individual over the age of 4 years. or materials) in a way that is appropriate given their age. BRUCE BASSITY 123 . and surroundings. present in approximately 10 percent of 5-year-olds and 1 percent of 15-year-olds. and caregivers can also serve as a source of emotional support. friends. Enuresis may be due to bladder control never being established or a regression in bladder control.ENURESIS EMOTIONAL SUPPORT Emotional support is assistance obtained through relationships. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE. Psychologists. abilities. typically around 5 years of age. KLEIN ENURESIS Enuresis is the involuntary discharge of urine after the age when voluntary bladder control is usually established. such as physics and medicine. chronological age. counselors.

124 . the social environment was deficient between child and parent and thus autism was the outcome. autism was considered an emotional disorder caused by ineffective parenting. it is common to believe that a combination of a genetic predisposition to autism as well as some environmental insult causes autism. pesticides. chemicals. do other man-made substances in the environment contain materials that may contribute to autism? These questions have been some of the most controversial within the field of autism into the mid-2000s. This includes maternal use of alcohol and cocaine.htm. flame retardant materials. FAQs about MMR vaccine and autism. 2005. however. It was claimed that children who had weak immune systems. conclusive evidence has not been presented to confirm which environmental factors contribute to autism. were placed at risk with the ongoing accumulation of mercury in these vaccinations. The severity of the disability would therefore depend on the number of genes affected in the individual as well as the type of environmental insult that occurs. and it is not yet known if there is a connection between autism and vaccinations or mercury for some subsets of particularly vulnerable individual children. earth) contain toxins that may contribute to autism? Moreover. Although the conceptualization of autism has changed over time. Some environmental toxins that have been questioned in the development of autism include heavy metals such as mercury.cdc. The role of the environment in the cause of autism has been a question addressed for many decades. air. Recently. As of 2007. In the 1990s and into the 2000s.ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT Does the natural environment (water. There have been reports of individual cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) being associated with various prenatal infections and environmental toxins.and postnatal viruses. Others believe that their child became autistic when exposed to some environmental toxin. this remains highly controversial. Some believed that the huge increase in autism over the previous years was causally related to either the MMR vaccination in young children or in the mercury that was part of the preservative thimerosal that was in many childhood vaccines.gov/nip/vacsafe/concerns/autism/autismmmr. as well as infection by cytomegalovirus. (2004). Some believe that autism is caused by genetics alone. In the 2000s. the claim that the MMR vaccination and mercury were possible culprits causally connected to autism became a critical research concern. At this point. Historically. the preponderance of the evidence from government and other medical/scientific studies suggests that neither the MMR vaccination nor the use of mercury/thimerosal were causally connected to the increase in autism. the question of what may contribute to the etiology of this disability still remains. from http://www. and food additives. This was proven wrong after decades of research and autism became known as a neurobiological/developmental disorder. FURTHER INFORMATION Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However. or those who were already predisposed to having autism. the role of the environment has been questioned as a potential source for the huge increases in the prevalence of autism. That is. pre. Much research is still needed in this critically important area. Retrieved March 30. It was claimed that their systems could no longer process and expel the mercury poisoning and thus autism developed.

At this time there are no research supported cures or solutions to prevent autism spectrum disorders. but are not limited to. See also applied behavior analysis. (2005). Kirby. Etiology of autism: Findings and questions. and how they can be prevented. including social and sexual abuse. Methods of error correction include. R. There are several possible causes of autism including: (a) genetics. Because some students with autism spectrum disorders are highly sensitive to error correction. and other life changes.rollingstone. These stressors need to be considered seriously when working with individuals with ASD as lack of immediate action to reduce or assist the individual’s handling of these stressors can have a long-term impact on the person’s ability to develop life skills and develop the skills necessary to manage their world. D. and expectation of failure. (c) inadequate social supports. Rolling Stone. (b) restricted social and vocational opportunities. how they are spread. KATIE BASSITY 125 . (February 2005). LACAVA ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS Environmental stressors refer to a variety of internal and external events that could interfere with an individual being successful in the immediate future.847. (d) life changes such as a new teacher. Evidence of harm: Mercury in vaccines and the autism epidemic: A medical controversy. need to be monitored and acted on as quickly as possible. there is often an attempt to use ‘‘neutral’’ forms of error correction such as offering no verbal reaction to a student’s incorrect response and instead intentionally looking away from the student for a few seconds. living arrangements. (2005). from http://www. 2005. Rutter. Such stressors may include: (a) prejudice toward someone who is perceived as ‘‘different’’ and the effect that might have on the person. The Today Show [Television Broadcast]. a new job. 2005).com/politics/story/_/id/7395411?rnd=11243888 56090&has-player=true&version=6. Deadly immunity [Electronic version]. and a no-no-prompt procedure. and (d) diet. National Broadcasting Company. PAUL G.ERROR CORRECTION Kennedy. M. (February 23. anxiety. (b) vaccinations. overcorrection. New York: National Broadcasting Company. Scientific analysis is used by epidemiologists to understand how diseases start. 231–238. BABKIE EPIDEMIOLOGY Epidemiology is the study of outbreaks of disease. See also environment. time-out. Retrieved August 18. such as negative self-concept. New York: St. family losses. and (f) victimization. (Executive Producer). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. (c) environment. and as such.11. TERRI COOPER SWANSON ERROR CORRECTION Error correction is the process or procedure followed when a student gives an incorrect response. ANDREA M. (e) the inability to process sensory information and ‘‘make sense’’ of the world.0. 49. Martin’s Press.

J. 1999). On the contrary. and pragmatics communication skills at five levels: Pre-Language. A.. (2000). and Expressive 2. behavior that is reinforced by food may be strengthened before a meal. Establishing operations. Snycerski. (1999). NJ: Merrill. both receptive and expressive. or physiological events affect the motivation of an individual and thus affect the behavior that is influenced by the reinforcers (Michael. KATIE BASSITY ESTABLISHING OPERATION An establishing operation. but that once the work is completed. J. (1982). 401–410. In this way. Upper Saddle River. 149–155. morphology. S. 150–151). Because a person’s desire for food is greater when he or she is hungry. Michael. Receptive 1. of children with autism ages 3 months to 8 years. 1991) is an inventory that was developed to measure spoken language. A.. A. Applied behavior analysis for teachers (p. J. 407–414. The EASIC-R has also been used successfully with individuals who have developmental language delays. 230). he will be allowed to move to a more enjoyable activity. Michael. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. The tool assesses semantics. 2003). (2003). Riley. 33. Michael. weakening a behavior linked to that reinforcement. (1993). Motivating operations and terms to describe them: Some further refinements. Alberto & Troutman. Snycerski. When a student does not enjoy an activity or situation. syntax. REFERENCES Alberto. P. as described by Michael (1982) is ‘‘any change in the environment which alters the effectiveness of some object or event as reinforcement and simultaneously alters the momentary frequency of the behavior that has been followed by that reinforcement’’ (pp. Establishing operations may either increase the effectiveness of the reinforcer (due to deprivation) or decrease the effectiveness of the reinforcer (due to satiation. C. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. & Troutman.. social. 37(1). 191–206. Laraway. These environmental.ESCAPE TRAINING ESCAPE TRAINING Escape training is similar to negative reinforcement. Receptive 2. & Poling. 16. S. Expressive 1. results can be portrayed on the 126 . Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. he may be allowed to escape it after completing a certain portion of the work or activity. edible reinforcement may be less effective after a meal. Discriminating between discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. 1993). Michael. Results can be displayed on the Skills Profile to show changes that have occurred from one testing session to another. FURTHER INFORMATION Michael. J. The Behavior Analyst. Implications and refinements of the establishing operation concept. the student learns that some work must be completed.. & Poling. Establishing operations have also been referred to as setting events or motivating operations (Laraway. TARA MIHOK AND JESSICA KATE PETERS EVALUATING ACQUIRED SKILLS IN COMMUNICATION–REVISED (EASIC-R) Evaluating Acquired Skills in Communication–Revised (EASIC-R. 36. In addition.

planning. synthesizing. and problem solving. A. written summary of the information gained through the assessment process. TX: Harcourt Assessment.EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS Developmental Age Chart. Draft version two (Ch. emotion. test results. The evidence-based approaches have advantages and disadvantages. reason for referral. self-regulation. but the variety of these approaches provides an implication that the term evidence based is not enough in itself to describe what a given profession provides. (1991). M. however most reports contain many of the following sections: identifying data. 2004) and has since been used to describe a variety of professions. REFERENCE Cutspec. AMY BIXLER COFFIN EVALUATION REPORT An evaluation report provides a detailed. perceptions of time and order. organization.). and disseminating evidence-based practices. conclusions. limited or neglect for the consequences of past actions. and a summary table. Interlock: Identifying. Asheville. validating. T. A. THERESA L. 2). Administration time ranges from 15 to 30 minutes. EARLES-VOLLRATH EVIDENCE BASED The term evidence based was first used in the field of medicine (Cutspec. (2004). Watson (Eds. observations. exaggerated or nonexistent 127 . In the field of education. L. there is the potential for an evidence-based approach combined with knowledge and practice in an attempt to move from individualistic approaches and designing original research as the foundation on which to assess best practices for educators. Deficits in the area of executive functions are evidenced by noncompliance. KAI-CHIEN TIEN EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS Executive functions are higher-order cognitive skills and include inhibitory control. which are largely responsible for the neural networks that direct attention. There are no standardized formats for evaluation reports. Cutspec & A. and response as well as the retention and utilization of memory. NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. Origins of evidence-based approaches to best practice: Evidence-based medicine. See also standardization. San Antonio. The child’s communication skills are arranged in easy to difficult order along with the age ranges at which children normally acquire each of the described skills. The development of executive functions parallels the neurodevelopment of the prefrontal regions of the brain. P. Evaluating Acquired Skills in Communication–Revised. background history. A. (2003). Assessing learners with special needs: An applied approach. NC: Orelena Hawks Puckett Institute. REFERENCE Riley. tests administered. FURTHER INFORMATION Overton. In P. test-by-test analysis.

IDEA. It refers to the conceptual framework within which the experiment is conducted.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN emotional expression. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). COOK EXTENDED SCHOOL YEAR (ESY) Extended School Year (ESY) refers to the special education and related services beyond the normal school year that are provided to a child with a disability. a team asks itself how much a student would suffer a regression in skills if his or her educational services were interrupted for a period of time and how much time would be required for the student to then regain the lost skills. or feelings that are expressed through written communication. ESY may include the provision of summer schooling or other summer programming. or any other number of options. KATHERINE E. 128 . or (e) have a degenerative condition and need ESY to prevent or delay loss of skills or behaviors. 1985). HARMS EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Experimental design is a blueprint of a procedure that enables the researcher to test his hypothesis by reaching valid conclusions about relationships between independent and dependent variables. the ability of the parents to provide services at home. and whether the student is at a crucial or ‘‘breakthrough’’ moment in his or her learning. but it also includes thoughts. to determine ESY eligibility. Browder & Lentz. Eligibility for ESY is based on a variety of factors that are considered during the meetings to develop and review a student’s IEP. or feeling. ongoing assessment of IEP objectives as they relate to the regression and recoupment a child experiences (Browder. the continued provision of services during vacation periods. ideas. every student with a disability must be considered for ESY services as part of the development of their Individualized Education Program (IEP. MELANIE D. idea. 1987. Other factors that the child’s team may look at include severity of the disability. degree of regression and necessary recoupment time. Examples of children with disabilities for whom ESY is especially important might include children who: (a) lose skills or behaviors relevant to their IEP goals and objectives while school is out. Typically. the student’s vocational needs. 2004). (d) have a disability that makes them vulnerable to interruptions in the educational program and who are at risk of withdrawing from the learning process. (c) have not yet fully learned and generalized an important skill or behavior and need help learning and practicing that skill in the formal educational setting. The most appropriate method for determining eligibility for ESY is direct. and other difficulties related to social situations and organization. (b) have difficulty catching up. Typically expressive language is thought to indicate spoken language. the ability of the student to interact with nondisabled peers. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE Expressive language is the use of language to express a thought. difficulty with concepts such as time and money.

Extinction can also be a termination of sensory reinforcement. (1987). E. Services may be provided in a traditional classroom setting. or the occasional display of the behavior after a period of the behavior’s absence. KLEIN EXTINCTION Extinction occurs when a behavior that has a history of being reinforced with positive or negative reinforcement stops being followed by reinforcement. such as the reinforcement gained by some when they eat non-edible items or smell items not intended to be smelled. Because it is not uncommon for individuals on the autism spectrum to describe eye contact as painful. REFERENCE Cooper. from http://www. MELANIE D. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. See also reinforcer. D. JAN L. Browder. HARMS 129 . A school may provide all-day schooling during the summer months. they may be compensating with the use of eye gaze. Public Law 108-446. EJ317622. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. (1985). a decrease in the rate of the behavior should then follow. D. at recreational centers such as summer camps or community centers. 2004. & Heward (1987). Extended school year services: From litigation to assessment and evaluation. providing the individual with the opportunity to process visual and auditory information at a pace appropriate to the individual. or only the related services that are necessary to avoid serious regression during vacation periods. 1987). Applied behavior analysis. TARA MIHOK EYE GAZE Eye gaze is the act of directing one’s eyes toward a designated stimulus. 188–195. at the student’s home. Heron. & Lentz. 2004. may occur (Cooper.gov/policy/speced/guid/idea/idea2004. the likelihood is that there will be an increase in the rate of the behavior and possibly an increase in the intensity of the behavior.html. 14. specifically. eye gaze serves as a replacement for eye contact. School Psychology Review. Spontaneous recovery. or at any other location that is deemed appropriate to the needs of the student. Finally. This may be observed as an individual facing one way and his eyes glancing in another. Heron. services can also be provided one on one or in a group setting. Retrieved November 27.EYE GAZE ESY can be provided in a variety of ways depending on the needs of the individual child. If an individual with autism demonstrates the ability to answer questions and perform actions that involve eye contact. other vacation periods.ed. & Heward. Upper Saddle River. Assessment of individuals with severe handicaps: An applied behavioral approach to life skills assessment. REFERENCES Browder. Once extinction begins. NJ: Prentice Hall.. F.


Memory for faces in children with autism. Waterhouse. & Geinstein.. 1999. HARMS FACILITATED COMMUNICATION (FC) Facilitated communication (FC) refers to a form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) that involves providing physical as well as instructional and . color. & Rogers. Ozonoff.. nose. Hauck. D.. (1998). F. C. D. mouth. 1992. The perception of the face is processed part in features (eyes. Are there emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. and more. & Waterhouse. Ozonoff. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Maltby. Cicchetti. & Waterhouse. Affect comprehension in children with pervasive developmental disorders.. Cicchetti. 1989.. 343–361... Pennington. de Bildt.& Geinstein 1998. de Bildt. 29. Kline. R. D. (1989). J. (1990). REFERENCES Boucher. Unfamiliar face recognition in relatively able autistic children.. L. 19. Researchers (Boucher & Lewis.. M. Kline. S. Lucci. The fact that individuals with autism are presenting primarily feature-based strategies to process faces lends to a deficit in processing individuals’ facial affect relative to emotional response. Child Neuropsychology. S. 187–198. 4. Fein. Cohen. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.. Sparrow.. L. M. A normed study of face recognition in autism and related disorders. S. Fein. 301–316. Fein. 33. A. MELANIE D. meaning they identify a face by a feature rather than its whole presentation. Cohen. & Lewis. N. & Volkmar. 1990) identify that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome tend to activate a feature-based strategy when presented with face recognition tasks. Hauck. Braverman. Sparrow. (1999). texture. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. J.. & Rogers. Pennington. Lucci.. B. D. V. etc. Waterhouse. J. 499–508.) and part as a whole (one object) rather than individual features. A. The inability to read the face as a whole causes individuals with autism to miss social cues and must be considered when teaching social skills. Objects are processed in the internal gyri and based on its features. Maltby.. F.. V. S. Fein. (1992). Braverman. D. & Volkmar. such as size. 843–459.F FACE RECOGNITION Face recognition is a neural process that takes part in the ventral temporal cortex otherwise termed as the fusiform face area (FFA). 31.

The method involves a communication partner (facilitator) who may aid the person in achieving useful hand function. p. emphasizing the importance of developing the ability to ultimately communicate without physical support.. Accounts of the same methodology are reported in the literature from Japan (Wakabayashi. The method was first described by Crossley and McDonald (1980) as a method that could be used with people with cerebral palsy. The Academy Award-nominated film. The facilitator uses his or her hand(s) to support or inhibit the aid user. 132 . say a particular word or fetch a toy. but may not be able to do it on command. speech synthesizer. and the United States (Oppenheim. using a communication aid such as a picture board. often have not only motor difficulties but also developmental dyspraxia. 2005. 20– 23).FACILITATED COMMUNICATION (FC) emotional support to aid individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities to communicate by pointing. Sweden. Rubin. Dyspraxia is a neurological condition characterized by difficulty in reliably producing voluntary actions. writing. in review). Other individuals who first learned to type with facilitation have learned to speak the words they are typing before and as they type (Biklen. Crossley writes. Facilitated communication is an augmentative system for individuals whose disability affects motor performance. Crossley subsequently began to use facilitated communication with individuals with autism in the 1980s (Biklen. practice sessions as well as other strategies (see Biklen. including effective. this may mean helping the person to isolate the index finger and/or to slow the person’s pointing down by providing backward pressure under the wrist or forearm. Rubin et al. computers). The recent literature provides descriptions of individuals who have achieved independent typing (Mukhopadhyay. (Crossley. the goal is to fade the physical support. including verbal encouragement. the person may be able to do something. Over time. 2000. for example. headpointers. The person may be able to carry out an action automatically or spontaneously. eye gaze technology on computing devices. or keyboard in a functional manner. Candidates for FC are said to include individuals who have limited or no speech or whose speech is highly disordered (e. 1985). manual sign language. The theoretical explanation for facilitation is that individuals with developmental disabilities.g. independent use of the hands. pp. alternative forms of communication may include use of gestures or body language. is encouraged to increase the user’s physical skills and self-confidence and reduce dependency. sequencing of activities. Blackman. Broderick and Kasa-Hendrickson. For people with severe speech impairments.. 1990. 1994. 1999). That is. 1973). Initially. Crossley refers to the method as facilitated communication training (FCT). 1974. 1993. 1994). Practice. As the student’s skills and confidence increase the amount of facilitation is reduced. echolalic) and who have unreliable pointing skills (Crossley. 2001. monitoring the person’s eye contact with the target. 2001) after first receiving physical support for their initial pointing. including autism. or communication aids (e. 2004). illustrates physically independent typing (Wurzburg. The immediate aim is to allow the aid user to make choices and to communicate in a way that had been previously impossible. Broderick and Kasa-Hendrickson. 3) The facilitated communication method involves a variety of supports. Schawlow and Schawlow.g. written by an FC user. yes/no communication boards.

Rooney. Markowitz. including communication. & Wittrock. Paglieri. Jacobson. 1994.FACILITATED COMMUNICATION (FC) but not intentionally. using a range of test situations as well as linguistic analysis and documentation of physical. 2001). 1974) as well as in the neurological literature (Maurer and Damasio. many individuals were able to demonstrate uninfluenced authorship (Cardinal. 2001. Montee. Weiss. . there can be no doubt that. Rubin et al. Duchan & Higginbotham. several studies have demonstrated that under controlled conditions. 327). 1996. Broderick. Hanson. The broader topic of motor disturbance and autism has been summarized by Leary and Hill (1996). Miltenberger. 2001. 1993). & Bryson. Bomba. 1994. for them. & Griffiths. & Schwartz. & Wakeham.. & Wandas. 1993. 2002. Four documentary films feature people who have learned to communicate without physical support (Kasa-Hendrickson. Janzen-Wilde. Grayson. Regal. Ibel. Crews et al. Shane & Kearns. O’Donnell. Borthwick and Crossley (1999) suggest that difficulties with physical performance. 133 . For them. 2006. Moore. 2000.g. 1999. 1996. (facilitated communication) ‘worked. Facilitated communication has been called a controversial technique because. Szempruch & Jacobson. 2003. Early descriptions of dyspraxia appear in the professional practice literature (e. . Dykstra. Donovan. Several individuals have reached the point where they can type without physical support (Blackman. and Zanobini & Scopesi. as most practitioners and researchers agree. A number of studies document the problem of influence and/or difficulties in verifying authorship in facilitated communication (Bebko. & Bauman. 1993. Eberlin. 2004). 2001. 1995. 1993. Hudson. be decoupled from assessments of intellectual capacity. ... 1996. At the same time. researchers and practitioners alike have wanted to establish means by which to confirm the FC user’s authorship. the controversy has ended’’ (p. Beukelman and Mirenda (1998) write. Terrill. Oppenheim. The most obvious protection against influence is physically independent typing and/or speaking before and while typing. Calculator & Singer. Broderick & Kasa-Hendrickson. 1993. 1995. Wurzburg. independent-of-facilitator typing offer evidence demonstrating authorship (Broderick & Kasa-Hendrickson. Broderick & Kasa-Hendrickson. Mabrey. 1996). 1996. & Lawrence. in review). 1982). Wagner.. Similarly and more recently. Cabay. . however. . Niemi & K€ arn€ a-Lin. & Holmes. thus affecting the message. hand-on-shoulder support . ‘‘in regard to a small group of people around the world who began communicating through FC (facilitated communication) and are now able to type either independently or with minimal. 2001. The study by Wheeler and his colleagues is often cited as the classic case where researchers were able to demonstrate that some facilitators unknowingly influence facilitated typing and also that some FC users had difficulty in demonstrating their thinking competence and communication skills when tested through an apparently simple messagepassing experiment. Klewe. Perry. over multiple sessions of testing. there is an emerging literature relating typing to speech (Biklen & Burke. McConnachie. 1992. 1995. Emerson. Rubin et al. 2001). 1994. that is.’ in that it opened the door to communication for the first time. Wheeler. Smith & Belcher. and Biklen. & Volpe. Subsequent research on message-passing reveals contradictory evidence. 2002. other studies. it has been shown that a facilitator’s physical touch of the typist’s hand or arm may influence the person’s pointing. In light of the controversy surrounding FC. 1993. Sheehan & Matuozzi.

& Burke. from http://psycprints.. Broderick. For example. & Kasa-Hendrickson. C. 26. Australia: Book in Hand. including facilitated communication (Duchan.. (1993). S. Grayson. 507–529. 205–213.. N. (1980). L. 60.. D. Evaluating the impact of facilitated communication on the communicative competence of fourteen students with autism. (2001) A framework for managing controversial practices.. in an article written for school personnel. Harvard Educational Review. L. (2005). 39. R. D.. Autism and the myth of the person alone. J.. R. (2001). Broderick.. (1994). A. K. Redcliffe. (1996). Duchan. (1990). Annie’s coming out. & Cumley. Queensland. ‘‘Say just one word at first’’: The emergence of reliable speech in a student labelled with autism. Calculator. 26. Topics in Language Disorders. Equity and Excellence in Education. Facilitated communication training. 1–10.. New York: Teachers College Press. New York: Teachers College Press. (1998). & Cumley. Emerson. standards have been developed to guide practitioners in the use of facilitation. Calculator. Among the procedures they identify is informed consent. Crossley. (in review). S. J. P. Crossley.. I am so much more real than retarded: Deconstructing assumptions about speech and its relationship to competency. Sanders. & Holmes.. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Johnson. A. Hensley. 26. Diehl. Beukelman. S. An evaluation of facilitated communication in a group of nonverbal individuals with mental retardation. ix. (1996). Sonnenmeier. Cabay. G. (1992). 13–24. 43–58. 25. M. McConnachie. Perry. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. (1995). 43–58. L. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. & McDonald. A. (1996).. S. 2001). 36 Suppl. ‘‘Facilitated communication’’: A failure to replicate the phenomenon.. & Griffiths. 10(38). Ibel. R. D. 134 . D. 231–242. E. Bomba. 517–527. Communication unbound: Autism and praxis. C. J. A.. (1999) Lucy’s story: Autism & other adventures. (1999)... Communication unbound: How facilitated communication is challenging traditional views of autism and ability/disability. R. A.. & Bryson. 2004. & Singer. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. S. C. Preliminary validation of facilitated communication. (1994). Biklen. Duchan and her colleagues suggested a series of steps for using any controversial methods of communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.. 23. Bonaventura. 32. Blackman. Crews. Biklen. Biklen. 291–314. D. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. (2001). A controlled evaluation of facilitated communication with four autistic children.. C. Borthwick. L. C. R.FACILITATED COMMUNICATION (FC) Given that progress toward and achievement of physically independent typing and/or development of functional and dialogical speech can take several years or may not appear at all. Calculator. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools. Can’t or won’t? Evidence relating to authorship in facilitated communication. & Mirenda.ac.. Psychology.. (1993). Multiple method validation study of facilitated communication: Individual differences and subgroup results. 133– 141. New York: Penguin Books. Retrieved July 13. (2006).uk/archive/00000673/. Eberlin. & Kasa-Hendrickson. Diehl. 98–103. New York: NYU Press. M. Augmentative and alternative communication: Management of severe communication disorders in children and adults. J.soton. & Volpe. An investigation of authorship in facilitated communication. Biklen.. & Crossley. 12. Y. W. & Wakeham. A. D. Cardinal D. Mental Retardation. REFERENCES Bebko. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.. A... Sonnenmeier.. S. Equity and Excellence in Education. Hanson. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders. G. 34. Language and Retardation. & Rhodes. Presuming competence. 24.. D. O’Donnell. Markowitz.ecs...

Moving on: Autism and movement disturbance. Kasa-Hendrickson. (2000). New York: CBS News.. Biklen. 38.. Cardinal. A. Dykstra. (2003). D. Evaluating facilitated communications of people with developmental disabilities. A validated case study of facilitated communication. IL: Charles Thomas. 94–107. September. 658–676. A. & Broderick. L. Schawlow. M.. R. (2000). 34. D. C. 34(1). (Producer/Director). R. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 28. B. & Scopesi. 34. 175. (1993). B. (Producer/Director). Rubin. A. 5. & Belcher. London: National Autistic Society. & Wittrock. [Documentary]. Leary. Montee. Disability & Society. R. (1982). Brief report: facilitated communication with adults with autism. 5–15). M. Donovan. J. Oppenheim. (1996). & Lawrence. (2002).S. Smith. J. A case of infantile autism who became able to communicate by writing. M. Mental Retardation 40. S. & Schawlow A. Mukhopadhyay. J. R.. 49–60. (Producers). & Jacobson. Shane. Effective teaching methods for autistic children. 559–566. Rooney. & Higginbotham. R. A.. 23. 39–53. Wurzburg. Kasa-Hendrickson. A. 347–357.. Mental Retardation.. A. R. & Kearns. Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica. DOUGLAS BIKLEN FACILITY-BASED EMPLOYMENT Facility-based employment is a good choice for individuals who have more severely challenged job skills or who require intensive levels of supervision to complete the 135 . 395–421. Jacobson. Beyond the silence: My life. (Producer/Director) (2004). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 345–355. An experimental analysis of facilitated communication.. (1993). Springfield. Successful use of facilitated communication with an oral child. R.). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. & Bauman. 339–357. & Schwartz. C. [Documentary]. (1985).. Independence.. Mental Retardation. Niemi. E.FACILITY-BASED EMPLOYMENT Janzen-Wilde. Hudson. M. (2001). 541–552.. Moore.. Paglieri. D. 189–200.. 24. & Matuozzi. Broderick. Facilitated communication: An experimental evaluation. J. Atlanta: CNN. 14.. 60 Minutes II. (2001). Syracuse. Grammar and lexicon in facilitated communication: A linguistic authorship analysis of a Finnish case. (1996). Zanobini. M. CBS Broadcasting.. Gunther (Eds. Regal. Inc. 415–429. Mental Retardation.. Duchan. S.. D. (1973).. Brady & P. (1995). Maurer. 48–54. An experimental assessment of facilitated communication. R. Wagner. Miltenberger. 23. T. J.. the world and autism. A. Integrating moderately and severely handicapped learners: Strategies that work (pp. Childhood autism from the point of view of behavioral neurology. An examination of the role of the facilitator in ‘‘facilitated communication. D. An empirical evaluation of spelling boards as a means of communication for the multihandicapped. 16. IL: Charles Thomas. Journal of Applied Behaviour Analysis. Sheehan. & Damasio. Evaluation of eight case studies of facilitated communication. (1993). 195–205. Mabrey. & Biklen. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research.. participation. Inside the edge. (1974). C. (1993). (Documentary Film). T.. Kluth. Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo... J. Autism is a world [Documentary Film]. G.. L. Terrill. Klewe.. (1994).. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. & K€ arn€ a-Lin. R. U. (1993). Research in Developmental Disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. M. P. R. Investigation of the validity of facilitated communication through the disclosure of unknown information.’’ American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. K. J. H. Brief report.. R. 75. S. Wakabayashi. Inside story: Tito’s story. NY: Syracuse University. Breaking the silence. S. 253–264. (1996). 12(2). La comunicazione facilitata in un bambino autistico. Wheeler.. The endless search for help.. England: BBC. 23. and the meaning of intellectual ability. J. & Wandas. In M. & Hill. C. T. Weiss. 220–230. (1995). A. V. D. D... Szempruch. (1994). Mental Retardation. (2002). 31. Springfield.

TARA MIHOK FALSE-BELIEF PARADIGM The False-Belief Paradigm is a task designed to assess theory of mind (ToM) development. is the student’s stimulus for his behavior of getting up and moving out of the classroom. audibly. the benefits of such an environment would be successful socialization. SHERRY MOYER FADING In order to increase generalization to a natural setting. spatially. the second doll 136 . Heron. & Heward. allowing the natural stimulus to control the person’s behavior. fading of unnatural antecedent stimuli should take place. work readiness. Fading is used as a part of a technique called transfer of stimulus control. Heron. E. and a marble. REFERENCE Cooper. J. and intensive support for all types of skill deficits. Applied behavior analysis. Availability of these programs may be limited because of funding and low attrition rates unless the program operates for specific periods of time or sessions in order to accommodate a larger volume of participants. In the presence of the bell. (1987). The teaching stimulus should be gradually faded. the difference between appearance and reality. all of which are in a single miniature scene. While the first doll is gone. the full physical prompt with two hands can be faded to a light pull on the arm and then to a touch on the arm. O. they are to leave the classroom. so that it is hidden.. The teacher presents the unnatural antecedent stimulus (or teaching stimulus) paired with the natural stimulus to replace the teaching stimulus with the stimulus in the natural environment. Be sure to look for a program that is comprehensive and nurturing with a skilled staff that insists on a positive environment. This physical prompt. The stimulus may be faded physically. At first. L. stimuli. W.. The classic false-belief paradigm presents a child with two dolls. Eligibility assessments include IQ. 1987). they should be investigated carefully before committing to participation at any facility. active participation in work activities. a teacher could use fading when teaching a student that when the bell rings. See also antecedent. two boxes (one red and one green). the teacher may need to physically prompt the student to move when the bell rings. For example. Because employment is not competitively based for participants in the program. This type of employment is often found at vocational rehabilitation agencies or private nonprofit community organizations whose services include supported employment arrangements.FADING required tasks of their job. Theory of mind describes an area of research that focuses on a child’s ability to understand mental concepts such as belief. NJ: Prentice Hall. T. and the existence of other minds. The end is that the student responds to the natural stimulus of the bell without any physical prompting. Upper Saddle River. and general functioning level. and then departs. & Heward. Since many of these programs have been operating in some cases for decades. in the absence of the bell ringing. desire. and visually (Cooper. One doll puts the marble in the green box.

Individuals with autism of all ages have difficulty with the falsebelief paradigm due to difficulties with understanding and reading the emotions and thoughts of others. information contained in school records was not always factual. the actual location of the marble. They are unable to understand that the doll might have a false belief. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT (FERPA) The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. FERPA designates the requirements for keeping educational records. mental health evaluation. Districts must adopt a written policy designating the rules for obtaining and keeping educational records and 137 . Personal identifiable records must be kept confidential. Second.e. Institutions may have their funding removed if they fail to follow FERPA regulations (FERPA. where it had last seen the marble. a family assessment specialist meets with the members of the family for an initial interview and to conduct the necessary assessments. Upon referral. After the age of four.FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT (FERPA) removes the marble from the green box and puts it in the red box. community-based service. is a federal law created in 1974 to protect students’ educational records. 1974). schools were denying parent requests to access records while government agencies and prospective employers were allowed to see the records. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT FAMILY ASSESSMENT INTERVIEW The family assessment interview is part of the family assessment process (FAP) designed to match families with the appropriate services for their children and empower the families based on their individual strengths. examine family challenges from multiple perspectives. Depending on the needs of the family (i. FERPA was created for three specific reasons. The law applies to all educational institutions that receive funding from the United States Department of Education. access to student records varied greatly from state to state and was based on common law practices. During this meeting. and local policies (Copenhaver. 1997) and the Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 also address these areas (FERPA. the specialist will compile this information and refer the family to the appropriate service provider (i. Third. All schools or educational entities are required by FERPA to follow the same basic guidelines. education-based. also known as FERPA. children begin to give the correct response: the doll will look in the green box.e. and enhance communication between caretakers and youths.. the specialist conducts a family assessment interview in order to facilitate an exchange of feelings and experiences. The first doll then returns. and the child is asked: ‘‘Where will the first doll look for the marble?’’ Children younger than four typically reply that the doll will look in the red box.. and universities. 1974). crisis management). or other applicable service). one that does not correspond to reality. including public schools. mediation. 2002). mediation. or objective. case law. as well as many private schools that also receive some form of funding. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA. designated assessment service. First. colleges.

Parents should be provided information on what will be disclosed in directory information and have the opportunity to choose not to participate on a yearly basis. a school district must disclose the types of records they keep (FERPA. Also. Department of Education. these rights transfer to them. a parent serving official school duty. When requested.S. The institution must make the documents available within 45 days of receiving the request or within the school district’s set limits. 2002). Exceptions are release within the public school system. 2002). 2003). These may include administrators. film. When the student is 18 or attends college. If the school district does not amend the records. one file for student information such as immunizations and discipline referrals. However. FERPA gives parents the right to review their child’s education records. If the hearing is unsuccessful. students are referred to as ‘‘eligible students’’ (Holbum. or in emergency or health-related situations. and may include information recorded in a variety of formats including handwritten. The statement from parents or eligible students must be included with the records it pertains to at each disclosure or time the file is viewed. The law does not specify how the parents will be notified. Parents or eligible students can request that a school amend records they believe to be incorrect (Holbum. 2003). tape. social workers. or other legally binding document (FERPA. Parents and students must be notified each year of their rights pertaining to education records under FERPA. parents or eligible students may place a statement explaining their views of the situation into the permanent education records. Permanent files should be maintained on all students (Copenhaver. Only school personnel whose titles are given access by the district’s educational records policy may see the records. Schools may release information regarding students when they are given written consent by the parent or eligible student. Students with special education services should have three separate files. Education records relate directly to a student. 2002). At this point of transfer. records cannot be released to Medicaid for benefit claims without parental consent (Ahern. therapists. release of directory information as outlined by their district policy.FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT (FERPA) following procedures that meet FERPA standards. Personal notes made by staff members and maintained by that person and not shared with others are exempt from parental disclosure. Parents or eligible students who believe that an institution is not correctly applying FERPA have the right to file a complaint with The U. and board members (FERPA. 1974). medical staff. one for Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and other special educations forms. school law enforcement. teachers. contain personal information. Schools must keep a logbook of who accesses the files. Noncustodial parents may have access to the files unless that right has been removed due to state order. or print (Copenhaver. These records do not include health and treatment information for persons age 18 and over that are maintained by health care professionals (Copenhaver. These personal journals are not required to be shared with parents or eligible students under FERPA requirements. Complaints should be directed to the Family Policy Compliance Office of the Department of Education. 1974). 1974). parents or eligible students may request a hearing. 138 . and a file for the special education teacher that holds student information. 2002). court order. schools are not required to provide copies.

Confidentiality: A center quick training aid. Primer for Maintaining Accurate Special Education Records and Meeting Confidentiality Requirements when Serving Children with Disabilities—Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Holbum. Copenhaver. attention. FERPA: What exactly is an educational record? (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 473342). Doyle. Although many of the tasks they introduced were similar to those used conventionally by speech and language pathologists to treat language and processing disorders. and who specifically the documents are being disclosed to. 29(3) 679–717. E. M. Tennessee. Center for Mental Health in Schools. T. (2003). 34 CFR Part 99). why the documents are being disclosed. 2002). the outcome is still realized. J. The goal of The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (1974) is to protect the confidentiality of students and families while providing information as appropriate. § 1232g. (2002). O’Donnell. (2002). & Klotz. Novel to their intervention was the application of neuroscience research on brain plasticity and auditory processing problems stemming from over 20 years of neuroscience research. The exercises were designed to build the cognitive skills essential for learning language and learning to read: memory. (2002). FURTHER INFORMATION Brookshire. and security concerns.. L. Public Law No. Public Law No. Student Rights Journal of College and University Law. education records are protected and privacy is maintained. memory and processing problems. Utah State University. Even with the variance of interpretation between education institutions. 1974). Alexandria. privacy. REFERENCES Ahern. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 480467). VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education. 105–17 (1997). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization of 1997. the Tallal/ 139 . VALERIE JANKE REXIN FAST FORWORD Fast ForWord is an intervention for children with language. Often districts are overcautious in their release of information (Center for Mental Health in Schools. (2002). J. a two-tone sequencing exercise and receptive language exercises. Selected Teachers’ Perceptions of Special Education Laws. and sequencing. (2002). L. R. The intervention involves speech sound discrimination exercises. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA). Medicaid: Parent consent issues. A parent or a student who has become eligible must provide a written and signed consent form before personal information can be released. Interpretation of law may affect how school districts in various areas approach the law. The institution will provide a copy of the information disclosed if the eligible student or parent requests it (FERPA. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Mid-South Educational Research Association. FERPA: Only a piece of the privacy puzzle. This may in turn reflect how much information is released. S. 93-380 (20 U. Chattanooga. processing. Quick turn around (QTA).C. The form must state what documents are to be disclosed. College student records: Legal issues.S.FAST FORWORD There are specific requirements that must be fulfilled before disclosing information that is not available under the exceptions of the law such as ‘‘directory’’ information. (2003). University of California–Los Angeles (UCLA).

those with specific language impairment (Tallal et al. 1997). Makris. WHAT IS A NEUROSCIENCE-BASED PERSPECTIVE AND HOW DOES IT HELP INTERVENTION WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS? Researchers have speculated for years that ASD must have something to do with brain processing differences. and sequencing. myelin begins to insulate brain cell connections at very specific times during the development of the brain. (2004) and Herbert. Myelin is important because it allows brain cells to ‘‘talk’’ to each other using very efficient connections. the intervention was named Fast ForWord. Today there are nine Fast ForWord products. After the initial field trial of the intervention with almost 500 children. 5 days a week. but those cells may be organized differently. language. processing. Herbert and her associates worked to confirm the hypothesis that children on the autism spectrum may have intact cortical brain cells important for thought. Bauman and Kemper (1994) studied brain cells of persons with autism who have died of natural causes. the neuron pathways may get ‘‘wrapped’’ too soon or in unusual ways. (c) simultaneous stimulation of several cognitive domains. Further. (b) adaptability. The additional Fast ForWord products are designed around the same neuroscience principles to build the same cognitive skills of memory. and (d) timely motivation. all based on the same neuroscience research. attention. Among the children who participated in the national field trial were many who had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD).FAST FORWORD Merzenich intervention was different because the speech stimuli in the exercises were acoustically enhanced to conform to the perceptual needs of children with auditory processing problems. the cortex) appeared normal. Ziegler.. but in the context of reading. et al. Ziegler. noting that while there are abnormalities in the brain cells in some of the older parts of the brain that regulate movement and emotion. This may cause the brain to become ‘‘hardwired’’ while the brain is still immature and not well organized. According to Herbert. and reasoning. achieved after 4 weeks of training. These researchers have found that in children with developmental language disorders and children with Asperger syndrome. (2004). they made almost the same gains overall as the children for whom the intervention had been designed—namely. Brain cells in the cortex have connecting fibers that are ‘‘wrapped’’ with an insulating sheet called myelin. et al. brain cells important for thought and language (cells in the outer brain parts. This intense training protocol stemmed from research by Merzenich et al. (1996) showing that four characteristics of training maximize brain reorganization: (a) frequency of stimuli presentation. specifically in the way they communicate with each may pose a problem. Deutsch. Herbert hypothesizes that this could interfere with the child’s ability to process language and learn other higher cognitive IN 140 . Although many of the children with ASD had more severe language and processing issues than the average Fast ForWord participant. for 4 to 6 weeks. children were asked to practice the exercises 2 hours a day. However. despite many studies of the brains of individuals with ASD. The results of the national field trial instituted to test the efficacy of the new intervention revealed that the average language gain nationwide was almost two standard deviations (representing a year and one-half growth in language skills) in most cases. The original intervention is now called Fast ForWord Language. there has been little consensus as to the ways in which the brain might be organized differently in these individuals.

but the connections between the brain cells are less efficiently organized. HOW DO FAST FORWORD PRODUCTS DIFFER FROM OTHER INTERVENTIONS FOR CHILDREN ON THE AUTISM SPECTRUM? Because they were developed specifically for improving receptive language. The authors noted that although there was substantial variability in the quantity and quality of gains realized as a result of Fast ForWord Language intervention. et al. et al. 271. L. and cognitive gaps that these children may experience. and sequencing the Fast ForWord products can augment other interventions for ASD that address behavioral and interaction patterns by filling in the auditory. J. D. P. C. S. Merzenich. R. but the gains are significant. L. Jenkins. (2004). R. 2000. Johnston. 530–540. and expressive formulation skills. even in adults. Her research using MRI scans suggests that the brains of children with Asperger syndrome and developmental language disorders have the same number of cortical brain cells as those of children who do not exhibit autism spectrum disorders. Annals of Neurology. K. Melzer... Brain asymmetries in autism and developmental language disorder: A nested whole-brain analysis. M. A. Kennedy. M. & Tallal. Miller. O’Brien. (2004). P. N. using MRI to create images of the brain working before and after Fast ForWord Language intervention. it appears that if children with ASD demonstrate immature or inefficient connections.. T. Although research by Herbert. The neurobiology of autism.. In a retrospective study of 100 children with ASD who used Fast ForWord Language. language. Deutsch. et al. Melzer and Poglitsch (1999) reported that many therapists successfully implemented Fast ForWord Language in conjunction with sensori-integration modifications as part of an Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or naturalistic intervention programs. Filipek. San Antonio. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association. Herbert. Temple et al. P. 55. A. almost all of the children who complied with the intervention schedule showed enhanced attentional. L. M. E.. revealed neurological wiring changes in children and adults with dyslexia and associated auditory processing problems. T. Brain Advance Access. D. those are malleable in the human brain. (2004) and Herbert. J. Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training.. C. & Kemper.. & Poglitsch. (2004) needs to be verified by other studies before firm conclusions may be drawn. Ziegler. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Makris. REFERENCES Bauman. W. 2004. M. L. processing. receptive language. Children on the autism spectrum may require a significantly longer training period than children with other language or reading disorders.. Use of Fast ForWord with children who have autism spectrum disorders. memory.FAST FORWORD tasks easily. Herbert. et al... L. Filipek.. these investigations demonstrated that brain function could be normalized in 4 to 6 weeks. (1994). (1996). M. Normandin.. Ziegler. G. attention... Makris. Ziegler. 141 . M. TX.. A. Science. M. N.. This research with children and adults with dyslexia. Deutsch. (1999)... M. Schreiner. Further. November 24.. 2003). D. A. 77–80. Neuroscientists have demonstrated that intensive interventions can reroute brain connections.. Ziegler. Kemper. The ability to Fast ForWord Language to normalize brain organization has been investigated in two studies (Temple et al. P.. Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder.

Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. To treat or prevent this condition. P. E.. Rapid training-driven improvement in autistic and other PDD children. Protopapas. Saunders.... Poldrack. & Merzenich. BURNS AND PAULA TALLAL FEINGOLD DIET The Feingold diet was developed in 1973 by Benjamin Feingold. idea. perfume.. Feingold also advised individuals to avoid certain over-the-counter and prescription drugs and to limit the purchases of mouthwash. R. 100(5). Poldrack. cutting with scissors. S. MD. Nagarajan. 97(25). KELLY M. A. Figurative language provides a new way of looking at or understanding a message by making comparisons of different items to demonstrate the unique similarities. and artificial flavors caused hyperactivity in children.. E. Tallal. & Merzenich. and various other nonfood products. Stuttering is the most common fluency disorder characterized by repetitions of consonant or vowel sounds as the speaker tries to express a thought.. There is no empirical evidence to support the efficacy of the Feingold diet.. Feingold suggested a diet that was free of such chemicals. Miller. G. P.. Temple. A.. Deutsch... W. 490–491. G. See Developmental Individual-Difference Relation-Based Intervention FLUENCY Fluency is the normal rhythm and timing of words and phrases including variations in speed and pauses. or feeling. who proposed that salicylates. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Figurative language or speech contains specific words that are intended by the speaker to create interesting images. (2003). S. Society for Neuroscience. T. S. Miller. MARTHA S. a pediatric allergist.. Jenkins. R. M. and repetitions. 2860–2865. COOK 142 .. Temple. Salz. rhythm. Protopapas. A fluency disorder is defined as an interruption in the flow of spoken language by atypical rate. or buttoning a shirt.. COOK FINE MOTOR SKILLS Fine motor skills describe a movement that requires the use and coordination of the smaller muscles of the body. toothpaste. Figurative language is used to enhance the communicative meaning or message of the speaker. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Tallal. KATHERINE E. artificial colors. (2000). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. A. KATHERINE E. (1997). M. M. cough drops. 23. 13907– 13912. Disruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI.. Examples of fine motor skills include writing. P.FEINGOLD DIET Tallal. PRESTIA FLOOR TIME. et al.

I would not be able to ‘‘read your intention’’ to communicate with me. intentions. our intention to communicate is only explicitly clear once we have established eye-contact with the other person. and needs of the communicative partner. you have failed to establish a physical presence for me. and keeping our body relaxed to move easily to include other people or to move away from a person as needed. and that we have those same types of thoughts. is an ever-present complex process when relating to others. we have to establish a physical presence to show that person that we would like to talk to the person or just be with them. it is often not effective or functional if the first three steps are not in place. verbal or nonverbal. Step 4: Using Language to Relate to Others While language is undisputedly central to all language-based communication. if you are thinking about me. We even monitor our own behavior based on what we think other people might be thinking of us! We consider what we know about the other person and what they like to do in order to keep the other person feeling like we are aware of them or thinking about them. it may be interesting to listen to (if you are an adult). while thinking about them. Step 1: Thinking about Others and What They Are Thinking about Us We THINK about who we are near or who we want to talk to or play with. feelings.FOUR STEPS OF COMMUNICATION FOOD INTOLERANCE/SENSITIVITIES. Our physical presence can include standing close enough to the person (often about an arm’s length away). as well. To help we realize how to begin the process of evaluating and treating persons who have difficulty sharing space with others/communicating effectively. which helps to kick off communication. but to also watch the physical movements and facial expression of the others to determine their intentions. and you want to hang out with me but you are standing about four feet away and looking around but wishing I would come to you. but communication or sharing space effectively is usually not functional without using our eyes. For example. This is the third step. feelings. It is in this same order that we begin to address teaching social thinking skills to persons with near-normal to way-abovenormal intelligence who also have social cognitive deficits. Step 2: Establishing a Physical Presence When we desire to communicate or ‘‘hang out’’ with someone. Language use in communication requires that language users constantly consider the thoughts. and he or she talks endlessly without considering what you are thinking about and without establishing eyecontact. experiences. See See Elimination Diet and Food Sensitivities FOUR STEPS OF COMMUNICATION Communication. it should better be described as ‘‘downloading’’ information. Each 143 . For example. and needs. Our physical presence usually communicates intent. We are aware people have little thoughts about all the people around them. Step 3: ‘‘Thinking with Your Eyes’’ As we are thinking about the person we desire to communicate with and we establish physical presence. not only to show someone we are interested in talking. if a student comes up to you to tell you all the details about the Titanic. but this is not truly communication. Most students with social cognitive deficits need to work on all four of these steps. The four steps of communication were developed by Winner (2002) to help understand how the communicative process unfolds. meaning that we have to do far more with them than simply practice teaching them to participate in a conversation while sitting at a table. since it is possible to engage in the previous two steps without using eye-contact. prior knowledge. having our shoulders turned towards them.

I also may keep an eye on you to make sure you are just trying to get to another floor on the elevator and not trying to steal my wallet (Step 2). it is at this time that all people have to regulate their communication around their own needs as well as the needs of others. We can use the following four steps of perspective taking not only for us adults to better assess where a child may be struggling. San Jose. (2002). it is as important when we are not talking to people as when we are engaged in an active discussion/conversation. CA: Michelle Garcia Winner. M. CA: Michelle Garcia Winner. Worksheets! For teaching social thinking and related skills. and personality to gain insight into the communicative intent of the person conveying the message. Thinking about you thinking about me. belief systems. add their own thoughts by connecting their experiences or thoughts to what other people are saying. One definition of perspective taking is the ability to read other people’s thoughts. I monitor and possibly regulate my behavior to keep you thinking about me the way I want you to think about me. fix my clothing. etc. emotions. CA: Michelle Garcia Winner. when we are just sharing space (e. REFERENCE Winner. prior knowledge and experiences. REFERENCE Winner. As soon as you get on the elevator. Step 4: As I try and figure out what you are thinking about me.FOUR STEPS OF PERSPECTIVE TAKING partner has to work to regulate their language to meet the needs of the listener while also conveying the message that helps them to add their own thoughts to the interaction. I wonder what you are thinking about me. MICHELLE GARCIA WINNER AND JAMIE RIVETTS FOUR STEPS OF PERSPECTIVE TAKING Perspective taking should occur each time we share space with one or more people. when sharing an elevator) or when we are talking or planning to talk. Step 1: I think about you and you have a thought about me.g. I realize you are having a thought about me so I stop looking in the mirror and I face the door (Steps 1. M. and so forth. but also as a teaching tool for older students with Asperger syndrome and like diagnoses. (2005).. intentions. Perspective taking is critical for people to work effectively together in groups. to help them understand more concretely the abstract process of perspective taking. FURTHER INFORMATION Winner. M. (2002). What is your motive/intention for being near me or thinking about me? Are we just in the same place at the same time by coincidence. Thinking about you thinking about me. The four steps of perspective taking were developed by Winner for us to better understand how a ‘‘thought’’ about another person quickly turns into behavioral regulation (2002). 144 . or do you plan to harm or trick me? Step 3: Since I realize you are having a thought about me. 3. Step 2: I try to determine why you are near me. and 4). I will often look in the mirror. San Jose. produce supportive responses. makeup. San Jose. motives. For example: When I am on an elevator by myself. Effective language-based communication requires students to ask questions to others about other people.

The range of physical signs and symptoms varies. and large ears. however. or a bit larger head circumference than their typical counterparts. often before their forties. knee. These might include a longer face or jaw. flat feet. At puberty. even with a full mutation.FRAGILE X SYNDROME FURTHER INFORMATION Winner. Other symptoms that might occur in fragile X are caused by loose or weak connective tissues. Females with fragile X are affected differently than males. International researchers continue to study fragile X and are working to find medical and preventative treatments as well as effective therapeutic strategies for the syndrome. is not able to make usable amounts of a specific protein. will be able to make some of the needed protein. It is found in 16 to 19 percent of females with the permutation gene. the FMR1 gene. a broad forehead. or enlarged testicles. which is found on the X chromosome and passed down from one generation to the next. more discernable features often develop. The less FMRP levels in the body. which does not affect sexual development and is not caused by a hormonal imbalance. The body’s building blocks are made up of proteins that perform specific jobs needed for the body’s chemical functions and for the structure of organs and tissues. Older individuals with fragile X syndrome may develop hand tremors or have difficulty walking. Since females have two X chromosomes. This can be manifested by loose or flexible joints. Women with POF stop ovarian function very early. Fragile X occurs because a specific gene. The gene that causes fragile X was discovered in 1991 by scientists at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). San Jose. causes fragile X. and the ability to extend thumb. then the female. Therefore. CA: Michelle Garcia Winner. Often individuals with fragile X do not grow as tall as might be expected based on the height of others in their family. Some young children may have very soft skin. and sometimes as early as their twenties (the average age for menopause in normal females is 51). Often infants and children with fragile X have no discernable features from other children until they reach puberty. they will have only one FMRP1 gene that is mutated and another that is normal. One significant effect of a permutation form of the fragile X gene in females is called premature ovarian failure (POF). (2005). A single mutated gene. MICHELLE GARCIA WINNER AND JAMIE RIVETTS FRAGILE X SYNDROME Fragile X syndrome (fragile X) is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. Sometimes weak connective tissues can cause a heart murmur or mitral valve prolapse. so early knowledge of the gene is a must. so if the gene that makes normal amounts of the FMRP is active. Many males develop what is called macro-orchidism. 145 . Cells randomly choose which gene on a chromosome will be used to make proteins. The amount of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) determines how mild or severe the symptoms of fragile X are in a body. and elbow joints further than what is considered normal. Think social! A social thinking curriculum for school aged students. the more severe the symptoms. The possibility of early menopause can be a significant issue for women considering pregnancy. M. symptoms in females with fragile X are less severe and occur less often than symptoms in males.

By definition. or sensory input can be so heightened that his behavior can potentially escalate to aggression or self-injurious behavior. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. Wehner. Further research is needed to determine the causal genetic factors of fragile X to autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. ANN PILEWSKIE FREE AND APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION (FAPE) As part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. S. M. G. D. Ament. but do not necessarily meet the full criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSW-IVTR. 146 . M. In recent years. Autistic behavior.gov/ publicatios/pubs/fragileX/sub8. Early development. J. and sensory issues are characteristic of individuals with fragile X. Part B.org/html/ autism.fragilex.. In general. FMR1 protein. and other developmental disorders. (2001). They may be oversensitive to sounds. 2000) definition. text rev.. N. all students of school age are provided a free and appropriate public education. How do the behaviors seen in persons with Fragile X relate to those seen in autism? Retrieved August 11. 165–174. 49–59. Skinner. APA. Jr.. There is a strong association of fragile X and autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. & Skinner. The National Fragile X Foundation.. Often the individual’s reaction to overstimulation. or movement. 2006. D. Hatton. The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: Symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome. The anxiety level in males with fragile X appears to last longer than in their typical peers. and therefore avoid situations that might make them nervous. or uncomfortable. At this time. fragile X is the most common genetically known cause of autism.FREE AND APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION (FAPE) Anxiety. 2001). Bailey. A. D. Children with fragile X exhibit many of the same characteristics as those with autism. R. and developmental trajectories in young males with fragile X syndrome. lights... E. & Mesibov. They may have difficulty in social situations or meeting new people. all special education and related services should be provided to the student with a disability at no cost to his or her parents. DC: Author.. social fears. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Transitions or a change in routine can sometimes be difficult. from www. (2006). 30(1). every school district must provide a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) for children with disabilities. D. Rogers. & Mesibov. anxiety. anxious.).. Rogers.htm.. Skinner. What are the signs and symptoms of Fragile X syndrome? Retrieved November 16. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association (2000). from www. and Hagerman (2001) found 15 to 33 percent of the children they evaluated with fragile X syndrome met the criteria for autism. Hatton. researchers have found that a significant subgroup of children with fragile X also have autism. & Hagerman. Hatton. (February 3. B. and that they characteristically appeared very similar to children with autism without fragile X. 31(2).. Washington. Wehner.nichd. Mesibov. 2006). National Institute of Child Health & Human Development. temperatures. (2001).htm. FURTHER INFORMATION Bailey. G. 409–417. temperament and functional impairment in autism and fragile X syndrome. (2000). idiopathic autism. D.. textures.nih. B. D. Bailey found that 25 percent of boys with fragile X met the criteria of autism using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (Bailey. 2006. 22(6).

(c) include an appropriate preschool. That being said. IDEA defines FAPE but does not set any requirements or standards. the choice of approach or methodology is within the school’s discretion. The definition of what is appropriate education has led many families to the federal court to decide what is appropriate for their student’s education. FAPE is best defined as an individualized program designed to meet the child’s unique needs and from which the child receives educational benefit. Sec. 552(a)(1)). 34 C. This case reached the U. This exception only applied to cases where the methodology requested showed educational results and the school’s methodology did not.R. Rowley (1982). 553(a)(4)). Sec. if the student’s parents can prove that the school’s methodology is not producing educational benefits. or secondary school education in the state involved. school districts must follow specific requirements in determining placement. 2000).S.S.FREE AND APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION (FAPE) The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act defines FAPE as special education and related services that (a) have been provided at public expense without charge to the parents.F. The definition of FAPE first came under scrutiny with Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson School District v. and (d) are provided in conformity with the student’s individualized education program (20 U.A. ¥ The placement must comply with the least restrictive environment requirement (IDEA Regulations. Supreme Court. (b) meet the standards of the state educational agency. Many court cases followed Rowley regarding autism spectrum disorders and specific instructional approaches or methodologies. § 1401(8)) [2004]. 34 C. Placements of students with disabilities have also been questioned when discussing FAPE.C. which has troubled many school districts and parents. with the court developing a two-part test to determine if a school district provided a free and appropriate public education.R. Disagreements regarding placement in an IEP by parents may go to mediation or due process if the school and parents cannot come to an agreement. The courts have consistently declared that as long as an appropriate educational program is provided. 147 .F. Sec 300. According to IDEA. The second part determined if the IEP developed adhered to all of the law’s procedural requirements and was reasonably calculated to enable the student to receive educational benefits. The Supreme Court decided that the school district did adhere to both parts of the test and that an appropriate education did not mean providing the student with a disability the best education possible (Fielder. 300. elementary. Any placement of a student with a disability must be made by the IEP team after the IEP is written. The educational placement must be determined at least annually (IDEA Regulations.R. 552(a)(2)). 34 C. The first part of the test verified that the procedural requirements of IDEA were followed during the development of the IEP.F. 300. then some courts have ordered school districts to use a specific methodology. These requirements are as follows: ¥ The placement must be based on the student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) and be designed as the most appropriate setting where the required special education and related services can be delivered (IDEA Regulations.

E. 2004). and it is reserved for the most severe behaviors under the most controlled conditions since it requires intensive time and controlled conditions (Bowen. S. School-based interventions for students with behavior problems. (2001). Albin. REFERENCES Bowen. The ‘‘yes’’ items correspond with ‘‘likely maintaining variables. 1991. 20 U. J. Pierce & Cheney. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. FL: The Florida Center on Self-Injury. C.S. § 1401(8) (2002). 2004).. G (1996). teacher. Horner. Iwata & DeLeon. & Skinner. and automatic reinforcement (pain attenuation). R. 30. 1993. F. Using functional assessment to develop effective individualized intervention for challenging behaviors. IDEA Part B Regulations. (2004). & Lalli. New York: Springer. Gresham..A. B. 148 . Lalli. L. M. The purpose of conducting functional analysis is to (a) define problem behaviors. REFERENCE Iwata. et al. therapist. H.S. Functional behavior analysis is not generally used in school settings. MELISSA L. the FAST’s 18 items are yes-no questions completed by a parent. 458 U. information needs to be gathered through observation or interview. Before conducting functional behavior analysis. Functional behavior analysis involves manipulating antecedents (before) and consequences (after) in a highly controlled environment to determine their controlling functions (Mace. 31. H. W. Functional behavioral assessment: Principles.. 1996) is a behavior rating scale used to identify factors that may influence the occurrence of behavior problems. U. G. Teaching Exceptional Children. The functional analysis screening tool. (b) find stimuli that extinguish problem behaviors. 176 (1982). Horner & Carr. & Clark. 1997. 2001. (1992). Making a difference: Advocacy competencies for special education professionals. Watson. or residential staff member.S. Watson. (2000). G. Sprague. Fiedler. C. Rowley. Jenson. & Carr.. 2004). T. (1993). and (c) identify functions of problem behaviors (Foster-Johnson & Dunlap. Department of Education.. 156–172. TRAUTMAN FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS SCREENING TOOL (FAST) The Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST. 44–50.R.’’ which include social reinforcement (attention/preferred items). Foster-Johnson. Jenson. 84– 104. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.. M. (1997). & Skinner. Journal of Special Education.FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS SCREENING TOOL (FAST) REFERENCES Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson School District v. Storey.F. E. Behavioral support for students with severe disabilities: Functional assessment and comprehensive intervention. Homer. R. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS Functional behavior analysis is a technique for analyzing relationships between behavior and the environment (Pierce & Cheney. & Clark. School Psychology Review. I. 500– 662. R. and future directions. Gainesville. 34 C. & DeLeon. O’Neill. & Dunlap.. Sections 300. 25. social reinforcement (escape). 1997). automatic reinforcement (sensory stimulation). Designed to be a component of a comprehensive functional analysis. and hypotheses should be generated. Gresham. procedures.C.

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Functional analysis of classroom variables for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. P. 12. Ellis. S. Perspectives on the use of nonaversive and aversive interventions for persons with developmental disabilities (pp. Clarke. L. & Zarcone. 1995). G.. C. 14. D. Sprague. Case studies using functional analysis for young children with behavioral risks. the idea is to determine the most important goals for an individual to achieve optimum adult independence based on his or her needs and skills. In A.. D. 2000. (1991). K. According to Cronin and Patton (1993). (1993). R. R. Greene.... A. CA: Wadsworth. W. 2006). 25. O’Neill. 155–180. & Newton. E. The first stage consists of teacher interviews. E. S. Dunlap. Stage. & Cheney. DuPaul. Albin. 243–260. Evaluating assessment based intervention strategies for students with ADHD and comorbid disorders within natural classroom context. J. 1993. The experimental (functional) analysis of behavior disorders: Methodology. M. Clarke. C. Functional goals can include those in self-help 149 . & Lalli.. J. Singh (Eds. 18. & Harvey. Erickson. Mancina. S. R.. Ervin. Behavior analysis and learning (3rd ed. and potential interventions based on the conditions that maintain appropriate behavior (Ervin et al. IL: Sycamore Publishing Company. REFERENCES Dunlap. J. 1990). D. J.. Iwata. & White. D. (2004). P. The purpose of conducting an FBA is to determine (a) discriminative stimuli or antecedents that elicit problem behavior.. Stage. Mahwah. 2000.. (2006). Lalli. and hypothesis development. Vollmer. C. 18.. Kamps et al. W. C. applications. Ervin et al.. N. Education and Treatment of Children.. Pierce.. as well as the needs of the family and major life demands. (2000)... R. G. T.. Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook. H. and (b) the reinforcing consequences that maintain the problem behavior (Erickson. Belmont. G.’’ Essentially.. Kamps. R. L. S. Kern. Research in Developmental Disabilities. E... C.. & Nelson. dePerczel. J. Repp & N.. (1990). A. Behavioral Disorders. A. 301–330). The second stage includes functional analysis to test the conditions that are hypothesized to be maintaining the students’ disruptive behaviors. J. F.. Sycamore.FUNCTIONAL GOALS Mace.. R. Storey. Wilson. HYE RAN PARK FUNCTIONAL GOALS Functional goals are based on the ultimate desired. R. M. Functional analysis and treatment of aberrant behavior. postschool outcome for an individual. & Zarcone. R. The FBA consists of two stages. (1995). HYE RAN PARK FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT (FBA) Functional behavior assessment is based on research in applied behavior analysis. 275–291. C. functional goals should be based on ‘‘events or activities typically encountered by most adults in everyday life. Kern.. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders... L. Naturalistic study of the behavior of students with EBD referred for functional behavior assessment. K. (1997). J. R. Behavioral Disorder.). and limitations.. S. Homer. & Friman. Wyble. J. direct observation/descriptive assessment. 344–358.. B. L.. Childs.).. Iwata. 31–40. & Nelson. It provides a method of examining relationships between and generating hypotheses about the antecedents and consequences that trigger or maintain behaviors (Dunlap et al. D.. Vollmer.

TX: Pro-Ed. One area of intense fMRI study in autism has been the study of the fusiform gyrus. it is important to consider what is socially appropriate. This is crucial to understanding what areas of the brain may be different or damaged in individuals with autism and could potentially help with treatment. BABKIE FUNCTIONALLY EQUIVALENT ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOR Functionally equivalent alternative behavior refers to the replacement of an undesired behavior with a new. and the need to develop an understanding of how to work with the individual. fMRI is different from a typical MRI scan in that the fMRI is taken while the patient is involved with some mental exercise or activity. thus showing which parts of the brain are being activated and used for various actions. From the perspective of restrictions placed on an individual. as well as functional academics and social skills. self-help. ANDREA M. and social skills areas. including those in the academic. ANDREA M. and other adults. middle. Additionally. not only by parents. (2004). the term functional limitations may be used to refer to the lack of opportunities provided by the school and postschool settings to develop functional skills. Limitations also include behavioral issues an individual may exhibit that interfere with successful integration into the school or community setting. and generalizing skills taught. This new behavior fulfills the same function as the behavior being replaced. & Patton. these may include nonacceptance of differences. teachers.. but also among peers and in community settings.FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS and daily living skills. J. especially if the focus is academically based rather than a functionally based curriculum. & Kregel. generally more acceptable or more effective alternative behavior. TX: Pro-Ed. and secondary age students with special needs (2nd ed. These limitations may include having difficultly mastering. Austin.). maintaining. FURTHER INFORMATION Wehman. R. E. job or community requirements beyond an individual’s skills. daily living. Austin. BABKIE FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS Functional limitations refer to restrictions an individual may have in terms of development of skills or cognitive abilities and the restrictions placed on him or her in terms of opportunities to achieve. When considering what to teach as an alternative behavior. P. Functional curriculum for elementary. REFERENCE Cronin. (1993). These goals are broken down into basic steps that are taught as functional skills. KATIE BASSITY FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (FMRI) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroimaging technique used to measure activity in structures of the brain. J. M. 150 . Life skills instruction for all students with special needs.

D. KATIE BASSITY FUNCTIONAL SKILLS Functional skills are those skills necessary to progress successfully in school and life and can include daily living and self-help skills as well as the academic and social skills. & Adams. PAUL G. Weaver. BABKIE FUNCTIONAL PROTEST TRAINING Functional protest training involves teaching an appropriate. Brain imaging handbook. making purchases). LACAVA FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES Functional outcomes refer to an individual achieving optimum independence in the post-school environment. and (e) social skills (communication. E. S. ANDREA M. if a student screams when she experiences an unpleasant auditory experience. Landers. M. and where will my students use this knowledge now and in the future?’’ (Weaver. self-initiation) among others (Cronin and Patton. (1993).. R. functional academic skills may address: (a) reading for information (basic reading such as a recipe. 284–287. 1993). (d) social studies (registering to vote and voting. when. Making curriculum functional: Special education and beyond. problem-solving. a more appropriate form of protest would be for the student to cover her ears (for a nonverbal student) or say ‘‘That hurts my ears’’ (for a verbal student). J. allowing for maintenance and generalization. a job application. Life skills instruction for all students with special needs. The decision on what is a functional skill can be thought of as a process used by teachers to answer questions such as ‘‘How. Intervention in School and Clinic. W. Norton & Co. (1991). (b) mathematical skills to allow personal independence (basic math skills. (c) science skills (such as reading a medication chart). as well as family desires. New York: W. See also adaptive behavior. or a transportation schedule). BABKIE 151 . and/or residentially).. The focus is to select and teach skills that the individual will use in immediate and future environments. or a combination of both. 25. using a calculator. a newspaper article. and to present or teach them in such a way that the skill will be used routinely.FUNCTIONAL SKILLS FURTHER INFORMATION Bremner.. TX: Pro-Ed. based on the individual’s development and on the provision of an appropriate curriculum. and functional goals and skills that allow for successful integration into the adult community (whether it be socially. age appropriate. developmental age. Functional outcomes may be focused on academic goals. REFERENCES Cronin. cooperation. M. ANDREA M. J. comparing prices. F. The goal for all students with ASD is to be a participating and involved member of the community while school-aged and as an adult. occupationally. determining the appropriate bus route in the community). For example. Austin. & Patton. R. Depending on the age and developmental level of the individual. a course. & Adams. 1991). functional form of protest to replace nonfunctional or undesired forms of protest. (2005). Landers.

(1999). is even more reinforcing than escaping the activity. commenting (i.. and protesting (i. it is believed that challenging behavior serves four functions: escape/avoidance. Autism: Identification.e. beginning as an escape and evolving into attention seeking as the individual finds the resulting attention rewarding. Escape/avoidance refers to behavior that is intended to allow the child to avoid a person or escape doing a task. In D. It is important to note that behaviors can actually be strengthened if a consequence is put in place that does not address the correct function of a behavior. the escape behavior is more likely to happen again because the consequence... In addition. ‘‘I want a ball’’). a single behavior may serve more than one function. and tangible.e. attention. and so on). joint attention (shifting another’s attention to an object. ‘‘I don’t want to eat that’’). These functions include requesting (i. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT FUSIFORM GYRUS The fusiform gyrus (FG) is located in the temporal lobe of the cerebrum of the human brain. KATIE BASSITY FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION Functions of communication are the purposes for which one communicates. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. & Prizant.e. if a child originally exhibits a behavior to escape a nonpreferred activity and receives reinforcement of the behavior in the form of attention.. ‘‘I like your new shoes’’). and treatment (2nd ed.e.. Enhancing language and communication development in autism: Assessment and intervention guidelines. respectively. Further evidence has highlighted that the FG is involved with the processing and perception of objects or areas of expertise (such as categories. The function of a behavior can also evolve. act. Mahwah. attracting attention (i. 141–174).FUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOR FUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOR In the field of behavior analysis. pp. One vital area of research being explored is how the FG operates within the network of other brain regions and how this might be different and how it may affect social cognition for those with autism. through one behavior an individual may seek both to avoid an unpleasant task and to gain a preferred item (escape/avoidance and tangible). B. For example. 152 . These functions may not be apparent to a caregiver in the midst of a challengingbehavior situation. REFERENCE Wetherby. or topic). Sensory and tangible functions are straightforward in that they seek some type of sensory input and something tangible. Children with autism demonstrate a restricted pattern of communicative functions. Imaging studies have indicated that the FG is activated when processing faces but that there is lower FG activation for those with autism. attention. special interests. B. 1999). Zager (Ed. ‘‘Watch this!’’). Behavior that seeks attention includes that which receives positive and negative attention.). sensory. A. often protesting and requesting at higher frequencies than the other communicative functions (Wetherby & Prizant. For instance.. education.

Annual Review of Neuroscience.. 415–27. C. PAUL G. A. 19. Hoffman. Marois. W.. R. 2059–2073 Puce. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. A. 381–394. How the brain processes social information: Searching for the social brain [Electronic version]. J. I. Human neural systems for face recognition and social communication [Electronic version]. Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘‘face area’’ in autism: Evidence from functional MRI... D. E. M. J. T. G. 568–573. Schultz. & Gore.. J. A. 74. 772–784. 1192–1199. Skudlarski. M€ uller. Gore. Tarr. The development of face processing in autism. K. (2004). P. (2003). N. C. 59–67. E. Van der Gaag. (2006). M. 27. 36. A. J. T. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Biological Psychiatry. Neuroimaging in disorders of social and emotional functioning: What is the question [Electronic version]? Journal of Child Neurology. Pierce. & Gobbini. Allen. Insell. R. Face-sensitive regions in human extrastriate cortex studied by functional MRI [Electronic version]. Grelotti. (2002). R... J... T. Kleinman. (1999). Ambrose. LACAVA 153 . Sasson. Anderson.. R. 358. Herbert.. 697–722. A. Allison.. (2004). G. & Courchesne. J. V. 51.. & Fernald. Activation of the middle fusiform ‘‘face area’’ increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects [Electronic version]. (2001). M. C. 124. Klin. J.. D.FUSIFORM GYRUS FURTHER INFORMATION Gauthier... Haxby. Nature Neuroscience. I. Brain. R.. J. (1995). et al. & McCarthy.. R... The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: Implications for the pathobiology of autism [Electronic version].


.. & Risley. COOK GENERALIZATION Generalization occurs when a behavior can withstand many environments (settings and people) over time. This genetic susceptibility has been shown in studies that have suggested that as many as 5 to 20 different genes may be associated with autism. Wolf. M. M. a child has generalized learning the color blue when he or she can point to any blue object in an environment at any time and label that object as blue. and systematically varying aspects of the training or intervention. (1968). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. KATHERINE E. Although parenting abilities don’t cause autism.G GENERAL CASE PROGRAMMING General case programming is a generalization strategy where multiple examples of a concept or behavior. research supports a genetic component to this disability. the field of autism has been the beneficiary of genetic research over the last few decades. M. R. REFERENCE Baer. 1–7. Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. For example. T. TARA MIHOK GENETIC FACTORS/HEREDITY The myth of autism being caused by inappropriate parenting or parental bonding with the infant has been shattered by scientific research over the last four decades. These results have revealed that there is a much higher rate of autism between identical twins. One of the most significant findings has been the results of twin and family studies. & Risley. are utilized to increase the success of skill generalization to novel situations. 1(1). Wolf. that a family member of someone with autism has a higher probability of having an autism spectrum disorder than the typical . 1968). It has become clear that autism is a disability that is predisposed in some individuals. and that one behavior can affect behavior change in other associated areas (Baer. As with many other areas. D.

LACAVA GENOTYPE Genotype refers to the internally coded. M. to the regulation of metabolism and synthesis. McGee and Menolascino (1991) redefined GT as a psychology of interdependence between caregivers and persons with behavioral difficulties. 131. McGee. More recently. The results showed a decrease in maladaptive behaviors. This stored information is used as a blueprint or set of instructions for building and maintaining a living creature. They control everything from the formation of protein macromolecules. it is considered an alternative to any kind of aversive intervention used by parents and professionals. A. 56–57. starting with the need for caregivers to analyze and increase their value-centered interactions and decrease dominative ones. The term gentle teaching was first introduced by McGee in 1985 (Jones. PAUL G. inheritable information carried by all living organisms. such as the use of restraint and punishment. and they are passed from one generation to the next (inheritable). McGee (1985b) successfully applied gentle teaching to more than 650 persons. These instructions are intimately involved with all aspects of the life of a cell or an organism. USA Today. To differentiate GT from behaviorism. 1987). 1991. 156 . 1983) over a 5-year period. McGee (1990) explained its basic assumptions as follows: (a) frequent and unconditional value giving is central to the interactional exchange.GENOTYPE population. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT GENTLE TEACHING (GT) Gentle teaching (GT) was originally defined as a nonaversive approach to dealing with challenging behaviors (McGee. This relationship requires mutual change. and (d) change in both the caregiver and the person exhibiting maladaptive behaviors is critical. need to be decreased and replaced with value-centered behaviors. & Menousek. McCaughey. b). FURTHER INFORMATION Pericak-Vance. (b) everyone has an inherent longing for affection and warmth. (c) dominating actions. These instructions are found within almost all cells (the internal part). On-going research studies are being conducted to identify the autism genotype. Discovering the genetics of autism. they are copied at the time of cell division or reproduction. & Clwyd Health Authority. Menolascino. As such. Connell. 1985a. (2003). It is a broad term based on a philosophical approach that emphasizes mutual bonding between caregivers and persons with behavior difficulties. and that some disorders can be linked to genetic conditions such as fragile X syndrome. Hobbs. See also twin studies. they are written in a coded language (the genetic code). 1983) to persons with mild to moderate mental retardation and a range of mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia (Menolascino & McGee. ranging from those with severe to profound mental retardation and persistent self-injurious behaviors (Menolasino & McGee.

. 1–16. Singh. N. & Mappin. its research methodology was limited to conclude that GT is effective. J. Gentle teaching in the classroom. 1990. GT is distinct from applied behavior analysis in its unconditional valuing. Cullen.. An evaluation of gentle teaching and visual screening in the reduction of stereotypy.GENTLE TEACHING (GT) According to McGee (1992). 15–19. (1989). In A. An examination of the effects of gentle teaching on people with complex learning disabilities and challenging behavior. J.. In addition. Emerson. R. Mongelli. (c) environmental management. M.. Some challenges presented by severe self-injurious behaviour. including self-injurious behavior (Barrera & Teodoro. & Moore. For example McGee (1985b) did not control extraneous variables and did not have a baseline to be compared.. Polirstok. Whitney. Mental Handicap. 1989.. Others noted that GT might have potential risks for people who show aggression. Flash bonding or cold fusion? A case analysis of gentle teaching. F. A. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. & Repp. was not effective (Cullen & Mappin. B. several researchers have reported positive outcomes of this approach (Jones et al. N. Kelley & Stone. its analysis and measurement of dyadic variables. Emerson. IL: Sycamore.. 2005). REFERENCES Barrera. (1990). and (i) integration of other caregivers and peers into the relationships (McGee et al. To date. 22. J. Jones. & Teodoro. (d) precise and conservative prompting. and its underlying assumptions. 1991. (1998).). several studies have reported negative effects. Since the original reports of GT did not include quantification of behavior change or criteria for how to determine successful results. more information is needed to support an objective review of this approach (Mudford. Connell. 1987).. Simpson et al. 1989. 1995. 92–98. & Repp. (b) task analysis. Current perspectives on the use of aversive and non-aversive interventions with developmentally disabled persons (pp. 1998). E. & Trubia. (1990). few empirical studies have reported evidence-based research on gentle teaching. C. (e) identification of precursors to target behavior. Repp & N. & Clwyd Health Authority (1991). gentle teaching is a philosophical approach used with individuals with disabilities as an alternative to aversive intervention. (f) reduction of verbal instructions or verbal and physical demands. 18. past behavioral research contributed to GT using various applied behavioral analysis techniques and the use of the following supportive techniques for enhancing relationships and decreasing challenging behaviors were recommended: (a) errorless teaching strategies. R. 37. Paisey. G. The Irish Journal of Psychology. Singh. (1989). its focus on mutual change. Jordan. Since McGee (1985a) published his first study on the effects of GT. R. Dana. Moreover. The philosophy and practice of gentle teaching: Implication for mental handicap services. 12. Some suggested that GT. McCaughey. 4. 199–214). C. & Stone. 9–22. Kelley. 1990). However. 1989. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. E. while not harmful. Buono.. (g) choice making. 199–211. Entourage.. See also empirical evidence. Sycamore. Primarily. Jordan. However. (h) fading assistance. Singh (Eds.. the original concept of GT has been criticized because the strategies used were not different from those of applied behavior analysis. 2003). and no clear definition of GT has been provided to examine the effectiveness of GT. 157 .

Polirstock. Gentle teaching’s assumptions and paradigm. Cook. B. and musical ability. Gentle Teaching: A non-aversive approach to helping persons with mental retardation. 25. CA: Corwin Press. Menolascino. K. Thousand Oaks.com. 345–355.. 9(3). Mudford. date memory. Savant skills are found more frequently in individuals with autism than in any other population. J. F. V.. (1985a). Improving functional communication skills in adolescents and young adults with severe autism using gentle teaching and positive approaches. 23. 5. (1990).. Menolascino. 99. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Review of the gentle teaching data.. R. L. drawing and art. E. L. Behavioral Residential Treatment. Around 2 to 3 percent of the general population have a mental handicap. hence the original (now unused) term of idiot savants. J.. F. McGee.. Myles. A well-known autistic artist with this ability is Stephen Wiltshire. Boer-Ott. calendrical calculations.. R. Gentle teaching international: http://www. J. D. Kline. G. S. although the presence of mental handicap is not guaranteed. J. J. however there would still only be 1 or 2 individuals in every 200 with autism who have such abilities. T..GIFTEDNESS McGee. Hobbs. L. L. J. FURTHER INFORMATION Gentle teaching: http://www. & Trubia. Gentle teaching. Mental Handicap in New Zealand. J.. Person-treatment interactions across nonaversive response-deceleration procedures for self-injury: A case study of effects and side effects. (1989). S.nl. J. A. & Menousek. (1992). J. (2003)... Individuals with number and math savant skills are capable of doing complex and vast mathematical calculations in their heads. J. 187–193. S. or savant skills. K. 146–153. J. McGee. McGee. C.. 86.gentleteaching. is rare and typically seen in individuals with some degree of mental handicap. J. J. McGee. American Journal of Mental Retardation.. Savants with drawing skills are capable of artwork such as producing phenomenal. G. R. Griswold. Simpson. & Moore. Paisey.. J. Metal Handicap Nursing. P. 9(4). & Adams. 4. C. Oliver Sachs (1995) 158 . S. New York: Human Sciences Press. Mongelli. Ben-Arieh. but only around 0.. J. Topics in Language Disorders. E. (1991). HYO JUNG LEE GIFTEDNESS Extreme giftedness. S. Gentle teaching: The basic tenet. S. (1995). Mental Handicap in New Zealand. B. B. (1985b). D. Buono. F. (1987). E. New York: Plenum Press.. Byrd. O. and proportioned pictures with perspective from a very early age. J. J. Dana.06 percent of those individuals are estimated to have the exceptionally high level of ability in a certain area that goes beyond what the average individual can achieve (Hermelin. (2005). J... Beyond gentle teaching: A non-aversive approach to helping those in need. 13–24. 69–88. Examples of the use of gentle teaching. Ganz. Autism spectrum disorders: Interventions and treatments for children and youth. (1983). R. & McGee. 869–872.. Journal of Psychiatric Treatment and Evaluation. J. McGee. Persons with severe mental retardation and behavioral challenges: From disconnectedness to human engagement. 11–20. Those who are calendrical calculators can tell you exactly what day a certain date will fall on any time for the past or future. T. Whitney. Hermelin (2001) also reports poetry skills and skills with foreign languages.. J. Otten. Areas of savant skill typically include the following: numbers and math. 68–72. & Menolascino. 2001). accurate..gentleteaching. J.

M. having never learned to play. (2003). (1999). 35. Those with musical savant skills often have perfect pitch and can hear every note accurately. Brain and Cognition. O. (1995).). FIONA J. 247–273). Sacks. savant skills and giftedness is one area that highlights the strengths and amazing capabilities of those who are seen otherwise to be low functioning and disabled. building up connecting units of information or details rather than focusing on the bigger picture (Frith. Cognition. what people were wearing. Nettlebeck (1999) suggests that general theories of intelligence cannot account for the phenomena. Savants with date memory can tell you exactly what was happening. 1990). L. & Hermelin. 2001) is an instrument used for the assessment of individuals ages 3 through 22. 1998). and reproducing complex pieces of classical music. Hove: Psychology Press. 277–291. Gilliam. The mind of a savant: Language learning and modularity. and some have attempted to design computer programs that can mimic the savant skills. B. L. for example of calendrical calculation (Norris.). or give you the exact date for an event when asked. The scale consists of sections including: Restricted Pattern of Behavior. In M. a multilingual savant who has learned to speak dozens of languages fluently. and Key Questions. REFERENCES Frith. N. Pring.. U. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishing. B. Heaton. Autism and pitch processing: A precursor for savant musical ability. (1993). no matter how insignificant that event may seem to others.. They are able to perform such feats as sitting in front of a piano. Heaton. (1995). (1998). D. & Tsimpli. discuss the case of Christopher. 1993. Norris. on piece-meal processing. SCOTT GILLIAM ASPERGER DISORDER SCALE (GADS) The Gilliam Asperger Disorder Scale (GADS. This tool can be used by anyone who has direct contact with the individual such as teachers. Autism: Explaining the enigma (2nd ed. 23. (2001). How to build a connectionist idiot (savant). parents. 291–305. A study of perceptual analysis in a high level autistic subject with exceptional graphic abilities. Smith and Tsimpli (1995). Savant skills–rhyme without reason.. (1990).. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Pragmatic Skills. Early Development. for example. a man unable to look after himself who is nevertheless a sought-after classical pianist capable of playing any piece after having heard it only once. Bright splinters of the mind: A personal story of research with autistic savants. There is some uncertainty about how savants possess the skills they do while at the same time often having learning disabilities. Anderson (Ed. S. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Nettlebeck. & Hermelin. assess people 159 . Mottron & Belleville. Pring. Those with skills in poetry or in foreign languages show an aptitude beyond their general abilities and beyond those of others around them. Many researchers suggest that it may be something to do with the tendency in autism to focus on details. I. 15. P. The GADS can be used to identify individuals with Asperger syndrome.GILLIAM ASPERGER DISORDER SCALE (GADS) wrote an excellent essay on Wiltshire’s talent and artistic ability in contrast to his autism. Mottron. Whatever the theories. Frith (2003) cites the case of Nigel. Smith. and other team members. & Belleville. T. London: Picador. 2003. An anthropologist on Mars. Hermelin. Cognitive Patterns. The development of intelligence (pp. 279–309. Music Perception.

Parents and/or professionals at school or home can complete these scales in 5 to 10 minutes.gluten. Gilliam autism rating scale examiner’s manual. Some families of children with autism spectrum disorder have decided to try a glutenfree/casein-free diet believing that gluten and casein may adversely affect their child’s neurological processes. cookies. their responses. document progress in the area of behavior problems. Items on the GARS are measurable by objective frequency of behavior. See also norm-referenced assessment. Gilliam Asperger disorder scale. Loss is at the center of many struggles. (2001). norm-referenced. direct observation is necessary. though conventional in topic 160 . behavioral checklist used to identify and measure changes in programming for individuals with autism ages 3 to 22. FURTHER INFORMATION Gilliam. standardization. pastas. See also diet. TX: Pro-Ed. In these cases.com. MAYA ISRAEL GOOD GRIEF! Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) face myriad challenges as they encounter life’s disappointments. TX: Pro-Ed. Gluten Intolerance Group of North American. Austin. and luncheon meats. Austin. J. For example. The checklist is divided into three subscales: stereotyped behaviors.celiac. MELANIE D. REFERENCE Gilliam. J. the loss experienced by a child with ASD is perceived similarly to that of a typical child. diet therapy. Gluten is found in common foods such as breads. and target goals for Individualized Education Programs. www. and barley.net. and caramel color. pragmatics.GILLIAM AUTISM RATING SCALE (GARS) referred for behavior challenges. HARMS GLUTEN-FREE Gluten is a wheat protein found in wheat. and social interaction. www. rye. Sometimes. A gluten-free diet excludes any food or drink that either contains gluten or could have potentially been contaminated by gluten. E. It can also be hidden in other foods with ambiguous ingredients such as natural flavoring. but frequently the child with ASD demonstrates responses that are similar in content but different in intensity. it is thought that most sources of oats are contaminated with gluten as well. therefore. (1995). artificial flavorings. cereals. Some parents report that removing gluten and casein from their child’s diet results in increased attention as well as reduced tantrums and aggression. calling the food manufacturer usually clears up questions regarding gluten in the products. FURTHER INFORMATION Celiac Disease and Gluten-free Diet Support Center. See also cognitive processes. BROOKE YOUNG GILLIAM AUTISM RATING SCALE (GARS) The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) is a standardized. communication.

Collectively these guidelines help children ‘‘move through’’ and learn from uncomfortable and/or unanticipated setbacks. REFERENCE Gray. and/or seemingly timeless duration. In this way. Children with ASD often associate loss with negative emotion or mistakenly make a connection between two simultaneous but unrelated cues. may be characterized by an increased or decreased amount of emotion. children with ASD may respond in ways that are genuinely unique! Parents and professionals need guidelines to help them provide individuals with ASD the support they need to learn from life’s unanticipated setbacks. this refers to the process of gathering background information and using activities (i. and children with ASD. Use strategies that gradually. For children who interpret words literally.. ‘‘good grief’’). affirmation plays a large and helpful role.. C. Social Stories or similar methods) to share what we’ve learned—that is. To help individuals with ASD turn life’s losses into learning opportunities (i. present.’’ In instances where the source of distress is difficult to identify or the events leading up to it are hard to trace with any certainty. 2003): 1. parents and professionals may find the following guidelines helpful (Gray. On other occasions. (2003). lead to cumulative learning and positive feelings of accomplishment. 15(3). and that’s okay. ‘‘I know you and I are currently in very different emotional places. Over time. step-by-step.GRADUATED GUIDANCE or format. Accommodations and Analogies: Teach children with ASD abstract concepts with the use of individually tailored vocabulary and examples. Jenison Autism Journal. 2. learning. Graduated guidance is most frequently used for 161 . discussions about loss run the risk of frequent expressive and receptive misunderstanding. CAROL GRAY AND WHITNEY MITCHELL KRUSNIAK GRADUATED GUIDANCE Graduated guidance is the incremental adjustment of full physical prompts to assure student success in a particular task. Abandon Assumptions: ‘‘Start from social scratch’’ by replacing our confidence in being able to interpret the behavior of persons with ASD with respect for their differences. 5. Advance Notice: Gather information before it is needed. In this matter of loss. Gray’s guide to loss. This involves considering an event alongside what we know about how that child perceives the social world. and future experiences. whether it is the loss of a favorite toy (considered a day-to-day loss) or the loss of a loved one (death & dying). I am on your team and we are in this together. endless repetition. 3.e. this translates into an effort to teach children with ASD to tie their experiences together and use the information gained when presented with future obstacles. Associations: Teach appropriate associations. Carefully choosing vocabulary or using analogies may bridge the gap between a concept and comprehension. Affirm Feelings: Use affirmation to acknowledge the validity and importance of the child’s feelings without necessarily knowing what she is thinking or feeling. losses become opportunities to gain practical skills to navigate life’s unexpected twists and turns. Affirmation says. The goal of Good Grief! is to encourage identification between accurate links of past. 4. to provide the benefit of ‘‘knowing what to do’’ ahead of time.e.

Irwin-DeVitis.. J. (2001). it is not a preset system of fading and relies heavily on the instructor’s judgment of student need. M. (2005). Shawnee Mission. rage. 4. K. B. & Modio. a gravel walkway.. and (c) shadowing. (1995). Graphic organizers: Visual strategies for active learning. Graphic organizers can be used prior to reading as an advanced organizer. 2. They take abstract information and organize the concepts into simpler concepts. highlight important information. graphic organizers often enhance the learning of students with autism spectrum disorders because: 1. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company.. They are concrete and are more easily understood than a verbal-only presentation. they remain consistent and constant. New York: Scholastic. Wiig. organizing. Graduated guidance can include both increasing and decreasing prompts with the focus always on providing the level of support needed for a particular task at a particular moment. (b) light touch. S. Asperger syndrome and difficult moments: Practical solutions for tantrums. 3. Prompts within graduated guidance range from: (a) full hand-over-hand. during reading to assist with connecting key concepts. 2005) See also cognitive learning strategies. and brainstorming. planning. They are visual. L. and after reading to measure understanding. However. According to Myles and Southwick. & Wilson. KATIE BASSITY GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Graphic organizers or content maps are visual strategies that display information in a concrete and organized manner (see Figure 10). and communicating. H. WI: Thinking Publications. this modality is often a strength for students. & Southwick. C. E. (p. C. decision making. such as stairs. Graphic organizers can be Figure 10 Venn Diagram Supporting Common used to structure writing projects. or 162 . Eau Claire. They allow for processing time. They are static. and meltdowns. studying. the student can reflect on the material at his own pace.. help in Interests problem solving. 120. TERRI COOPER SWANSON GRAVITATIONAL INSECURITY Gravitational insecurity refers to difficulty maintaining balance and coordination of movements along variable surfaces and inclines. REFERENCE Myles. Map it out: Visual tools for thinking. FURTHER INFORMATION Bromley.GRAPHIC ORGANIZER tasks that are more complex or have multiple steps. and display relationships.

See also standardization. feet. throwing a ball. PRESTIA GROSS MOTOR SKILLS Gross motor skills is a term used to describe any activity that requires the use and coordination of the larger muscle groups of the body. guided compliance is technically not a prompt. PRESTIA GUIDED COMPLIANCE Guided compliance is the use of physical guidance through a task to cause a student to comply with directions. Some research suggests that the use of guided compliance is particularly effective when noncompliance is accompanied by escape behaviors. it acts as a consequence for noncompliance. or running.GUIDED COMPLIANCE icy sidewalk. arms. PRESTIA GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENTAL QUOTIENT Gross motor development quotient is a score that refers to the results of standardized tests that measure the use of the large muscle groups and gross motor skills. See also graduated guidance. prompting. Although similar to hand-over-hand assistance. The caregiver then places her hands over the student’s hands.) and physically guides the student through the task. Guided compliance occurs after the student is given the opportunity to comply with direction but does not comply and/or attempts to escape. Oftentimes. or trunk. Examples of gross motor skills include skipping. KELLY M. KELLY M. sensory processing dysfunction. See also proprioception. KATIE BASSITY 163 . KELLY M. etc. sensory processing. or under the student’s arms (to aid in standing. gravitational insecurity is a result of an inadequately functioning vestibular and/or proprioceptive sensory system. moving. such as the legs.


2006. VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Co. Marhon.d. These types of analyses have been employed to test for the presence of heavy metals. Charlottesville.org/apps/pf_new/pf_online?f_n=browse&doc=policyfiles/HnE/H-175. New York: St. See also epidemiology. such as mercury. REFERENCE American Medical Association (n. KATIE BASSITY HAIR ANALYSIS Hair analysis measures the mineral content in hair. FURTHER INFORMATION Kirby.d.ama-assn. Natural medicine guide to autism. S. by testing concept formation and abstract reasoning. H-175. 1993) is a set of eight tests used to evaluate brain and nervous system functioning in individuals ages 15 years and older. Martin’s Press. Children’s versions are the Halstead Neuropsychological Test Battery for Older Children (ages 9 to 14) and the Reitan .H HABIT REHEARSAL Habit rehearsal is the repetition of desired behaviors in order to build the behaviors to fluency.995.HTM.955 Hair analysis—a potential for medical abuse. from www. MYRNA J. According to the American Medical Association.). typically for individuals with suspected brain damage. D. Such rehearsals are performed in as functional or as realistic settings as possible so the desired behaviors can be easily performed in natural situations. Reitan & Wolfson. ROCK HALSTEAD-REITAN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST BATTERY (HRPTB) The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRPTB. Evidence of harm: Mercury in vaccines and the autism epidemic: A medical controversy. such as relaxation techniques. Habit rehearsal is often used for training appropriate behaviors in stressful situations. hair analysis may not be used in the determination of medical therapies (n. (2005).). Retrieved on December 8. (2002). in epidemiological efforts with regard to autism.

co.. C. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. Information regarding the severity of impairment and areas of personal strengths can be used to develop plans for rehabilitation or care. Dictionary of developmental disabilities terminology. there is concern that overuse of HOH assistance results in prompt dependence. Y. Haake. form mental concepts. & Wolfson. This behavior is common in typically developing children around four months of age but may persist for years for those with autism. Ltd. PAUL G. or improving. stroke).).. R. 2006.. and should be faded as quickly as possible. Alzheimer’s disorder. it is the most invasive form of prompting and is generally considered best to use only when other prompts are ineffective or impractical. verbal communication. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT HAND-OVER-HAND ASSISTANCE (HOH) Hand-over-hand (HOH) assistance is the practice of an adult (or peer) placing his or her hands over a student’s hands and physically moving the student through a given process or task.gpnote book. from http://www. which part of the brain was damaged. Hand regard. The Halstead-Reitan evaluates a wide range of nervous system and brain functions.. some students may resist HOH assistance as a result of desired independence or control. B. Used appropriately. D. D.. However. in some situations it may be the only way to provide assistance and may be preferred over high rates of verbal prompting.uk/homepage. however. alcohol abuse. REFERENCE Reitan. HOH also applies to physically moving other parts of a student’s body through a task. including: visual. P. closed head injury. and make judgments. Retrieved May 18. auditory.g. C. HOH can be an effective tool. prompting. 166 . whether the damage occurred during childhood development. motor output. and tactual input. and whether the damage is getting worse. Also referred to as hand-over-hand prompting.HAND-OVER-HAND ASSISTANCE (HOH) Indiana Neuropsychological Test Battery (ages 5 to 8). and memory. or because of an aversion to touch. See also graduated guidance. AZ: Neuropsychology Press. concentration. The fingers and hands can be still or moving. M. (1996). South Tucson. In addition. FURTHER INFORMATION Accardo. guided compliance. J. spatial and sequential perception. A. (1993). & Morrow..cfm. the ability to analyze information. Typical development is measured in centimeters. staying the same. J. (2003). and attention. and there are norms for sex and age. KATIE BASSITY HAND REGARD Hand regard is a behavior that is repetitive or sensory generating in nature and consists of an individual looking at his fingers and/or hands. Whitman. The Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological test battery: Theory and clinical interpretation (2nd ed. Oxbridge Solutions. LACAVA HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE Head circumference is the measured distance of the widest part of the human skull. The battery also provides useful information regarding the cause of damage (e. Laszewski.

including cobalt. (1991). FURTHER INFORMATION Courchesne. Journal of the American Medical Association. Holdren. N. R. Increased head circumference measured at birth and between 6 and 14 months was a finding in one study for 59 percent of subjects with autism spectrum disorders (Courchesne. REFERENCE Courchesne.. and cadmium have no known vital or beneficial effect on organisms.. (2003). 337–344. C. strontium. lead. Knowing 167 . but excessive levels tend to accumulate. Living organisms require trace amounts of some heavy metals. Lainhart. & Shirley. vanadium. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews.. copper. 290. Other heavy metals such as mercury. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT HELLER’S SYNDROME. This and other findings suggest that increased head growth in infancy may be either a possible symptom or a risk marker for autism. Chelation is the predominant treatment for heavy metal toxicity. 2003). Carper. water. & Akshoomoff. R. See Childhood Disintegrative Disorder HIDDEN CURRICULUM The hidden curriculum is the set of rules that everyone in the school knows. Holdren. E.. PAUL G.. a process that continues as organisms age (Harte. Sacramento. Journal of the American Medical Association. and their accumulation over time in the bodies of mammals can exhibit toxic effects (Harte et al. & Shirley. E. 1991). (2003). molybdenum. E. Brain development in autism: Early overgrowth followed by premature arrest of growth. 1991). manganese. This head growth was significantly higher than typically developing youngsters from a reference group. 393–394. J.HIDDEN CURRICULUM Research from the 1990s into the 2000s has highlighted that some youngsters with autism have atypical head circumference due to differences in brain volume. Chelation involves the use of chelation agents to bind to the metal and increase excretion. (2004). Proponents of the relationship between heavy metals and autism spectrum disorders point to the toxicity to the central nervous system and multiple sources of exposure. Children with autism spectrum disorders do not pick up on hidden curriculum items—they must be directly taught. and zinc. 290. Toxics a to z: A guide to everyday pollution hazards. which normally present as metallic substances at room temperatures. Schneider. including environmental (food.. & Akshoomoff. Schneider. 106– 111. Increased rate of head growth during infancy in autism. See also vaccinations (thimerosal). CA: University of California Press. dust) and medical (mercury preservatives in vaccinations). 10. C. Carper. J. but no one has been directly taught (Bieber. Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life of autism. LACAVA HEAVY METALS Heavy metals refer to any of a number of higher atomic weight elements. 1994). REFERENCE Harte.

J. REFERENCE Bieber. M. (2004). The hidden curriculum: Practical solutions for understanding unstated rules in social situations. Children with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome both tend to have difficulties in several common areas. the term was sometimes used to refer to a person with classic autism who had vocal abilities. a child with high-functioning autism is diagnosed earlier and tends to show more severe and ‘‘classic’’ symptoms of autism.’’ one symptom of ‘‘qualitative impairments in communication. However. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. and activities’’ (APA. Trautman. (c) if a person is really their friend.’’ and one symptom of ‘‘restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. TERRI COOPER SWANSON HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISM Although used frequently by professionals and parents. In order to be diagnosed with autistic disorder. .’’ and ‘‘no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills. It is estimated that at least 25 to 33 percent of individuals diagnosed with autism today fall in the high-functioning category. (1994). single words used by age 2 years. In addition. clinicians today report that people with Asperger syndrome typically do have significant difficulties with self-help skills and adaptive behavior (Attwood. L.. DC: Public Broadcasting Service. (Producer). or social use of language before age 3. 2000). communicative phrases used by age 3 years). 2000). the average age for a diagnosis of autism is 3. In previous generations. 2000). Overall. Nonverbal communication (facial expressions and 168 . symbolic or imaginative play. APA. L. high-functioning autism tends to be used as a short-hand term for autistic disorder without mental retardation (an IQ above 70). and curiosity above the environment in childhood’’ (APA. Washington. Some research suggests that the symptoms of high-functioning autism and Asperger’s look different at an early age but are quite similar by adolescence or early adulthood. first one picked on.. Generally. FURTHER INFORMATION Myles. Shawnee Mission. while children with Asperger syndrome are generally diagnosed at age 7 or 8. (b) a person’s body language.g. the individual currently must show at least two symptoms of ‘‘qualitative impairment in social interaction. an individual must have shown delays or abnormalities in social interaction. B. . Learning disabilities and social skills—Richard Lavoie: Last one picked . 2006). the term high-functioning autism is not a true diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISM the hidden curriculum is essential as it helps the student be successful in understanding: (a) teacher expectations.. The only difference in the DSM-IVTR criteria for autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome is that Asperger’s requires ‘‘no clinically significant general delay in language (e. It is essential to incorporate the teaching of the hidden curriculum into any social skills curriculum as well as teach them on a daily and on-going basis. S. & Schelvanm. interests. adaptive behavior (other than in social interaction). and (d) how to interact or respond in social situations. There is significant disagreement today as to whether high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome are two distinct syndromes. Today. R.

different clinicians might give the same high-functioning child different diagnoses. Rather than repeating a word or phrase over and over. Conversely. and their likes and dislikes vary. though qualitatively different ones. many children with Asperger syndrome have extremely advanced vocabularies. repetitive’’ behaviors or interests. Most have trouble understanding the ‘‘hidden curriculum’’ (unwritten social rules. Both groups have ‘‘restricted. 169 . especially odd hand movements. Because the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria are so similar. and are more likely to be interested in the parts of an object or in manipulating an object. A third might diagnose PDD-NOS. or Tourette’s disorder. but children with high-functioning autism tend to perform more repetitive movements. especially at a young age. their behaviors vary. Children with Asperger syndrome are also more likely to have motor difficulties or sensory integration dysfunction. and deriving comfort from routines) is also common. Medically. such as finger flicking or hand flapping. Another might diagnose Asperger syndrome based on the same child’s obsessive interest in astronomy. Desire for ‘‘sameness’’ (having difficulty with change and transitions. they tend more to repeat long monologues and ask repetitive questions. They often will interpret figurative speech (such as ‘‘go jump in a lake’’ or ‘‘drop dead’’) too literally. children with high-functioning autism are described as ‘‘aloof. Children with Asperger syndrome are more likely to spend their time researching and accumulating vast amounts of information about a particular subject and often seek to share their information with other children or adults. their strengths vary. Their symptoms vary. Children with high-functioning autism are more likely to suffer seizures than children with Asperger syndrome (although far less likely than children with autism and mental retardation). Even among people diagnosed with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism there is tremendous variability. These tend to be solitary interests. such as how far you should stand from someone. Children with high-functioning autism may have significant speech delays or at least lag somewhat in general areas of speech such as vocabulary. In fact. obsessivecompulsive disorder. a clinician who believes in following the diagnostic criteria to the letter might be inclined to diagnose a 4-year-old child with autistic disorder because the child failed to speak any words until age 3. Often. on the other hand. Ultimately. whether the diagnosis is highfunctioning autism or Asperger syndrome. They may engage in echolalia (repeating whatever is said to them). For example. children with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome may have some differences. or when it’s okay to interrupt). ADHD. the most important thing is to look at each individual’s strengths and weakness and to obtain appropriate intervention. Overall. but do so in an odd or inappropriate manner. their superficially perfect language may play a role in delaying their diagnosis. they tend to have better nonverbal abilities than verbal abilities. And yet another might diagnose autism because she knows that label will get the child more intervention services in the local school system. Children with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome both tend to have language difficulties. because he doesn’t want to ‘‘label’’ the child before age 5. particularly in their areas of special interest (hence the nickname ‘‘little professors’’).HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISM body language) can be difficult for many to decipher. while children with Asperger syndrome seek out interaction. Children with Asperger syndrome. are more likely to have co-morbid diagnoses such as depression.’’ having little interest in interacting with other people.

Powers. Sciutto. Physical therapists. & Candela. Washington. (1996). New York: Guilford Press.. stretch. developmental delay.. traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. Ozonoff. sidewalkers. Wing.. down.. The autistic spectrum. A. backward. Welham. riders connect emotionally with the horse. J. J. and feel of the horse. It takes the client out of the clinical setting and places them in a natural environment to work on therapy goals. Dawson. and walking. rider. FURTHER INFORMATION Eisenmajer. 170 . and speech language pathologists who provide this treatment have specialized training in using the movement of the horse as a therapy tool. 1523–1531. Attwood.. 17. BRUCE BASSITY HIPPOTHERAPY Hippotherapy (Greek word hippos for horse) is a treatment that uses the movement of the horse to improve physical mobility and cognitive functions for people with varying disabilities. The horse’s muscle groups move forward. Leekam. et al. 2006. S. L. Rhodes. the hippocampus is involved in the formation of memories of experienced events and spatial orientation. cerebral palsy. P. up. J. 35. and stimulation of the central nervous system. The rider’s senses are stimulated by the warmth. Mayes. D.. P. 145–151. Tryon. 21. and from side to side. Hippotherapy is used to treat a variety of diagnoses that include autism. (2000). B. S.. & Cantwell. or place memory and recognition. The hippotherapy team includes the horse. from http://www.. The body responds to the horse’s movement by trying to maintain balance. and therefore the rider develops muscle tone. LISA BARRETT MANN HIPPOCAMPUS Part of the limbic system. R. and instructor. Factors influencing the differential diagnosis of Asperger’s disorder and high-functioning autism. & McPartland. P. G. C. Is there a difference between Asperger’s syndrome and high-functioning autism? Retrieved August 25. Prior.. M.. Children with autism: A parents’ guide. Wing. S. D. smell. M.. multiple sclerosis. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. 2–6. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. Treatment strategies promote motor planning. A parent’s guide to Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism.. L. In addition. and professionals report an increase in attention span and memory skills.au. L. Bethesda.tonyattwood. MD: Woodbine House. M. M. Hippotherapy is considered an effective therapy method because a horse’s gait mimics the human gait and a horse takes the same number of steps per minute as a human (American Hippotherapy Association.. (2006). Cronin. occupational therapists.. Gould.com. which makes treatment fun. (2002).HIPPOCAMPUS REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. (2000). sight. J. DC: Author. (2001). Asperger syndrome or autistic disorder? The diagnostic dilemma. Can Asperger’s disorder be differentiated from autism using DSM-IV criteria? Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. (2002). 345–359. Comparison of clinical symptoms in autism and Asperger’s disorder.). and strength to the same muscle groups that are used in sitting. Freeman. R. It is located deep in the temporal lobes above the amygdala. reaching. & Waldo. T. CA: Ulysses Press. M. 2005). Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. Berkeley.. mobility strength. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. text rev. 17.

VAN HORN HOLDING THERAPY. A fleece or foam pad with gripping handles strapped around the horse’s belly is used instead of a saddle. Infinitec. attention deficit disorders. San Francisco compared MRI scans of children over time and found that the repetitive movement of riding helps rework networks within the cerebellum and the motor system in the cerebrum (American Equestrian Association. No. Sessions may last up to 1 hour. 2). Critics believe there is not enough research to show that the benefits are different than existing forms of physical therapy.americanequestrian. and visual or hearing impairments. Safety measures include sidewalkers that are ready to steady riders and help with exercises. Typically. or other reasons. clients may be excluded if they weigh more that 300 lbs or more than 20 percent of the horse’s weight.infinitec. Introduction to hippotherapy by Barbara Heine. Hippotherapy should not be confused with Therapeutic Riding. FURTHER INFORMATION American Equestrian Alliance. 2005. coordination. In addition. once or twice per week. 3. or are on anticoagulant medications for heart conditions. Students with multiple disabilities represent the largest category of disabilities being educated in homebound or hospital bound 171 . Daniel Bluestone from the University of California.d. stroke.com. C. (n. from www.org. CP Resource Center.) What is hippotherapy? Retrieved June 1. Rolandelli.org. http://www. Less than 1 percent of all students receiving special education services receive homebound or hospital bound services. S. however. Therapeutic riding teaches the rider how to control the horse and stable management. P. See Welch Method Therapy AND KARLA DENNIS HOMEBOUND/HOSPITAL BOUND PROGRAM Students receive special education and related services in a hospital or homebound program when unable to attend neighborhood school for medical. from http:// www. curvature of the spine greater than 30 degrees. fine motor control.rightstep therapy.twinenterprises. posture. & Dunst. The goals of hippotherapy are directed at improving balance. however. People of all ages can benefit from hippotherapy. Dr. http://www. (2003). equestrian helmets. Research designs are difficult due to variables such as different kinds of horses and instructors. a client might be excluded from the treatment if they have brittle-bone osteoporosis.evidencebased practices. PT. articulation. J. Bridges. Influences of hippotherapy on the motor and socialemotional behavior of young children with disabilities.d. and quick release stirrups that unhook if a rider falls. Hippotherapy or therapeutic riding. degenerative hip joints. Reprinted from NARHA Strides. American Hippotherapy Association. acute arthritis. 2005). 2005.org/bridges. and increasing cognitive skills..) Retrieved May 31. April 1997 (Vol.HOMEBOUND/HOSPITAL BOUND PROGRAM Down syndrome.com/hippotherapy. insurance does not cover hippotherapy. (n. From http://www.org.americanhippo therapyassociation. http://www. and the cost may range from $50 to $120 per session. learning or language disabilities.htm. Hippotherapy. The Right Step therapy Services. behavioral.com. CYNTHIA K.

KATHERINE E. PRESTIA HYPERLEXIA Children with hyperlexia are able to read words precociously and demonstrate an intense fascination with letters or numbers at their chronological age. insulin for diabetes. an individual with autism. Common examples are thyroid hormone for underactive thyroid. Educational services provided in these environments can range from a few days to months depending of the needs of the students. PRESTIA HYPORESPONSIVENESS Hyporesponsiveness is an underactive or slower reactive response to typical sensory information. KELLY M. longer. JOUNG MIN KIM HYPERRESPONSIVENESS Hyperresponsiveness is an overactive or intense response to typical sensory information. See also proprioception. However. What may go unnoticed by others may be overly intense to an individual with a hyperresponsive sensory system. or multiple sensory stimuli to get a response. or avoiding holding another’s hand. PRESTIA 172 . V-shaped machine as air is pumped through cylinders that push padded sideboards together to ‘‘squeeze’’ the individual. COOK HORMONE REPLACEMENT Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) replaces naturally occurring hormones that are deficient in the body but are needed for normal functioning and health. KELLY M.HORMONE REPLACEMENT programs. KELLY M. BRUCE BASSITY HOSPITAL BOUND PROGRAM. they have significant difficulty in understanding verbal language. See Homebound/Hospital Bound Program HUG MACHINE Hug machine. Examples of hyporesponsiveness may include not looking or responding when their name is called or when tapped on the shoulder. and estrogen for women who have had a hysterectomy. which provides deep pressure and proprioceptive input at the control of the individual. Examples of hyperresponsiveness may include covering the ears and screaming at the sound of a ringing telephone. deficits in social skills. The individual lies or squats in the center of the padded. also known as the ‘‘Squeeze Machine’’ or the ‘‘Hug Box.’’ is a device developed by Temple Grandin. and difficulty in socializing and interacting with people. Individuals with hyporesponsive sensory systems may require more intense.

Given that the area of social cognition is difficult to assess through formalized measures. listening actively. playing. . working as part of a group. Not coincidentally. Idiosyncratic language is often used to reassure the communicator. an informal assessment that explores each of these areas of functioning can be quite revealing of a student’s relative social strengths versus socially based weaknesses. Using formal and informal tasks we can begin to understand how a child does with relationship to initiating functional communication. nonverbal learning disability. getting the big picture and humor. written expression. etc. KATHERINE E.). The I LAUGH model has also become a framework for understanding how better to assess students with possible social-cognitive deficits (the autism spectrum. understanding others’ perspectives. and organizational skills. Each aspect of the model has been shown through research to be relevant to address in treatment for students with social cognitive deficits. verbally and nonverbally (social pragmatic skills).I IDIOSYNCRATIC LANGUAGE Idiosyncratic language is frequently characterized as dialogue borrowed from a specific video. these same skills help us engage in life skills such as personal problem solving. observable parts (Winner. or social scripts parroted in new and different contexts. The I LAUGH model is briefly reviewed here. The I LAUGH model provides parents and educators with a more specific lens through which to evaluate and understand the strengths and weaknesses of persons with social-cognitive deficits. 2000). COOK I LAUGH MODEL OF SOCIAL COGNITION The I LAUGH model of social cognition was developed by Winner to demonstrate how we can take an abstract concept such as social thinking and break it down into much more salient. and curriculum-based skills that require social thinking such as reading comprehension. abstract and inferential thinking. repetitive questions used with alternative meanings. ADHD. The I LAUGH model is an acronym to demonstrate six different skills that form the basis through which we communicate effectively with others.

Most of the clients I work with actually have a very good sense of humor... however. requires more than just taking in the auditory information. FURTHER INFORMATION Fullerton. New York: Wiley and Sons. This is the ability to understand the emotions. 174 . J. At the same time. Communicative comprehension also depends on one’s ability to recognize that most language/communication is not intended for literal interpretation. J. P. (1996). The ability to take perspective is key to participation in any type of group (social or academic) as well as interpreting information that requires understanding of other people’s minds such as reading comprehension. (1999). To interpret adequately. Howlin. A. P. difficulty with organizational strategies is born from problems with conceptual processing. both socially and academically. the reader has to follow the overall meaning (concept) rather than just collect a series of facts. Weakness in perspective taking is a significant part of the diagnosis of social cognitive deficits. We generally acquire this skill across early development. It is important for educators/parents to work compassionately and with humor to help minimize the anxiety the children are experiencing. H=Humor and human relatedness. This skill begins to develop around kindergarten and continues through our school years as the messages we are to interpret. Higher functioning adolescents and young adults with autism. A student’s ability to talk about his own topics of interest can be in sharp contrast to how that student communicates when he needs assistance. When talking in a conversation.. Listening. at times one must pursue the analysis of language/communication to seek the intended meaning. L=Listening with eyes and brain. & Hadwin. direct lessons about this topic should be taught often. Coyne. When reading. beliefs. experiences. one must be able to be flexible enough to make smart guesses about the intended meaning of the message. G=Gestalt processing/getting the big picture. thoughts. many of our clients use humor inappropriately. Stratton. Abstract and inferential meaning is often carried subtly through verbal and nonverbal means of communication. it also requires the person to integrate information he sees with what he hears to understand the deeper concept of the message. intuitively. Conceptual processing is another key component to understanding social and academic information. Baron-Cohen. the participants intuitively should determine the underlying concept being discussed. U=Understanding perspective. motives. Most students have acquired a solid foundation in this ability between the ages of 4 and 6 years old. Most persons with social-cognitive deficits have difficulty with auditory comprehension. Furthermore. Teaching children with autism to mind read: A practical guide. history. it also depends on one’s ability to take perspective of another. become more abstract. but they feel anxious since they miss many of the subtle cues that help them to understand how to participate successfully with others.. Information is conveyed through concepts and not just facts. S. Initiation of language is the ability to use one’s language skills to seek assistance or information. Austin. etc.I LAUGH MODEL OF SOCIAL COGNITION I=Initiation of language. social studies. TX: Pro-Ed. Interpretation depends in part on one’s ability to ‘‘make a guess’’. & Gray. or to make a smart guess about what is being said when you cannot clearly hear it.. S. A=Abstract and inferential language/communication. and intentions of yourself as well as others.

Shawnee Mission. J. M. 2003). M. CA: Michelle Garcia Winner. Kunce (Eds. Educational approaches to high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. behavioral. A review of research into pretend play in autism. (2002). KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. and joint attention. (2003).. Inside out: What makes the person with social cognitive deficits tick? San Jose. (2000).. Schopler. Winner. B. 227–263). Washington. L. (1987). or mixed in its approach. 1987. 175 . Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Wolfberg. 2000). PAMELA WOLFBERG IMITATION/MODELING From infancy. interests. 1999. San Jose. Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism? (pp.). In E.. (1998). (1999). and activities are further associated with problems in imagination. 379–390. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. J.. 36. 412–426.IMITATION/MODELING Kunce.. As those with autism spectrum disorders often have challenges with verbal and motor imitation skills. Mesibov. 487–505. (2001). 2003. Bookheimer. Winner. creative. L.. Wolfberg. (2000). repetitive. S. J. M. Ingersoll. An imitation or modeling program may be developmental. New York: Plenum Press. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. CA: Michelle Garcia Winner. M. Scott. and resourceful fashion (for reviews. and stereotyped patterns of behavior. M. Leslie. Jarrold. Nature Neuroscience. MICHELLE GARCIA WINNER AND JAMIE RIVETTS IMAGINATION Delays or differences in the development of imagination are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (APA. but the programming usually includes the child’s motivation and targeted objectives. Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: Effects on language. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Wolfberg. Pfeifer. Restricted. G. A. Davies. & Adreon. imagination involves recombining experiences to solve problems in a flexible. A.’’ Psychological Review. New York: Teachers College Press. C. P. Myles. Leslie. 28–30. Play and imagination in children with autism. see Jarrold. typical development includes imitation of caregivers. Difficulties in the area of imagination first manifest in a lack of pretend play appropriate to a child’s developmental level. et al. 7(4). Sigman. (2006). DC: Author. Understanding emotions in others: Mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders [Electronic version]. Asperger syndrome and adolescence: Practical solutions for school success. D. pretend play. M. Imagination is the process of producing ideas or mental images in the mind of that which is not present or has not been experienced... H. Shawnee Mission. P. teaching these building blocks is critical. & Schreiberman. G. S. Columbia University. (2003). Thinking about you thinking about me. Pretense and representation: The origins of ‘‘theory of mind. 94. A.). & Mesibov.. (2005). B. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. & L. FURTHER INFORMATION Dapretto. text rev. Further. 9. Peer play and the autism spectrum: The art of guiding children’s socialization and imagination.

An examination of the imitation deficit in autism. hearing loss translates to a hearing impairment). BRUCE BASSITY IMPAIRMENT Impairment refers to the reduced function or loss of any body part (i. Do watch listen say: Social and communication intervention for children with autism.e. Incidence levels are typically calculated for 1-year periods and are often presented as a percentage of a population (e. over a period of time. ABO blood typing is a common example. Immune stimulating drugs such as interferon and interleukin are used to treat cancers. incidence is the number of new cases of a specific condition. BRUCE BASSITY IMMUNOTHERAPY Immunotherapy commonly refers to a type of treatment for environmental allergies where the body is desensitized to allergens by giving gradually larger doses of the allergen by injection over a period of many months to several years. the incidence of autism is also controversial. It also refers to various drug treatments to stimulate or suppress the immune system. COOK INCIDENCE Related to prevalence. like bacteria. 4 percent of all school-aged children). In J. A raised wheal or local reaction indicates an allergy. are also immunological tests.. etc. As with prevalence. PAUL G. Butterworth (Eds. researchers could calculate all the new cases of autism in a population over a 1-year period. Nadel & G. Blood testing for many diseases. For example.). KATHERINE E. Imitation in infancy (pp. 176 . JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT IMMUNOLOGICAL TESTS Immunological tests may be skin tests in which the skin is scratched and a serum of some allergen like animal dander is applied. See also allergy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.g.. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. S. (2000). and much research is needed to clear up issues regarding both how many persons have autism and how many new cases of autism are occurring each year. and immune suppressive substances are used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and prevent rejection of transplanted organs. 254–279). K. disease. from rheumatoid arthritis to infectious mononucleosis to HIV. (1999).IMMUNOGLOBULIN Quill. Rogers. There are many other forms of immunological tests that check for antibodies or antigens indicating the presence or absence of a particular disease. LACAVA IMMUNOGLOBULIN Immunoglobulin is a protein produced by plasma cells that plays an essential role in defending the body from foreign substances. A.

Morrier. Once the child responds correctly. 177 ..g. ‘‘That’s right! It’s the letter R!’’ and allows him to put the letter in the puzzle. point to the blue car) Model the desired response (e. ‘‘Where is the car?’’) Make a gesture. (2005). ‘‘Letter R. ‘‘What letter do you want?’’ Eli says. 2–15. Daly.’’ so Miss May says. Eli points to the box and says. ‘‘What color car do you want?’’ or. Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: An update.. & Jacobs. The adult encourages an elaboration on the initiation. If the child does not respond or responds incorrectly. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Essential Steps in Incidental Teaching Steps The teacher or parent chooses an educational objective.’’ Eli repeats. Table 4. Table 4 shows the essential steps in implementing incidental teaching as well as an example of how each step may be implemented. Source: McGee. finds a puzzle with the letters of the alphabet.g. LACAVA INCIDENTAL TEACHING Incidental teaching was designed to teach new skills within ongoing. that’s R!’’ and allows him to put the letter in the puzzle. asking. ‘‘Letter R. (2003). Example Labeling the letters of the alphabet. 33.’’ The child shows interest in the materials through verbalization or gesture.’’ so Miss May says. 1994). Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: Changes over time and their meaning. sound. Miss May. E. typical activities utilizing children’s interests to increase motivation for learning (McGee.’’ or point to the box. Ways to encourage elaborated responses include: Ask a question (e. be brief. The adult ‘‘takes a turn’’ with the materials and the steps begin again. 94. PAUL G.INCIDENTAL TEACHING FURTHER INFORMATION Fombonne. Miss May puts the puzzle on the table with the letters in a clear container that Eli is unable to open. ‘‘letters. Rutter. The incidental teaching session should end with success. Miss May closes the box again and waits for Eli to say. while Eli is working on puzzles.. ‘‘Letter. & Daly. Miss May opens the box and holds up the letter R. 365–382. Eli repeats. M. the adult provides specific praise and gives the child brief access to the materials. ‘‘blue car’’) Child’s response If the child responds correctly to the prompt. ‘‘Letter. ‘‘Letter R. he or she receives praise and access to the materials. 1999. Acta Paediatrica. His teacher. ‘‘Right. or word (e. and end once the child loses interest. thus initiating the teaching session.g.’’ so Miss May says. the adult provides up to three more prompts. During center time. Eli enjoys puzzles. The adult arranges the environment to encourage the student motivation and to attract interest in the materials related to teaching the objective.

Data should be collected frequently to make certain that the child is making progress. 1985). incidental teaching has been used with children with ASD to teach academic skills such as reading (McGee et al. & McClannahan..g. probe data should be used (McGee et al. with a variety of communicative partners.g. Krantz. rewards). Correct responses occur when the child uses a correct elaboration spontaneously or within approximately 5 seconds of the adult’s question (McGee et al. and spontaneous speech (Charlop-Christy & Carpenter. 1992).g. When assessing a child’s skills. on-going activities promotes generalization of skills (McGee et al. That is.. 1994). Probe data collection may take place before a teaching session begins and in the setting in which prior teaching has taken place. Incidental teaching has been found to be more effective than clinical. are integral to incidental teaching sessions. within other settings. unlike in the middle of a teaching session during which the adult would wait for the child to initiate the session by showing interest in an item with a gesture or verbalization. Moreover. 1985). and with a variety of instructional materials to ensure that generalization takes place. Additionally. SUPPORT FOR INCIDENTAL TEACHING IN THE PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE AND RESEARCH Incidental teaching has been demonstrated to be an effective method of teaching sociocommunicative skills and to promote generalization of those skills. another strategy should be considered or the method of delivery should be assessed to judge if changes are necessary. The order of presentation of the materials should be random.. incidental teaching is based in student motivation and initiation. 2000). 1986).g. so the adult can be sure that the child has not simply learned a pattern of responding. This strategy has been used with typically developing children (Hart & Risley. dinner time. praise. the adult would initiate the data collection session by asking the child elaboration questions (e. McGee.. The child may receive reinforcement (e. 1986).. When collecting probe data. teacher-directed teaching methods in decreasing dependency on prompts and cues and as or more effective then such methods in teaching new skills. Additionally. social skills.. If the data do not show improvement.g. provide praise for following directions). thus encouraging student participation and decreasing the need for secondary reinforcement (e. interaction is required during the course of incidental teaching instruction. Families are also able to integrate incidental teaching into typical daily routines by finding ways to encourage their children to elaborate during everyday activities (e. adjectives (Miranda-Linn e & Melin.. It is likely that integrating instruction of new skills into typical.INCIDENTAL TEACHING Incidental teaching is an efficient and positive strategy in several ways. outside play. but it should not be connected to the correctness of his or her responses (e. edibles). 1985). such as prepositions (McGee. resulting in increased speech and social interactions (Farmer-Dougan. 1999). & McClannahan. Peers have been trained to implement incidental teaching with individuals with ASD. ‘‘where is the juice?’’ might be asked to check for use of prepositions). ASSESSMENT OF SKILLS DURING INCIDENTAL TEACHING Evaluation should take place during teaching sessions. Errors are those exchanges in 178 . bed time). Krantz... 1980) and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. which are deficient in individuals with ASD.

Journal of the Association for the Persons with Severe Handicaps. 407–432. 19(2). Morrier. H. T. A. 27(3). the adult would not prompt a correct response and the child would not receive the item. McGee. L. Daly. H. JENNIFER B. Miranda-Linn e. In S. G... B. P. G. or the child responds incorrectly (e. M.. G. J..g. & Daly. (1992). Handleman (Eds. The Walden Preschool. Krantz. 127–162). Research in Developmental Disabilities.. (1994). P. L. TX: Pro-Ed. 13(3). 133–146. E. (1986). it is important to keep the data collection sessions short to prevent frustration. 24(3). L. (1994). V. 13(3). & McClannahan. G. Austin. 533–544. which the child does not respond or responds more than approximately 5 seconds after the adult’s question. S. and spontaneous use of color adjectives: A comparison of incidental teaching and traditional discrete-trial procedures for children with autism. The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children. 98–112. Acquisition. Hart.. M. & Jacobs. In the case of an error during data collection. Data Collection Sheet: Sample Desired response (elaboration) from student ‘‘Square’’ ‘‘Square’’ ‘‘Square’’ Did student respond without prompting? No No Yes If not.. GANZ INCIDENT REPORT An incident report is a written summary that documents behavior incidents. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. REFERENCES Charlop-Christy. (1999). (1980). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. J. generalization. Therefore. G. & Risley. An extension of incidental teaching procedures to reading instruction for autistic children. McGee. 191–210.. In vivo language intervention: Unanticipated general effects. H. T. An incidental teaching approach to early intervention for toddlers with autism. especially situations in which someone is hurt.. R. (2000). what prompt(s) was (were) required? Verbal: ‘‘say ‘square’’’ Verbal: ‘‘say ‘square’’’ Date Environment Question Materials asked Cookies Cookies Cookies ‘‘What shape is this cookie?’’ ‘‘What shape is this cookie?’’ ‘‘What shape is this cookie?’’ 09/23 Snack time 09/24 Snack time 09/25 Snack time Student: Beth Educational objective: Beth will use the attribute of shape to make detailed requests. A sample of a completed data collection sheet is provided in Table 5. M.. & Carpenter.INCIDENT REPORT Table 5. J. G. G.. 2(2). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. McGee. F.. (1985). & Melin. G. Harris & J. T. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. An incident report usually contains a 179 . asks for a circle cookie when the cookies are squares). Increasing requesting by adults with developmental disabilities using incidental teaching with peers. M. 147–157.) Preschool education programs for children with autism (pp. Krantz. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. McGee. 17–31. L. E. Farmer-Dougan. Modified incidental teaching sessions: A procedure for parents to increase spontaneous speech in their children with autism. & McClannahan. 18(1).

International voice: An introduction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 1997). J. London: David Fulton. C.) Inclusive education: A global agenda (pp. Patton. & Meijer. Mittler (2000). In S. J.. In K. Inclusive education: International voice on disability and justice. gender or other aspects of students or staff that are assigned significance by a society. action taken by staff. Pijl. Polloway. if applicable. J. (1999). working in group situations. and provide individualized service as necessary. London: Taylor & Francis. REFERENCES Ballard. & S. 1) According to Meijer and his colleagues (Pijl & Meijer. K. inclusion is to use different instructional strategies to teach all kinds of students under the same education system.INCLUSION description of the behavior. 1999. (1997). EARLES-VOLLRATH INCLUSION New Zealand scholar Keith Ballard defines inclusion as: Inclusive education means education that is non-discriminatory in terms of disability. It is also advisable to choose when and where to disclose information about yourself or diagnosis in order to advocate for minor accommodations that could be the difference for successful independent employment or the need for a more supervised employment option.. on the other hand. J. & Dowdy. (1998). sensory or other difference. and play together. Factors in inclusion: A framework. Mittler. A. S. independent employment may prove to be a desirable option. Ballard (Ed. Meijer. believes that inclusion is to see every individual as a whole and put every child together to let them learn. Working towards inclusive education: Social context. 8–13). when and where the behavior occurred. London and New York: Routledge. C.). the antecedent. the inclusion concept highlights that everyone is equal and should stand on the same position at the starting point with the others even though they have different abilities and backgrounds. work. (2000). with no exceptions and irrespective of their intellectual. E. Smith and his colleagues (Smith.. E. C. Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. physical. Polloway. having equal rights to access the culturally valued curriculum of their society as full time valued members of age-appropriate mainstream classrooms. 180 . A. THERESA L. individuals involved. Hegarty (Eds. W. T. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who consider this idea must realize that even though they may not require notable accommodations at work. culture. p. W. It involves all students in a community. & Dowdy. In short. or knowing what individual tasks are most important to successful completion of their job. P. and injuries. Patton. R.. 1998) claim that inclusion is to put students in a regular classroom from the very beginning of their school lives. KAI-CHIEN TIEN INDEPENDENT EMPLOYMENT For those who are quite capable of self-directed activities. (Ballard. they may have to put effort into improving skills that help them maintain a job in a competitive situation such as taking directions. Smith. Pijl.

INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM (IEP) Self-employment is another form of independent employment option where people capitalize on their strengths by selling their knowledge or skills to customers who need the services.. FURTHER INFORMATION Shore. and bookkeeping are all necessary functions that do not necessarily require being completed independently to make them occur. and abilities. and any other person directly involved with the student. olfactory (smell). those who choose this option must be very good at time and money management. (2006). proprioception. LISA ROBBINS INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM (IEP) Every student in a public school system that receives special education and/or related services must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP) as regulated by federal law. vestibular/kinesthetic. vision. a determination can be made by an occupational therapist or related professional as to whether or not to pursue further observation and/or assessment. gustatory (taste). school psychologist. With careful assessment and reflection of personal interests. teachers. & Rastelli. estimating required resources. arousal and attending and social consciousness. managing cash-flow. L. An IEP for a student must be individualized to the student’s strengths and needs. S. related service providers. Following completion of this checklist. This law outlines the components that each IEP 181 . 15–17. 2004). Each IEP is mandated to have certain components by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA. SHERRY MOYER INDICATORS OF SENSORY PROCESSING DISORDER In the Indicators of Sensory Processing Disorder (Abrash. Collaboration among the individuals on an IEP team directly relates to creating an effective plan for the student to succeed. marketing yourself. respondents are requested to place a mark beside observed behaviors across several sensory and regulatory areas including tactile. auditory. REFERENCE Abrash. A. Indianapolis. and other support personnel. passions. parents or guardians. Other members of the IEP team can include the school counselor. 1996). Inc. which consists of the student (when appropriate according to age and ability to participate). 9(3). therapists outside of the school environment. Information gleaned from the checklist can also serve as a catalyst for discussion between the therapist and teacher as a way of arriving at basic interventions that can be implemented in the classroom. Like any other self-employed person. because the availability of either one may vary with the workload. IN: Wiley Publishing. (1996). Scheduling. independent or self-employment could be the key to a career or just plain paying the bills. chemical regulation. Understanding autism for dummies. Clinical Connection. The IEP is developed by a team. school administrators.

and any other need that is required for the student to succeed in school. ¥ Participation with peers without disabilities: This component of the IEP states the extent (if any) to which the student will not participate with peers without disabilities. and the parents must give written permission before any special education or related services are provided to their child. Goals may cover academic subjects. or someone who is willing to coordinate all special education services and be a contact for the family. The components in an IEP are as follows: ¥ Current performance or present levels of performance: The present levels of performance must describe how the student is performing in school. social or behavior needs. (e) students who are deaf or hearing impaired. (b) a limited proficiency in English. needs. (d) students who are blind or visually impaired. WRITING THE IEP AND IMPLEMENTING THE IEP When writing the IEP. ¥ Annual goals: Each goal is specifically written to be accomplished by the student in one year. 182 . (c) special communication needs. a copy must be provided to the parents.. and testing from related services providers are recorded in this section. even though school districts and states may use different forms (Drasgow. Evaluation results from achievement testing. the team must also include the student’s strengths. These needs are as follows: (a) behavior that interferes with the student’s learning or the learning of others. If the testing is not appropriate for the student. that are needed for state and district-wide tests. ¥ Age of majority: One year before the student reaches the age of majority. there are several factors to consider. Goals are broken down into objectives or benchmarks that lead to the annual goal. to aid in problem solving and generalization. Establishing communication between home and school is also beneficial. ¥ Special education and related services: Each IEP must reflect supplementary aids and services as well as modifications and accommodations (e. and the parent’s ideas for enhancing their child’s education. observations. To address these factors. usually age 18. eating lunch in a quiet room) that the student receives. Regular progress reports must also be filled out and sent home to report the progress on the student’s goals and objectives. speech needs. When implementing the IEP. the rights of the student must be explained to the student. ¥ Transition service needs and services to be provided: Upon a child’s turning 14 years old.INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM (IEP) must have. 2001). gross motor or occupational needs. When writing the IEP. and (f) assistive technology needs for the student. strategies and supports must be put into place. These rights are usually transferred from the parents to the student at that time. ¥ Measuring progress: Each IEP must show how the student’s progress will be measured and how the parents will be informed of this progress. it is helpful to assign a case manager. ¥ Assessment: Each IEP must outline the modifications. an explanation must be provided and an alternative testing must be provided.g. It is also beneficial that each member of the IEP team and any other adults that interact with the student on a daily basis have a copy of the IEP. & Robinson. if any. After the IEP is written. Also listed are the special education and related services received by the child. Another required part of the present level of performance is the statement of how the student’s disability affects his or her involvement and progress in the general education classroom. the IEP must explain the courses he or she needs to take to transition from school to the working environment. Goals must be written so they can be objectively measured. ¥ Service plan: Every related service and special education service must record the duration (daily or weekly) and setting of services. Yell.

ethnicity.or short-term in nature. and preparation for initial transition date. mediation or due process can occur. Health and Medical Information This section of the document gathers medical information about the child from the parent. the IEP must be reviewed at least once a year. Assessment for Program Planning. 359–373. The IFSP is always developed with the family as an equal member of the team. Public Law No. Consents could also be obtained in order to collect pertinent medical information from medical professionals. L.. The vision statement is a fluid document and can be long. MELISSA L. Children who are eligible for Part C 183 . Yell. REFERENCES Drasgow. T. E. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. household size.C. communication method used. In some cases. Information recorded on the IFSP is child specific and requires a separate page for each child in the family.. school district. they will reexamine the vision statement as well. 22. M. the family and professional personnel will develop a plan that will outline the services and locations for the child’s early intervention. Each time the service coordinator reviews the plan with the family. New goals must be written if the old goals have been met. There is only one IFSP plan per family with additional pages added per child. The parent(s) has the right to change the vision statement without an ‘‘official’’ IFSP review. Parents will also receive information regarding parents’ rights and procedural safeguards. if the parents and school cannot come to terms with an appropriate plan. address. parents. Evaluations. Remedial and Special Education. & Robinson. the parents of the student with an IEP do not agree with what the school recommends as services. know. initial IFSP date. The following IFSP sections will be completed for each child in the family and filed in sequential order to reflect the family’s plan: Cover The cover page must be completed in the presence of the parent. 2004). race. This section of the document will also identify demographics and timelines. § 20 U. date of referral.INDIVIDUALIZED FAMILY SERVICE PLAN (IFSP) REVISING THE IEP According to IDEA. birthdays. Screening This section is to determine the child’s eligibility for Part C services of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA. Each goal must be reviewed to see if the goal has been attained or how much progress has been made toward the goal. Along with a service coordinator. R. (2004). It is the part of the document where the family creates a vision for their family. In this case.S. The vision statement addresses the parents’ hopes for the child as well as what they want their child to learn. (2001). It is here that dates of reviews of the IFSP will be recorded as well as information regarding name. and accomplish. 109-446. Developing legally correct and educationally appropriate IEPs. TRAUTMAN INDIVIDUALIZED FAMILY SERVICE PLAN (IFSP) The Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) is a roadmap that a family and child use while receiving service when the child is ages birth to 3 years old. The parents or school may request for the IEP to be reviewed more often than once a year.

and community. speech pathologists. This documentation is to promote a partnership between all agencies involved with the family. activities. Summary This section summarizes the fee for service information for the parent. and Places Collection of this information is beneficial for two reasons. Transition Outcome/Goal The team uses this section to assess the child’s current developmental level as they prepare to transition from the early intervention setting into another program.) can be added in this section. IFSP Signatures and Consents This section documents that the parent/guardian has participated in the IFSP development and that they agree with the plan. these activities can be used as outcome measures on the IFSP. the family will have outlined resources. First. culture. Transition Documentation Checklist Documentation of the steps that are to be taken to make certain a smooth transition between early intervention and other services exists are kept here. and concerns related to their family and child’s development. A section for obtaining consents from the 184 . Outcome/Goal Individual outcomes/goals related to the child and family’s needs are defined here. priorities. and Concerns Here is where the family will record their concerns and immediate priorities. Second. Children who are eligible for Part C services due to a diagnosed medical condition shall have an initial and ongoing assessment in all developmental areas for the purpose of program planning. routines. Justification This is completed only if a service(s) that addresses an outcome/goal on the IFSP cannot be provided in the child and family’s everyday routines. Developmental Evaluation/Assessment Evaluations from other professionals (medical professionals. etc. Priorities. Family Resources. information regarding the family’s interests. and the payment arrangements. This is not a request for service or items. Everyday Routines. and places (natural environments). Activities. physical therapists. and activities are known. After completing this assessment.INDIVIDUALIZED FAMILY SERVICE PLAN (IFSP) services shall receive ongoing assessment in areas of delay for the purpose of gathering additional information to identify strengths and needs as well as appropriate services to meet those needs. location of service. length of service. This is what the parent(s) wants their child or their family to be able to accomplish and what the family needs in order to support their child’s development in the next four months. the outcomes. This information assists the service coordinator with helping the child participate in the family activities.

that is. services.S. Because school nurses may be assigned to several buildings or have a large number of students. § 20 U. The format that a specific document takes may vary from state to state. At each level of the plan. The IHCP helps ensure that: ¥ communication between the school nurse and staff. Appendices Several appendices exist to provide information such as a glossary of terms and an early track data dictionary. An important part of the IHCP is the Emergency Care Plan. ¥ safer processes for delegation are in place. ¥ the health plan can be incorporated into a 504 or IEP if necessary. collect additional information regarding health and safety. 109-446. but as a member of the family as well. and develop a health care plan for the school. As the leader. students. The goal is to create a strong partnership with the family and all individuals serving the child. ¥ Have health needs addressed as part of their IEP or 504 plan. and desires are taken into account.C. and outcomes for a medically involved child while at school.INDIVIDUALIZED HEALTH CARE PLAN (IHCP) parents is available. nurses must follow specific guidelines to prioritize students for an IHCP. ¥ Require lengthy health care or multiple health care contacts with the nurse or unlicensed assistive personnel during the school day.’’ The school nurse is the leader of the school health team. It also outlines the other members of the team and who needs to receive a copy of the report. The Emergency Care Plan is required when a chronic condition has the potential to result in a medical emergency. The National Association of School Nurses (November 2003) has recommended that ‘‘the prioritization of students and their needs is essential and begins by identifying students whose health needs affect their daily functioning. Any child with a severe health care need that requires frequent nursing intervention services while at school should have an IHCP. (2004). LYNN DUDEK INDIVIDUALIZED HEALTH CARE PLAN (IHCP) An Individualized Health Care Plan (IHCP) is a document that outlines the diagnoses. The plan will assure school staff and parents that the child is receiving the proper care. students who: ¥ Are medically fragile with multiple needs. 185 . REFERENCE Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. the family’s vision. The important thing to remember is that the IFSP places the focus on helping the child progress not only along developmental lines. Public Law No. ¥ Have health needs that are addressed on a daily basis. and parents is accurate and up-to-date. the nurse will assess the student’s health status. needs.

2006. and representatives from local agencies (i. and/or skills that are related to the transition goals. Swanson. and abilities. 2001). employment. interests. This is required practice. education. the ITP must be in place by the age of 16. the ITP must include ‘‘appropriate measurable postsecondary goals based upon age appropriate transition assessments related to training. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004). where appropriate. Vocational Rehabilitation).e. and (h) methods for evaluating success of transition activities. (e) instruction on academic. To facilitate this process. Owings. According to Holtz et al. & Ziegert.e. Holtz. some professionals recommend that students with autism spectrum disorders start the transition process by the age of 14. In addition. The ITP takes into consideration the hopes and dreams of the student and outlines the steps that one would need to take to achieve them. teachers. employment. MD: Author. The ITP team must include the student. independent living skills’’ and ‘‘the transition services (including courses of study) needed to assist the child in reaching those goals. (b) a statement of preferences for education. the school nurse is the one responsible for seeing that the IHCP is implemented and includes periodic evaluation for evidence of desired student outcomes. It is also the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the school nurse is the one who should be responsible for writing of the IHCP in collaboration with the student. (2006). living. The goal of the ITP is to facilitate a student’s movement from school to the world of adult work. & Smith. each individual student will work with their ITP team to determine and design the best course of action to help the student learn or maintain the skills necessary to pursue post-high school endeavors. and. Silver Spring. and living skills. parents. and community participation. Myles & Adreon. According to IDEA 2004. if not earlier (Swanson & Smith. and adult living. however. Schelvan. on a more practical level. (g) exploration of service organizations or agencies to provide services and support. (f) identification of community experiences and skills related to future goals.. (c) steps to be taken to support achievement of these goals. and health care providers.INDIVIDUALIZED TRANSITION PLAN ¥ proper safeguards are in place (i. and ¥ advancement of professional school nurses’ practice can take place. REFERENCE National Association of School Nurses (November 2003). including accommodations. Individualized Health Care Plans (Position Statement). each student’s plan will be individualized to meet their postschool needs and may include information such as: (a) assessment of the child’s needs. Emergency Care Plan). services. family. or guardians. 2005. LYNN DUDEK INDIVIDUALIZED TRANSITION PLAN An Individualized Transition Plan (ITP) is an extension of a student’s Individual Education Plan that looks beyond high school and plans for adulthood. (d) specific methods and resources to meet these goals. vocational.’’ 186 . in press.

(in press). and work-related skills (McDonald et al. or keep a job that fits his personal needs and abilities. and services required by an individual to meet a goal. The IPE must be developed jointly and agreed upon by the consumer and the vocational rehabilitation counselor.S.. Owings. and how the success of the IPE will be monitored are written into a plan (Consumer’s Guide to Maine’s Vocational Rehabilitation Programs. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. M. In R. while an IEP is regulated by the school district. the individual must be determined eligible for services. n. Simpson & B. & Ziegert. Services may be renewed or changed as necessary (deFur. Parker. VR services generally begin after high school. The IPE is a plan outlining goals. R. but they may start earlier depending on the needs of the individual (McDonald. T.). C.C. S. independence. Public Law No. (2006). 2003). Asperger syndrome and adolescence: Practical solutions for school success. guardian. a casework technician. Schelvan. TERRI COOPER SWANSON INDIVIDUAL PLAN FOR EMPLOYMENT (IPE) An Individual Plan for Employment (IPE) is similar to an Individualized Education Plan (IEP).. & Goldberg. services and the time frame of services. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. & Smith. procure a job. Children and youth with Asperger syndrome: Strategies for success in inclusive settings. (2005).). L. D. family 187 . Other members may include a vocational evaluator. If the individual is unable to be actively involved. B. VR helps persons with varying degrees of disabilities find appropriate employment and assists them in obtaining independent skills. K. Life journey through autism: A transition guide. & Adreon.. T. Shawnee Mission. Thousand Oaks. Before an IPE is created. Myles (Ed. Swanson.INDIVIDUAL PLAN FOR EMPLOYMENT (IPE) REFERENCES Holtz. The individual must also need services provided by VR to prepare for a job. 2000).. Alexandria. and another VR counselor (possibly a supervisor of the VR counselor who handles the case). social skills. Austin. the parents. M. but the focus is vocational. Areas assessed may include: mobility. S. Transition planning for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: Building bridges to the future. C. 2002). VR is funded by federal and state monies. VA: Organization for Autism Research. independent living skills. work tolerance. Making each year successful: Issues in transition. § 20 U. Swanson. objectives. Myles (Eds. (2004). (2001). CA: Corwin Press. The Vocational Rehabilitation Act 1973 and its amendments mandate that individuals with disabilities must be actively involved in their own programs while making informed decisions about their goals and vocational services. & Smith. Educating children and youth with autism. 2000). It is a formal planning process in which goals and objectives. 109-446. D. N. Myles. An IPE is facilitated through Vocational Rehabilitation services (VR). K. To be determined eligible. an individual must have a disability that makes it difficult to find work or maintain a job. TX: Pro-Ed.. and a parent of the individual if that person requires a guardian (Hayward & Schmidt-Davis..). ability to communicate. A. A team of people creates the IPE and includes the individual or the individual’s representative and the vocational rehabilitation counselor. Eligibility is based on job-related skills in a setting that is individualized and integrated as appropriate for the individual. S. M.d. S. In B. Services are based on the individual’s needs and limited to a short period of time..

The employment plan may be reviewed more often as necessary. It is often helpful to assess the needs of a consumer in the areas of education. and medical or social areas when creating long-term goals and intermediate objectives (New York State Office of Children and Family Services. Each year the consumer or the representative must review the IPE.). and service providers.d. A statement of the consumer’s rights and responsibilities is laid out in the IPE (UT RCEP Online. n. the IPE includes information about the local Client Assistance Program. In creating a long-term goal it is helpful to consider the following items: employment availability. and attempts should be made to settle the concerns and redevelop the plan for employment. the consumer has a right to appeal through the Client Assistance Program (CAP). as well as the services providers. Consumers will be notified by letter confirming the IPE is not in effect. assessment of the consumer’s future need for postemployment services. Specific rehabilitation services to be provided must be included. technology. Intermediate objectives are in actuality short-term goals. services. independent living skills. It will also include the timeline for reaching the employment goal and the criteria to evaluate the objectives and the procedure for evaluation. n. services will continue until a determination is made regarding the IPE (New York State Office of Children and Family Services. there is no plan. Changes to the IPE will not take effect until the consumer agrees to the changes and signs the document (New York State Office of Child and Family Services. and personal assistance may be included if relevant to the individual consumer (New York State Department of Education.INDIVIDUAL PLAN FOR EMPLOYMENT (IPE) member. The goal of the Individual Plan for Employment is to help a consumer find success in employment that meets their personal needs and abilities. or other person may make the decision. objectives. If the matter cannot be resolved. If resolution is not possible. The goal selection should be based on an assessment of vocational rehabilitation needs with the goal of finding placement in an integrated employment setting. which build toward completion of the long-term goal. If it is not completed in 30 days.d. With the goal of preparing for employment. the individual consumer and the VR counselor together create Individual Plans for Employment in a collaborative effort. vocation. It will also address the conditions set forth for the services.). 188 . The IPE must contain long-term goals for rehabilitation that describe the employment to be gained.). n. Each IPE has the same set of requirements. the consumer’s case will be closed. The IPE will list the responsibilities of the state agency and those of the consumer. medical concerns. interests. all services except those necessary to develop a new IPE will be dropped. the existing IPE will end. The matter should be discussed and documented. and a listing of benefits that may help pay for the cost of services. The consumer has 30 days to develop a new IPE. occupational requirements. and strengths. If the consumer appeals the end of the IPE.d. or maintaining a job. n. If an individual receiving services under an approved IPE chooses a different vocational goal. In such cases where the consumer refuses to sign or disagrees with the IPE. Information regarding the need for assistive technology.). The letter will also include the necessary steps to creating a new IPE. Finally. and information regarding the consumer’s previous jobs. 1999).d. The intermediate objectives should relate directly to successful completion of the long-term goal. The IPE includes a statement in the consumer’s wording that describes how they were given information about alternatives such as goals. finding employment. on-the-job services.

maintain. IDEA was reauthorized. Individual plan for Employment. Parker.caresinc. and amendments were added to further protect and benefit the education of individuals with disabilities. Final report 2: VR services and outcomes. R. H. and behavioral assessment and intervention. (2003). Washington. The road to work.htm. It also requires that the school define the interfering behaviors and provide positive. New York State Office of Children and Family Services. (2000).d. The University of Tennessee. In 1997.vesid. students with disabilities are required to take state 189 .htm. Hayward.). Under IDEA. DC. & Goldberg. (1999). B.htm. It requires the use of a functional behavioral assessment to determine what the interfering behaviors are and their cause.d. (n. Regional Rehabilitation Continuing Education Program. McDonald.) Individual plan for Employment. supportive interventions to prevent or change inappropriate behaviors.state.d. educating the student in the least restrictive environment. from http://www. (2002). H. New York State Department of Education. Minneapolis. A team effort. Assistive technology refers to any device that may increase. P.ny. Durham: NC: Research Triangle Institute. Retrieved June 15.gov/policies/206. or may be as high tech as using specific word-prediction software on a computer to promote written language. S. (n. S.INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) REFERENCES Consumer’s Guide to Maine’s Vocational Rehabilitation Programs. (n. MN: Pacer Center.. 2005. from http://www. 2005. 2005. J. Retrieved June 17. and progress are monitored and measured by developing an Individual Education Plan (IEP). 2005. & Schmidt-Davis. Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities. nonacademic. Retrieved June 19.utk.. deFur. A booklet for youth and adults with disabilities. VALERIE JANKE REXIN INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) became a federal law in 1975 and is currently the primary law governing special education in schools. from http:// web. The amendments to IDEA also promote the use of positive behavioral supports to prevent and intervene upon inappropriate behaviors. Individual plan for Employment policy. Examples of assistive technology can be as simple as using a pencil grip for a proper pencil grasp.edu/rrcep4ut/informed/home.) Opportunity to make informed choice. Inc. Section V. IDEA ensures the right of individuals with disabilities to have free and appropriate education. The student’s abilities. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities.). or improve the capabilities of a student with a disability. needs. UT RCEP Online. family members and advocates (2nd ed. Some of the most significant amendments included requiring the consideration of assistive technology.org/docs/vrguide/ 005.html.nysed. An introduction to vocational rehab. Transition Planning. Longitudinal study of the vocational rehabilitation services program.. Retrieved June 16.us/main/cbvh/vocrehab_manual/ 06_IPE.ocfs. the student also has the right to be educated with his peers in the least restrictive environment. Under the new amendments. from http://www. as well as requiring schools and school staff to continually monitor and evaluate the individual’s progress. The reauthorization of IDEA requires that the school specifically state the extent to which the student will and will not participate with nondisabled peers in academic. and extracurricular settings. IDEA was reauthorized again in 2004 in an attempt to make educators more accountable for their impact on the education and functioning of students with disabilities.

INFANT/TODDLER SENSORY PROFILE assessments at their level of functioning. REFERENCE Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. or were placed in isolated. and individuals with disabilities in an attempt to provide better protection for individuals with disabilities and their families. checklists. There are a variety of informal assessment measures. Assessing learners with special needs: An applied approach (4th ed. work samples. or take an alternate assessment. including curriculum-based assessments. This can mean that students with disabilities take the same assessment as nondisabled peers. observations. or having questions read aloud to him. A modified assessment is essentially the same assessment the nondisabled peers take. such as allowing extra time. special education programs without access to the general education curriculum or their nondisabled peers. permanent products. (2002). typing rather than handwriting answers. criterion-referenced assessments. as well as better guidelines for educators in providing optimal services and learning environment. REFERENCE Dunn. curriculum-based measurement. Upper Saddle River. KELLY M. Prior to the implementation of this federal law. IDEA exists to protect individuals with disabilities from being excluded in the educational setting.C. the student with a disability is allowed accommodations that meet his needs.). PRESTIA INFANT/TODDLER SENSORY PROFILE The Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (Dunn. however. the team working with the child can work to address the relationship between sensory processing and a child’s performance. Public Law No. THERESA L. and encompasses more basic. (2003). If areas of sensory processing difficulties are identified. FURTHER INFORMATION Overton. functional academic and life skills. EARLES-VOLLRATH 190 . T. ranging from almost always to almost never. IDEA continues to be reevaluated by legislators. LISA ROBBINS INFORMAL ASSESSMENT Informal assessment measures are nonstandardized approaches for monitoring and evaluating student progress and obtaining information regarding an individual’s strengths and needs. NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. San Antonio. and many teacher-made tests. 2002) is designed for children ages 7 to 36 months to be completed by a caregiver or someone else who has daily contact with the child. W. Reporters are asked to respond to the frequency with which they observe the occurrence of various responses to the basic sensory systems. (2004). 109-446. Infant/toddler sensory profile. § 20 U. questionnaires. take a modified assessment. An alternate assessment generally looks very different from the state-issued assessment. individuals with disabilities often did not attend school.S. The responses are scored in an attempt to identify certain patterns of behavior. educators. TX: Harcourt Assessment.


INTEGRATED EMPLOYMENT As implied by its name, the term integrated employment is used to describe the type of employment available for individuals who are capable of working in a community setting. People with disabilities can engage the services of an employment agency, vocational rehabilitation agency, or private job coaches to help match their interests and skills to appropriate employers in the community. To be successful in an integrated employment setting, the individual will need to be able to work with minimal supervision, stay focused on each task required for their job, and perhaps most importantly, know when and how to ask for help. For individuals with autism spectrum disorders, this might be best achieved by utilizing their strengths or areas of special interest to help encourage a successful experience. Just a few ideas might include: guides at museums, computer repair, ticket takers at local sporting events, or dog sitters. Jobs can vary with the skill level and interest of the individual; the possibilities are endless as long as the person functions with reasonable level of independence and more ordinary types of supervision while at work. SHERRY MOYER INTEGRATED PLAY GROUP MODEL (IPG) The Integrated Play Groups (IPG) model was originally developed by Wolfberg (1999, 2003) to address the unique challenges children on the autism spectrum encounter in peer relations and play. Defining features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a ‘‘lack of varied and imaginative or imitative play’’ and a ‘‘failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level’’ (Charman & Baird, 2002, p. 289). These difficulties are closely connected to characteristic impairments in the development of reciprocal social interaction, communication, and imagination (APA, 2000). Guided by current theory, research, and evidence-based practices, the IPG model reflects a blending of approaches to foster development in each of these areas. The IPG model is designed to support children of diverse ages and abilities on the autism spectrum (novice players) in mutually enjoyed play experiences with typical peers and siblings (expert players). These children regularly play together in small groups under the direction of a qualified facilitator (play guide). Through a carefully constructed system of support, play sessions are tailored to the unique interests and developmental capacities of individual children. A major effort is directed to maximizing children’s developmental potential by capitalizing on each child’s intrinsic motivation to socialize and play. Equal emphasis is placed on teaching the typical peers to be empathetic, responsive, and accepting of children who present differing ways of communicating, relating, and playing. Further, novice and expert players are expected to mediate their own play activities with minimal or no adult guidance. PROGRAM AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN The IPG model was originally developed for children from preschool through elementary school age (approximately 3 to 11 years of age); however, adaptations and extensions of the model are in progress to support both younger and older children. Each IPG is customized for an individual child as a part of his or her educational or therapy program. 191


Play guides receive training and supervision to set up and carry out IPGs. They include practitioners, parents, and other care providers experienced in working with children with ASD. Play groups include three to five children with a higher ratio of typically developing peers and/or siblings (expert players) to children with special needs (novice players). Expert players are recruited from places where children ordinarily have contact with peers (e.g., school, family friends, neighbors, community). Playmates ideally have some familiarity and attraction to one another and the potential for developing long-lasting friendships. Groups may vary with respect to children’s gender, ages, developmental status, and play interaction styles. The same group of children meets over an extended period of time (6 months or longer), two or more times per week for approximately 30 minutes to an hour. Times may vary depending upon the age and development of the children as well as the context of the intervention (i.e., school-based vs. therapy). IPG programs take place in natural play environments within school, home, community, or therapy settings. These are primarily integrated settings where, given the opportunity, children would naturally play. Play areas are created to be safe, familiar, predictable, and highly motivating, allowing children to comfortably explore and socialize. They are designed with consideration of multiple factors such as size, density, organization, and thematic arrangements of the play area. Play materials include a wide range of sensory motor, exploratory, constructive, and socio-dramatic props with high potential for interactive and imaginative play. In addition, they vary in degree of structure and complexity to accommodate children’s diverse interests, learning styles, and developmental levels. Play sessions are structured by establishing routines and rituals that foster familiarity, predictability, and a cohesive group identity. Personalized visual calendars and schedules help children anticipate the days and times of meetings. Basic rules for fair and courteous behavior and appropriate care of materials are presented at the onset of play groups. Group membership is established by creating a ‘‘club name’’ and associated rituals. Play sessions begin and end with an opening and closing ritual (e.g., greeting, song, and brief discussion of plans and strategies). ASSESSMENT The IPG model includes a comprehensive assessment component that provides a basis for setting appropriate goals, designing effective intervention strategies, and evaluating children’s progress. This includes an observation framework and corresponding assessment tools that focus on documenting children’s social play styles, cognitive/ symbolic and social dimensions of play, communication functions and means, play preferences, and diversity of play. For example, within the symbolic dimension of play, manipulation, functional, and symbolic/pretend play represent acts that are directed towards objects or signify specific events. Within the social dimension of play, isolation, orientation/onlooker, proximity/parallel, common focus, and common goals represent the child’s distance to and involvement with one or more peers. How children communicate within the context of peer play activities is also examined. The functions of communication (e.g., requests for objects, peer interaction and 192


affection, protests, declarations, and comments) may be measured through a variety of verbal and nonverbal means (including facial expressions, eye gaze, proximity, manipulating a peer’s hand, face, or body, showing or giving objects, gaze shift, gestures, intonation, vocalization, nonfocused or focused echolalia, and one-word or complex speech/sign). Documenting play preferences offers a means to identify and match children’s play interests. Play preferences include a child’s attraction to toys or props, mode of interacting with toys or props, choice of play themes, and attraction to particular playmates. Identifying the number and range of play interests provides a basis for measuring diversity of play. INTERVENTION The IPG intervention, guided participation, was inspired by the work of Vygotsky (1966, 1978). Guided participation is described as the process through which children develop while actively participating in culturally valued activity (in this case, play) with the guidance, support, and challenge of companions who vary in skill and status (Rogoff, 1990). The intervention involves methodically supporting novice and expert players to initiate and incorporate desired activity into socially coordinated play while challenging novice players to practice new and increasingly complex forms of play. Play guides apply the following key set of practices. Monitoring Play Initiations This practice focuses on uncovering novice players’ meaningful attempts to socialize and play by recognizing, interpreting, and responding to their initiations. Play initiations may take both conventional and unconventional forms, and include acts directed to oneself, peers, and materials. Even acts that reflect unusual fascinations or obscure forms of communication are interpreted as purposeful, adaptive, and meaningful attempts to participate in play. These provide a foundation on which to build and extend each novice player’s existing play repertoire, as well as for novice and expert players to establish a mutual focus and coordinate play activities. Scaffolding Play This practice involves building upon the child’s initiations by systematically adjusting assistance to match or slightly exceed the level at which the child is independently able to engage in play with peers (i.e., within the child’s ‘‘zone of proximal development’’; Vygotsky, 1978). The idea is to avoid being so lax that the play falls apart, or so intrusive that it ruins the moment. The key is to find that ever-so-delicate balance for the play to unfold in genuine ways. At times, the play guide sets the stage for play by directing the event and modeling behavior. This involves arranging props, assigning roles, and scripting parts. As the children catch on to the activity, the adult gradually withdraws from the group and redirects the children to one another while extending their play. This includes posing leading questions, commenting on activities, offering suggestions, and giving subtle reminders using verbal and visual cues. Ultimately, the adult moves to and remains on the periphery of the group as a ‘‘secure base.’’ Social-Communication Guidance This practice involves supporting both novice and expert players in using verbal and nonverbal social-communication cues to elicit each other’s attention and sustain 193


joint engagement in play activities. For example, experts learn how to interpret and respond to subtle or obscure forms of communication in a meaningful way so that novices may be included. Novices learn how to interpret and respond to the complex ways in which expert players communicate, as well as how to communicate in more conventional ways so that they may be more easily understood. Strategies focus on ‘‘what to do’’ and ‘‘what to say’’ to invite peers to play (including reluctant peers), join peers in play, enter peer groups, and maintain and expand interactions in play. Play guides coach the children using custom-made visual supports such as cue cards and posters. Play Guidance This practice encompasses a progression of strategies that support novice players in peer play experiences that are slightly beyond the child’s capacity while fully immersed in the play experience. Play guidance strategies start at the level of the child and move along a continuum of development. Play guides must be well versed in a range of techniques to foster orientation, imitation-mirroring, parallel play, joint focus, joint action, role-enactment, and role-playing. Novices may participate in complex and sophisticated play scripts organized by expert players at their own level of ability, even if participation is minimal. They may carry out play activities and roles that they may not yet fully comprehend. For example, a child inclined to line up objects may incorporate this scheme into a larger play theme of pretending to be a store clerk who is responsible for arranging groceries on a shelf. The idea is to stimulate novices to explore and diversify existing play routines through repeated exposure to the experiences of peers. EFFICACY OF THE IPG MODEL The IPG model has been adopted by numerous schools and programs at the local, national, and international level, and has gained recognition as best practices for children with ASD (see California Department of Education, 1997; Iovannone, Dunlop, Huber, & Kincaid, 2003). This research-based model specifically incorporates elements that have been shown to be effective in enhancing social interaction, communication, play, and imagination in children with ASD. Further, the goals and methods are consistent with the recommendations of the National Research Council (2001), which has ranked the teaching of play skills with peers among the six types of interventions that should have priority in the design and delivery of effective educational programs for children with ASD. To evaluate the efficacy of the IPG model, a series of experimental and exploratory studies have been conducted over the years (for a recent overview, see Wolfberg & Schuler, in press). This research has focused on documenting outcomes for novice and expert players, as well as perceptions of play guides and families (Gonsier-Gerdin, 1993; Lantz, Nelson, & Loftin, 2004; Mikaelian, 2003; O’Connor, 1999; Wolfberg, 1988; 1994; 1999; Wolfberg & Schuler, 1992; 1993; Yang, Wolfberg, Wu, & Hwu, 2003; Zercher, Hunt, Schuler, & Webster, 2001). More recently, several studies examined the efficacy of combining the IPG model with sensory integration therapy (Antipolo & Dichoso, 2003; Mahnken, Baiardo, Naess, Pechter, & Richardson, 2004; Schaefer & Atwood, 2003). 194


Although it is not feasible to determine which components of the intervention were most pertinent to the observed changes (since the IPG model is a comprehensive intervention), the cumulative findings suggest that the intervention as a whole contributed to generalized and socially valued gains. The system of support involving explicit guidance and peer mediation contributed to the children’s social and symbolic development. Guided participation in intrinsically motivating play activity with more competent peers provided novice players the opportunity to refine their imitation skills and practice more advanced forms of social communication and play. Finally, the IPG model stimulated reciprocal friendships between children with ASD and typical peers through active engagement in mutually enjoyed play experiences. REFERENCES
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. Antipolo, L., & Dichoso, D. (2003). The effects of integrated play groups with sensory integration on the play and social skills of children with sensory integrative dysfunction. Unpublished master’s thesis, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA. California Department of Education. (1997). Best practices for designing and delivering effective programs for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Produced by RiSE, Resources in Special Education, Sacramento, CA. Charman, T., & Baird, G. (2002) Practitioner review: Diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder in 2 and 3 year old children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 43, 289–305. Charman, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Brief report: Prompted pretend play in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 325–32. Gonsier-Gerdin, J. (1993). Elementary school children’s perspectives on peers with disabilities in the context of integrated play groups. Unpublished position paper, University of California– Berkeley. Iovannone, R., Dunlop, G., Huber, H., & Kincaid, D. (2003). Effective educational practices for students with ASD. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18(3), 150–165. Lantz, J. F., Nelson, J. M., & Loftin, R. L. (2004). Guiding children with autism in play: Applying the integrated play group model in school settings. Exceptional Children, 37(2), 8–14. Mahnken, H., Baiardo, C., Naess, M., Pechter, R., & Richardson, P. (2004). Integrated play groups and sensory integration for a child diagnosed with ASD: A case study. Poster presented at the American Occupational Therapy Association Annual Conference, Minneapolis, MI. Mikaelian, B. (2003). Increasing language through sibling and peer support play. Unpublished master’s thesis, San Francisco State University, CA. National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. O’Connor, T. (1999). Teacher perspectives of facilitated play in integrated play groups. Unpublished master’s thesis, San Francisco State University, CA. Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking. New York: Oxford University Press. Schaefer, S., & Atwood, A. (2003). The effects of sensory integration therapy paired with integrated play groups on the social and play behaviors of children with autistic spectrum disorder. Unpublished master’s thesis, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA. Vygotsky, L. S. (1966). Play and its role in the mental development of the child (translation from 1933). Soviet Psychology, 12, 6–18. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (translation from 1932). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wolfberg, P. J. (1988). Integrated play groups for children with autism and related disorders. Unpublished master’s field study, San Francisco State University, CA.


INTELLIGENCE TESTS Wolfberg, P. J. (1994). Case illustrations of emerging social relations and symbolic activity in children with autism through supported peer play. Doctoral dissertation, University of California at Berkeley with San Francisco State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, #9505068. Wolfberg, P. J. (1999). Play and imagination in children with autism. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University. Wolfberg, P. J. (2003). Peer play and the autism spectrum: The art of guiding children’s socialization and imagination. Shawnee, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Wolfberg, P. J., & Schuler, A. L. (1992). Integrated play groups project: Final evaluation report (Contract # HO86D90016). Washington, DC: Department of Education, OSERS. Wolfberg, P. J., & Schuler, A. L. (1993). Integrated play groups: A model for promoting the social and cognitive dimensions of play in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23(3), 467–489. Wolfberg, P. J., & Schuler, A. L. (in press). Promoting social reciprocity and symbolic representation in children with ASD. In T. Charman & W. Stone (Eds.), Early social communication in autism spectrum disorders. New York: Guildford Publications. Yang, T., Wolfberg, P. J., Wu, S., & Hwu, P. (2003). Supporting children on the autism spectrum in peer play at home and school: Piloting the integrated play groups model in Taiwan. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 7(4), 437–453. Zercher, C., Hunt, P., Schuler, A. L., & Webster, J. (2001). Increasing joint attention, play and language through peer supported play. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 5, 374–398.


INTELLIGENCE TESTS Intelligence tests assess samples of behavior to measure one’s aptitude and intelligence. The result of these assessments is an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score. Intelligence tests can be given in group or individual formats. Individually administered intelligence tests are primarily used in special education for identification, eligibility, and educational placement decisions. FURTHER INFORMATION
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2007). Assessment: In special and inclusive education (10th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Taylor, R. L. (2006). Assessment of exceptional students: Educational and psychological procedures (7th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.


INTERNAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB) An Internal Review Board (IRB), also known as the Human Subjects Review Committee, is a group of individuals who are charged with the protection of human subjects used in research at universities and other institutions. An IRB reviews proposed research projects to ensure that the protocol outlined in the study complies with specified regulations and with other ethical and professional standards for use of human subjects in research. The committee also evaluates proposed projects to ensure that potential research subjects will be protected from harm and that they will be treated respectfully and fairly. THERESA L. EARLES-VOLLRATH 196


INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES AND RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS (ICD) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a guidebook commonly used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders outside of the United States. Like the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA, 2000), the ICD uses medical concepts and terminology, classifies disorders based on criteria into distinct categories and subcategories, and is revised periodically. The ICD is currently in its tenth edition. REFERENCE
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT INTEROBSERVER AGREEMENT/RELIABILITY Interobserver agreement or interobserver reliability refers to having two or more observers record the same data, on the same student(s), at the same time, but independent of each other. The data of all observers are then compared, and a reliability coefficient or a percent of agreement is calculated. While there is set standard for acceptable interobserver reliability, the accepted standard among some behavior analysts is a coefficient of approximately 90 (Alberto & Troutman, 1995). The higher the reliability coefficient or percent of agreement, the more accurate and reliable the data. REFERENCE
Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (1995). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (4th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

THERESA L. EARLES-VOLLRATH INTRAVERBAL As first described by B. F. Skinner (1957), an intraverbal is the verbal response to a verbal stimulus that has no direct verbal relation to the stimulus. For example, when someone asks another, ‘‘What is your favorite food?’’ the person responding would say, ‘‘lasagna.’’ The response is correct and is reinforced within the verbal exchange between two people, but the response does not directly relate word for word to the verbal stimulus. A directly related response to the question would be, ‘‘My favorite food is lasagna’’ (Lerman, Parten, Addison, Vorndran, & Volkert et al., 2005). REFERENCES
Lerman, D. C., Parten, M., Addison, L. R., Vorndran, C. M., Volkert, V. M., & Kodak, T. (2005). A methodology for assessing the functions of emerging speech in children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(3), 303–316. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

TARA MIHOK IRLEN LENSES Irlen lenses are color-tinted lenses used to reduce vision difficulties. In 1980, Olive Meares was one of the first people to note the signs and symptoms of visual distress in 197


school-age children. Helen Irlen, the name most commonly identified with colored lenses, presented findings in 1983 that her students had less visual distortions while reading if they used a transparent colored overlay (Wilkins, 2003). There are a variety of terms that are used in conjunction with the light-sensitivity disorder in which one needs colored overlays or colored lenses to manage perceptual distortions. Helen Irlen originally coined the phrase scoptic sensitivity syndrome (SSS) (1991), however the Irlen Institute now uses the phrase Irlen syndrome (Irlen syndrome/Scoptic syndrome, 1991). Others prefer the term Meares-Irlen syndrome to include Olive Meares, who was one of the first proponents of using color to reduce vision difficulties (Wilkins, 2003). Irlen syndrome is not a vision problem but rather a difficulty with the visual perceptual system. It occurs in some individuals with learning or reading disorders, autism, and other developmental disorders. Individuals with SSS experience visual stress, which leads to distortions while reading or viewing the world around them. Difficulties may be expressed through problems with light brightness or types of lighting, movement of letters or words on the page, difficulty with high contrast situations, and difficulty reading groups of letters (Edleson, n.d.). There are specific symptoms related to SSS/Irlen syndrome. Some people may experience difficulty reading for long periods of time. Others find their reading to be inefficient. Some readers are unable to skim or speed read. Strain and fatigue is often reported after reading. Phrases read aloud may sound hesitant or choppy. The reader may have poor comprehension skills and difficulty retaining information. A slow reading rate and high error rates may also be noted in readers (Irlen syndrome/Scoptic syndrome, 1991). Deficiencies in visual skills may lead to poor academic performance. The National Institute of Health estimates that 10 million American children have difficulty reading. Eighty percent of student learning in the classroom depends on the ability of the visual system to process correctly (Stone, 2003). Basic school vision screenings only test for a few learning-related visual skills such as distance, 20/20 eyesight, using the eyes together, and muscle balance. Although states require vision screenings, most leave it to the school district to determine how the testing will be initiated. Typically, school districts do not test for other visual skill concerns. Most people are not aware of the connection between poor academics and visual skill deficiencies. Although the number of children with reading disabilities that are helped by Irlen lenses varies according to different researchers, it is possible that 460,000 to 4.6 million children could be helped by the use of color overlays or tinted lenses (Stone, 2003). Irlen lenses are created to meet the needs of the wearer through a specific testing method. While these lenses are often used for persons with light sensitivities, disorders, and reading disabilities, individuals with autism and other developmental disorders have also worn them with success. REFERENCES
Edleson, S. M. (n.d.). Scotopic sensitivity syndrome and the Irlen lens system. Retrieved June 13, 2005, from http://www.autism.org/irlen.html. Irlen, H. (1991). Reading by the colors. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group Inc. Irlen syndrome/Scoptic syndrome. (1991). Retrieved June 12, 2005, from http://www.irlen.com/ sss_main.htm.


IRLEN LENSES Stone, R. (2003). The light barrier. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Wilkins, A. (2003). Reading through colour. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Ludlow, A. K., Wilkins, A. J., & Heaton, P. (2006). The effect of coloured overlays on reading ability in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 36, 507–516. Thomson, W. D., & Wilkins, A. J. (2006). Memory for the color of non-monochromatic lights. Color Research and Application, 32, 11–15.



Wickstrom. Other strategies employed during the implementation of routines include sabotage. repetition. & Sack (1984) who developed this methodology in their work with students with various disabilities. Sabotage refers to a situation such as when a caregiver offers a child M&M’s in a closed container. & Rydell. Those interactions are purposeful and are performed repeatedly and in a certain logical order that the individual has learned. Jamieson. A silly situation occurs when a parent gives a child a fork to eat soup. Solomonson. in particular (Goldstein et al. JAR is a routinized series of activities and communication-based interactions between an individual and one or more communicative partners. An oversight can happen when a child is offered a bowl of soup with no spoon. Wetherby. and/or other health impairments. JAR treatment includes features such as a unifying theme. routines could also be teacher directed. causing the child to ask for help to open it. 1998). chef. a logical. such as reliance on careful planning and enhancement of environmental structures designed to ensure a child’s successful participation in a routine. . This instructional strategy is known also by names such as Activity Based Strategy (Bricker. Professionals also consider JAR a particularly suitable treatment option for individuals with ASD because it borrows elements from both the behavioristic and the naturalistic perspectives. and Sociodramatic Script Training (Goldstein. customer). including mental retardation. various language delays. Hoyson. These elements make JAR an intervention strategy uniquely appropriate to meet the needs of students with language and communication delays in general. 2000). waitress. joint focus between one or more communicative partners. depending on the student’s developmental age. oversight. 1988). silly situations and time delay. The term JAR was coined by Snyder-McLean.J JOINT ACTION ROUTINES Joint Action Routines (JAR) is an intervention strategy used to scaffold language development for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The features of JAR that reflect a behavioristic approach include the use of repetitions and. predetermined sequence of activities. a certain number of roles (e. 1988.g. & Odom. turntaking. and variation. and structuring meaningful contexts for the instruction of new communicative skills. Prizant. and those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). focusing on student-initiated activities in routines. McLean... JAR’s characteristics associated with a naturalistic approach include limiting reinforcers only to those that are intrinsic to a routine.

202 .. looking at him expectantly. 2. Prepare relevant props. such as the ‘‘back and forth. should the first two to three steps be taught first. or familiar stories. and thus are especially helpful in making concrete for children with ASD the concepts that are inherent in communication. Design the Joint Action Routines while considering— ¥ the topic. amusement park activities). These routines have been developed for implementation across all age groups and levels of disability: toddlers or young children with developmental age of or below 24 months. ball game. or rather. ¥ the order of activities. Careful consideration should also be given to students’ age and their familiarity with and interest in the JAR topic.g. The following are basic guidelines for successfully using JAR with students with ASD: 1. ¥ the roles. routines that involve preparation of a product.e. and ¥ the teaching method (i. and so forth).e. Routines that involve preparation of a product focus on instruction of language skills that involve activities such as snack preparation. which might also have to be simplified in their task complexity and communication requirements. Based on the complexity of a JAR. These activities might be of the nature of sharing a game on a computer. 6. shopping. product assembly). putting a puzzle together. ¥ the props needed. and middle. 5. and so forth. the teacher keeps eye contact with his student. Routines related to daily living skills entail instruction designed to promote communication skills related to adaptive behavior competency around topics such as bath time. 4. Throughout this time. picnic. and much more. the adult might be the sole initiator of routines.’’ waiting for a turn. Establish procedures for data collection to measure students’ progress. (1984) identified four major categories of routines: routines related to daily living skills. eating in a restaurant. 7.and elementary-age students. and might not be exchangeable between them.. playing cards and other table top games. ¥ time and place of implementation. preschool. Choose target behaviors that match a student’s current level of performance and which are in line with the IEP objectives.to high school-age students. and prevocational readiness (i. and those that involve social games. roles may be limited to only adult and child. using public transportation.. creating an art project. Social cooperative games provide a perfect venue for teaching turn-taking skills. Snyder-McLean et al. those that focus on a specific theme. In addition. For infants or young children with a mental age below 24 months. starting with the last task in the chain. JARs that focus on a theme foster language development around topics of interest to the students and include leisure activities (e.JOINT ACTION ROUTINES Time delay is a technique in which a teacher gradually lengthens the time between a stimulus and a prompt to allow the student more time to provide the expected verbal response. and so forth. These procedures are designed to prevent boredom and to create a need to communicate in a child’s natural environment. getting out of bed. should the routine be taught in a backward chaining fashion. Prepare materials needed. 3. Introduce the routine. responding based on a partner’s reaction. establish a signal to indicate the beginning and ending of a routine.

. Prizant. Prizant (Vol.. or thing among two or more communicative 203 . & Odom. (1988). no!’’ points to the spill and says.. ‘‘Give me five!’’ ¥ Student ‘‘gives five. 97–117. and a (+) will indicate a correct independent response. Reichle (Series Eds.’’ ‘‘throw away. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. M. Wetherby. 9.). A. Data Collection: Data will be collected weekly on a student’s correct response. (1984). place. ‘‘Get tissue. An activity based approach to early intervention (2nd ed. K. JOSEPHA BEN-ARIEH JOINT ATTENTION Joint Attention involves the shifting of attention from one object of desire back to another object or person. M. A (À) will indicate a prompted response. he/she is then told to ‘‘throw (the tissue) away. Goldstein.JOINT ATTENTION The following provides an example of a JAR designed to teach preschoolers with autism to follow one-step instructions. Many times infants will point to an object prior to their ability to label all aspects of the object. & Sack. and creating a controlled environment that supports the growth and development of communication skills.’’ Objective: To teach students to follow one-step instructions. N. Time and Place: Five repetitions during mealtime (one time a day).).’’ ¥ Student throws tissue into a waste can. 11. Solomonson. Eds. REFERENCES Bricker. ¥ Teacher says. B... Effects of sociodramatic script training on social and communicative interaction. ‘‘give me five. Warren & J.). Communication and language intervention series: Vol. H. (1998). B. M.’’ ¥ Student gets up and takes a tissue. ‘‘Oh. Props: No props needed. 213–228. L. Jamieson.. J. The Roles: Adult and child. Structuring joint action routines: A strategy for facilitating communication and language development in the classroom. In S. (2000). encouraging students to tune into a communicative partner’s perspectives.’’ JAR serves as a strategy for promoting communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorders by providing learners with a context for communication. Communication intervention issues for children with autism spectrum disorders...) & A.’’ and. Wickstrom. 193–224). & Rydell. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. McLean. & McComas. B.. K. D. ¥ After child wipes spill. M. J. P. 5.. S. Hoyson. S. ¥ Teacher exclaims. E. creating a need for mutual focus and attention between and among communicative partners. S. such as ‘‘get tissue. Autism spectrum disorders: A transactional developmental perspective (pp. F. M. Order of Activities: ¥ Drink or food is ‘‘accidentally’’ spilled. Wetherby & B. (with Pretti-Frontczak. Education and Treatment of Children. This is a developmental milestone that is typically first seen in young children as they point out objects or direct adults to look at the same object that has gained their interest. The use of joint attention coordinates mutual interest to a desired person. Snyder-McLean. L. Seminars in Speech and Language.

‘‘You see a big plane. and the adult holding the child then often labels the item. For example. COOK JOURNAL Journals are scholarly compilations of research-based articles in a peer-reviewed format.’’ KATHERINE E.JOURNAL partners. For a list of journals related to autism spectrum disorders see Appendix C. an infant might point to an airplane in the sky. TERRI COOPER SWANSON 204 .

217–250. 2003). 1906–1924: The roots of autistic disorder. 103. History of Psychiatry. Leo Kanner (1894–1981): The man and the scientist. (1943). 1943. He is recognized as the first person to formally describe and coin the term autism more than a half century ago (Kanner.ama. Retrieved July 31. 242–246. L. CAROL L. which has become the most quoted work in the literature on autism (AMA-Autism History. The Nervous Child. Kanner.htm. Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact. The KADI enables professionals to correctly differentiate individuals with Asperger’s disorder from individuals with other forms of highfunctioning autism. (1946). (1990). L. It can be used as a prescreening scale to immediately determine individuals who do not have Asperger’s disorder. Information . FURTHER INFORMATION Kanner. p. REFERENCES AMA-Autism History (n.). K.org.K KANNER. V. (2003). American Journal of Psychiatry. 3–23. Kanner published a description of this profile based on his case studies in a paper identifying autistic children in 1943 (Kanner. LEO Leo Kanner (1894–1981) substantially influenced the field of child and adolescent psychiatry by providing the first description of infantile autism (Neumarker.d. Sanua. Leo Kanner—his years in Berlin. from http://www. 21(fall). PITCHLYN KRUG’S ASPERGER’S DISORDER INDEX Krug’s Asperger’s Disorder Index (KADI) is an assessment tool used to identify individuals with Asperger’s disorder. 2006. 205–218.d. 14. Neumarker. The Krug’s Asperger’s Disorder Index can be administered on individuals ranging from 6 years of age to 22. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 2.br/ autismhistory. 227). n. Irrelevant and metaphorical language in early infantile autism.). 1943).

Assessment in special education: A practical approach. 2006). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. REFERENCE Pierangelo.. A. & Guiliani. C. R. Administration time ranges from 15 to 20 minutes (Pierangelo & Guiliani. (2006). AMY BIXLER COFFIN 206 .KRUG’S ASPERGER’S DISORDER INDEX associated with the KADI can be used to help assess a student’s educational needs.

Types of language difficulty in addition to verbal agnosia (inability to comprehend language) include word-finding difficulties. if responsive to antiepileptic drugs. slow deterioration of language. The loss of language skills is usually gradual. with usually good recovery. problems with written language. The loss of receptive skills is followed by loss of expressive abilities. Treatment varies from avoidance of dairy products to use of digestive enzyme tablets. and (c) variable onset during which there may be several episodes of language fluctuation. It may be present from birth or acquired later in life and varies in severity. Three different types of presentation are reported: (a) acute loss of language. sometimes in association with encephalopathic illness and/or seizures. and sometimes hyperactivity in these children. although there are cases where the loss is more rapid. occurring over the course of months. although ASD might be considered in some cases due to the similarity of some of the receptive and expressive language difficulties coupled with levels of frustration. and moderate or poor recovery. a range of neologisms and paraphasias. behavior difficulties. The differentiating criteria include the fact that this is an aphasia with EEG abnormalities . Hearing tests however are normal. BRUCE BASSITY LANDAU-KLEFFNER SYNDROME Landau-Kleffner syndrome (otherwise known as acquired epileptic aphasia) is a rare disorder involving the loss of language skills after a period of normal development. (b) long. The onset of loss usually occurs between the ages of 3 and 9 years. First noted loss is in receptive language skills. first described by Landau and Kleffner in 1957. Children with Landau-Kleffner do not usually present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). and deficit in prosody. It is a deficiency of lactase. an enzyme required to absorb lactose (a form of sugar found in milk) from the intestines. which. may lead to a good recovery (Lees & Neville. and is often associated with clear-cut seizures. 1996). with the child becoming increasingly unresponsive to spoken language. which may be unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs.L LACTOSE INTOLERANCE Lactose intolerance is a gastrointestinal condition in which individuals are intolerant to milk and some dairy products.

2000). 7.. 42. M. J. Cole et al.. & Geer. K.. skin rashes. Mantovani. & Kleffner. Based on Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments. Educational and therapeutic approaches used with a child presenting with acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder (Landau-Kleffner syndrome). SCOTT LEAKY GUT SYNDROME Leaky gut syndrome. R. COOK LEARNED HELPLESSNESS Learned helplessness was introduced in 1965 by Martin Seligman as the result of a series of experiments with dogs (Seligman. Maier. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. FIONA J. In leaky gut syndrome openings develop between the cells of the intestine that allow in bacteria. is a medial condition affecting the lining of the intestines. 705–707. Child psychiatry (2nd ed.. D. In terms of outcome.. and with deficits focusing on language. A long-term follow-up by Ripley and Lea (1984) demonstrated that while low language levels were the usual outcome. 535. Hurst Green. B. (1991).. Moorhouse school: A follow up study of receptive aphasic ex-pupils. Common symptoms of leaky gut syndrome include chronic muscle or joint pain. 1991. & Lea. & Scott. F. et al. Lees & Neville. Vance.). J. Lees. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. A. indigestion. R. A. Y. p. 349–353. 203).LEAKY GUT SYNDROME typically underlying the loss of skills. The Landau-Kleffner syndrome of acquired epileptic aphasia: Unusual clinical outcome. Neurology. recurrent bladder or yeast infections. F. toxins. G. Bishop (1985) reviewed the literature and reported that the younger the age of onset the poorer the prognosis for the child. 27. 1988). Goodman. and possibly also underlying neurological deficits. Autistic regression and Landau-Kleffner syndrome: Progress or confusion? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.. J... L. surgical experience and absence of encephalitis. Tests of general mental ability or cognitive functioning can also help to clarify the selective loss of language skills seen in Landau-Kleffner syndrome versus general loss of cognitive skills in other more progressive childhood dementias (Goodman & Scott. Olivier.. & Neville. (1957). Taylor. 41–60. 523–530. blurred thinking. There are not usually impairments in social interaction of an autistic type. constipation. REFERENCES Bishop. (1988).. S. Neurology. (2000). 31–37.. 7. (1985). and anxiety. also referred to as intestinal permeability. but as noted frustrations. Landau. Syndrome of acquired aphasia and convulsive disorder in children. Andermann. (2005). J. Speech and language therapy programs. Fit for neurosurgery? RCSLT Bulletin (November 1996). Child Learning Teaching and Therapy. most of the group had found employment and were living independently as adults. (1984). T. Cole. mood swings. A.g. (1996). nervousness. 1996. Mantovani. 1968). and food. gas. 2005. Rasmussen. may lead to some social difficulties or behavior problems (e. 10–11. F. and sometimes surgery are considered as possible treatment options (Vance. W. Robitaille. Surrey: Moorhouse School. 208 .. Ripley. KATHERINE E. 38. M. Oxted. Age of onset and outcome in acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder (Landau-Kleffner syndrome). antiepileptic medications. a bell was paired with an unpleasant stimulus.

which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen. 2002). which includes only individuals with normal intelligence (IQ of 70 or higher). and developmental aphasia. The term. Maier. 209 . Many learning disorders overlap with other conditions such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). and to people coming from at-risk backgrounds. KATIE BASSITY LEARNING DISORDER Learning disorder is a term that can be used in a variety of ways for a variety of conditions or disabilities. Learned helplessness is relevant to people with depression and disabilities. These differences demonstrate further how opaque usage of the term can be. 73. Reading disorders are commonly associated with spelling difficulties (Goodman & Scott. Alleviation of learned helplessness in the dog. (1968). brain injury. spelling disorder. 2000) are reported to include reading disorder (dyslexia). spell or do math calculations. affecting 3 to 10 percent of children. speak. and can be interpreted in a variety of ways. dyslexia is also commonly seen in individuals with Asperger syndrome. spoken or written. nonverbal learning disorder. 1975) In contrast to Public Law 94-142. J. The overall mindset is that of powerlessness. and more recently. (IDEA. F. disorder of written expression (dysgraphia)... Children and adults with learning disorders tend to have challenges with academic subjects. therefore. although there is some debate as to whether this is above what may be seen in the general population (Gillberg. Individuals with ASD are often also reported to have poor handwriting skills. REFERENCE Seligman. or specific reading difficulties. 256–262. with research indicating they are up to three times more common in males. although this may reflect motor difficulties rather than a specific disorder such as dysgraphia (Beversdorf et al. M. APA. S. & Geer. think. are perhaps the most common of the aforementioned learning disorders. Currently. minimal brain dysfunction. The individual comes to feel that effort would be pointless as it always ends in failure. Research suggests there may be an overrepresentation of dyscalculia in individuals with Asperger syndrome. 2000) allows for individuals with IQs below 70 and with uneven cognitive profiles. social-emotional learning disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. mathematics disorder (dyscalculia). Learning disorder is defined legally as: Those children who have a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language. but may in fact have normal levels of overall intelligence. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. N. E. The result was an understanding that individuals may reach a frame of mind in which they do not attempt independence or exert effort toward a task. or that they are incapable of doing something on their own. however it did not move. It was expected the dog would move in order to avoid the unpleasant stimulus.LEARNING DISORDER rather than food. dyslexia. write.. 2005). Reading disorders. learning disorders in the DSM-IV-TR (APA. is rather broad and nonspecific. but excludes those whose learning problems are due to known neurological disorders. The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps.

. Anderson. D. Washington. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. E. Planning and placement teams (IEP teams) should consider general education classroom placement as the first option for children with disabilities. Huber. and services with each student’s unique profile and the individual family’s characteristics. Nonverbal learning disorder is often confused with Asperger syndrome. Gillberg. to provide a continuum of individualized supports. S. Anderson.). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. R. Dunlap. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. 1998). a critical key to success is to match specific practices. Felopulos. 2006. E.LEARNING STYLES 2001). Q. C. In particular. and kinesthetic/tactile learners (learn best when hands-on and movement experiences are incorporated in the lesson). Nordgren. Public Law No. and many researchers argue there is little difference between the two. (2005). J. A guide to Asperger syndrome. Child psychiatry (2nd ed. Brief Report: Macrographia in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. Asperger’s disorder and nonverbal learning disabilities: How are these two disorders related to each other? Retrieved July 20. L. Oxford: Blackwell.. R. Dinklage. 2003.). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. KATHERINE E. SCOTT LEARNING STYLES A learning style refers to an individual’s primary learning mode. 31. (2001). COOK LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT (LRE) Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a heterogeneous group requiring individualized and highly unique programs. 2001). & Kincaid. from www. p. ‘‘Educational personnel are required. peers are often able 210 ... (2002).. DC: Author. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. That is. 153). J..nldontheweb.. (2001). with individuals with nonverbal learning disorder often also meeting criteria for Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (Dinklage. Goodman. supports. which identifies instructional techniques most likely to enhance their learning. 97–100. D. & Scott.htm. text rev. G. auditory learners (learn best when information is presented in an auditory format). et al. (2000). through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997. Many children with autism are successfully included in general education classrooms and are learning with typical peers (Wagner.. Manning. Beversdorf. Other placement considerations should occur only when supplementary aids and services implemented in the general education setting have not yielded educational benefit for the student. According to Dunlap (1999). FIONA J. Some approaches have been found to be more beneficial than others. These overlaps can often add to the confusion in interpretation and application of the term learning disorder. 94-142 (1975). services. Learning styles most commonly recognized in the classroom include visual learners (learn best when information is presented in a visual format). S. ranging from inclusion in general education with varying levels of supports to extremely specific services and instruction in specialized settings’’ (Iovannone. M.org/ Dinklage_1. and placements to students. S.

. while for others it may not afford an appropriate education. and needs. 2000.LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT (LRE) to successfully model typical behavior in addition to assist with generalization of skills taught. cited in Iovannone et al. and 4. separate schooling. having a diagnosis of autism should not automatically place the student in the school’s or district’s ‘‘autism class or program. The IDEA (H. refers to students spending portions of their school day with typical peers. a practice that originated in the 1970s. the current inclusion movement assumes that major changes will occur in the general education classroom. 2003). Thus. support. 14) 211 . 1350 § 612 (a) (5)(A) of IDEA ‘04) requires school personnel to consider the least restrictive environment (LRE) for children with disabilities. Thus. general education classroom curriculum. placement decisions should not be based on the student’s disability. 2001. Mainstreaming. accommodations and modifications to support the child’s access to the general education curriculum. the inclusion room).. the general education classroom is the least restrictive environment. 1998). LRE is not always the general education classroom. and placement settings (Iovannone et al. for some students. This means that students. This is generally based on students having achieved the expected behavior and/or academic goals necessary to participate. or other removal of children with disabilities from the general education environment occur only when the nature and severity of the disability are such that education in general education classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. (National Research Council. should include: 1. Inclusion refers to a belief system that drives educational practice and is not merely an issue of a student’s educational placement (McGregor & Vogelsberg. collaborating with families to establish shared preferences for goals. Considerations for determining the least restrictive environment for an individual child. 1999. 3. (McLeskey & Waldron. learning style. More recent thinking advocates an inclusive philosophy that entails the student having a sense of belonging to the education community versus inclusion being a place or a program (i. In contrast to this perspective. clearly identifying the child’s strengths and weaknesses (student profile) to determine intensity of instructional level. instructional practices. be educated with their nondisabled peers. methods. cited in Iovannone et al. Special classes.. but on where the child’s needs may be appropriately addressed. 2. rather than expecting students to adapt to the classroom. The bottom line throughout the mainstreaming movement has been that the student will adapt and be ready to participate in the general education classroom. ensuring that students with disabilities will ‘‘fit into’’ these classes. 2003) In brief. or service is likely to meet the needs of all children identified with autism. to the maximum extent appropriate. and that the general education classroom will not change. determining appropriate supports. embedding the child’s special interests and preferences in the program methods (Hurth et al. and LRE are not synonymous.R.’’ No one program. organization. p. 2002).. mainstreaming. It is important to note that inclusion. That is. and so forth are changed to better meet the needs of the students. Schools should provide flexible placement and support options to meet students’ individual goals (Dunlap & Fox. However. based on his or her unique characteristics.e. 2003)..

C. S. Kamps. 2001. Responsible inclusive practice calls for educators and parents to reflect on the following questions: What are the educational benefits to the student in the general education classroom. R. Educating children with autism. Barbetta. Barbetta. R. McGee (Eds. Dunlap. NY: Author. Children with autism should receive instruction and support to maximize successful interaction with nondisabled peers (New York State Education Department.. D. (2003). engagement. DC: National Academy Press.. REFERENCES Dunlap. 18. with supplementary aids and services. McLeskey. D..LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT (LRE) Successful inclusion in general education settings for children with autism requires careful planning and implementation of program components to address students’ social and academics needs (Kamps. H. & Vogelsberg. (1998). 2001). VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. National Research Council. McGregor. compared with the educational benefits of a special education classroom? [or other placement options along the continuum] What will be the nonacademic or personal benefits to the student in interactions with nondisabled peers? What will be the effect on the teacher and other students in the general education classroom? How will the team define and measure the success of inclusion? (National Research Council. Washington. Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities. and family involvement for young children with autism. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. & Waldron. Tampa. 108–446 (2004). & Delquadri. G. Alexandria. Albany. DAVID R. L. New York State Education Department. materials. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. This is often referred to as a class-within-a-class. CORMIER 212 . G. 101–476 (1990). 24. 222–225.. 49–60. L. TX: Future Horizons. G. Responsible inclusive practice refers to ensuring and maximizing student success in general education classrooms by providing teachers support to meet students’ needs. G.. & Fox.. (1999). Wagner. Public Law No. Leonard. Leonard. 3. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism. Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities. & Kincaid.. (2002). 27. Such support may involve training. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. Lord & J. J. N. 179) Responsible inclusive practice does not mean providing one-to-one instruction in the back of a general education classroom without meaningful interaction with nondisabled peers. 150–165. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Inclusive schooling practices: Pedagogical and research foundations. Classwide peer tutoring: An integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote interactions among students with autism and regular education peers. students need opportunities for interaction with nondisabled peers through both informal and planned activities. (1998). and time to collaborate with colleagues. (2001). Instead.. Unpublished manuscript. Iovannone. & Delquardi. p. P. T. (2001). (1994). 1994). B. Arlington. Dunlap. Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Autism program quality indicators. Huber. P. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Inclusive schools in action: Making differences ordinary. J. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. Inclusive programming for elementary students with autism. The challenge of autism from a large systems perspective. Public Law No. Consensus. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. (2000). University of South Florida.).

With an emphasis on building routines that facilitate learning. errorless teaching. design analogies. the LEAP program incorporates a practical life skills curriculum. IL: Stoelting. classification. sequential order. Jamieson. and Strain. incidental learning. Wood Dale. and figure rotation. paper folding. LEAP RELATING TO AUTISM The underlying focus of the LEAP program is achieved through an inclusive classroom-based program that runs 3 hours daily. form completion. matching. Leiter International Performance Scale–Revised. L. G. augmentative and alternative communication. including such strategies as applied behavior analysis (ABA). each consisting of 10 subtests. picture exchange communication systems. and vocational training along with other established approaches. Lessons taught at school are also practiced at home with the help of family members. The main goal is to develop a treatment that fits the individual variables in each student’s life. teachers collect data on the IEP objectives and use data to make modifications to the teaching plans. immediate recognition. this 12-month. reverse memory. as necessary. intensive early intervention special education program is designed to serve students 5–21 years old who are diagnosed with autism or related disorders. The subtests in the VR battery are as follows: figure ground. combines several learning theories with a primary focus on social development. This realization helps them to learn social skills that will help them throughout life. Maryland (Kennedy Krieger Institute. delayed pairs. the latest version is the Leiter-Revised published in 1997 (Roid & Miller). H. visual coding. With enough data. Developmentally appropriate 213 . attention sustained. 2005). the visualization and reasoning battery (VR) and the attention and memory battery (AM).LIFE SKILLS AND EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM LEITER INTERNATIONAL PERFORMANCE SCALE The Leiter International Performance Scale is a cognitive assessment tool designed to measure an individual’s nonverbal intelligence. (1997). forward memory. picture context. The original Leiter scale was developed by Russell in 1929. discrete trial. The Leiter-R includes two batteries. delayed recognition. spatial memory. Subtests in the AM battery include associated pairs. The LEAP program. developed in 1984 by Hoyson. Administered by the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore. HYO JUNG LEE LIFE SKILLS AND EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM AND OTHER PERVASIVE BEHAVIORAL CHALLENGES (LEAP) LEAP stands for Lifeskills and Education for Students with Autism and other Pervasive Behavioral Challenges.. and attention divided. into students’ individualized education programs (IEP). This not only reinforces the lessons but allows students to see how the information applies to their everyday lives. J. REFERENCE Roid. sensory diets. & Miller. Instead of adhering to a fixed curriculum. repeated patterns. TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communications Handicapped Children). year round. programs can be altered to provide the most efficient use of resources and time and be altered as the students’ needs change during treatment.

J. teachers use the same approach in natural environments. W. (1997). daily living. J. & Osterling. Guralnick (Ed. errorless prompting is used. from http://newton. 157–172. and theme group activities. Educating Children with Autism. and then get back into the van to return to school. older students practice tasks in the real world. learning things like colors. Consistency and repetition are the keys to providing an environment that is conducive to learning. The effectiveness of early intervention (pp.kennedykrieger. (1984). Thus. & Strain.LIFE SKILLS AND EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM practice and applied behavioral analysis techniques are employed. M. vocational rehabilitation. Kennedy Krieger Institute. LEAP program (Lifeskills and Education for Students with Autism and other Pervasive Behavioral Challenges). A major goal is to increase students’ independence and help them develop functional communication. the goal of a group activity is to teach them social skills so they are able to sit next to peers at a group table and wait for their turn to participate. Individualized group instruction of normally developing and autistic-like children: The LEAP curriculum model. LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM As the children progress. FURTHER INFORMATION Dawson. and typically developing peers are used in modeling and encouraging appropriate behavior. (2001). P. (2005). 2006. 2006. Erba. Social interaction is fostered throughout the day in the classroom and on the playground. thus learning how to accomplish tasks necessary for everyday life. The methods used to attain this goal are oneon-one and group instruction carried out in a highly structured environment. (2000). 168–169). 82–94. It is this constant reinforcement that allows the child with autism to learn to fully participate in social interaction. Retrieved August 22. LEAP’s primary teaching method involves the discrete trial approach. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.).. The rest of the day includes music and art therapy.org/kki_school. and vocational skills. Nondisabled peers play a major role here by teaching students social skills and getting them to interact with others. go to the cash register. Students spend much of their day engaged in drills. G. Since children with autism prefer to work by themselves. See also augmentative and alternative communication. 8. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. With some children. LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES IN SCHOOL For younger children. Early intervention in autism. 70(1). from http:// www.. discrete trial training. pay for it. Front matter executive summary (pp. numbers. 307–326). Early intervention programs for children with autism: Conceptual frameworks for implementation. They go to stores and look for a certain item. Retrieved August 22.html. with therapist-led group learning about a specific topic like cooking. In M. H.jsp?pid=1422&bl=1. Jamieson. 214 . Journal of the Division for Early Childhood. Nondisabled students receive special training so they can help achieve a constant open environment for the students to practice initiating and responding to social conditions.edu/books/0309072697/html/168. B. REFERENCES Hoyson. The structure is necessary to maximize efforts and to provide cohesiveness not only to the subject matter but also to the teaching methods used.nap.. and parts of the body. animals.

JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT LIMBIC SYSTEM The limbic system is a set of brain structures (the list varies with the source consulted). & Hoyson. R. Retrieved August 22. Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS).com. Comprehensive evaluation of young autistic children. functional academics. professional development.. from http://depts. Autism in the classroom: What works. J. Based on the students’ needs. (2005). Retrieved August 22. schedules instruction. they use an interactive. Strain. DeVellis.cps. P. P. (1987). The limbic system is mainly involved in emotions and formation of memories. 2006. 215 . 2006). 20. BRUCE BASSITY LINDAMOOD-BELL The Lindamood-Bell learning process was cofounded by Pat Lindamood and Nanci Bell. Topics in Early Children Special Education. Schopler. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). and provide follow-up services to continue processing and development in everyday life. California and has 39 learning centers in the United States and one in London. and social competence in order to help individuals lead a healthy and productive life. hypothalamus. Life skills supports often provide instruction in personal hygiene. S. On the need for longitudinal. Shaw. 267–270. and sets up learning environments (Lindamood & Bell. F. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. (2004).. M. designs lessons. onsite consulting. leadership. from http://www. G. (The Professional Development in Autism Center).. Lindamood-Bell conducts diagnostic evaluations on students.LINDAMOOD-BELL The PDA Center at the University of Colorado at Denver (1998)..htm#Committee#Committee. communicating effectively. Early intervention for children with autism. & Daly. (2000). E. intensive social skill intervention: LEAP follow-up outcomes for children with autism as a case-in-point. R. JOUNG MIN KIM LIFE SKILLS SUPPORT Life skills support refers to an educational or vocational support program or setting targeting the psychosocial and interpersonal skills that assist individuals in the process of making informed decisions. 97–110. S. (1988). 32–33.html. Pediatrics & Child Health.washington. 1(3). and accountability. and several other nearby structures. hippocampus. from http://www.edu/ pdacent/sites/ucd. Topics in Early Children Special Education. and professional support in the areas of sensory cognitive programs. 7. which includes the amygdala. It is headquartered in San Luis Obispo. balanced approach entailing Socratic questioning and clinical teaching. and developing coping and self-management skills. It also influences the autonomic nervous system (involuntary body functions) and endocrine system (hormone secretion). 2005). 2006. K.ca/english/statements/PP/pp04-02. Strain. culinary skills. Lindamood-Bell School Services provides workshops for teachers. Neurology Now. Psychosocial Paediatrics Committee. Reichler.neurologynow. 116–122. 9(4). Retrieved August 22. learning environments.

. that must be met for typical stimuli to produce a response. or tolerance.LOCAL EDUCATION AGENCY REFERENCE Lindamood. JOUNG MIN KIM LOCAL EDUCATION AGENCY A Local Education Agency (LEA) ensures that school personnel are trained and qualified to provide educational services for students with special needs at the local public school district level. P. Individuals with low registration often appear lethargic and inattentive and may require intense sensory stimulation to gain their attention or engage them in activities. COOK LOCOMOTION Locomotion refers to the ability to walk or move in a forward motion. KELLY M. See Good Grief! LOW/POOR REGISTRATION Low registration is a neurological characteristic of individuals who have a high sensory threshold. (2005). KELLY M.com. PRESTIA LOSS AND LEARNING THEORY. N. Online Resource: http:// www. Lindamood-Bell learning process. See also sensory stimuli. PRESTIA 216 . & Bell.lblp. KATHERINE E.

and other structures. it is assumed that the student is able to show progress with the nondisabled peers in the regular educational setting.M MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technology used to create detailed images of the insides of humans or other organisms. from http://www. LACAVA MAINSTREAMING Mainstreaming is a term that is used when considering placement of a student with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a general education classroom (Zionts. Brain imaging handbook. Radiological Society of North America. This includes pictures of the brain to chart seizure damage. brain structure and anatomy. These students have the appropriate skills to progress using the same curriculum. During this time. Usually. W. mainstreaming and inclusion are two different approaches to serving students with disabilities. It has been used interchangeably with the term inclusion.htm. MR Imaging (MRI Body. Inc. brain volume. art. and physical education.radiologyinfo. D. MRI use is extremely expensive but is generally a noninvasive procedure with few known side effects. which included sharing . usually with some adaptations or modifications. New York: W. (2006). while continuing academic instruction in self-contained classrooms. Norton & Co. creating the Regular Education Initiative (REI). J. (2005). mainstreaming was implemented by including students with disabilities in nonacademic portions of the curriculum. and the outcome is of high quality. PAUL G. MRI has been used extensively over the last decade to make images of the brain. In the field of autism. The term mainstreaming was used in the late 1970s and early 1980s after the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was passed into law. 2006. amount of gray and white matter. Retrieved June 5. REI had three major goals. such as music. FURTHER INFORMATION Bremner. limiting the time with nondisabled peers. however. An MRI can take 2-D images or 3-D models. 1997). Educators and parents did not approve of the act of mainstreaming.org/content/mr_of_the_body. when an IEP team considers mainstreaming.

mainstreaming is considered as placing a student with a disability in a classroom with the expectation that the student is able to keep pace or make progress in the general education classroom. refers to an individual’s ability to use a skill at an acceptable rate for a specific amount of time following the termination of part or all of a systematic instructional procedure or intervention. Heron.). if a student learned to write numbers 1–10. (1987). A. and increasing the achievement of students with mild disabilities (Fuchs & Fuchs. F. L. Austin. Inclusion became the model for serving students with disabilities in school settings. TRAUTMAN MAINTENANCE Maintenance.. 60(4). D. it should be durable and resistant to extinction. For example. EARLES-VOLLRATH 218 . & Heward. T. (Ed. & Troutman. Upper Saddle River. If a student with ASD is mainstreamed in the regular education classroom. Now. B. Upper Saddle River. & Fuchs.. Westling. and best practices. Scheuermann. also known as generalization across time. Heflin. THERESA L. NJ: Prentice Hall. C. Mainstreaming does not have to be the entire school day. NJ: Prentice Hall. Zionts. Students with autism spectrum disorders: Effective instructional practices. L.). & Webber. J. FURTHER INFORMATION Alberto.. 294–305. & Fox. P. CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. This debate between special educators and general education leaders resulted in a new term. staff should intermittently perform maintenance checks to assess the skill and to ensure that the student can perform the skill at the same proficiency. Exceptional Children. (1997). NJ: Prentice Hall. music.MAINTENANCE responsibility of students with special needs.. Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed). L. (2007). Paul. Upper Saddle River.. physical education. (2004). experiences. Cooper. L. Belmont. (2006). S. inclusion.. Inclusion strategies for students with learning and behavioral problems: Perspectives. the IEP can be selective and choose times that the student is able to participate and show progress the same as other nondisabled peers. it is important for the regular classroom teacher and special education teacher to consult regularly on how to help create the most successful environment possible. 1994). J. O. Upper Saddle River. NJ: Prentice Hall. MELISSA L. A. E. The student with an ASD would benefit from being around appropriate social and behavioral role models. It is important to evaluate if being mainstreamed in the regular education classroom is the least restrictive environment (LRE) for the student. & Alaimo. J. TX: Pro-Ed. This may be during different academic times of the day. Teaching students with severe disabilities (3rd ed. Mainstreaming has definite benefits. (1994). REFERENCES Fuchs. D. (2002). Inclusive school movement and the radicalization of special education reform. For a skill to be maintained. L. Applied behavior analysis. D. W. including students with special needs into regular education classrooms full time. or any other time of the day. Autism: Teaching does make a difference..

a student is required to demonstrate a particular skill for many consecutive repetitions. massed practice is repeated trials of one task or skill. 1999. 1957. While there is little written material specifically addressing the subject of sexuality issues and ASDs. Feelings of shame. Skinner in his 1957 book. ‘‘Juice’’ is a mand. F. Verbal behavior. Haracopos & Pederson. relationships. deviant. COOK MAND A mand is a request. 2006). For example. B. and fear can interfere with masturbation in such a way that leads to obsessions. guilt. In it Skinner defines a mand as something that names its reinforcer and is brought about by deprivation or aversion. REFERENCE Skinner. or professionals to assume (Shore & Rastelli. Massed practice is generally one of the first steps in learning a new task or skill within more structured forms of applied behavior analysis. 1997). immorality. KATIE BASSITY MASSED PRACTICE Also referred to as mass trials in some forms of discrete trial programming. 1999). and sexuality (Lawson. 1999. therefore increasing language. most experts agree that teaching necessary information in a proactive and factual manner is the most responsible route for parents. KATIE BASSITY MASTURBATION Like their neurotypical counterparts. Verbal Behavior. and adults with ASDs (Koller. 2000. Blum and Blum (1981) cited in Hinsburger (1995) suggest the following learning objectives when teaching the topic of masturbation: ¥ Masturbation is NORMAL and HEALTHY. One natural means for satisfying some of this interest could be masturbation or exploration of our own bodies for sexual gratification (Realmuto & Ruble. Masturbation is reported in several studies to be a common occurrence among children.MASTURBATION MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR Maladaptive behavior refers to undesirable. the response is giving the child what he asks for. most people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) develop an interest in intimacy. or negative behaviors displayed over a period of time to meet a want or need in place of a more socially appropriate behavior. Realmuto & Ruble. adolescents. and Reichle & Palmer. manding is typically the first step in the development of functional language. F. Discussion about private versus public behavior becomes very important at this point because public masturbation 219 . The term mand was created and introduced by B. Shore. ¥ There are appropriate times and places to engage in masturbation. 2005. when a child wants juice he says ‘‘juice’’ and is given juice. and inappropriate public behaviors. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. manding tends to increase over time. In massed practice. As may be anticipated. 2003). caregivers. anxiety. such as discrete trial training instruction. Myths about the effects of masturbation can be very destructive (Grandma’s story about going blind is nonsense!). KATHERINE E. As long as manding is reinforced.

sexuality and the autism spectrum.. Santa Barbara. The Danish report. Sexual behavior in adults with autism. Sex. parents and professionals can find books and curricula that will help them initiate and support appropriate education regarding sexuality issues for individuals with ASD. Shawnee Mission. and sensory deficits are all well-documented challenges for individuals with ASD. To calculate the mean length 220 . & Rastelli. M. Inc. & Pederson. FURTHER INFORMATION Henault. L. Beyond the wall: Personal perspectives with autism and Asperger syndrome. W. D. 27(2) 113–125. S. 121–127. IN: Wiley Publishing. just like they would for any other person. Kempton. Sexual behaviors in autism: Problems of definition and management. Paper presented at the Melbourne World Autism Congress. Journal of Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.com. Kettering: Autism Independent UK. a genuine understanding of the issues that influence social success can provide caregivers and professionals with some of the best tools for supporting healthy development. (2000). D. Shore. & Palmer. CA: James Stanfield Company. Diverse City Press at www. D. (1995). W. Socialization and sexuality: A comprehensive guide. L. Lawson. Since nonverbal communication. 18(2). REFERENCES Haracopos. (1993). (2002). A. (2006). Journal of Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. (1999). Helleman. Asperger’s syndrome and sexuality. I. Hand made love: A guide for teaching male masturbation through understanding and video. With some effort. 29(2). SHERRY MOYER MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) is one tool used to calculate the linguistic activity or proficiency of young children’s spoken language. H. & Ruble. G. Realmuto. A. 2002). Sexuality and Disability. It is not unreasonable to suggest that the person providing the instruction should allow themselves the opportunity to examine their own social bias and values prior to taking on such a responsibility in order to avoid the potential for inadvertent subjective or judgmental messages during instruction.. C. L. There is no denying that sexuality along with drug or alcohol abuse and many other culturally defined issues can make for very awkward conversations that promote myths and misinformation. comprehensive educational programming should include very clear and open discussion of ways to help compensate for these challenges that lead to successful social or sexual experiences..diverse-city. ¥ Learning what kind of stimulation leads to pleasure goes back to the sensual nature of sexual stimulation. Hinsburger. 125– 135. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. (2005). New Market: Diverse City Press.. N.. S. Koller. (2006). As with any other population. Reichle. (2003). Sexuality and adolescents with autism. Because many individuals with autism have sensory processing deficits.MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE is illegal in most places and one of the most frequently noted inappropriate behaviors in the autistic population (Helleman and Deboutte. & Deboutte. (1999). (1997). Understanding autism for dummies. programming should include awareness of the physiological nature of sensory issues and compensatory strategies for whatever tactile sensitivities may exist. Indianapolis. Shore. Autism spectrum disorders and sexuality. perspective taking. R.

Special education mediation. Mental health counselors often counsel parents and siblings of autistic children and typically work closely with other professionals such as psychologists and psychiatrists.d. all school districts are required to make special education mediation available to parents of children with disabilities. EARLES-VOLLRATH MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR A mental health counselor is a licensed counselor that helps individuals.MENTAL RETARDATION of utterance of a child. This disability originates before the age of 18 (American Association on Mental Retardation. For example. A mediator is used to facilitate this process. 2002).vesid. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004). as well as exhibit limited functioning in the previously listed 221 . he is able to solve the same test problems as average 12-year-old children.C. et seq. the written agreement is binding. MA is expressed as the age at which that level of development is typically attained. when a child is described as having a MA of 12. § 20 U. THERESA L. In order to receive a diagnosis of mental retardation. an individual must score significantly below average on an intelligence test. Retrieved December 13. self-help. and academics. couples. and families discuss their problems for the purpose of resolving interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts. you add up the total number of words spoken by the child and divided by the number of morphemes within the spoken words. KATHERINE E. social skills.). Public Law No. 2006. TERRI COOPER SWANSON MENTAL AGE Mental age (MA) is the level of intellectual development as measured by intelligence tests. once an agreement is met. 109-446. ‘‘I see plane’’ would have a MLU of (3).gov/specialed/mediation. COOK MEDIATION Mediation is a process that helps resolve disputes between two parties.S. STEVE CHAMBERLAIN MENTAL RETARDATION Mental retardation is a broad term used to describe someone who has limits in their cognitive or thinking skills as well as difficulties with adaptive skills such as communication. from www.htm. REFERENCE Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. Special education mediation is designed to be a cooperative discussion where both parties can reach an agreement. (n. A morpheme is defined as the smallest unit of meaning within a word.nysed. For example. FURTHER INFORMATION Vocational and Education Services for Individuals with Disabilities.

(2002).gov/ncbddd/dd/mr3. Developmental Disabilities. injury. Retrieved October 30. and systems of supports (10th ed.cdc. dental fillings. However. The causes of mental retardation are extremely varied. DC: Author. 48. some. to mild. See also adaptive behavior. and fragile X syndrome. The highest rate of mental retardation was found in West Virginia. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found in 1993 that 1. or neurological abnormality. Mercury and its many forms can become very toxic to humans and other animals.MERCURY areas. March 12. or moderate.). People scoring below a 70 are said to have mental retardation. 1999. 2006. Most diseases or events that cause mental retardation cannot be prevented. 1999). In addition. Some of the bigger ones are The Arc of the United States. LYNN DUDEK MERCURY Mercury is an element that has been historically used in a number of ways including in chemical production. lead exposure and lack of prenatal care may lead to mental retardation. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Vol. Additional causes may involve asphyxia. such as fetal alcohol syndrome. 34 CFR Parts 300 and 303. existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. severe. and the Division on Developmental Disabilities. Washington. Mental retardation is the most common developmental disorder.htm. The degree to which mental retardation affects a person ranges from profound. or hydrocephalus. head injury. and electronics. Several organizations exist to support families and individuals with mental retardation. 2005). from http://www. can be prevented if no alcohol is ingested while a mother is pregnant. Once identified. REFERENCES American Association on Mental Retardation. Some of the most common causes are Down syndrome. The American Association on Mental Retardation. The condition can be caused by disease. 64. that adversely affects a child’s educational performance’’ (Federal Register. The average score on an intelligence test (IQ test) is 100. thermometers. Diseases such as cytomegalovirus and measles may also cause mental illness. Federal Register Department of Education Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities and the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities. Additionally. these babies are treated with medications and/or special diets. 2005). Mental retardation: Definition. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) defines mental retardation as ‘‘significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning. classification. Metabolic conditions may be able to be identified after birth through blood tests. Individuals with mental retardation develop and learn but at a much slower rate than typically developing peers. while the lowest rate was found in Alaska. Mental Retardation (October 29. stroke. Research has lead to the phasing out of mercury thermometers as well as increased emphasis on environmental 222 . Friday. No. prompt treatment for jaundice can prevent a specific type of brain damage that can occur if the bilirubin is allowed to reach too high of a level. metabolic conditions (phenylketonuria).5 million children and adults in the United States had mental retardation (Mental Retardation. Final Regulations.

1988). Walsh of the Pfeiffer Treatment Center suggested a potential link between metallothionein disorders and autism. 2002. Metallothionein also carries zinc ions (as signals) from one part of the cell to another. transport. Many studies have shown that milieu teaching is the effective way to teach language. Koegel. increased research was conducted to explore the effects of ethyl mercury contained in the vaccine preservative thimerosal for a possible connection to an increase in the prevalence of autism. LACAVA METALLOTHIONEIN Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that participate in the uptake. (2005). & Dunlap. According to Paul and Sutherland (2005). FAQs about MMR vaccine and autism. William J. (c) preferred toys and activities are included 223 . where zinc signaling is prominent both between and within nerve cells. J. In a 2001 presentation to the American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved March 30. Presented at the American Psychiatric Association annual meeting.cdc. This system is particularly important in the brain. Martin’s Press. Kirby. J. (Executive Producer). the controversy has not been settled. (b) activities take place as part of the daily routine rather than only at ‘‘therapy time’’. (May 2001). and abnormal behaviors. Hancock & Kaiser. it can be picked up by thionein (becoming metallothionein) and carried to another part of the cell where it is released to another organelle or protein. New Orleans.MILIEU TEACHING safety. O’Dell. FURTHER INFORMATION Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. By binding and releasing zinc. When zinc enters a cell. He concluded that ‘‘Many classic symptoms of autism may be explained by a MT defect in infancy including [gastrointestinal] tract problems. (2004). 2002). National Broadcasting Company. REFERENCE Walsh. and regulation of zinc in a biological system. 2005. metallothioneins regulate its level within the body. Koegel. especially for children with autism spectrum disorders (Goldstein. & Tarpey. New York: National Broadcasting Company. & Surratt. W. 2002. heightened sensitivity to toxic metals. PAUL G.. Dr. See also vaccinations (thimerosal). D. Evidence of harm: Mercury in vaccines and the autism epidemic: A medical controversy. 2001).gov/nip/vacsafe/ concerns/autism/autism-mmr. although no conclusive evidence has been revealed that shows causality between thimerosal and increased autism rates. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT MILIEU TEACHING Milieu teaching is a naturalistic approach to teaching language in a child’s environment (Goldstein. 2005). Koegel. htm. New York: St. milieu teaching includes the following components: (a) teaching and training occur in the child’s everyday environment rather than in a ‘‘therapy room’’. from http://www. (February 23. 1992. From the 1990s to the publication of this volume. The Today Show [Television Broadcast]. These data suggest that an inborn error of MT functioning may be a fundamental cause of autism’’ (Walsh and Tarpey. Disordered metal metabolism in a large autism population. At this writing.

when the teacher observes the child’s interest. Teachers can plan expected learning for children based on their interests or desires. If the child produces the target initiation. because of the high motivation inherent in requesting desired items that presumably function as reinforcers (Goldstein. & Surratt. Enhancing early language in children with autism spectrum disorders. Cohen (Eds.. T. Paul. the teacher may ask the child what he or she wants. R. (2005). 18. (d) adults encourage spontaneous communication by refraining from prompting and using ‘‘expectant waiting’’ such as facial expression or eye gaze. teachers can promote child engagement with activities and communication (Ostrosky & Kaiser. if the child reaches or touches the provided pictures or objects without being prompted. Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. Even though milieu teaching is generally used to teach requesting. Paul & Sutherland. the teacher can place the toy in sight but out of reach in the playroom. L. Teaching Exceptional Children. By carefully arranging the environment. Producing speech use in nonverbal autistic children by reinforcing attempts. R. A. adults wait for a certain length of time for the child to respond appropriately. Klin. and (g) expanded child responses are rewarded with access to a desired object or activity. 2002). C. 23. Inc. Preschool classroom environments that promote communication. G. M. the teacher gives him the preferred object and allows him to play with it for a certain time. M. Communication intervention for children with autism: A review of treatment efficacy. R. K. & D. & Kaiser. 22. A. 2005). Hancock. (1992). (1991). (1988). H. Hoboken. For example.. & Kaiser. 2002. For instance. M. (2002). D. she gets the target object. 22. Time delay or prompt-free approaches are also examples of milieu teaching methods (Goldstein. Paul. if the child always wants to have a specific toy in the playroom. Using time delay. In F. the teacher utters a request such as ‘‘What is this?’’ or ‘‘Do you want this?’’ If the child shows the target response.. 6–10. & Sutherland. Teachers and parents can use ‘‘teachable moments’’ in the daily routine as well as in planned situations. The teacher may gaze at the child or use facial expressions to prompt the child’s initiation to get the toy.. it can also be a helpful way to maintain and generalize new behaviors in the child’s natural environment. 141– 153. REFERENCES Goldstein. Koegel.. Ostrosky. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. (e) the child initiates the teaching situation by gesturing or indicating interest in a desired object or activity. Language intervention and disruptive behavior in preschool children with autism. the teacher meets the child’s need. The mand model also uses natural situations based on the child’s desire. (2002). Koegel.. (f) teachers provide prompts and cues for expanding the child’s initiation.MILIEU TEACHING in the environment so that participation in activities is self-reinforcing. HYO JUNG LEE 224 . The teacher then waits for the child to initiate his need to have the toy. Koegel.). L. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. With a prompt-free approach. The effects of trainer-implemented enhanced milieu teaching on the social communication of children with autism. If the child does not initiate. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39–54. 946–976). R. 32. A. Incidental teaching is one of the most common types of milieu teaching. Volkmar. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 525–538. A. R. 373–396. P. P. O’Dell. & Dunlap. 1991).. L.

’’ International Review of Psychiatry. Sensitivity of the M-CHAT is reported to be good. Research identified six critical items. REFERENCE Baron-Cohen. D. and children failing any three total items or any two of the six critical items are recommended to undergo further investigation. and according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IVTR. 31. 2000). The four types of bipolar disorders include: (a) bipolar I disorder. facial expression. L. J.. Mood disorders are common mental illnesses. 2001) is an American modified version of the original UK CHAT. Barton. APA. (b) dysthymic disorder. SCOTT MOOD DISORDERS Every year 44 million people are afflicted with mental illness (United States Department of Health and Human Services–Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration [USDHH-SAMHA]. 2. or voice tone to understand social situations. (2001). S. 2000). 2006). they are divided into four categories: (a) depressive disorders. (c) cyclothymic disorder.. (b) bipolar II disorder. Understanding others’ minds is one of the key factors in social interaction because most people use nonverbal information such as gestures. (1990). BaronCohen developed the term in order to describe a major characteristic of autism (1990). According to the APA (2000). and (c) depressive disorder not otherwise specified. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Substance-induced mood disorders are characterized by drug abuse or exposure to a toxin. & Green. based on children being diagnosed after age 2 years with autism who had failed the M-CHAT screen. A. 225 . Fein. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Fein. HYO JUNG LEE MODIFIED CHECKLIST FOR AUTISM IN TODDLERS (M-CHAT) The M-CHAT (Robins. 2000). Barton. Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders are the most common types of mood disorders (USDHH-SAMHA. (c) mood disorders due to a general medical condition. there are three types of depressive disorders: (a) major depressive disorder. Mood disorders due to a general medical condition are characterized challenges with depression due to physiological difficulties due to a general medical condition. L. & Green. 2006). The M-CHAT is a 23-item parent-report checklist (yes/no responses) designed to screen children ages 16 to 30 months old for possible autism. Mindblindness is a common characteristic of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. and (d) substance-induced mood disorders (APA. 131–144. FIONA J. (b) bipolar disorders. Autism: A specific cognitive disorder of ‘‘mind-blindness.MOOD DISORDERS MINDBLINDNESS Mindblindness refers to an inability to read or be aware of others’ minds. 79–88. M. D. and (d) bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (APA. REFERENCE Robins. Researchers suggest that rescreening after the initial M-CHAT with a second M-CHAT can help rule out those who have developed skills after the original screen..

attention. mood swings. escape/ avoidance. text rev. see the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA. It consists of 39 items disseminated across four 226 . TERRI COOPER SWANSON MOOD STABILIZING MEDICATIONS Mood stabilizing medications are used to control extreme behaviors. 2006. V. and mania. 2006) is a diagnostic tool. (2000). Treatment may be short. 18. teachers. For additional information on the specific diagnostic features of mood disorders. The MAS should be used with other tools to determine the function of and a replacement behavior(s) for a challenging behavior. 99–117. (2006).or long-term depending upon the type of mood disorder and the length of time it has occurred.MOOD STABILIZING MEDICATIONS Mood disorders can be treated. Retrieved December 1. D. Types of treatment may include medication and psychotherapies. 1988) is an indirect assessment designed to assess the function of a challenging behavior. Washington. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT MOTOR IMITATION Motor imitation is the ability to replicate a motor movement or group of movements from a model or demonstration. United States Department of Health and Human Services–Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. Pierangelo & Giuliani. and tangible. antipsychotic medications. and lithium. ages 8 to 19.. depression. M. BRUCE BASSITY MOTIVATION ASSESSMENT SCALE The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS. which assesses the key features of anxiety problems in children and adolescents. carbamazepine (Tegretol). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Various types of medications are used such as antidepressants. from http://mentalhealth. & Crimmins. or others with knowledge of the challenging behavior answer the 16 questions on the MAS by assessing frequency from 0 (never) to 6 (always) and are directly correlated to one of four behavioral functions: self-stimulation. and individuals affected by them can lead productive lives..gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-0049/default. and anticonvulsants such as valproic acid (Depakote).). KELLY M. REFERENCE Durand. DC: Author. Family members. which cause disruption in functioning. See also antidepressant medications. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. 2000). (1988). some antipsychotics. Durand & Crimmins. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. PRESTIA MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANXIETY SCALE FOR CHILDREN (MASC) The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC. case managers. B. Identifying the variables maintaining self-injurious behavior. Mood disorders.samhsa.asp.

Music therapy may take place in a variety of settings including homes. and implementation. and is considered a related service under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004). occupational therapy. The MASC is commonly used in schools. (2006). and Separation/ Panic. Subscales include Somatic Symptoms and Tense Symptoms. and private practices. KATHERINE E. and school health services. physical therapy. residential treatment centers. Perfectionism and Anxious Coping. juvenile detention centers. When designing interventions. community programs. outpatient clinics. writing. and day-to-day living. AMY BIXLER COFFIN MULTIDISCIPLINARY EVALUATION (MDE) A multidisciplinary evaluation (MDE) is a comprehensive evaluation conducted by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) consisting of professionals from various disciplines such as special education. child protective services.. REFERENCE Pierangelo. letter identification. or schools. speech therapy. For example. & Giuliani. is a school setting they will be part of the child’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) team. program planning. EARLES-VOLLRATH MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM When providing services to students with disabilities. speech-language pathology. G. and more. See also speech-language pathologist. and Humiliation Fears and Performance Fears. New York: Wiley. The purpose of the MDE is to determine eligibility for special education. Academic skills can be addressed through structured music drills for math facts. music therapists consult with other professionals to determine and construct a treatment plan that will serve the individual’s needs in a proactive manner. The special educator’s comprehensive guide to 301 diagnostic tests. Social Anxiety. establish current levels of performance. 227 . general education) that generally work independently of each other work together during assessment.. occupational therapy. and assist in developing appropriate programming. R. Reading comprehension can be addressed over time with musically assisted attention development and the expansion necessary for making inferences in reading. special education. THERESA L. Harm Avoidance. COOK MUSIC THERAPY The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) defines music therapy as ‘‘the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program’’ (2006). The nonthreatening environment afforded by the music therapy session often enables individuals and often results in improved outcomes.e. professionals from different disciplines (i. and that team will determine and construct the treatment plan together.MUSIC THERAPY basic scales: Physical Symptoms.

228 . Models of treatment and documentation vary based on the professional training of the music therapist. and asking a peer to play.’’ Other behaviors are the function of situational problem solving. a music therapist may use familiar songs or repetitive melodies with original lyrics. The music therapist extends these activities to expand vocabulary for use in receptive and expressive language. necessary vocabulary and concepts can be taught through the use of repetitive melodies and lyrics paired with visuals if necessary and rehearsal and reinforcement across contexts. § 20 U. the music therapist will begin by working with the individual’s team to identify the function of the behavior. as well as an opportunity to be successful. and the individual needs of the client. An example of this might be a student’s inability to understand the concept of ‘‘wait’’ or ‘‘don’t interrupt. as well as developing language use in a social context. Public Law No. (2004).musictherapy. Utilizing intermittent breaks in the lyrics while keeping the rhythm steady provides opportunities for the individual to predict and often produce a response. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. Music exists naturally over time and space and serves as an excellent medium for experiencing and teaching such an abstract concept as ‘‘wait. treatment planning. Playing instruments that require two or more pieces to produce a sound are also used to rehearse problem solving skills. Sensory Needs Sensory needs can also be addressed through music therapy. The music therapist may construct peer groups to practice socialization in a true social context while using instrument play. documentation. a music therapist may do some of the following activities. REFERENCES American Music Therapy Association (2006). Music therapists may provide a variety of interventions suited to the individual that may range from psychoacoustical therapies (special training required) to scheduled music listening times. Socialization When working to develop. Autism spectrum disorders: Music therapy research and evidence based practice support. 2006. increase. attention. awareness of others and self. and termination. the setting the music therapist is working in. In the event that the function is communication. The music therapist is held to national Standards of Practice (AMTA. No standardized music therapy assessment currently exists for individuals with autism. In this example we also introduce the concept of time over space. Musically adapted Social Stories and social scripts are one way to address preparing individuals for transitions. a music therapist may utilize rhythm to provide structure and melody to organize information by setting Social Stories or social scripts to music. org/factsheets/MT%20Autism%202006.MUSIC THERAPY When working with individuals with autism. 109-446. evaluation.S. Retrieved November 20. Structured and unstructured instrument play allows the music therapist to embed opportunities for turn taking. and/or improve socialization.C. The music may be original or familiar depending on the individual’s needs. 2006) for assessment. changes in schedule. verbal and nonverbal communication of needs and wants.’’ The music therapist can compose a simple and repetitive song paired with actions that aid the individual to learn the basic behaviors of ‘‘waiting’’ that function across settings such as keeping hands in lap and/or lips together with the voice turned off. from www. Behaviors When working to address specific behaviors. Communication When working to increase and build communication.pdf. asking for help.

I. 41(2). L. Journal of Music Therapy. International Journal of Circumpolar Health.. (2005). Thaut. 2006. Whipple. & Steele. (n. FURTHER INFORMATION Vocational and Education Services for Individuals with Disabilities. 42(1). Kielinen. H. 69–79. A. MELANIE D... Special education mediation. S. Music in intervention for children and adolescents with autism: A metaanalysis. (2002). Rhythm. HARMS MUTUALLY ACCEPTABLE WRITTEN AGREEMENT A mutually acceptable written agreement is a binding document that is the result of mediation.org. and the brain: Scientific foundations and clinical applications. R. 2). S. from www. Retrieved December 13.). 61(Suppl. L. An analysis of music therapy program goals and outcomes for clients with diagnoses on the autism spectrum.nysed.gov/specialed/mediation. Some aspects of treatment and habilitation of children and adolescents with autistic disorder in Northern-Finland.d. (2004). New York: Taylor and Francis Group. M. Linna.musictherapy. Kaplan.vesid. 90–106. 2–19.MUTUALLY ACCEPTABLE WRITTEN AGREEMENT FURTHER INFORMATION American Music Therapy Association: www. LLC. TERRI COOPER SWANSON 229 . & Moilanen. Journal of Music Therapy. J.htm. music. (2005). M.


17. In R. 1995). 67–77). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. NLP represented a shift from pull-out procedures using drill procedures and imitation to more naturalistic procedures for language intervention. also referred to as EEG biofeedback.N NATURAL LANGUAGE PARADIGM The natural language paradigm (NLP) is an intervention procedure that approximates the manner in which typically developing children acquire language (Koegel. K. R. R. 187–199. 1987). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. (1995). & Koegel. & Koegel... L. O’Dell. & Parks. 2006). age appropriate. varied every few trials. Koegel. Pivotal response treatments for autism.. except for self-stimulation (Koegel. Both teacher and child play with the stimulus item (the item is functional within the interaction). R. K. Pivotal response training has emerged from NLP (Koegel & Koegel. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co.. C. L. The purpose of the training is to increase awareness and allow the brain to . L. & Parks. Koegel & L. Like traditional biofeedback. Koegel. D. R. and found in the child’s natural environment. is a form of biofeedback. (1987). NLP is built upon arranging the environment to increase a child’s opportunities to use language.. L. K. Children are encouraged to initiate the interaction as stimulus items are chosen by the child. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT NEUROFEEDBACK Neurofeedback. In the case of neurofeedback. & Koegel. L. Operant conditioning waits for a behavior to occur and then consequates the behavior. O’Dell. REFERENCES Koegel. L. M. the individual learns to impact his or her states of arousal through operant conditioning through feedback of brainwave activity. A loose-shaping contingency is used to reinforce attempts to respond verbally. (2006). L.). Teaching children with autism: Strategies for initiating positive interactions and improving learning opportunities (pp. Koegel (Eds. Koegel. neurofeedback increases awareness of a bodily state and increases control over that state. It uses the principles of biofeedback to create a learning opportunity through operant conditioning. Koegel. A natural language paradigm for teaching nonverbal autistic children. K. ‘‘Teach the individual’’ model of generalization: Autonomy through self-management.

At a resting or daydreaming state.5 to 3 cycles per second (cps). 8–15. When they bring their brain waves within a set cycle per second.05–3 cps) to meet task demands of a learning task within a classroom. J. Journal of Applied Health Behaviour. Through this game the individual’s brain undergoes a ‘‘mental workout. (2000). Jarusiewicz. (2001). A typical session includes the following steps. C. & Sharpley. then they are reinforced and the game progresses. Development and testing of the effects of supports on the well-being of parents of children with autism—II: Specific stress management techniques. the majority of the brain is emitting brainwaves with the frequency range of 8 to 11 cps. J. and these are called alpha waves. 232 . San Diego: Academic Press. Arousal is the state of awareness from internally focused to our own thoughts and feelings to external focus within the environment.’’ This requirement to shift their focus from either more internal to external or vice versa is the exercise. 2(1). The individual will have electrodes placed on their scalp with a sticky paste. This. Through this ‘‘brain workout’’ the individual learns to better attend to the internal and external environment. produces a brain that adapts to the environmental task demands. A symphony in the brain. An example of alpha wave activity is when you have been driving for some time and look up and realize you have been daydreaming and do not remember passing through some traffic. Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: A pilot study. During sleep the majority of the brain is emitting delta waves. When we are very internally focused we emit brain waves that are large in amplitude and slow in frequency. and are measured at 16 to 20 cps. Then the individual will watch a video game. B. A trained. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. The theory is that some neurological-based disorders are impacted arousal states that are predominant or do not meet the internal or external environmental task demand. from http://www. for example. 39–49. (2002). V. eegspectrum. 6(4). The lower brain waves are called delta waves. This game is actually a visual and auditory feedback system of their own brainwave activity. (2000). in turn. The benefits of the training are largely individual and can impact several neurological symptoms. Journal of Neurotherapy. the individual is clinically assessed and a training program is established. Retrieved June 1. & Abarbanel. The sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is a state of calm that is often associated with external awareness yet quietly alert. (1999).com. certified clinical professional will design an individual training program depending on their neurological profile. analytic.. they could range from 8 to 20 cps. when they produce brainwave activity outside the set parameters the game stops or does not progress. A. A healthy nervous system will effortlessly shift from internal states such as sleep (0. R. The function states of arousal are to tune ourselves into internal and external demands within our environment. Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback. Evans. The materials necessary for neurofeedback are an EEG and a specially designed computer program. FURTHER INFORMATION Bitsika. Robbins. EEG Spectrum International. Delta waves range from 0. First. In many of the games. often externally oriented and intense thinking. And finally.NEUROFEEDBACK practice shifting states of arousal.. the so-called thinker waves or beta are characterized as focused. The hypothesized reason that there are such varied results is the nature of the brain functioning. 2005.

Such disorders include epilepsy. Sichel. A. and spinal cord disorders. As in neurology. 60–64. D. M. & Goldstein. or teaching.. BRUCE BASSITY NEUROLOGIST A neurologist is a medical doctor who treats patients with neurological disorders. F. (1995). More is being learned about structural differences in the brains of persons with what had previously been considered ‘‘behavioral’’ disorders. clinical diagnosis and treatment. PET. peripheral. SPECT. cerebral palsy. This is an expanding and experimental area with much current research into developmental and degenerative disorders. sleep disorders.. multiple sclerosis. such as lead (in paint.NEUROTOXIC Schwarts. New York: Guilford Press. Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide. which are disorders that affect the central. and are mostly trained to work with adults. these specialists may work in research. BRUCE BASSITY NEUROTOXIC Neurotoxic is a term referring to toxicity or harm against the nervous system. STEVE CHAMBERLAIN NEUROLOGY Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the nervous system. G. Positive outcome with neurofeedback treatment in a case of mild autism. migraine headaches. and CAT scans to evaluate and monitor development and/or alterations in brain anatomy and function. & Androasik. Journal of Neurotherapy. Fehmel. 1(1). traumatic brain injuries. generally an impulse transmitted from the nervous system to the musculoskeletal system. Many chemicals that were previously thought harmless. L. plumbing). BRUCE BASSITY 233 . STEPHANIE NICKELSON NEUROIMAGING Neuroimaging is the use of MRI. (2003).. tic disorders. and autonomic nervous systems. Pediatric neurology is a subspecialty of pediatric medicine. G. this discipline seeks to understand the relationship between the structure and function of the brain on psychological processes and behavior. are now known to cause damage to the brain and nervous system. BRUCE BASSITY NEUROMOTOR Neuromotor is a term relating to the connection between nerves and muscles. M. Neurologists are specialized physicians trained to diagnose and treat these disorders. BRUCE BASSITY NEUROPSYCHOLOGY A combination of neurology and psychology.

(b) exceptional rote memory skills. For a list of newsletters. Strengths include: (a) early speech and vocabulary development. and schools.S. the instructor may then shift to a no-no-prompt schedule of prompting whenever the task is presented in the future.jhtml. the instructor says. Newsletters provide information relevant to a specific geographic region. and offer other program changes that best suit state and school needs. dopamine. serotonin. (d) early reading skills. (c) attention to detail. If the student responds incorrectly. make reading a priority. please see Appendix A. which are sometimes referred to as chemical messengers. can be related to various psychiatric and cognitive disorders. meaning immediately after giving the directive the instructor prompts the student so that he responds correctly. Retrieved November 30. Once a designated level of acquisition is achieved.NEUROTRANSMITTER NEUROTRANSMITTER A neurotransmitter is a substance (such as acetylcholine.’’ The third trial is then prompted. offer greater flexibility for states. school districts. Dysfunction of brain neurotransmitters. ‘‘No. MELANIE D. give more choices to parents and students. 234 . (f) strong auditory retention. (e) excellent spelling skills. Bush proposed a framework based on bipartisan education reform that became the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Department of Education. (n. This form of error correction is used after an initial teaching period during which other forms of prompting may and should be used. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT 2001 (PL 107-110) President George W. HARMS NO-NO PROMPT PROCEDURES A no-no prompt procedure is a form of error correction. norepinephrine) that is released from the axon terminal (outgoing end) of a neuron or nerve cell. Deficits include: (a) motor delays such as poor coordination. The procedure is as follows. 2006.).’’ The same directive is given a second time. No Child Left Behind.gov/nclb/landing. from www. the instructor again simply responds. BRUCE BASSITY NEWSLETTER Newsletters discuss general information related to autism spectrum disorders in a user-friendly format. REFERENCE U. The NCLB Act aims to increase accountability. ‘‘No.ed. If the student responds incorrectly. and (g) articulate verbal skills. travels across the gap to the receptor end of anther nerve cell to either inhibit or excite that next cell.d. A directive or discriminative stimulus (Sd) is given. KATIE BASSITY NONVERBAL LEARNING DISABILITY A nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological syndrome that includes both specific strengths and precise deficits.

Kugel & W. social judgments. Normalization: The principle of normalization in human services. (1995).e. Children with Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning disability may present similarly in several areas of strength and deficit. Thompson. New York: Grune & Stratton. LYNN DUDEK NORMALIZATION The concept of normalization was first introduced by Nirjie in the 1960s and popularized by Wolfensberger in the 1970s.. (1967). Specific causes of nonverbal learning disorders are not known.nldline. Normalization involves the acceptance of individuals with disabilities. The children with nonverbal learning disorders appear to not exhibit the restricted interests or special skills that would meet the criteria for a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Retrieved October 30. and handwriting skills.. (c) congenital absence of a corpus callosum. Diagnosis is made using a neurological profile that has been defined in the literature. B. A genetic or familial link has yet to be identified as has been in language-based learning disorders (i. According to Wolfensberger (1972).). Wolfensberger (Eds.NORMALIZATION balance. Rourke (1995) further defined nonverbal learning disorders as having primary. and (d) sensory issues such as disorders or dysfunctions in any of the sensory modes. (b) repeated radiation treatments on or near their heads for an extended amount of time.). 1996). (d) hydrocephalus. transitions. Developmental histories revealed several children suffering from NLD have had one of the following: (a) moderate to severe head injury. Inclusion is based on the concept of normalization. H. or (e) brain tissue removed from the right hemisphere (Thompson. secondary. or forcing them to conform to societal norms. The normalization principle and its human management implications. REFERENCES Nirje. Rourke. W. New York: The Guilford Press. nonverbal learning disability has not been recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. offering them the same living and learning experiences as those available to individuals without disabilities. 235 . S. Learning disabilities: Educational principles and practices. & Myklebust. the concept of normalization does not refer to making individuals ‘‘normal. Washington. 2006. Changing patterns in residential services for the mentally retarded (pp. In R. At this time. (c) social difficulties such as nonverbal communication.’’ or to making them behave in a certain manner. (1969). normalization aims to ensure that individuals with disabilities have the opportunities to live a normal rhythm of life. from http://www. D. Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations. Nonverbal learning disorders. (b) visual-spatial-organizational weaknesses. Rather. dyslexia). (1972). Wolfensberger. Brain scans of individuals with NLD have revealed mild abnormalities of the right cerebral hemisphere. (Ed. REFERENCES Johnson. and tertiary deficits that result in socioemotional or adaptational deficits. B. DC: President’s Committee on Mental Retardation.com/. NLDline. Johnson and Myklebust (1967) were the first to describe a definition of nonverbal learning disorder in which children have specific difficulties with social awareness. 179–195). Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation. (1996).

M. (2007). coenzyme Q10 (antioxidant). given in combination with magnesium. Varied amounts of research have been done on supplements for persons with autism spectrum disorders. (2006). vitamin A (retinol) and beta carotene. COOK NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS Nutritional supplements are intended to supply nutrients that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a person’s diet. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. local. (2002). (2004). The comparison can occur at the classroom. Colorado Springs. B2 (riboflavin). Needham Heights. magnesium.. & Fox. EARLES-VOLLRATH NOTICE OF RECOMMENDED EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENT (NOREP) Notice of Recommended Educational Placement is a procedural notice provided to all Individualized Education Program (IEP) members that identifies the multiple placements considered and the chosen educational placement. Nutritional supplementation should be undertaken only with the assistance and supervision of a physician with a strong background in autism. L. most promising body of evidence comes from studies focusing on B vitamins. Teaching students with severe disabilities (3rd ed. For other nutrients.). Upper Saddle River.. Natural medicine guide to autism. Biological treatments for autism and PDD. B5 (pantothentic acid).NORM-REFERENCED ASSESSMENT FURTHER INFORMATION Westling. THERESA L. Assessment: In special and inclusive education (10th ed. B3 (niacin). selenium. Appropriate dosing presents a key problem with regard to the empirical study of supplements. the data are not robust. KATHERINE E. and nutritional treatments. THERESA L. and folic acid. nutritional analysis. (2000). FURTHER INFORMATION Salvia. Marhon. Nutritional supplements as treatment options for autism include. but are not limited to. Taylor. and dimethylglycine (DMG).). (2002). Shaw. D. MYRNA J. MA: Allyn and Bacon. W. and zinc (minerals). Facing autism. L. L. Lenexa. L. R. B6 (pyridoxine). Assessment of exceptional students: Educational and psychological procedures (7th ed. NJ: Prentice Hall. & Ysseldyke.). FURTHER INFORMATION Hamilton. S. or national level. VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Co. J. vitamin E (alpha tocopherol). EARLES-VOLLRATH NORM-REFERENCED ASSESSMENT A norm-referenced assessment compares an individual student’s performance to persons of the same age and/or grade level (norming group). This assessment measures how much one knows in comparison to others. ROCK 236 . J. E. The notice of recommended educational placement must provide a written statement why placement was chosen and why alternative educational placements were not appropriate for the individual student. KS: Sunflower Publishing. CO: Waterbook Press. The largest. especially B6. vitamin C (ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate). vitamins B1 (thiamin). Charlottesville.

not in their ability to look for similarities. Oxford. The word occupation in occupational therapy refers to the activities.O OBJECT INTEGRATION TEST An object integration test involves sets of line drawings depicting objects and people intended to be either visually integrated to make the most coherent scene or compared for similarities. (1989). Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in their ability to integrate objects. U. Objectives are written in observable and measurable terms to ensure consistency among staff and to provide for precise evaluation of progress. EARLES-VOLLRATH OBJECT SORTING TEST An object sorting test is a test of cognitive functioning designed to assess abilities at category development. REFERENCE Frith. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST An occupational therapist (OT) is a health professional with a bachelor’s or master’s degree from an accredited university who has passed the national occupational therapy certification exam. UK: Blackwell. This test provides support for Frith’s (1989) central coherence hypothesis. THERESA L. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT OBJECTIVE An objective is a stated and desired outcome of intervention based on a derived set of educational goals and individual needs. roles. Central coherence has been defined as the natural built-in propensity to process incoming stimuli globally and in context. and goal-oriented behaviors of individuals from birth to old age in . pulling information together to acquire higher-level meaning. Autism: Explaining the enigma. As the name implies. the test consists of sorting objects by specified categories.

and sensory processing. occupational therapy is provided as a related service to other special education services. In a hospital. all of which are necessary components of using a fork appropriately. psychology. In a school setting. When providing direct service. the OT analyzes the skill to be worked on. the environment) need to be made to continue his success or improve his overall independence.. An OT assessment may include an evaluation of a child’s fine and gross motor skills. community mental health center.g. in the community. standardized testing. a child with ASD might receive OT consultation services to monitor his computer and 238 . planning. hand-eye coordination. Consultation involves observation. sensory processing. and contact with the child. KELLY M. in the child’s own home. An OT may complete a task analysis of the activity or situation in which the child with an autism spectrum disorder is having difficulty to determine a step-by-step intervention to improve a skill. improve. such as using a fork. For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The OT may use formal. Occupational therapists have a background in neurology. and any staff that may work with the child on a regular basis to determine if adjustments in his program must be made. the OT works directly with the child with ASD to remediate. and may not be provided as the only service for the child. PRESTIA OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY Occupational therapy (OT) is a health profession that provides purposeful activities and interventions to individuals of all ages who need to regain the skills necessary to participate fully in their life roles. or other related organizations in which individuals require the assistance of a skilled professional to remediate. hospital. the OT must first determine why he is unable to perform this skill. occupational therapy services may not be provided without a written order from the child’s physician. or visual perception. or in-home setting. For example. The purpose of consultation is to monitor the child’s performance on a regular basis to determine if changes (e. engaging in sports and other extra-curricular activities. It may be due to poor strength. Consultation OT service is appropriate when the child is able to maintain learned skills and apply them to everyday situations. OT services can be provided in two ways: (a) as a direct service. interventions are individually tailored to address the skill deficit. to develop a step-by-step program for that particular skill development. or in the school. for a student who is unable to button his own shirt. Based upon the analysis. finger painting on a window for eye-hand coordination. as well as the student’s strengths and needs. Prior to working with the child. and taking care of their own personal needs. those life roles may include going to school. or maintain a specific skill. his family. an OT may use clay for finger and hand strengthening.OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY their daily lives. socializing with peers. and tossing and catching weighted beanbags for body awareness. For example. community. daily-living skills. An OT may work in a school. skilled nursing facility. OT services for a child with ASD may take place in a hospital or private practice. child development. For example. playing. or prevent a disability from interfering in their daily lives. and/or informal screenings and observations to determine the cause of the child’s difficulty. or (b) as a consultation service. being an active member of their family and community. adapt. or vision. in daily routine.

if the student is distracted and not able to stay on task while on the computer. developed by Barry Neil Kaufman and Samahria Lyle Kaufman for their son Raun. and is able to stay on task. (1991). and teacher to ensure that he is completing necessary work. Heron. & Heward. The probability of a behavior occurring again is increased if it is reinforced or rewarded. NJ: SLACK Inc. E. the Kaufmans created a treatment program that used the home environment as the place to nurture the growth of their son in a caring and respectful way. O. an OT can help the individual with ASD experience success in a variety of situations and environments. play-based interventions to build rapport and connect with the child. KELLY M. 239 . Operant conditioning relies upon a behavioral framework that includes an antecedent stimulus that precedes a behavior. Occupational therapy can provide valuable services and resources to students and their families to help the individual with ASD perform at his or her optimal level. The Kaufmans believe that autism is a relational and interactive neurological disorder. or directly intervening to gain or improve a skill. making necessary modifications.. PRESTIA OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant conditioning is a behavioral paradigm that states that the consequences of a behavior affect the future occurrences of that behavior. Heron. When a child displays self-regulatory or so-called ‘‘stimming’’ behaviors. W. When the rate of the behavior is changed due to the consequences.a). ANDREA HOPF AND TARA MIHOK OPTIONS (SON-RISE PROGRAM) The Son-Rise Program. or ritualistic or perseverative behaviors. Occupational therapy: Overcoming human performance deficits. By understanding the student’s strengths and needs. n. 1987). For instance. T. FURTHER INFORMATION Christiansen. and a consequence contingent upon the behavior. The idea is that by participating in the child’s activity or behaviors rather than teaching through drills or repetition.. The behavior is less likely to occur again if the consequence is unpleasant or aversive. is a specific and comprehensive program based on joining in a child’s behavior to discover his or her own motivation (Autism Treatment Center of America.OPTIONS (SON-RISE PROGRAM) keyboarding skills in the classroom as an alternative to handwriting his work. Modifications may be necessary to address specific problems. (1987). REFERENCE Cooper. parents. the Son-Rise Program intervenes in enthusiastic. eye contact and other socialization skills will increase. a behavior. is independent in using the computer. L. & Heward. The OT may check in weekly with the student. C. Applied behavior analysis. The principles of operant conditioning have been used to increase or decrease existing behaviors or teach new behaviors through the manipulation of consequences. then the behavior is considered to be an operant (Cooper.. Raun Kaufman was diagnosed as being severely autistic. & Baum. Instead of institutionalizing their son. the OT may provide headphones and a study carrel to minimize distractions. Thorofare. NJ: Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. J. C.d.

The Son-Rise Program is designed to be a one-on-one. which includes extensive work with children of varying ages and diagnoses. classroom education.a).d. n. communication. Utilizing a child’s own motivation advances learning and builds the foundation for education and skill acquisition. distraction-free work/play area facilitates the optimal environment for learning and growth. 5. REFERENCES Autism Treatment Center of America. Their program involves empowering parents with tools to create the attitudinal changes needed to teach a child with autistic spectrum and other developmental disorders. Massachusetts. attention. History of the Son-Rise Program? Retrieved November 13. Employing a nonjudgmental and optimistic attitude maximizes the child’s enjoyment.c) The Son-Rise Program can be used in conjunction with other therapies. and physical therapy. among others. self-help.autismtreatmentcenter. from http://www. sociology. treatments.b). excitement. social development. education. Joining in a child’s repetitive and ritualistic behaviors supplies the key to unlocking the mystery of these behaviors and facilitates eye contact. and the inclusion of others in play. 2006. The staff at the Option Institute must complete ‘‘a rigorous and comprehensive educational curriculum . from http://www. 240 . n. 7. sensory integration. all child facilitators and teachers are certified by the Son-Rise Program professional certification programs.autismtreatmentcenter.org/contents/about_son-rise/ history_of_the_son-rise_program.b). and hold degrees in special education. Placing the parent as the child’s most important and lasting resource provides a consistent and compelling focus for training. 4. and inspiration. group instruction.d.php. they believe that parents hold the key as the most powerful and committed teachers to develop a specific program to meet the unique needs of their own children. 2. 2006.org/contents/ about_son-rise/faq. Using energy.php. . and enthusiasm engages the child and inspires a continuous love of learning and interaction. (n.d. The Son-Rise Program is based at the Option Institute in Sheffield. Teaching through interactive play results in effective and meaningful socialization and communication. . and desire throughout their Son-Rise Program. Retrieved November 13. The Autism Treatment Center of America at the Option Institute is the only learning and treatment center that offers professional training for the Son-Rise Program. home-based program that helps in the development of socialization. Creating a safe. and interventions such as diet and vitamin therapies.OPTIONS (SON-RISE PROGRAM) Although the Kaufmans have worked with many skilled and caring professionals. Staff members come from a multitude of disciplines and experiences. (Autism Training Center of America. The Son-Rise Program is based on the following principles: 1. 6. and other learning skills. psychology.. At the Option Institute. 3. comprehensive ideological and attitudinal training. and biological interventions. Autism Treatment Center of America.d. The staff at the Option Institute has worked many years with hundreds of families. and continual observation and feedback by experienced Son-Rise Program Teachers’’ (Autism Treatment Center of America. Frequently Asked Questions About the Son-Rise Program. (n.

FURTHER INFORMATION The Option Institute: www. that individual is required to clean up the mess he made.autismtreatmentcenter. There are two types of overcorrection techniques: restitution and positive practice. ANN PILEWSKIE ORAL-MOTOR SKILLS Oral-motor skills refer to any activity that requires the use and coordination of the muscles in and around the mouth and tongue. 2006.d.php. For example.org/contents/about_son-rise/what_is_the_ son-rise_program. KELLY M. licking. For example. under the teacher’s or adult’s control. (n. KELLY M. In addition. from www. disregarding all other stimuli or environmental cues.org. person. Negative practice requires the student to engage in the negative behavior numerous times. A commonly used example is an individual who creates a mess while throwing a tantrum. and puckering the lips. but to do something else in addition. Overselectivity may result from an individual’s difficulty screening out or discriminating irrelevant stimuli to determine what is most important. as well as any mess that already existed in the room before the tantrum. for the student who runs to get in line first. PRESTIA OVERCORRECTION Overcorrection is a form of punishment that requires the individual to engage in a repetitive behavior intended to decrease the reoccurrence of an undesired behavior.option. ‘‘What Is the Son-Rise Program?’’ Retrieved November 13. KATIE BASSITY OVERSELECTIVITY/OVERFOCUSED ATTENTION Overselectivity/overfocused attention. There are ethical and practical concerns regarding the use of negative practice. In restitution. Positive practice involves the student repeatedly engaging in the alternate. or activity.OVERSELECTIVITY/OVERFOCUSED ATTENTION Autism Treatment Center of America. an individual with an autism spectrum disorder may fixate on the blinking light on a computer across the room.c). Observable responses of oral sensitivity are the dislike of or refusal to brush one’s teeth or eat certain textures or temperatures of foods. Examples of oral-motor skills are chewing. having him repeatedly walk to the line and walk back to his seat is positive practice. negative practice is sometimes associated with overcorrection. describes when an individual intently focuses upon an object. KELLY M. also referred to as tunnel vision. Restitution requires the individual to not only correct what he did wrong. PRESTIA 241 . although in fact it is the opposite of overcorrection. PRESTIA ORAL SENSITIVITY Oral sensitivity is an observable response to an overactive gustatory (taste) system. positive behavior—the desired behavior in the given situation.


Autism Spectrum Disorders .


Autism Spectrum Disorders A HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS AND PROFESSIONALS Volume 2: P–Z Edited by Brenda Smith Myles. Jeanne Holverstott. and Megan Moore Duncan . Terri Cooper Swanson.

Includes bibliographical references and index. CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group. manuals. 1 : alk. and Megan Moore Duncan p.praeger. Holverstott. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007030685 ISBN-13: 978–0–313–33632–4 (set) 978–0–313–34632–3 (vol. Copyright Ó 2007 by Brenda Smith Myles. Terri Cooper Swanson. Child Development Disorders.920 85882—dc22 2007030685 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Jeanne Holverstott. 1) 978–0–313–34634–7 (vol.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Autism spectrum disorders : a handbook for parents and professionals / edited by Brenda Smith Myles.48–1984). 88 Post Road West. Autism in children—Handbooks. and Megan Moore Duncan All rights reserved. Myles.com Printed in the United States of America The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39. Jeanne Holverstott. Pervasive—Handbooks. ISBN-13: 978–0–313–33632–4 (set : alk. Jeanne. Autistic Disorder—Handbooks. II. 2. paper) 1. 2 : alk. RJ506. [DNLM: 1. cm. 2) First published in 2007 Praeger Publishers. www. Brenda Smith. Megan Moore. without the express written consent of the publisher. Westport. by any process or technique. Terri Cooper Swanson. paper) ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34632–3 (v. IV. III. Inc. paper) ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34634–7 (v. Terri Cooper. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . Duncan. Swanson. No portion of this book may be reproduced. WM 34 A939 2007] I.A9A92377 2007 618. etc.

and Contributors vii xv 1 425 429 437 451 471 503 . Advisory Board.Contents List of Entries Guide to Related Topics The Handbook Appendix A: Newsletters Appendix B: Journals Appendix C: Organizations Appendix D: Personal Perspectives Index About the Editors.


as well as the rejection by science of this child development model and the ability to change development and structure of the brain through repetitive movements. this intervention is based on the belief that the development of a child mirrors that of human evolution (crawling. and so on.P PATTERNING (DOMAN-DELACATO TREATMENT) The Doman-Delacato patterning treatment is an intervention involving exercises aimed at forming or correcting neurological organization that has been damaged or never developed. development at higher levels cannot occur. each level must be mastered before a child can move on to the next level. he or she performs the exercises alone. Although several studies were carried out in the late 1960s–1970s. Despite these findings. math. used in conjunction with intensive programs covering reading. including the American . IAHP states that once injury occurs. The aim is to train the brain to go through the typical developmental process. are referred to as braininjured children (diagnoses then consist of where the brain injury is and to what extent). Created by Doman and Delacato (The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential [IAHP]. this intervention continues to be practiced and claimed as a cure. and carried out by the IAHP. each representing only different symptoms of brain damage. crude walking. health. there was no evidence that patterning held any benefit above that of normal care. Therefore all children with disabilities. creeping. three adults cause the body to move through the exercises in a fluid manner. Patterning is an intensive therapy.) in the 1960s. and mature walking). from those in persistent vegetative states to those with mild learning disabilities. IAHP believes that most disabilities are false labels. believing that this will then lead to a return to normal development. n. If the child is not able to perform the exercises. with the goal that children ‘‘achieve intellectual. Many organizations have issued statements of concern about patterning. A child is then taken through the steps or movements that a typically developing child would go through in that stage. regardless of their brain injury. This therapy is thought to aid all children. If a child is able.d. physical and social excellence’’ (IAHP Goals). social skills. The first step is to determine the stage of development where injury took place or normal development ceased. fitness.

Many individuals with autism have lower levels of amino acids in their body. and that the demands and expectations placed on families are so great that in some cases their financial resources may be depleted substantially and parental and sibling relationships could be stressed. studies. Retrieved June 28. which results in the buildup of opioid peptides that may mimic the effects of morphine.iahp. from http://www. KATHERINE E.html. or the nonspecific effects of intensive stimulation .PDD-NOS Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). . See also casein-free. On the basis of past and current analyses.theness. the intensive practice of certain isolated skills. (1999) REFERENCES American Academy of Pediatrics. 2006. Treatment programs that offer patterning remain unfounded . and is often precise in intonation. . and protein. The Connecticut Skeptic. . has an adult quality with sophisticated grammar. Digestive peptides assist the body in the breakdown of gluten. casein. When there is a buildup of opioid peptides. 6. The treatment of neurologically impaired children using patterning.com/articles/patterning-cs0104. FURTHER INFORMATION Novella. (1999). excessive in technical details. COOK PEER REVIEWED Peer reviewed (or refereed) refers to a process of subjecting work or ideas to experts in the field for review and critique. from www. the AAP concludes that patterning treatment continues to offer no special merit. improvement observed in patients undergoing this method of treatment can be accounted for based on growth and development. In its statement the AAP says. The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential.d. and reports. (n. KATIE BASSITY PDD-NOS. Psychomotor patterning. See also Asperger’s disorder. In most cases.org.). See Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified PEDANTIC SPEECH Pedantic speech is often characterized by expressive language that is overly formal. one may observe that the individual may appear drunk or may have a more difficult time with behavioral self-control. (1996). and the United Cerebral Palsy Association. Pediatrics. 1149–1151. 1(4). TERRI COOPER SWANSON 244 . This process is designed to ensure that authors adhere to the standards of their field. American Academy of Neurology. 2005. S. . Retrieved June 28. 104(5). gluten-free. that the claims of its advocates remain unproved. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT PEPTIDE Peptides aid in digestion.

not autistic child) in an effort to separate the person from the 245 . speech inflections. delayed. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. it might involve the repeated acting out of the story line. 2000). RASCHELLE THEOHARRIS PERSEVERATION Perseveration. The 85th percentile. and accents. The little professor syndrome. either spontaneously spoken or echoed (echolalia). A.. (June 18. In children. etc. ANN PILEWSKIE PERSEVERATIVE SCRIPTING Perseverative scripting is a term used to describe the habit of repeatedly retelling an entire story line from a movie.com/library/magazine/home/20000618magasperger. K. Perseverative speech is the repetition of the same words or phrases. or other motoric actions. Retrieved September 3. mitigated. television show. possibly with toys. FURTHER INFORMATION Osborne. A percentile rank illustrates the percentage of a norm group obtaining the same score or scores lower than the test-taker’s score. see Appendix D. LISA BARRETT MANN PERSONAL PERSPECTIVES Personal perspectives are an individual’s narration about their own experiences. See also echolalia: immediate.PERSON FIRST LANGUAGE PERCENTILE Percentile is a value on a ranking scale from 1 (low) to 99 (high) and a median of 50 that specifies the percent of the distribution that falls equal to or below the norm. mitigated. The New York Times Magazine. this retelling can be very exact and detailed. is characteristic of individuals with autism. which may or may not be functional in its purpose. (2000). 2006. for example.html. indicates the score below which 85 percent of the scores fall in a particular distribution of scores. It does not refer to the number of questions marked correctly. FURTHER INFORMATION Quill. play. delayed. video game. the exact same placement of an object in a container over and over. from www. Do-watch-listen-say: Social and communication intervention for children with autism. complete with dialogue. or repeating the script from a cartoon or movie included in any dramatic play.e. Perseverative play is the repetition of the same motor or other behavioral activities used in play. TERRI COOPER SWANSON PERSON FIRST LANGUAGE Person first language puts the person before his or her disability or supports (i. A percentile score is often confused with percentages.nytimes. L. For more on personal perspectives related to autism spectrum disorders. manifested in speech. A common behavior among individuals with Asperger syndrome. such as the lining up of animals over and over. child with autism. See also echolalia: immediate.

246 . In children with fewer delays. lack of social responsiveness may not be obvious until well into the second or third year of life (Tsai. do not show normal separation or stranger anxiety. 2001). uneven skill development (strengths in some areas and significant delays in others). and may show a lack of interest in being with or playing with other children. sound. uncommon responses to taste. and interests/attention. preferring autistic person to person with autism. albeit. PDD-NOS is a neurological disorder. Sometimes this diagnosis is given to very young children with limited communication skills who also show characteristics of autism. Generally. social difficulties continue with group games and forming relationships. repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (i. These children may develop a greater awareness or attachment to parents and other familiar adults. some children with less-severe PDD-NOS may become involved in other children’s games. As a result. Rett’s disorder. Children with PDD-NOS may continue to show lack of eye contact. 1998). As they grow older they may become affectionate and friendly with their parents or siblings. possibly indicating a failure to bond. They may even actively avoid other children (Tsai. However. and symptoms can range from mild to severe. may approach a stranger almost as readily as they do their parents. Chakrabarti and Fombonne (2001) state that no two individuals diagnosed with PDD-NOS are exactly alike. As the child’s communication skills increase. and unusual likes and dislikes. The other disorders include autistic disorder. However. The social relationships may still be difficult to understand (Tsai.e. poorly developed speech and language comprehension and skills. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER–NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) is one of five disorders classified as pervasive developmental disorders. smell. they do not follow the parents around the house. difficulty with changes in environment.. other symptoms of autism may become apparent (Chakrabarti & Fombonne. They do not develop typical attachment behavior. because the diagnosis is critical to their self-concept. deficits in nonverbal communication. Asperger’s disorder. and childhood disintegrative disorder. Some infants with PDD-NOS tend to avoid eye contact and demonstrate little interest in human voice. 1998). and touch. They do not usually put up their arms to be picked up in the way that typical children do. opening and closing doors repeatedly or switching a light on and off). parents often think the child is deaf. Individuals with a PDD-NOS diagnosis have more intact social skills than individuals diagnosed with other pervasive developmental disorders. sight. An individual with a PDD-NOS diagnosis does not meet the diagnostic criteria for pervasive developmental disorders. Some individuals on the autism spectrum dislike person first language.PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER–NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED condition and retain his or her dignity. yet clearly shows unusual development in the areas of communication. many individuals with PDD-NOS have some characteristics in common including: deficits in social behavior. but may enjoy physical contact. 1998). social interaction. They may seem indifferent to affection and seldom show facial responsiveness.

Asperger’s disorder. 247 . imaginative activity. and the criteria for autistic disorder are not met because of late age onset. and activities.). (2000). A briefing paper written for the publication of the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Rett’s disorder (also known as Rett syndrome). and atypical and/or subthreshold symptomatology are present. Washington. 2001). INCLUDING ATYPICAL AUTISM) The essential features of PDD-NOS are: severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction or verbal and nonverbal communication skills. 1998). S. and pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). E. but the criteria are not met for a specific pervasive developmental disorder. Pervasive developmental disorders. 285(24).. Journal of the American Medical Association. atypical symptomatology. interests. COOK PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER–NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA (DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR 299. stereotyped behaviors. or avoidant personality disorder. (2001). often occurring with some degree of cognitive impairment. Individuals with PDD-NOS are found in all races. VIRGINIA L. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS (PDD) A pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) is a general term for a group of specific disorders characterized by pervasive (affecting multiple environments and domains) and significant impairments in the development of social interaction.80. and verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. 2000). as well as a limited number of interests and activities that tend to be repetitive (Tsai. and activities are present. schizophrenia. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. interests. PDD is often misused as a reference to PDD-NOS. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. or all of these. PDD-NOS refers to individuals demonstrating levels of impairment that do not meet the criteria for disorders within the PDD spectrum. or when stereotyped behavior. REFERENCES Chakrabarti. text rev. and social status (Chakrabarti & Fombonne. 3093. DC: Author. This category should be used when there is a severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction or verbal and nonverbal communication skills. L. & Fombonne. (1998). or subthreshold symptomatology.000 individuals may have PDD-NOS. Tsai. schizotypical personality disorder.PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS (PDD) Current estimates are that 3–4 per 1. For example. identifies the following pervasive developmental disorders: autistic disorder. this category includes atypical autism—presentations that do not meet the criteria for autistic disorder because of late age of onset. FURTHER INFORMATION American Psychiatric Association. childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD). APA. ethnicities.. Y.

Siegel. Pervasive developmental disorders. they are considered pharmaceuticals. (2000). plants. or the presence or absence of a disease. Neurotoxicology. towards others [Clonidine]).. However. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test II. (2005). COOK PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER SCREENING TEST-II (PDDST-II) The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II. 248 . anxiety (SSRI). Washington. language. Y. aggression (towards self [SSRI]. Tsai. phenotypes could include social.d. D. the research on pesticides and autism remains very limited and increased scientific studies are needed. L. there are no pharmaceuticals to cure or suppress autism.. Cory-Slechta. fungi. Over the past decade the role of pesticides has been questioned as a possible causative agent for autism. (1998). TERRI COOPER SWANSON PHENOTYPE According to the National Human Genome Research Project (n. Lee. K. FURTHER INFORMATION Barlow. REFERENCE Siegel. PAUL G.PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER SCREENING TEST-II (PDDST-II) REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. B. BROOKE YOUNG PESTICIDES Pesticides are substances (often chemical or biological in nature) used to control or kill various insects. A. & Opanashuk. A briefing paper written for the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. A. or bacteria that can bother and harm humans. and social interaction. LACAVA PHARMACOLOGY Pharmacology is the systematic investigation of how chemicals interact with living organisms. W. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. text rev. however there are pharmaceuticals that assist with controlling compulsion (SSRI). 2004) is a questionnaire to be completed by parents for children between the ages of 18 months and 3 years. inattention (Dexadrine). (2004). L. 63–75. cognition. and seizures (Tegretol). sleep disturbance (Clonidine.). mood disorders. animals. B. When chemicals have medicinal effects. See also anxiety disorders. VIRGINIA L. and communication. DC: Author. TX: Harcourt Assessment. phenotype is the ‘‘observable traits or characteristics of an organism. At this time. Modulation of antioxidant defense systems by the environmental pesticide maneb in dopaminergic cells.. weight. for example hair color.. D. The questionnaire contains symptoms from the three diagnostic categories of communication. San Antonio.’’ In autism spectrum disorders. 26. Some researchers claim that pesticides such as maneb can cause neurological damage. repetitive movements.). Klonpin).

chronic disease. or slowing the regression of physical conditions that may result from physical injury. phonophoresis. or disease. and modalities. orthopedics. Physical therapy is an effective treatment for people of any age. A licensed physical therapist (PT) will evaluate and treat individuals with specific motor impairments. 2006. A PT specializes in remediation. hospitals. (n. range of motion. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). balance. Talking glossary. play activities. nursing homes. and massage. Therapy may involve the use of exercises and specific activities to maintain and restore function and strength as well as condition muscles. PRESTIA PHYSICAL THERAPY Physical therapy (PT) is the treatment delivered by a licensed practitioner (physical therapist or physical therapist assistant) to treat the physical aspects of illnesses or injuries. sports medicine. illness. schools and development centers. A physical therapist assistant (PTA) must complete the education program at an approved university and be supervised by a licensed physical therapist. A PTA may carry out interventions after the physical therapist has evaluated the patient and created the treatment plan. Other treatment 249 . When an individual has sustained an injury. Physical therapists work in a variety of settings including private practices. coordination. The PT provides services to people of all ages.genome. Other specialties in physical therapy include pediatrics.cfm?key=phenotype.gov/glossary. aquatic therapy (water). iontophoresis. Physical therapists that help individuals regain skills or strength after an injury or illness are sometimes referred to as rehabilitation therapists. or has movement difficulties because of a disability. their physician may recommend physical therapy.). ultrasound. including mobility training. A physical therapist has graduated from a master’s degree program in physical therapy and has received a license to practice in the state of their choice (if required).d. has surgery. strength training. electrical stimulation.PHYSICAL THERAPY REFERENCE National Human Genome Research Project. TERRI COOPER SWANSON PHYSICAL THERAPIST A physical therapist (PT) is a medical professional with a minimum of a master’s degree in physical therapy from an accredited university. Two different professional designations exist in the physical therapy community. prevention. interferential current (IFC).apta. and rehabilitation. Retrieved November 30. These include stretching. hot or cold therapy. Those physical therapists that work with children who have yet to develop a certain skill are referred to as developmental therapists. from www. who has passed a national certification exam.org. A physical therapist uses many different methods of exercises and modalities to improve functioning and decrease pain. strengthening. therapeutic exercise. and universities. FURTHER INFORMATION American Physical Therapy Association: www. LYNN DUDEK AND KELLY M. The PTA may neither evaluate nor make modifications in the treatment plan and must work under the supervision of a PT. or other causes.

nutritional 250 .’’ Pica has elements of being a compulsive behavior and therefore needs prompt attention when displayed by children or adults with developmental disorders such as autism. such as dried paint. FURTHER INFORMATION American Physical Therapy Association: www. pica (pronounced pike-a) is the eating of nonnutritive items. rust. this behavior becomes a problem when exhibited for at least 1 month after the age of 18 months. range of motion. 307. needles. baking them in the sun and selling them as a way to ‘‘put something in the belly. treatment with a change in diet to meet these nutritional requirements may be enough to change the behavior. pica also has been used ritualistically. mental retardation. joint mobilization. It has been hypothesized that the compulsion is caused by the body’s natural instinct to supplement missing nutrients not taken in by food alone. Another danger is that once this behavior begins. APA. burnt matchsticks. including behavioral intervention. 2000. and wound care. and chew nonedible items. or cooked into potatoes. However. Therefore. and other curatives.PICA interventions include gait training. even magically. fertility. For these people. While the human body can be marvelously resilient. soap. multiple steps will likely be needed to change this behavior. It has also been used during times of famine as a way to ‘‘bulk up’’ available food. it may become a compulsion that the individual may not be able to quit. lick. used coffee grounds. balance activities.52 Pica) as an eating disorder. LYNN DUDEK PICA Pica is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV-TR. or items that can pierce the intestinal walls or cause bowel obstructions. Not associated with cultural practices. feces. to promote healing. If pica persists with individuals who have a concurrent developmental disorder. By definition. If pica exists as part of an obsessive-compulsive disorder. there are many assaults that it cannot withstand. as it has a lengthy history that has been well documented among most cultures since ancient times. such as iron. wax. or mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. such as the ingestion of lead-based paint. dirt. which can cause a multitude of health and behavior disorders. It is not pathological in all situations. light bulbs. in some instances. Historical evidence links the practice of pica as a medicinal treatment of stomach ailments and by pregnant women who may be nutritionally deficient due to the pregnancy. such as clay baked with bread.org. it must meet four guidelines as outlined in the DSM-IV-TR: Persist for at least one month duration. Even today. Developmentally inappropriate behavior. treatment may need to be targeted just for the pica behavior. Haitian women make mud pies of clay and water.apta. and substances such as animal feces that can cause serious intestinal diseases. candles. Because babies frequently mouth. and so on. Further. although some say after age 3 years. taste. people resort to pica because they do have certain mineral deficiencies.

g. 2003. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (PECS) monitoring or instruction. Prior to beginning PECS. It can be implemented as a primary communication system or to enhance current speech skills.). most people’s inappropriate behaviors greatly decrease (Charlop-Christy. Students are also taught to 251 . LeBlanc. PECS can be rapidly acquired because the only prerequisite is being able to identify powerful reinforcers. chances for successful treatment are higher than when it first occurs later on. Washington. In later phases. be a certain age. Therefore.) In addition. (2000). The early phases parallel typical language development by first teaching students to communicate in a nonvocal manner. Carpenter. an extensive reinforcer assessment must be conducted to determine what the student prefers. and behavior management plans. and even environmental controls. adjectives. prepositions.g. and it is based on the Pyramid Approach to Education in Autism (Bondy & Sulzer-Azaroff. and speech development.. Le. and other parts of speech. functional communication. Phase I teaches what to do with the picture rather than trying to teach the meaning of the picture. just as typical infants and toddlers do before they use speech. Individuals begin PECS with Phase I and move forward in a linear fashion. for review of the relationship between augmentative/ alternative systems.. Research has shown that the use of PECS as an alternative or augmentative communication system enhances the development of speech rather than inhibiting it (see Mirenda.. including PECS. Very young children are able to initiate communication by doing something that gains someone’s attention (e. REFERENCE American Psychiatric Association. DC: Author. PECS is then expanded to include the use of simple sentences. PECS uses a variety of lesson formats. when given an effective communication system. The PECS protocol is comprised of six phases. pronouns. acting in some manner that influences the communicative partner (e. picture discrimination is taught. discriminate among pictures. gesture). verbs. teaching strategies. and then receiving some type of reinforcement (social or direct) via that person. The Pyramid Approach to Education encompasses the principles of broad-spectrum applied behavior analysis and stresses the importance of functional activities. or have a predetermined level of cognitive ability prior to beginning PECS. powerful reinforcement systems. Users are not required to establish and maintain eye contact. and plans for generalization of skills from the start. error correction procedures. looking at an object and then the person). Bondy and Frost began developing PECS in 1985. & Kelley. 2002). 2002). which is comparable to the first spoken words of typical students. text rev. This assessment is ongoing and should result in a hierarchy of most preferred to least preferred items. expressive communication system designed for children and adults who do not use speech as their primary means of communication (Frost & Bondy. 2002). PECS is a low-tech alternative or augmentative communication system. When pica is first diagnosed during early childhood. ANN PILEWSKIE PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (PECS) The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a functional.

flip through the pages of reinforcer pictures. as picture discrimination is not required at this time. The student has mastered Phase I when. The communicative partner’s role is to entice with a desired item. no picture discrimination is required. a variety of alternative discrimination strategies can be implemented by manipulating the size. and deliver the reinforcer immediately once the picture is placed into the trainer’s hand. The role of the physical prompter is to wait for initiation and then physically prompt the exchange of the picture. In this phase. If the student makes an incorrect correspondence. PHASE II: DISTANCE AND PERSISTENCE The goal in Phase II is to teach the student to generalize the use of PECS to more communicative partners in many settings while also increasing the distance traveled to both communicative partners and to the communication book. Discrimination among three. the trainer uses an error correction procedure to teach about the picture of the desired item. If the preferred picture is exchanged. and then travel to a communicative partner to deliver the message.PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (PECS) answer simple questions and comment via PECS. A physical prompter is ‘‘standing by’’ in case the student needs a gestural prompt to facilitate traveling. using various reinforcers and different trainers to increase generalization. color. one picture at a time is displayed on the front of a communication book. Over time. he independently exchanges the picture. find a desired picture. Two trainers will speed acquisition of this phase. The student is provided with only one picture at a time. the physical prompter fades prompts to minimize prompt dependency. PHASE III: PICTURE DISCRIMINATION The goal in Phase III is to teach the student to discriminate among many pictures that are included in a communication book. The communicative partner conducts correspondence checks to be sure that the student is making the correct correspondence between the picture that is exchanged and the item that is chosen. or image of the icon. 252 . This is known as conditional discrimination. Each phase systematically builds upon skills acquired in earlier phases. Phase IIIB requires the student to discriminate between two preferred pictures. At the end of this phase. Phase I is taught across settings. Phase IIIA begins by teaching the student to discriminate between a preferred picture and a nonpreferred/contextually irrelevant picture. PHASE I: HOW TO COMMUNICATE The goal in Phase I is to teach the student ‘‘how’’ to communicate by socially approaching a listener to initiate communication by giving a picture in exchange for a desired reinforcer. four. If the nonpreferred picture is exchanged. If the student is having difficulty with picture discrimination. This phase involves two trainers: a communicative partner and a physical prompter. upon seeing a desired item. This is known as simple discrimination. an error correction procedure is initiated to improve discrimination. dimension. The teaching strategy of shaping is the primary teaching strategy used. the outcome is immediately reinforcing. and five pictures is also taught. the student will be able to find her communication book. wait for the student to initiate (usually a reach for the item). The student should be able to discriminate between two pictures at least 80 percent of the time.

as when making a request such as. the student gains more opportunities to deliver a clear message. This sequential lesson is taught using backward chaining. For example. many preschool students begin to vocalize (Frost & Bondy. It is impossible to have a picture for every item. PHASE VI: COMMENTING The goal in Phase VI is to teach the student to comment in response to questions such as. Once the student is able to independently construct a two-picture sentence. The trainer asks the student a commenting question such as ‘‘What do you see?’’ and the student answers the question by constructing a sentence using the ‘‘I see’’ sentence starter and a picture of the corresponding item. 253 . and the student is differentially reinforced for speaking. The student’s current reinforcers are assessed to determine which attributes might be taught. 1998. It is imperative that trainers not ask questions all day. the exchange is honored and the reinforcer is delivered. By teaching attributes. ‘‘I want book. animals. he is taught to tap the pictures as the communicative partner reads the sentence. Students are also taught to discriminate among many sentence starters as these will serve as the means for the listener to know if the student is making a request or a comment.PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (PECS) PHASE IV: SENTENCE STRUCTURE The goal in Phase IV is to teach the student to make a request using a simple sentence. ‘‘What do you see?’’ or ‘‘What do you hear?’’ and eventually to make spontaneous comments about events in the environment. teaching the last step in the chain first and then the second to the last step and so on. The sentence starter ‘‘I want’’ is introduced and paired with a picture of a reinforcer to construct a two-picture sentence on a separate sentence strip to make a request. This function of language is often difficult for students on the autism spectrum because the student does not receive a tangible reinforcer. the teaching of attributes starts.’’ Instead. To facilitate speech without demanding it. the trainer can develop a color lesson. because this could undermine spontaneous requesting. that is. if the student likes markers. By learning additional vocabulary. a pause is inserted when reading the sentence to the student. square cracker. shape. At this point in the training.’’ to indicate the desire for a graham cracker even when that specific picture is not available. If the student does not speak. Attributes Once Phase IV is mastered. such as ‘‘I want brown. the reinforcer for commenting is social. A time-delay prompt strategy is used to teach this lesson. the student will be able to describe a desired item. Phase VI is taught using the same time-delay prompt strategy as in Phase V. PHASE V: RESPONDING TO A REQUESTING QUESTION (WHAT DO YOU WANT?) The goal of Phase V is to teach the student to respond to the simple question. ‘‘What do you want?’’ This is the first time in the protocol that the student is taught to respond to the trainer’s communication. 2004). and quantity or specific aspects of things such as body parts. and toys. Ganz & Simpson. Other attributes to be taught include size.

Ganz & Simpson. Carpenter. (2003). and reductions in behavior management problems (Charlop-Christy et al. Focus on Autistic Behavior. Ganz. A. B. & Frost. Frost. Kamps. & Bondy. Using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with children with autism: Assessment of PECS acquisition. The Picture Exchange Communication System. The Picture Exchange Communication System. DE: Pyramid Educational Products. & Simpson. but significant improvement in speech acquisition. M. (2003). & Kelley. Le. Having an effective communication system that everyone can understand is a necessary component in reaching this goal. 2004. Research continues in an effort to ensure quality implementation as well as to improve teaching strategies.. Charlop-Christy. Kravits. 297–320.. A. (2002). The pyramid approach to education in autism. 7. 213–231. D. J. L. Brief report: Increasing communication skills for an elementary-aged student with autism using the Picture Exchange Communication System. others have transitioned to a higher-tech voice output device. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. T. 2002). 34. Singlesubject studies also have demonstrated not only acquisition of PECS. Mirenda. and voice output communication aids. It is a relatively easy augmentative and alternative communication system to teach. SUMMARY The Picture Exchange Communication System can be a valuable tool for both parents and educators. & Sulzer-Azaroff. 19. L. K. and an effective approach to use with individuals who are not yet speaking or who speak without spontaneity. JO-ANNE B. K. & Kemmerer. (1994). P. social-communicative behavior. A pilot evaluation study of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for children with autistic spectrum disorders. Seminars in Speech and Language. 9. PECS is a good place to start intervention because there are virtually no prerequisite skills required for its use. speech. 34.. 373–389. The International Journal of Autism. L.. I. (1998). 32.. social orientation. and problem behaviors. A. L. 2002. M. S. LeBlanc. Newark. 203–216. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. R.. 225–230. M. P. Magiati. Newark.. H. L. and Hearing Services in Schools. A. & Kemmerer. Speech. 35. Kravits. 1–19. REFERENCES Bondy. MATTEO 254 .PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM (PECS) RESEARCH ON PECS Bondy and Frost (1994) first reported outcome data regarding a large proportion of preschool children with autism who learned PECS and subsequently displayed speech. Language. The Picture Exchange Communication System training manual (2nd ed. Effects on communicative requesting and speech development of the Picture Exchange Communication System in children with characteristics of autism. Many students have gone beyond PECS to use speech as their primary modality for communication. (2002). Toward functional augmentative and alternative communication for students with autism: Manual signs. 2003) demonstrated successful implementation of PECS in a variety of classroom settings.)... A preliminary controlled group study from England (Magiati & Howlin. It is important to help students communicate effectively with people in their surroundings. graphic symbols. Frost. (2004). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. & Howlin. Kamps... A.. & Bondy. Bondy. (2002). R. DE: Pyramid Educational Products.. (2002). 395–409.

the exaggerated feature is faded away gradually (Dunlap. 2003). 2000). and (d) increasing self-initiations (Koegel & Koegel. whereby an important feature of a stimulus item is greatly exaggerated to show the relevance between the object and its components.PIVOTAL RESPONSE TRAINING PIVOTAL RESPONSE TRAINING Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display characteristics of impaired social interactions. and minimal receptive and expressive language is required (Simpson et al. Thus. 2003). such as general and special education teachers. After this differentiation has been made. Children with ASD have a habit of responding to very limited and irrelevant cues in their environments. the size of coins could be exaggerated. restricted repetitive patterns of behavior. and difficulties in verbal and/or nonverbal communication (APA. 2004). & Rehm. 1995). Santa Barbara. 2003). (b) improving motivation. the original sizes of the pennies and quarters are reintroduced. 1996). For example. identified four pivotal areas of child functioning. 1988. In addition. children have to show interest in objects and be able to demonstrate imitation skills (Humphries. To be successful. therapists.. 1995). and other professionals. Koegel. After the child has learned the differences. PRT is suitable for individuals with ASD across a range of ages. Bloom. (c) increasing self-management capacity. 1981. Schreibman.. two approaches to the intervention in this pivotal area are suggested.and family-centered (Humphries. 1975). and being able to respond to them is necessary for successful social interactions. called stimulus overselectivity (Lovaas. In the light of this characteristic. including: (a) responding to multiple cues and stimuli. family members should be part of the intervention (Simpson et al. teachers and parents can focus on a few stimuli at a time and arrange for these selected stimuli to stand out against other stimuli in 255 . One example of such stimulus overselectivity may be that a child with ASD only notices tiny telephone numbers on a small commercial sign in a background of a picture. Schreibman. RESPONDING TO MULTIPLE STIMULI The first pivotal area is responding to multiple cues and stimuli. however. Pivotal response training (PRT) is a naturalistic intervention that has been implemented to promote appropriate social interactions and communicative skills in children with ASD (Humphries. The cognitive ability of candidates for PRT ranges from mild cognitive challenges to average intelligence (Simpson et al. 1977. Since PRT occurs in the most inclusive settings. Schreibman. 2004). to teach a child to distinguish pennies from quarters. the procedures of this intervention are child. In the 1990s. & Burke. As opposed to traditional behavioral interventions.. the best implementers of PRT are those who work with the children on a regular basis. it focuses primarily on early intervention. 1971). The first approach is within-stimulus prompting (Schreibman. Stahmer. Further. PRT places great emphasis on the child’s environment using natural prompts. & Pierce. The purpose of PRT is to provide children with ASD with adequate social and communicative skills that would lead them to function independently in natural environments. There are many concurrent cues and stimuli in everyday life. Rosenblatt. Koegel. 2004). researchers at the University of California. & Koegel. The second approach is to directly teach the child to respond to multiple cues and components by arranging activities and environments (Koegel & Schreibman.

1989. the child has to respond to those colors and make a correct differentiation. such as home. In addition. An example would be to ask the child to sort toys into colored baskets.. and community. Dunlap & Koegel. The third step is to select a self-monitoring device. & Surratt. Having self-management skills helps children with ASD to: (a) be more independent from their intervention providers. Koegel. chances are that she will have a sense of engagement in learning activities.PIVOTAL RESPONSE TRAINING the environment. the use of natural and direct reinforcers benefits target behaviors and other functional activities (Koegel et al. Thus. and (c) reduce the supervision of the implementers. Several general procedures are suggested to the use of self-management intervention (Koegel. That is. 1988). First. 1980. 1998). the child maintains the level of competence and at the same time gains new skills based upon what he has learned. Therefore. First. it could be a socially valid behavior that needs to be taught or an inappropriate behavior that needs to be reduced. The other important motivational technique is to reinforce any clear and goal-directed attempts made by the child (Koegel & Johnson. the second pivotal area encompasses several procedures for improving child motivation. the intervention provider and the child identify a target behavior they are going to work on. & Carter. 1989). Koegel. Improving motivation is associated with increasing responsiveness to environmental stimuli. The third way to improve child motivation is to intersperse previously learned tasks with newly acquired tasks (Dunlap. and to facilitate learning. 1985. MOTIVATION The second pivotal area is improving child motivation. SELF-MANAGEMENT The third pivotal area is increasing self-management capacity. 1986. decreasing response latency. The second step is to identify reinforcers. Koegel. When learning communicative skills. topics. the intervention providers teach the child daily-living tasks and activities within the child’s natural environments and encourage the child to be actively involved in the intervention. studies have indicated a decrease in challenging behaviors (Sigafoos. Besides increasing motivation. Fourth. and toys during interactions. if the child is allowed to select her favorite toys as stimulus or reinforcement items. the child should be allowed to choose materials. and changing emotions (Koegel. Thus. Koegel & Koegel. In order to improve self-management. Lack of motivation is one of the characteristics of children with ASD that interferes with everyday learning and social interactions. for instance. For example. a strong possibility of completing tasks results in high motivation and increased responses. In the light of this. & Dunlap. it is better to use self-recruit reinforcement instead of external rewards. the intervention provider can teach the child how to monitor the occurrence or absence of the target behavior using the 256 . O’Dell. the first pivotal area focuses on teaching children with ASD to be responsive to multiple cues in an effort to teach them to generalize the skill to various settings. Using this approach. If the child is asked to put the toy car into the red basket while there are other baskets of different colors. the child is more motivated to attend tasks if he receives encouragement when making any attempts to respond. 1999). Koegel & Johnson. 1984. Koegel & Mentis. school. 1999). (b) minimize the services of practitioners. 1992).

The influence of task variation and maintenance tasks on the learning and affect of autistic children. Washington. 2004). DC: Author. it is not costly. For reinforcements the child can earn extra time doing his favorite activity to calm down. Koegel and her colleagues (1988) found that children with ASD could learn to generalize the skill of initiating simple questions. the instruction should be clear and uninterrupted. Teaching children with ASD how to initiate questions not only increases their language expressions but also improves their social communicative competence. such as sensory processing and motor planning (Simpson et al. 37. PRT incorporates teaching sessions into the child’s daily activities and. Worksheets or visual reminders. Dunlap. 257 . (1980). Surratt. 13. A lack of spontaneous language expression is a major characteristic of children with ASD. G. The intervention provider can start by assisting the child in identifying the behavior the child demonstrates when feeling angry. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. 41–64. The final step is to see whether the child can generalize the self-management procedures to real-life situations. Koegel et al. & Albin. 1987. In general. Further. & Koegel. therefore. R. Gradually.. and since most materials come from the child’s natural environments.. Horner. Shukla. SELF-INITIATION The fourth pivotal area focuses on increasing self-initiations. 2004). assistanceseeking questions and information-seeking questions are also important (Houghton. reduces the need for intensive intervention hours. 619–627. the child is prompted and reinforced to ask questions. such as feeling thermometers. the intervention provider should be careful about arranging teaching and learning environments.PIVOTAL RESPONSE TRAINING selected self-monitoring device. Then the child is taught how to use the monitoring device independently. Some areas that children with ASD have difficulties with are not included in PRT. There are no documented risks of implementing PRT interventions (Simpson et al... (2000). as well as increasing motivation and improving self-initiation. However. especially when introducing multiple components and stimuli into the intervention process.. To increase self-initiation. Several self-initiations include why-questions. G. Motivating autistic children through stimulus variation. The ultimate goal of PRT intervention is to help children generalize the behaviors they have learned in these four pivotal areas to other natural environments. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. Bronicki. 1995). the intervention provider can start by having the child engage in his preferred activity and then create a teaching situation where these selfinitiating questions occur. PRT focuses on teaching children to be responsive to the many learning opportunities and social interactions that occur in natural environments. 1999. (1984).). At first. the prompts are faded after the child is able to generalize these skills across settings. The goal of these intervention procedures is to enable children with ASD to internalize the self-monitoring device and foster behavioral management responsibility and use self-administered rewards. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. could be used as self-monitoring device. text rev. Dunlap. & Guess. Thus. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. L. An example of incorporating these procedures is using self-management strategies to modulate the feelings.

Koegel (Eds.. 185–191.).. 73–87).. Overselective responding: Description. Teaching autistic children to respond to simultaneous multiple cues. (1998). R. P. (1988).. Lovaas. de Boer-Ott. R. L. O’Dell. Stahmer. L. Bronicki. diagnosis. Sigafoos. In R. B. K. Autism spectrum disorders: Interventions and treatments for children and youth. 346–357. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. R. & Surratt. & Dunlap. (1986). 33–42).). S. K. L.. R. K. Humphries. M. Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. & Koegel. Houghton. Schreibman. Koegel. 141–152. & Guess. M. R.. In J. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. T. Effectiveness of pivotal response training as a behavioral intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders. In E. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. V. Simpson. L. (1992). S. K.). Ben-Arieh. L. Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. L. Autism: Nature. & Koegel. W. Opportunities to express preferences and make choices among students with severe disabilities in classroom settings. L. J. R.. S. 187–221).. Koegel. L. Koegel. L. J. L. (1996).. 2(4). A. Koegel. T. 1–10. M. L. and intervention. implications. (1985). C. R. Motivation in childhood autism: Can they or won’t they? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. & Schreibman.. & G. Alternative applications of pivotal response training: Teaching symbolic play and social interaction skills. & Albin. L. 22. 211–222. Cook. J.. 102. K. & Burke. Pivotal teaching interactions for children with autism. Luiselli & M.. 299–311. G.. Koegel. 20. Thousand Oaks. Selective responding by autistic children to multiple sensory input. Schreibman.. L. G. Producing speech use in nonverbal autistic children by reinforcing attempts. Koegel.. Motivating communication in children with autism. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. C.. Teaching children with autism: Strategies for initiating positive interactions and improving learning opportunities (pp. CA: Corwin Press.. Effects of within-stimulus and extrastimulus prompting on discrimination learning in autistic children.. Koegel. K. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. In G. Mesibov (Eds.. & Pierce. Koegel. Adams. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. 576–594. Byrd. (1996). Schreibman.. 101–110. Motivating language use in autistic children. R. J. (1998). (1988). Bloom.. Surratt. R. 24(2). Rosenblatt... Dunlap (Eds. E. (1975). Journal of Abnormal Psychology. K. Koegel. L. Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support (pp. Koegel. 77(3). Koegel. O. L. New York: Guilford. & Carter.). H. (1989). Shukla.. R. L. L. R. Examining the relationship between self-initiations of an individual with disabilities and directive behavior of staff persons in a residential setting... (1995). Choice making and personal selection strategies. & Koegel. A. Koegel & L. G. 258 . (1995). R.. Dawson (Ed. American Journal on Mental Retardation.. 12.. K. 310–325). In L. (1981). 525–538. K.PIVOTAL RESPONSE TRAINING Dunlap. 10. 18–27. R. Setting generalization of question-asking by children with autism. J. L. L. (2004). Schreibman. L. J. Learning and cognition in autism (pp. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co.. (Eds. L. (1999). Valdez-Menchaca. Educational implications of stimulus overselectivity in autistic children. School Psychology Review.. Autism. 91–112. Koegel. & Rehm. 19. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. R. 26. & Dunlap. Cameron (Eds. 8. Camarata. G. R. C. L. & Mentis. (2003). Koegel. 18.. J. K. A. Bridges. CA: Sage. Behavioral Interventions.).. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. L.). 37–49. & Johnson. B. G. & Koegel. R. (1987). L. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Newbury Park. et al. FURTHER INFORMATION Koegel. M. and treatment (pp. C. Koegel. Schopler & G. (1971). K. L. R. (1977). (1995). D. Exceptional Education Quarterly.. R. 425–430. Language intervention and disruptive behavior in children with autism. L. The effects of interspersed maintenance tasks on academic performance and motivation in a severe childhood stroke victim. L. Koegel. 353–371). M. 28(4). New York: Plenum. Horner. L. Koegel..

1946). Klein. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. L. LACAVA PLAY-ORIENTED THERAPIES Play-oriented therapies and interventions are among the wide range of educational and treatment options available for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. play therapy focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems by establishing communication between therapist and child utilizing a variety of play activities—such as puppets. C.. (1992). who were classified among children with a wide range of psychological problems (Axline. Hurley. These approaches greatly vary with respect to theoretical orientations. as well as the goals. play-oriented approaches vary in degree of structure. or clay. In its original application to children with ASD. developmental. it is used to help discover if the real drug provides better benefits than the placebo. 1955). R. traditional psychoanalytic play therapy was no longer considered a treatment of choice. & Frea. 1952). whether they are situated in a clinic versus natural play setting. K. social skills. the kinds of materials used. In general. With regard to methods. The following gives an overview of an assortment of play-oriented therapies and interventions that are geared to children with ASD. others are explicitly designed to support children in learning how to play. 25(2). Those interventions with the goal of promoting play often target specific aspects of play behavior focusing on cognitive and/or social domains. As theories of autism shifted from psychogenic to organic explanations for the disorder. The idea is that play allows the child to express emotions that would otherwise be too difficult to verbalize or discuss with another person. Although the placebo is made to look like an actual drug intended to help patients. which prevailed in the early treatment of children with ASD. While contemporary 259 .PLAY-ORIENTED THERAPIES Koegel. communication. whether they involve play with an adult versus with other children.. YU-CHI CHOU PLACEBO A placebo is a pill that contains no active ingredients and is given to individuals in control groups in medication research studies. Improving social skills and disruptive behavior in children with autism though self-management. play therapy focused on drawing the child out of his or her ‘‘autisticstate’’ by working through inner struggles that were interpreted as stemming from a dysfunctional mother-child relationship (Mahler. Boucher & Wolfberg.. W. Theoretical orientations also run the gamut of psychodynamic. An underlying premise of the psychoanalytic approach is that the child’s problems reflect unresolved internal conflicts that arise from past experience. methods. and behavioral with offshoots and combinations of each. L.. a dollhouse. 341–353. sand. 2003). The placebo effect is when a subject’s behavior improves or gets better because they think they are taking a real drug. positive behavior.g. all of which may be represented in play. Koegel. and language). 1947. D. and contexts in which they are applied. and the age and ability ranges of peers. While many utilize play as a vehicle to achieve goals that are not play-specific (e. TRADITIONAL PLAY THERAPY Traditional forms of play therapy are rooted in the psychoanalytic tradition (Freud. PAUL G.

Koegel. Hendricks. Kohler. 1999). 1995). These interventions focus on the use of systematic reinforcement to increase target play behaviors. 1995. expand. reinforcing the child for reasonable attempts at correct responding. Green. Self-monitoring techniques are also being used to support children with ASD in independent play (Stahmer & Schreibman. Maurice. & Jasper. 1992) and social play with peers (Shearer. This intervention is carried out by an adult who offers and models toy play that is matched to the child’s interest and developmental level. 2003). Thorp. as well as adapted to the child’s developmental level. Taylor. In DTT. One such approach that is commonly practiced today is discrete trial training (DTT) as associated with the work of Lovaas (1987) and colleagues (Leaf & McEachin. & Carter. In each approach. Nevertheless. In general. modeling the desired action. based on the principles of applied behavior analysis (for a review. 1999) to promote play in children with ASD. & McCullough. and functional play with objects. see Stahmer. The environment is highly structured and controlled by the adult who relies on prompting. the adult follows the child’s lead to stimulate.PLAY-ORIENTED THERAPIES versions of psychodynamic play therapy are now widely practiced with children who have diverse emotional issues. 1996). relational. ADULT-DIRECTED APPROACHES Many play-oriented interventions for children with ASD are adult-directed. Ingersoll. PRT involves presenting the child with choices of preferred play activities. 1996). shaping. & Landreth. 1999. Stahmer. Beyer and Gammeltoft (1999) devised a more comprehensive intervention whereby an adult supports the child in following a series of play sequences that are patterned after typical development. 2002. CHILD-CENTERED APPROACHES Many play-oriented therapies and interventions for children with ASD involve child-centered approaches that primarily operate within a developmental framework.. play therapy may offer benefits to higher-functioning children who are experiencing emotional difficulties coupled with or as a by-product of ASD. and reinforcement to elicit the target response. which are taught through a series of repeated teaching trials. This involves training the child to monitor and deliver self-reinforcement for appropriate behavior as adult support is systematically withdrawn. and directly prompting the child to give the correct response (Koegel. the child is systematically reinforced for imitating an adult or peer who models or performs a predictable sequence of desired play behaviors (live or on video). little research exists to determine its explicit benefits to children with ASD (Mittledorf. Also based on the principles of applied behavior analysis are in vivo modeling (Tryon & Keane. Buchan. 1986) and video modeling techniques (Schwandt et al. 260 . Van Berckelaer-Onnes (2003) designed a play intervention that supports children in developing early forms of manipulative. target play behaviors are broken down into a discrete set of subskills. Pivotal response training (PRT) uses an adult-directed approach to promote play that capitalizes on the child’s motivation (Stahmer. and scaffold play along a continuum that mirrors typical development. Levin. Each play sequence is carefully planned with respect to selecting motivating themes and materials and setting up the visual organization and structure of the play at the table where activities take place. & Luce. & Carter. Harrower. & Schreibman. 2001).

and reinforcing triads (consisting of one child with autism and two typically developing peers) to act out specific actions and dialogue in play scenarios that are scripted in advance for the children. 1992). Similar methods have also been used for sociodramatic script training (Goldstein & Cisar. and experience. & Laurent. scaffolding. and affect to establish joint attention and increasingly complex socialcommunicative exchanges. The Denver model (Rogers.PLAY-ORIENTED THERAPIES ‘‘Floor time’’ is part of developmental individual-difference relation-based intervention that supports children with ASD in reciprocal forms of play (Wieder & Greenspan. PEER-MEDIATED APPROACHES Play-oriented interventions for children with ASD also include a variety of peermediated approaches. Extensions of this approach include a dual focus on providing explicit instruction to both the typical peers and the children with ASD applying ABA procedures (Haring & Lovinger. 1990). typical peers are trained through modeling. and repetition to stimulate symbolic play in children with ASD. attention is focused on engineering the play environment by arranging the physical space and providing intrinsically motivating activities that are highly conducive to interactive as opposed to isolated play (Beckman and Kohl. Further. imitate. ability. Oke & Schreibman. There is also an emphasis on facilitating social. Reaven. and guiding social communication and play geared to each child’s unique interests. Documentation of early efforts shares a common focus on promoting spontaneous reciprocal play between small groups of children with ASD and typical peers in natural contexts (Bednersh & Peck.. 1984. Accordingly. and reinforcement to increase the play initiations and responses of the child with ASD. prompting. 2003). Osaki. Extensions of this approach include combining integrated play groups with sensory integration therapy to enhance play (Fuge and Berry. 1987). Casner & Marks. 2000) applies childcentered practices to engage children with ASD in ‘‘sensory social exchanges’’ that revolve around toy preferences and social initiations with typical peers. 2003). This procedure involves modeling. A number of peer-mediated approaches for children with ASD incorporate a variety of child-centered practices that are consistent with a developmental orientation. The adult facilitates by monitoring play initiations. Odom and Strain (1984) were among the first to document peermediated interventions based on behavioral methods. and visual supports are incorporated into play sessions that revolve around highly motivating social play activities. & Herbison. and play exchanges with minimal adult intrusion (Meyer et al. This approach teaches children to initiate. 2003). These early influences have carried over into current models of supported peer play. affect. 261 . The SCERTS model (Social Communication. 1989. Emotional Regulation and Transactional Support) also incorporates a variety of child-centered practices that support children with ASD in social and symbolic forms of play (Prizant. Rubin. 1984). words. and engage each other in social games and routines. prompting. The integrated play group model is a comprehensive intervention that uses guided participation to support children with ASD and typical peers in mutually engaging play experiences (Wolfberg. Wetherby. Rydell. In floor time sessions. communicative. 1999. the adult follows the child’s lead utilizing gestures. Routines. 1986. Sherrat (2002) developed a systematic classroom-based approach that similarly involves elements of structure. 2004). Hall. rituals. 1986). Lord & Hopkins.

Pathways to play! Combining sensory integration and integrated play groups. J. F. 2000). C. Promoting social interaction through teaching generalized play initiation responses to preschool children with autism. (2003). 2002. Child Study Journal. Autism and play. & Wolfberg. K. L. developmental levels. Casner. Kong. Playing with autistic children. H. Shawnee Mission. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. & Kohl. there are actually some common threads that may be helpful for guiding parents and professionals in their efforts to support their children in play. (Eds. 262 . Klein. Boucher.. M. there is a growing appreciation for the importance of including play in the lives of children with ASD. L. C. 339–346. P. and learning style (see for example. It is also of interest to point out that despite apparent conceptual and methodological differences among these different approaches. Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach. Quill. Freud. J. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. & Bernard-Opitz. Haring. (1999). A. 14(1). P. (1946). as there are undoubtedly other noteworthy play therapy and intervention models not mentioned here. Koegel. New York: Ballantine Books. M. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. 315– 329. there is a general consensus that play interventions need to be adapted to each child’s unique interests. 169–175. L.). (1984). 24. G. 223–237. Beyer. (2004). C. S.. Koegel. Goldstein. The psychoanalytic play technique. 265–280. & Berry. J. The effects of social and isolate toys on the interactions and play of integrated and nonintegrated groups of preschoolers. 25. 174–185. Assessing social environments: Effects of peer characteristics on the social behavior of children with severe handicaps. R. (1989). Play therapy.. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps.. 16(4). REFERENCES Axline.. M. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Council for Exceptional Children. 58–67. Finally. The psychoanalytic treatment of children. there is a greater openness to blending best practices to ensure that every child with ASD is given the opportunity and means to reach his or her full potential for play.. L. & Gammeltoft. (1955). (1947). (1999).. Washington. J. & Carter. G. 7(4).. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice.. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. 19. First. Fuge. & Marks. & Cisar. Special issue on play. R. W. Beckman. L. Kok. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded. K. Promoting interaction during sociodramatic play: Teaching scripts to typical preschoolers and classmates with disabilities. Harrower. There is also a growing trend toward more naturalistic approaches. T.. F. (1992). It should be noted that this selection is by no means comprehensive. (1984). & Lovinger. Another common focus is on identifying and responding to what is intrinsically motivating for the child. Bednersh. This is consistent with the recommendations of the National Research Council (2001) who ranked the teaching of play skills with peers among the six types of interventions that should have priority in the design and delivery of effective educational programs for children with ASD. London: Imago (originally published 1926). A. (1986).PLAY-ORIENTED THERAPIES The selection of play-oriented therapies and interventions described herein includes a wide range of promising practices for children with ASD. Further. V. & Peck. F. which includes providing opportunities and support for children with ASD and typical peers to play together as play partners. L. J. DC.. 25. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology... Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. A. The Denver model: A comprehensive. H. A. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice.. Osaki. A work in progress: Behavior management strategies and a curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of autism. Toronto. T. F. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. S . Levin. In J. Fox. 3–9. G. A... 544–557. A.PLAY-ORIENTED THERAPIES Kok.. J. Shearer. C. 55. Freud. Hall. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 17(3). & Hopkins. Teaching children with autism appropriate play in unsupervised environments: Using a self-management treatment package. The effects of teacher intrusion on social play interactions between children with autism and their nonhandicapped peers. 257–270). (1990). The SCERTS Model: A family-centered. L. J. et al. S. L. A. L.. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. & McEachin. 205–220. Prizant. New York: DRL. Promoting independent interactions between preschoolers with autism and their nondisabled peers: An analysis of self-monitoring. L. Austin. R. 7(4). L. C. & Carter. Harris (Eds. Y. Innovations in play therapy (pp. Stahmer. W.. (1996). 6(2). & Herbison. A comparison of the effects of structured play and facilitated play approaches on preschoolers with autism: A case study... V. Ketelsen.. 7. G.. (1995). S. M. O.. P. Lundahl... (1999). 6. Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals. Rogers. Stahmer. 479–497.. Oke. Early Education and Development. (1952). Pieropan. Reaven. Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. V. Schwandt. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. A. 401–413.. Montan. Do-watch-listen-say: Social and communication intervention for children with autism. Austin. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. B. K. A. D. 25. J. Taylor.. transactional approach to enhancing communication and socioemotional abilities of young children with ASD. (1996). 265–305).. Teaching symbolic play to children with autism using pivotal response training... Infants and Young Children.. P. Maurice. H. 11. Washington. Play therapy with autistic children. Increasing play-related statements in children with autism toward siblings: Effects of video modeling. 16(3).). In G. D.. & Luce. (2003). Ingersoll. Sherrat. New York: Routledge. J. Wetherby. A. 253–264. On child psychosis in schizophrenia: Autistic and symbiotic infantile psychosis. Behavioral approaches to promoting play. E. C.. I. 169–179.. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. S. integrated educational approach to young children with autism and their families.. Peer-mediated approaches to promoting children’s social interaction: A review. A. Preschool education programs for children with autism (2nd ed. Schermer. Meyer. & Laurent. 20.C. 16(4). Rydell.. J. & McCullough. pp. J. K.. Glesne. Rubin. Psychoanalytic study of the child (pp. Mittledorf. In R. Maley.). N. K. & Landreth.. W. (2002). T. TX: Pro-Ed. (1992). (1984).. Stahmer. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.. 447–459. Handleman & S. 123–141. Kris (Eds. M. Eissler. Kong. D. 95–133). 25. DC: National Academy Press.. M. N. A. S.. L. (2003). L. (1987). Hartmann. (1986). D. C. (2002). (2000). W. 296–316. 181–196.. S. & Strain. A. C. Landreth (Ed.. H. Green. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis. J. D. & Larsson. (1999). (1987). Lord. (2001). (2001). & K. New York: International University Press. Developing pretend play in children with autism: A case study.. B. K. (2002). Canada. Using video modeling to teach generalized toy play. National Research Council. E. Odom. L. & Bernard-Opitz. 263 . The social behavior of autistic children with younger and same-age nonhandicapped peers. Quill. & Schreibman. 249– 262. Hendricks. D. Leaf. Foley. Educating children with autism. Kohler.. Training social initiations to a high-functioning autistic child: Assessment of collateral behavior change and generalization in a case study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.). & Jasper. A.. (2000). B. Lovaas. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. S. C. Mahler. 315–332. Buchan. & Schreibman. 54(4). TX: Pro-Ed. K.

Wolfberg.. C. or an appropriate communicative replacement behavior that will get the person the same outcome as did the problem behavior. S. (2003). Stahmer. and others (Hurth. the teams should include the family members/caregivers. 425–435. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. 537–549. FURTHER INFORMATION Autism Institute on Peer Relations and Play: www. A. At a minimum. Peer play and the autism spectrum: The art of guiding children’s socialization and imagination. it is broader in that it is not a specific strategy. it is made up of a set of components: 1. 7(4). Van Berckelaer-Onnes. M. CHARACTERISTICS Although PBS is an individualized approach.. Wolfberg. 7(4). Huber. the design of an evaluation and monitoring plan that documents the effectiveness of the interventions and provides data for making decisions about next steps. J. school staff. S. teachers. New York: Teachers College Press. Dunlap. 1999. Promoting early play. (2003). Additional components characterize effective PBS. 2003). (b) strategies to teach the person a replacement skill for effectively interacting within various settings. 415–423. agency staff. & Keane.. including the National Research Council (2001). I. (1999). D. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. A. and the student when appropriate. L. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. and (c) strategies that change the way others respond to problem behavior so that it is no longer reinforced and to desired behaviors so that they are repeated.com. Izeman. However. Columbia University. Teaching sociodramatic play to children with autism using pivotal response training. the development of a multicomponent support plan based on the assessment data that includes: (a) strategies to prevent behavior from occurring. First. but a foundation for building effective interventions based on an understanding of the person’s behavior and preferred lifestyle. PAMELA WOLFBERG POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) Positive behavior support (PBS) is an empirically validated process for addressing problem behaviors and enhancing the lives of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). 25. S. Iovannone. including applied behavioral analysis and humanistic theory. Play and imagination in children with autism. Each team 264 . Promoting imitative play through generalized observational learning in autistic-like children. (2003).. Climbing the symbolic ladder in the DIR model through floor time/interactive play. P. Whaley. A. PBS is based on scientific principles.POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) Thorp. 14. 3. Shaw. (1995). Wieder. (1986). 2. & Greenspan. J. P. PBS works best when a collaborative team approach is used throughout the process of assessment and intervention. S. Shawnee Mission. PBS takes a functional approach to behavior and is considered an effective practice for students with ASD by several respected groups. & Schreibman.autisminstitute. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. I. & Rogers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 265–282. P. & Kincaid. Tryon. the gathering and use of functional behavior assessment information to develop hypotheses about the purposes of behaviors.

and improving the quality of the person’s life. when.POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) member contributes his or her expertise and perspective of the person with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and assists in developing a socially valid support plan. removal of a preferred object or activity. and community activities (Carr et al. increasing pro-social and academic skills. PBS consists of five steps: (a) establishing goals of intervention.g. the conditions that currently exist. A person-centered plan provides a foundation for understanding the person’s vision for his or her life. etc.. attention. Specifically. desires. transitions. The team develops goals based on the preferences. and (e) designing an evaluation. but also action steps for each team member to pursue throughout the process. or (b) obtaining (e.and long-term goals is typically done by a support team.and short-term goals established. or functions. monitoring. Examples of environmental circumstances may include demands. Establishing Goals of Intervention Identifying the appropriate short. and follow-up plan (Hieneman et al. and rating scales. 1996). for engaging in the behavior.. questionnaires. (d) building a support plan. what.and short-term goals. Figures 11 and 12 present graphic examples of person-centered planning activities revolving around a vision and goals for Hannah. time-out. 2002). including increased inclusion in school. Second. Although problem behavior is usually the reason why the PBS process is initiated. with whom) related to the behavior. enhancing the quality of life for the person with ASD is a crucial goal of the support plan. The assessment also explores the responses from others that follow the problem behavior. or the presence of a specific peer or adult.. redirects. Person-centered planning is one method that can help the team establish goals (Kincaid. removal of items. 1999). and unique characteristics of the person with ASD. EXAMPLES OF USE Generally. etc. Typical responses following problem behavior include reprimands.). therefore. Most behavior serves two main purposes: (a) escaping or avoiding. social. a 5-year-old girl with ASD who has limited verbal language. The information gathered is reviewed by the team to identify patterns of circumstances (where. PBS is an ongoing process that addresses both long-term and short-term goals. tangible object. Gathering Information Functional behavior assessment information may be gathered through indirect measures such as interviews. 265 . Team members must have a vested interest in the person with ASD and be committed to achieving the long. abilities. continues even when the problem behavior is extinguished and new appropriate behaviors consistently occur. Goals should include reducing problem behaviors. and the resources that need to be accessed to help the person fulfill their vision. (b) gathering information. inclusion in typical environments in both the school and the community is an objective underlying the entire process. Outcomes of person-centered plans not only include long. or through direct observational measures in various environments. The assessment is used to help the team understand the circumstances surrounding the problem behavior and provide insight into possible purposes. The PBS process. (c) developing a hypothesis.

the description of the behavior. particularly when they take her away from activities she likes. 1997). the purpose that is surmised from the data is that Hannah screams during demand conditions to escape the demand and continue to keep doing her favored activity and express her feelings about the situation.POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) Figure 11 Sample Dream Frame from Hannah’s Person-Centered Plan Developing a Hypothesis Hypotheses or summary statements are made based on the data gathered. Finally. Hannah screams loudly to avoid and protest the demand and to keep access to her preferred activity. particularly with people with ASD and deficient verbal skills. The context most often related to Hannah’s behavior is being presented with demands. Hypotheses are vital. At a minimum. particularly when the demand takes Hannah away from a preferred activity. Hannah is communicating in the most effective and efficient way that is currently in her repertoire. in that they provide a viewpoint of what the person 266 . Building a Support Plan The hypothesis statement is important because it provides the foundation upon which interventions are built. An example of a hypothesis statement for Hannah is as follows: When presented with a demand/request/instruction by an adult. and the function served by the behavior (O’Neill et al. In other words.. The behavior Hannah engages in under the conditions of demands is screaming with marked intensity (loudly). hypothesis statements should address the context or circumstances related to the behavior.

socially valid way to obtain the same outcome with the same or better effectiveness and efficiency. if the person is nonverbal and the strategy is to teach her to ask for a break. An example of a PBS plan for Hannah that includes the three minimum components of interventions (i.. Since the new behavior must be as efficient or better than the problem behavior in getting a desired outcome.. it is important to select a behavior that is already in the person’s repertoire.POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) Figure 12 Sample Goal Frame from Hannah’s Person-Centered Plan is trying to say with the behavior. the team selected one word and sign.e. prevent. Interventions that teach new skills can either be strategies that provide the person a functional communicative replacement behavior (e..e. problem-solving strategies). wait. the communicative method must be easy to use and one that others can respond to efficiently. Finally. respond in new ways to behavior) is shown in Figure 13. by teaching an appropriate. 1997). and environmental and visual supports. Because Hannah has minimal verbal language. By modifying the events under which behavior predictably occurs. transition cues. to replace her 267 . For example. both already in her repertoire. the behavior can be prevented and made irrelevant (i. Further. self-management.g.. no longer necessary). Examples of interventions designed to prevent problem behavior include choices. the support plan should include different ways for adults and others to respond to the person’s new replacement behaviors and old problem behaviors. the problem behavior becomes inefficient and ineffective (O’Neill et al. teach new skills.g. curricular modifications. The responding interventions should include a way to (a) reinforce the replacement or alternative behavior so that it is used instead of the problem behavior and (b) no longer reinforces the problem behavior. teach the person to ask for a break rather than screaming to avoid something) and/or an alternative skill (e..

Figure 13 Positive Behavior Support Plan for Hannah 268 .

The intent of 269 . The additional strategies in the fourth column in Hannah’s support plan relate to some of the goals that were developed during the person-centered plan. the team carefully agreed upon how they were going to respond when Hannah used her new behavior and how they would respond if she engaged in her problem behavior.POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) Figure 14 Evaluation Plan for Evaluating Change to Hannah’s Problem Behavior screaming behavior. The team also selected several prevention strategies to make the demand to transition less aversive to Hannah. Finally.

270 Figure 15 Hannah’s Evaluation Plan .

Tallahassee: Florida Department of Education. S. Several data methods may be used to measure change in behavior. R. the team developed another evaluation method that would provide information on Hannah’s use of her new behavior as well as the occurrence of problem behavior. H. 17–26. 12(2).. G. M.. M. Dunlap (Eds. D.. E. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. L. & Hieneman. & Rogers. National Research Council. it is important for the team to make an action plan that outlines how the interventions will be implemented. Whaley. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. P. Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. J. Huber. Izeman. Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. R. Once a support plan is developed. K. Koegel.. A. The action plan should include the steps to be taken. DC: National Academy Press.g. G. Sailor. Hurth. K. training to be delivered. Horner (Eds. Areas of agreement about effective practices among programs serving young children with autism spectrum disorders.. In L... DeTuro. L. Iovannone. Dunlap. 2005)... W. Dunlap. Presley. G. Once Hannah’s screaming behavior decreased. 150–165. M. and resources to be accessed. R. H. (2003).. Person-centered planning. R. 4–16. et al. positive behavioral support. Horner. L. W. 3): Educational applications (pp. G. & G. Koegel. Kincaid. 1421–1428). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Positive behavior support. J. This form measures the teacher’s perception of the occurrence of Hannah’s problem behavior and replacement behavior. (2005).. E. & Dunlap. See also empiricism. ranging from frequency recording to perceptual ratings.. Monitoring and Evaluation Once the support plan is implemented.. Finally. The team chose this method because the teacher felt that something as simple as circling a number once a day would make it more likely that she would do so consistently than taking interval or frequency data. having more friends. 18(3). Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy (Vol.). Shaw. Educating children with autism. S. Dunlap.. Sugai & R. Thousand Oaks. the team gathers information to evaluate the effectiveness of the supports and to make decisions for future activities (Dunlap & Hieneman.. (1999). (2002). & Kincaid.. REFERENCES Carr.). Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services. (1996). D. Koegel. including the person’s use of replacement or alternative behaviors. an evaluation plan should be developed to assess quality-of-life changes for the individual (e.. Infants and Young Children.. A sample evaluation plan to assess whether Hannah’s screaming behavior changes is shown in Figures 14 and 15.POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) the strategies is to improve Hannah’s quality of life by expanding her social relationships and community activities.. being included in more community events). Gayler. 4(1). 439–465). CA: Sage Publications. (2001). Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. In G. J. G. G. 271 . Hieneman. (1999). Facilitator’s guide. Nolan. Washington. The important thing to consider when choosing a data method is whether the person collecting the data can use the method with minimal intrusiveness to the daily routine. Turnbull. Information to be collected should include ways to evaluate behavior changes..

Horner. & Newton. Marquis.. APA. R. Storey. E. CA: Brooks Cole Publishing Company. Horner.POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) O’Neill. Pacific Grove. McAtee. Therefore. Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. The reaction is extreme 272 . D. ROSE IOVANNONE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging technique that utilizes tiny amounts of injected. L. technical college education. G. E. L. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. radio-labeled compounds. (1997). P... posttraumatic stress disorder typically develops following exposure to an extreme traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. R. Koegel. Placement in one of these settings is determined based on eligibility and meeting the policy requirements of the institution to which the individual applies. R.. H. See also Americans with Disabilities Act. R.. blood flow. The accumulation of these compounds in certain areas of the body may show glucose use.). W.. S. J. self-determination.. BETH CLAVENNA-DEANE POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV-TR. R. Positive behavior support for people with developmental disabilities: A research synthesis. Magito-McLaughlin. A. Postsecondary education can be provided in a variety of settings: continuing education. K. & Dunlap. Sprague. K. oxygen. M.).. self-advocacy. The student will also need to be reassessed to determine what accommodations for the disability will be reasonable in the postsecondary setting. FURTHER INFORMATION Carr. R. Washington. DC: American Association on Mental Retardation. J. BRUCE BASSITY POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION Postsecondary education occurs after graduation from high school. L. the student needs to self-disclose his or her disability if the student wants assistance in the educational setting.. It is important for individuals with disabilities and their parents to understand that the accommodations and modifications received in high school will not automatically transfer to reasonable accommodations in the postsecondary setting.. 2000).. G. or dopamine transport depending on the type of compound injected. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. et al. The individual will need to seek out the support services office to determine eligibility and the type of reasonable accommodations for which the student may be eligible. Individuals with disabilities who have applied to and been accepted by an institution may be eligible for reasonable accommodations in the educational setting. (1996).. Albin. Turnbull. H. J. Koegel.. and traditional four-year university training. (1999). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook (2nd ed. community college education. (Eds. The photon emissions are then recorded like x-rays in a CAT scan. vocational technical school training.

S. SYMPTOMS The Traumatic Event Is Reexperienced The person has repeated painful memories. chronic. Roth. in children it may be expressed by disorganized or agitated behavior. Psychological Medicine. and with delayed onset. Constant Avoidance of Stimuli Related with the Trauma and Emotional Numbing Efforts to avoid feelings. or horror. et al. Children may engage in repetitive play in which they reflect the themes or elements of the trauma. text rev. thoughts. E. SUSANA BERNAD-RIPOLL 273 .. REFERENCE American Psychiatric Association. difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.. Also irritability and outburst of anger and exaggerated startle response can occur. activities. 29. Tupler.. DC: Author. Posttraumatic stress disorder.. Davison. T. R. The disorder can develop in any person without predisposing conditions. and nightmares. Chilcoat. there is evidence of a heritable susceptibility to the transmission of the disorder. and other important areas of functioning. A. J. S. if the symptoms last 3 months or longer. Persistent Symptoms of Increased Arousal That Were Not Present before the Trauma The person can experience persistent symptoms of anxiety..). V.. Vulnerability to assaultive violence: Further specification of the sex difference in post-traumatic stress disorder. (1997). J. C.POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) fear. or people associated with the trauma are constant with an inability to recall important aspects of the event. Archives of Disease in Childhood. if the length is less than 3 months. N. Posttraumatic stress disorder can occur at any age and symptoms usually begin within the first 3 months after the traumatic event. T.. Kessler. occupational. (1999). (1999).. (2000). however. W.. if at least 6 months have passed between the traumatic event and the onset of symptoms. L. C. DURATION AND COURSE OF THE SYMPTOMS This disorder causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social. Some patients demonstrate a detachment from others. Book. or flashbacks in which the event seems to be recurring. Some persons report difficulty concentrating and being in a constant state of vigilance. Psychological Medicine. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. & Lucia.. FURTHER INFORMATION Breslau. Symptoms are classified as acute. dreams. 107–109. especially if the stressor was particularly extreme. helplessness. 27. Peterson. 80. L. 153–160. others express lack of interest or participation in activities that they previously enjoyed and a feeling of no future. Yule. places.. Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder. Washington. D. W. R. 813–821. Sometimes the patient experiences bodily reactions to stimuli or situations that resemble the traumatic event. H. David. Colket. D.

she carefully puts the cap back on. and summarizes the problem-solving steps. Figure 16 Power Card Example: Barbie and Her Markers Barbie and Her Markers When Barbie finishes her school assignments. When she is finished with a marker. so the presenter should have a good relationship with the student. The second paragraph encourages the student to try the new behavior. and must have a well-developed interest. In the first paragraph of this scenario. write and introduce scenario/Power Card. The same steps can be taken when used at home. follow these steps: identify the problem behavior and special interest. created by Gagnon (2001). low cost. Try your best to remember these three things so you can draw just like Barbie! 274 . The Power Card is not a punishment. Using a hero or special interest serves several purposes: easy to ‘‘buy into’’ idea. Barbie wants you to remember these three things: Put the cap on the end of your markers before you draw. includes a small picture or special interest. take data. To use a Power Card. When she is getting ready to draw. Power Cards address sensory needs to help students realize when sensory input is needed. Put the cap back on the marker when you are finished. Be careful to only draw on the paper. Barbie puts the marker cap on the opposite end of the marker so she won’t lose it. conduct a functional assessment. When used appropriately. a child must understand spoken language at a sentence or paragraph level. she loves to draw and color with markers. are a visual aid that uses the child’s interests in teaching appropriate social interactions. and the meaning of language. evaluate. routines. the teacher or parent writes a short scenario in first person (from the child’s point of view) on a single sheet or booklet form. The Power Card is about the size of a business card. See also visual strategies. To use the Power Card in a school setting. She has learned that it is important to have markers with caps so her favorite colors won’t dry up. This card is carried with the student to aid in generalization. not to help tolerate sensory needs. collect baseline data. bookmark. She has learned that it is important to take care of her markers so that they will last a long time. and nonthreatening motivator for children.POWER CARD STRATEGY POWER CARD STRATEGY Power Cards. portable. Power Cards are a quick. and fade scenario/Power Card and let student help with the decision to continue use. and has generalization built into the strategy. Moreover. For an example of a Power Card see Figure 16. To develop a Power Card. modify if needed. describing how the hero or special interests solves a problem. behavior expectations. She is always careful to draw only on the paper so her desk and body stay clean. must exhibit behaviors frequently. capitalizes on the relationship between the hero and the child. which is broken down in three to five steps. the hero attempts a solution to the problem and experiences success. Barbie wants every girl and boy to take good care of their markers. or trading card.

an ‘‘instructional decision-making method’’ (Cooper.. KATHERINE E. motor action.ca/ html/387/OpenModules/Lindsley.PRESENT LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE (PLEP) REFERENCE Gagnon. & Heward.. Applied behavior analysis. those who use precision teaching believe that the best way to assure learning has occurred is to measure a difference in the rate of learning responses. http://psych. L. Components of pragmatics are similar to the rules of nonverbal language.. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. 105–107. organize. REFERENCE Cooper. The Standard Celeration Society: www. W. PRESTIA PRECISION TEACHING Precision teaching. 1987) under the realm of applied behavior analysis principles. (2003). is an integral part of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) that shares current information about the student’s functioning. NJ: Prentice Hall. Pragmatics is often based on one’s cultural experiences or background. 18(2). JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT PRAGMATICS Pragmatics involves the ability to use practical components of language to enhance the communicative message. Power Cards: Using special interests to motivate children and youth with Asperger syndrome and autism. Second. & Heward.athabascau. L.. the distance between speaker and listener.org.. See also sensory integration. also referred to as the present level.celeration. Heron. E. & Simpson. Heron. E. KELLY M. and carry out a physical. B. The present level is the corner 275 . TARA MIHOK PRESENT LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE (PLEP) The present level of educational performance (PLEP). FURTHER INFORMATION Athabasca University Online Precision Teaching Training Module. and gestures to enhance meaning and turn-taking and topic selection within a conversation. Finally. (1987). S. Upper Saddle River. Myles. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. (2001). O. Keeling. 1987). R. FURTHER INFORMATION Gagnon. K. First. Shawnee Mission. T. including the use of eye contact between communicative partners. is founded in several theories. Using the Power Card strategy to teach sportsmanship skills to a child with autism. they believe that ‘‘learning most often occurs through proportional changes in behavior’’ (Cooper et al.. COOK PRAXIS Praxis is the ability to plan. future learning has a positive correlation with past performance gains or losses. E. J.

d. objective. However. communication concerns. 2002). Information regarding the impact of the child’s disability and how it pertains to progress within the general education setting is an absolute necessity when it comes to planning an appropriate IEP. information shared by parents. grades. This also pertains to how the preschool-aged child is involved in preschool activities and how their participation is affected by their disability (Rebhorn. mobility issues. All goals and short-term objectives written later in the IEP process must relate directly to a need in the present level (Nebraska Department of Education Special Populations Office. If appropriate. the information shared directly by the student (Massanari. There are specific items that should be included in a present level. Often a statement of the child meeting the criteria for a specific diagnosis is included. This would include initial testing as well as 3-year reevaluation information. or behavior issues that are individual to their child. communication skills. 2002). social skills. n. later items within the IEP may address these concerns through a goal.). A student’s strengths should be directly addressed in the PLEP. These concerns may relate to home. information from therapists’ data collection. it is not necessary to list every test and score given. 2004). There are a variety of ways that an IEP team can gain information regarding the PLEP of a student. as appropriate. The concerns related to the individual needs can be compared to the expectation of general education curriculum (Massanari. examples of student work. or behavior intervention plan if necessary. It also includes strengths. weaknesses. This would include what the student’s typical peers are required to learn and in what ways they are required to do so. behavior concerns. and vocational training. The more information available. These aptitudes are the foundations of instructional programming for individuals. the more useful the present level will be to the IEP team. daily living skills. These include evaluation information (in district and independently done). Concerns may relate to academics. 2002) or a relative strength. and learning styles of the individual (Rebhorn. school. Parental concerns should be placed directly within the present level (3rd Cycle Special Education Special Education Self-Assessment [SEMSA] Training. Specific test names and scores may be noted if appropriate.PRESENT LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE (PLEP) stone to which all areas of the IEP should connect by summarizing the basic information related to a student’s needs in one place. These strengths can include academic skills. social issues. All information used must be current. By building on strengths through the creation of goals and objects based on abilities.). it is necessary to understand the requirements of the grade-level classroom. Strong abilities are important because they give the team a baseline of what a child can do well (LD Online. When addressing how the child’s disability affects their participation in the general education curriculum. special education teacher observations. 2002). The PLEP should contain information related to the most recent evaluations. or any other area the child shows as a strength (Rebhorn. social skills. regular education teacher reports. 276 . n. or long-term issues. 2002). sensory needs. success can be gained. Information for an independent evaluation may also be included (Rebhorn. The PLEP covers all areas of development such as academics.d. and. 2002).

ldonline. 2006. Scores received on state and district testing should be summarized and explained clearly in relation to the strengths and weaknesses of the student (3rd Cycle SEMSA Training. Connecting the IEP to the general curriculum: A talking paper.state. a change in placement. REFERENCES LD Online.gov/ divspeced/Compliance/MSIP_Monitoring/3rdCycleSpecEd_FY06_files/slide0028.ppt. Retrieved June 9.).. 2005. & Dyches. These include statements of when. and include both academic and nonacademic information (WI Family Assistance Center for Education. Massanari. (2004). FURTHER INFORMATION Gibb. Nashville: Author. T.). social and communication skills for success in a social setting. Nashville. n. Nebraska Department of Education Special Populations Office.d. C. A statement of exemption from certain tests may also be included. 2005. include strengths and concerns. Division of Special Education.htm.nde. modifications. n. Rebhorn. related services. Retrieved December 7. 277 . Retrieved June 6. The PLEP is an integral part of the IEP.d. (2002). State and district-wide assessments should be addressed within the present level.org/learning/IEPProc&Prod.org/ article/6277. S. a change in school or living arrangement. from www. Developing your child’s IEP: A parent’s guide. Specific considerations should include academic and occupational skills the student will require. Special Education Compliance MoDESE. It is the basis for goals and short-term objectives. Washington.).wifacets. Present level of educational performance (PLEP). (n. (n. Individualized Education Program (IEP). IA: Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center. T. behavior intervention plans. (2002). Retrieved June 8. 2004). where.d.ne. The IEP process & product. from www. This information cannot be determined until goals are set (LD Online.html. B. Guide to writing quality individualized education programs: What’s best for students with disabilities? Needham Heights. (2000).PRESENT LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE (PLEP) Changes in the student’s functioning since the last IEP should be included in the present level of educational performance. include baseline data. and personal management skills for independent living (LD Online. Within the present level. or how services will be provided. If a student is of an age to receive transition services. Any change that affects the child and is relevant to education may be included. Des Moines. 2005. T. WI Family Assistance Center for Education. there are items that should not be included. and Support. the present level should also contain information about employment and independent living issues and other final outcomes.d. DC: National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities. Tennessee State Department of Education. These items will be acknowledged after the IEP goals and objectives are written in a later part of the IEP. Training. or a change in health.). 3rd Cycle Special Education Special Education Self-Assessment (SEMSA) Training. This may include: met IEP goals and objectives. and Support.mo.d. n. IEP: The process.us/SPED/iepproj/develop/ pre. The present level should be written in such a way that it would explain the needs of an individual child even to someone that did not know the child personally. It is imperative that the PLEP be measurable. MA: Allyn & Bacon. G. and finally placement. from http://dese. (1999). Training. (2001).). from www. This includes what assessments will be taken and modifications that will be used if necessary.

000) and 1 in 166 children (60/10.. (2000). Presymbolic thought is the formation of the sense of ‘‘self. R. how symbols. or characteristic within a specified population group. May 4). the back and forth behavior communicated between an infant and caregiver.. and counts the number of persons with a specific condition at that time. (2003).cdc. 2006. Cambridge. & Clark. Case studies in assessment for transition planning. A. Department of Health and Human Services. 2003. 87–89. LACAVA 278 .). and intelligence evolved from our primate ancestors to modern humans. L. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The first idea. G. 2006. S. from http://www. FURTHER INFORMATION Greenspan. Department of Health and Human Services. Austin. & Fombonne.. TX: Pro-Ed. from http:// www. PAUL G. Chakrabarti. To obtain prevalence. J. M. K. n. (2006). & Shanker.jama. E. reciprocity. Trainor. Fombonne. the rate rose to 10 per 10. (2004). etc. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. (2006. Presymbolic thought is manifested through gestures. Retrieved May 16. Retrieved May 16.com. E. Fact sheet: CDC autism research. From the 1960s to the 1980s. 162. VALERIE JANKE REXIN PRESYMBOLIC THOUGHT Presymbolic thought is the developmental and emotional stage.000. and learn to discriminate are all part of presymbolic thought processes.htm. Fombonne.d. D. 2005.gov/ncbddd/autism/asd_common. that precedes symbolic thought.PRESYMBOLIC THOUGHT Tillmann. 2006. S. or crying. A. from www. one takes all the persons in a group. generally present between 8 and 24 months. Chakrabarti & Fombonne. & Ford. Patton.’’ A toddler’s ability to see cause and effect. The prevalence of autism. country. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children: Confirmation of high prevalence. such as ‘‘ma-ma’’ and ‘‘wa-wa’’. (n. (2005). Eric Document Reproduction Service ED 456608. frowning.. 2006.cdc. A.. The Journal of the American Medical Association. and affect signaling. S.000. MA: Da Capo Press. American Journal of Psychiatry. such as pointing.d. the prevalence rate for autism was considered to be 4 or 5 per 10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1133–1141. Quill.pdf. ANN PILEWSKIE PREVALENCE Prevalence is the rate of occurrence of a condition. such as smiling.000. (2001). language. vocalizations. Do-watch-listen-say: Social and communication intervention for children with autism. 289. J.gov/od/oc/media/ transcripts/AutismResearch FactSheet. discover patterns. Analysis of transition services of individualized education programs for high school students with special needs.) How common are Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Retrieved May 17. REFERENCES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalence for autism has been and continues to be controversial. disease. In the 1990s. Current prevalence rates for autism spectrum disorders are between 1 in 500 (20/10.

Develop a routine by choosing a specific time and place to hold the priming sessions. 2. 5. 4. 279 . During the priming session. The following items must be addressed: 1. or even a peer may prime the student. and parents have decided who will prime. It is not meant to teach the material. The purpose of priming is to introduce predictability into the information or activity. If possible. He often disrupts other children particularly when the teacher is reading their daily story. but only to familiarize the child with the material or the event in a nonthreatening and exploratory manner. 3. The actual priming session is short and concise and typically involves using the actual materials that will be used in the lesson or activity.PRIMING PRIMING Priming is a strategy that helps prepare children for an upcoming activity or event with which they normally have difficulty. resource room teacher. paraprofessional. Who will prepare the priming materials? Where and when can the primer access the priming materials? How will the primer notify the teacher that the priming has occurred? How will it be determined that priming is an effective strategy? How will the problems be addressed? How will documentation of priming session results be shared? After communication and collaboration strategies have been implemented. 1996). 6. This intervention can be used with children with exceptionalities who engage in avoidance behaviors when materials or tasks are presented. It is important that everyone working with the child (home and school) be involved in this process. increasing the probability of success. the morning of. be patient and encouraging and always reward the student for all attempts to participate in the session. Koegel. Once the teacher. 1992). allow the student to be involved in deciding where the priming session will be held and what reinforcements will be used. & Koegel. require extensive exploration time before they can participate with a material. or right before the activity (Zanolli. it is important for open communication to exist between the teacher and family as to upcoming situations that may require priming. need help with social interactions. Familiarize (not teach!) the student with the new material. A classroom teacher. It can occur at home or in the classroom and is most effective if it is built into the child’s routine. Remember. This can be done at an Individualized Education Program meeting or conference. Priming can occur the day before the activity. EXAMPLE OF PRIMING Bryan is having difficulty paying attention during circle time in kindergarten. The first step in priming is to determine who is going to prime and what activities are going to be involved. It can be performed by anyone that works with the child at home or at school. Daggett. the actual priming session can take place. this is supposed to be a positive experience! Students have more motivation to complete tasks if they feel they have some control over their environment. parent. & Adams. or have trouble transitioning in their environment (Wilde. thereby reducing frustration and anxiety. support staff.

. After each session the priming implementer should notify the teacher of the results of the priming activity. 2(1). D. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. The results are then used to guide instruction.PROBE During a parent conference.. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. L. R. reinforcer. See also accommodation. Bryan’s teacher and mother decided to use priming techniques at home to reduce his off-task behavior while in circle time. A probe evaluates how well a child learned a target skill. R. CYNTHIA K. 280 . (2005). N. Language. Teaching preschool age autistic children to make spontaneous initiations to peers using priming. She asked him general questions along the way. without teacher assistance or reinforcement. Computer Speech and Language. The use of video priming to reduce disruptive transition behavior in children with autism. B. L. 28–35. Zanolli. Some educators probe a student’s performance on a skill prior to each instructional sitting. S.. Towards situated speech understanding: Visual context priming of language models. Because Bryan had heard the story the night before and knew what to expect from the story. Daggett. Roy. By doing this.. 19(2). J.. Bryan’s teacher gave his mother the book they were going to read the next day in circle time. Shawnee Mission. Communication between the teacher and the priming implementer continues after the priming session.. & Myles. Koegel. Moore. K. L. VAN HORN AND KARLA DENNIS PROBE Probes are assessments of small samples of behavior or skills under natural conditions. & Adams. Increasing success in school through priming: A training manual. K. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. but did not interrupt the story. & Mukherjee. L. Frea. (1992). N. Whalen. I. 227–248. (2003). 3–11. Bryan’s mother read the book to Bryan as part of his bedtime routine that evening. D. L. Santa Barbara: University of California. & Koegel.. Speech. G. Asperger syndrome and the elementary school experience: Practical solutions for academic and social difficulties. T. K. 14(2).. 34(3). Bryan became familiar with the pictures and the text in a comfortable setting. L. 106–109. FURTHER INFORMATION Bainbridge. Koegel. (2002). The use of priming to introduce toilet training to a child with autism. C. and Hearing Services in Schools. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. single-subject design. Koegel. S. Schreibman. he was able to focus on the book during circle time the following day. (1999). W. R.. & Hopkins.. & Stahmer. Documentation as to whether the priming session had an impact on the student’s behavior is necessary to determine if the intervention is effective. 26(4). Priming as a method of coordinating educational services for students with autism. This example can be used at all grade levels for upcoming events and academic subjects. REFERENCES Wilde. (2000). (1996). 407–422. A.. Bryan attended to the story without disrupting the teacher or his peers. By familiarizing him with the book. See also assessment.

REFERENCE Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004.wrightslaw. THERESA L. in teaching a child to touch his head when instructed. L. Some of the procedural safeguards include the right to inspect records. J. Public Law No. FURTHER INFORMATION Wright. NJ: Prentice Hall.com. Over time. (2007). guided compliance.. 2006. LACAVA PROMPT DEPENDENCE Prompt dependence is an individual’s reliance on prompts rather than attempting independence. the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA). and physical assistance. the 281 . Retrieved May 26. (2004). from http://www. 109-446. A decreasing prompt technique initially provides a prompt that ensures a correct response and systematically fades the prompt down the hierarchy until the learner achieves independence. The prompts are arranged by the level of support they provide. P.PROMPT HIERARCHY FURTHER INFORMATION Salvia. (2004). J. § 20 U. PAUL G. W. J. For example. Autism: Teaching does make a difference. participate in meetings.. the student may begin to believe he or she is not capable of completing a task independently.). prompting. IDEA 2004 v. Assessment: In special and inclusive education (10th ed. gesturing. L. and obtain an outside independent evaluation. D. This most often occurs when prompts have been overused (highly invasive prompts being used when less invasive ones are appropriate) or not faded quickly enough as the individual becomes capable of independent success. a student may hold a pencil but not attempt to write.). and comparison. KATIE BASSITY PROMPT HIERARCHY A prompt hierarchy is a series of supports provided to help a learner perform new skills and behaviors. explanation. instead waiting for an adult to do the writing through prompts. See also graduated guidance. EARLES-VOLLRATH PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS Procedural safeguards are the protections that federal law. For example. (2002). D. & Fox. when learning writing. The individuals with disabilities education improvement act of 2004: Overview. Scheuermann. Teaching students with severe disabilities (3rd ed. & Ysseldyke. & Webber. verbal prompting. Allowing a student to remain dependent on prompts in several areas of functioning can also lead to learned helplessness.. (2004). E. affords to all students and their caregivers as they navigate the educational system. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. modeling. prompt hierarchy. Westling. these prompts generally include natural environmental stimuli. register complaints. receive prior written notice before meetings. IDEA 97.S. Upper Saddle River. Belmont. From least to most supportive.C. B.

then the teacher would prompt from the least intrusive prompt to the most intrusive prompt to reach a correct response from the child (Anderson. Following this. 1996). or gestural assistance given to an individual to aid in the completion of or successful response to a given task. O. prompt dependence. R..PROMPTING teacher will first give the instruction. while ensuring the student’s success. Taras. Within each type of prompting (physical. Teaching new skills to young children with autism.’’ paired with moving the child’s hand to touch his head. guided compliance. Behavioral intervention for young children with autism (pp. TX: Pro-Ed. Luce (Eds. It is preferable to use the least intrusive prompt necessary for the individual to succeed. In addition. verbal. Green. Prompts are generally used in the initial teaching stages of a new task or behavior. verbal. KATIE BASSITY PRONOUN ERRORS A common speech characteristic for individuals with autism is pronoun error or pronoun reversal. & Cannon. REFERENCES Anderson. It is important to use the form of prompting. an increasing prompt technique allows the learner to first attempt the behavior and increases the level of prompt as needed until the learner successfully performs the behavior. no-no prompt procedure. it is also important to maintain consistency. If the child does not respond spontaneously. As always. the child is given the chance to increase his or her spontaneous responses for skills already mastered. which can most easily be faded. TARA MIHOK AND ANDREA HOPF PROMPTING Prompting is any physical. For example.. In contrast. Austin.). In C. Research has clearly 282 . Taras. See also graduated guidance. physical prompts range from highly intrusive (such as hand-over-hand assistance) to least intrusive (such as placing a correct response closer to the student or a light touch to the body part needed for a successful response).181–194). the teacher will repeat the instruction while modeling the correct response or pointing to the child’s head. See also graduated guidance. & Cannon. after some repetition and this prompt fading. prompt dependence. Maurice. ‘‘Touch your head. This is when an individual substitutes various pronouns such as saying ‘‘You’’ when ‘‘I’’ should be used. An early myth of autism was that pronoun difficulties were the child’s misunderstanding of their own identity. M. & S. the intrusive hand-over-hand prompt would only be used if the individual could not succeed supported by a less invasive prompt. G. particularly across individuals working on the same skills. the child should be able to touch his head when given the verbal instruction. it is important to fade prompts as quickly as possible to allow the student to complete as much of the task independently as possible. Finally. For example. L. In least-to-most prompting. prompting. B. or gestural) there are several different levels of prompts. S. (1996). guided compliance. Then the teacher will repeat the instruction while touching his elbow and moving the hand up to his head.

PAUL G. Autism: Explaining the enigma. Children with autism may exhibit pronoun errors due to their echolalic use of language. intonation. KELLY M. See also sensory integration. Retrieved July 21.. qmuc.uk/ssrc/prosodyinASD/. ‘‘Do you want ice cream?’’ they may repeat back ‘‘you want ice cream. However. D. intent.. and stress during speech production—that is. and Hearing Research. (2001). R. For some individuals with autism spectrum disorder. 1097–1115. delayed. (1998). FURTHER INFORMATION Gerken. LACAVA PROTO-DECLARATIVE Proto-declarative pointing is when a baby or toddler uses their index finger/hand to point to an object to indicate that they have an interest in something and that they want another person to share in their attention. most children develop more sophisticated language over time while those with autism may not. many with ASD have prosodic challenges that may or may not be changed over time.. PAUL G. and so forth. from http://www. An overview of prosody and its role in normal and disordered child language. 7. & McGregor. if they hear someone say.. This communication challenge with both expressing and understanding prosody may contribute to social and relationship difficulties. Shriberg. Speech and prosody characteristics of adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. pitch. joint. 44. Klin.. and tendon movements activate the receptors of the proprioceptive system. Prosody and Autism Spectrum Disorders. making carrying multiple objects down a packed hallway possible by providing information about the location and movement of a body part. pauses between syllables and words.d. & Volkmar. J. D. UK: Blackwell Publishers. and chronic fatigue accompanying physical activity. voice volume. incoordination. LACAVA PROPRIOCEPTION Muscle. (n. these movements are not automatic. McSweeny. Journal of Speech.. Oxford. speech rate. A. PRESTIA PROSODY Prosody is an overall term used to describe the rhythm. See also echolalia: immediate. as pronoun errors are common in typical child development. 38–48. Both are essential to understanding and communicating language. U. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. L.PROTO-DECLARATIVE shown that this is not the case. R. Some of the difficulties facing those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include producing understandable tone of voice. K. The key to this joint attention behavior is that the baby/toddler is indicating communicative intent with another 283 .). L. FURTHER INFORMATION Frith. L. F. Paul. and so on. (1989).ac. That is. Language. emotion. 2006. mitigated. Although not a characteristic of all.’’ Pronoun errors may also be due to confusion over when to use the correct tenses. resulting in poor posture. Cohen. J. vestibular. the importance of how something is said as opposed to the content of the speech.

39. A. Pediatrics. 13.. Proto-declarative pointing is a behavior that typically developing youngsters begin to use around 14 months of age and is often delayed or absent in toddlers with autism. P. S.. Baron-Cohen. Charman. The child points to an object that they want and then looks to another person to indicate that they want it. J. J. theory of mind. (1998). U. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders have difficulty categorizing new information by forming prototypes and. and toddlers with autism typically use this behavior but sometimes without eye contact or by pushing/taking the adult to the object they want. FURTHER INFORMATION Baird. 56–75. Wheelwright. Cambridge. G. Wheelwright. The norms of cognitive development. Gerrans. MA: MIT Press. The child is indicating what they want by verbalizing. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT 284 . Baird... 107. (2000). 694–702. This behavior often begins around 1 year of age in typically developing youngsters.. (1995). instead. Cox. Mind and Language. S. Baron-Cohen. Swettenham. A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: A 6-year follow-up study. Gerrans. Autism: Explaining the enigma. 56–75. The absence of three behaviors (proto-declarative pointing. Charman. PAUL G.. G. UK: Blackwell Publishers.. 39. A. T.. Swettenham.. LACAVA PROTOTYPE FORMATION Prototype formation involves the integration of information and the generalization of previously learned concepts to new situations. PAUL G. et al.. FURTHER INFORMATION American Academy of Pediatrics. To assess prototype formation. Mind and Language. tend to rely on a rule-based approach to learning. Baron-Cohen. utilize learning tasks that can be solved using a rule-based approach and a second set of tasks in which rules did not govern category membership (prototype tasks). S. gaze response. Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Oxford. (1998). S. This behavior is developmentally part of joint attention behaviors. P. and alternating looking at the adult. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 694–702. and pretend-play) in toddlers at 18 months of age is often highly predictive of a future autism diagnosis. pointing. T. Frith. A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: A 6-year follow-up study. Cox. See also autistic disorder. (2001). 13.. Committee on Children with Disabilities. et al. Technical report: The pediatrician’s role in the diagnosis and management of autistic spectrum disorder in children [Electronic version]. (2000). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.PROTO-IMPERATIVE person. (1989).. LACAVA PROTO-IMPERATIVE Proto-imperative pointing is when an infant attempts to obtain something by using their index finger/hand to point to an object while verbalizing and alternating looking at their parent/caregiver. The norms of cognitive development. S.

Psychologists can diagnose autism and are major contributors to the autism research base. See Antipsychotic Medications PSYCHOBIOLOGY Psychobiology refers to the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. L.): TEACCH Individualized Psychoeducational Assessment for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. the study of human behavior and mental processes. STEVE CHAMBERLAIN PSYCHOACTIVE MEDICATIONS. and develop programming goals. Austin. See also genetic factors/heredity.. Psychobiology and neuroscience both study the central nervous system. The PEP-3 is appropriate for children ages 2 through 71=2 or for those who are older but functioning at lower levels. chart developmental levels. and contribute to the research base on human behavior/ mental processing. such as individual and family counseling. LACAVA PSYCHOLOGIST A psychologist is a scientist who studies psychology. Psychologists provide mental health care services. R. using techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). See also norm-referenced assessment. treatment. The PEP-3 can be used to diagnose. Some key features of the PEP-3 are its flexibility in administration and ability to be used with students who have severe cognitive and language impairments. REFERENCES Schopler. norm-referenced section that is administered to children and an informal report that is completed by the parent/caregiver. Reichler.PSYCHOLOGIST PSYCHIATRIST A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis. standardization. M. The PEP-3 has a standardized. TX: Pro-Ed.. which seeks to use psychological concepts to explain disorders of the mind. Reichler. & Marcus. & Marcus. this position is contrasted by researchers who adopt a functionalist approach. the terms are often used interchangeably. PAUL G. As such. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROFILE–THIRD EDITION (PEP-3) The Psychoeducational Profile–Third Edition (PEP-3. (2005). Schopler. D.. making it difficult to establish if the two are branches or one in the same study. Lansing. and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. J. Psychobiology has been criticized because of its reductionist approach to the development of a disorder. PEP-3: Psychoeducational Profile (3rd ed. M. E. STEVE CHAMBERLAIN 285 . 2005) is an evaluation that addresses the unique strengths and needs for those with autism and other related disabilities. Psychiatrists can diagnose individuals with an autism spectrum disorder and can prescribe medication. Lansing. which reduces human behavior to genetics.

M. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. Response cost is a form of negative punishment (Alberto & Troutman. G. or mental disorders. Children with autism spectrum disorder: Medicine today and in the new millennium. It is also a term used to describe treatment with medications for those with emotional.e.PSYCHOMETRICS PSYCHOMETRICS Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the design. FURTHER INFORMATION Aman. EARLES-VOLLRATH PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Psychopharmacology broadly refers to the branch of science that studies the effect of drugs on brain chemistry and human behavior. with the therapist and psychiatrist sometimes working together as the psychiatrist prescribes medications and the therapist monitors the individual’s progress. The 286 . (2003). 15. Psychopharmacology has been used for over 50 years to treat those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). abilities. Examples of positive punishment include giving a child detention for talking in class or spanking a child for violent behavior. Contrary to popular use of the term. L. 138–145. (2002). LACAVA PSYCHOSOCIAL Psychosocial refers to psychological development pertaining to relationships with others and the adjustments necessary to navigate social situations. psychiatric. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT PUNISHMENT Punishment is an aversive stimulus contingent on a behavior that decreases the likelihood that the behavior will occur in the future (Azrin & Holz. Psychosocial treatments involve a licensed psychiatrist. punishment does not have to be aversive to the person to whom it is being applied. Tsai. and interpretation of tests that measure the psychological characteristics (i.. Examples of negative punishment include grounding a teenager for breaking curfew or taking away a video game system for poor grades. To date. However. A. THERESA L. 1999). & Collier-Crespin.. PAUL G. Negative punishment consists of removing a positive reinforcer. Taking the mystery out of medications in autism/Asperger syndromes: A guide for parents and non-medical professionals. (2000). or counselor. skills. Prevalence and patterns of use of psychoactive medicines among individuals with autism in the Autism Society of Ohio. 1966). Lam. social worker. It has been estimated that 50 percent of those with an ASD are taking at least one prescription medication to help with the various symptoms. 527–534. Arlington. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. L.. knowledge. S. psychologist. and personality traits) of an individual. Positive punishment consists of applying an aversive stimulus. TX: Future Horizons. 33. administration. prescriptions for those with ASD have increased over the last decades. K. Tsai. little research has concluded the effectiveness of many psychotropic medications for use with children.

New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. J. A. O.PUNISHMENT consequence is punishing simply because the frequency of the behavior will be lessened in the future (Cooper.. L. (1987). P. H. N. Heron. NJ: Prentice Hall. Operant behavior: Areas of research and application (pp. Upper Saddle River. W. 380–447). Cooper. & Troutman. C.. NJ: Merrill. In W. REFERENCES Alberto. (1999)... Applied behavior analysis.). E. & Holz. & Heward. 1996). See also applied behavior analysis. T. Applied behavior analysis for teachers. & Heward. C. W. K. Azrin. TARA MIHOK AND JESSICA KATE PETERS 287 . Honig (Ed. (1966). Upper Saddle River. Punishment. Heron. A.


and intimate social relationships. It is a ‘‘mission oriented’’ program. creating daily opportunities for the child to respond in more flexible. were never mastered. Remediation is a developmental process.R RDI PROGRAM The RDI Program educates and guides parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and others who interact and work with the child. It involves addressing early areas that. We search for the period in development where the child ‘‘hit a wall’’ and was not able to progress further. RDI strives to develop ‘‘real-world’’ dynamic abilities that will translate into future success. their own quality of life. to remediate those specific deficits that impede people on the autism spectrum from productive employment. thoughtful ways to novel. Ongoing program evolution is critical if we are to help increasing numbers of individuals on the autism spectrum to attain a quality of life. due to the neurological disorder. The mission of the RDI Program is to develop the most effective methods. effective means for increasing children’s capacity and motivation for experience sharing. Current treatment and intervention services do not address the abilities that ASD people need to attain a good quality of life. This means that it is not wedded to any specific techniques. We go back and build competence from that point. as . RDI empowers families and those who are primarily involved in caring for and educating the child. challenging. and increasingly unpredictable settings and problems. Remediation is a gradual. Both fathers and mothers are essential participants in the treatment process. The latest findings from developmental psychology and autism research are carefully ‘‘engineered’’ to provide clinical methods that improve effectiveness. as well as their flexibility and adaptation. The bulk of resources are invested in preparing parents and teachers to act as participant guides. Parents engaged in RDI overwhelmingly report significant improvement in the quality of life of the ASD child. to the point where it no longer constitutes an obstacle to reaching one’s potential. systematic process of correcting a deficit. Continual program evaluation critically determines which program components are effective and highlights areas of necessary modification. whatever they might be. independent living. marriage. Preliminary research indicates that the RDI Program is a powerful.

long-term remediation of specific deficits that define autism spectrum disorders and limit the quality of life of people on the autism spectrum ¥ Preparing parents and teachers to act as participant guides. 2002. 2. & Baird. intensive parent education ¥ Customized. treatment success also depends upon the commitment of school staff and other professionals to implement essential principles of remediation. 3. WHAT IS THE RDI PROGRAM? ¥ Systematic. 2005. Standard forms of measuring intelligence do not predict the severity of the autism itself (Howlin. Research results overwhelmingly support the idea that ASDs involve a wide range of neurological vulnerabilities that lead to more homogeneous deficits in certain types of complex information processing. Gutstein. emphasizing a biopsychosocial model ¥ Careful selection and evaluation of developmentally based objectives. Howlin & Goode. 2004. balanced remediation planning. Schultz. attempted to determine what deficit areas are unique and universal to individuals on the autism spectrum. 2003. 2001. 1993). Klin. which then lead to difficulties in all aspects of life (Belmonte et al. in press. they appear to be related to ‘‘continuous process’’ abilities (Fogel. 2004.200 developmentally staged objectives. Goldstein. Just. McGovern & Sigman. structuring activities throughout the day to provide safe. such as speech. 2006). Rather. Jones.. & Volkmar. over the past 15 years. in press. Guides help the child capture and stockpile critical memories that build an experiential repository of success in gradually more complex environments. Gutstein. thoughtful ways ¥ Helping children capture and stockpile critical memories that build a repository of competence. & Siegel. Minshew. which they use to carefully provide increasingly complex problems and challenges. but challenging opportunities for discovery. Autism spectrum disorders cannot be defined by ‘‘discrete’’ skills. Gutstein. & Goldstein. Cherkassky. in gradually more complex environments Education and coaching is implemented through the following methods: ¥ Small-group. Minshew. 2005). Keller. Gutstein. but junior partners—‘‘apprentices. social skills. Williams. & Montfort. Each objective has clear criteria for cognitive mastery ¥ Individualized consultation sessions with parents ¥ Regular video-taped review of samples of parent-child performance in the home ¥ School staff training and consultation SELECTING THE FOCUS OF REMEDIATION Over 200 research studies have. Burgess. Guides have access to a comprehensive system of over 1. Real-world competence emerges from children participating as active. Mayes & Calhoun. 2004. Restoring the critical early guided-participation relationship damaged by ASD ¥ Creating numerous daily opportunities for the child to respond in more flexible. In performing a comprehensive analysis of these studies we came to some important conclusions: 1.RDI PROGRAM well as the lives of their nonaffected children (Gutstein. While family is central to the RDI model. Parents are taught to rethink their daily lifestyle. & Minshew. or behavioral compliance (Hobson. 2003. 290 . 1997). Minshew. 2001.’’ who are carefully guided by parents and other adults. academic skills. Johnson. & Luna. 2000).

2001. In contrast. discovery. 2000). such as the abilities measured in IQ tests. Lewis. The dynamic elements of settings provide us with opportunities for growth. the application 291 . integration. The ability to maintain employment. Hedlund. & Horvath. You are probably more familiar with static intelligence. success accrues from accumulating enough right answers and correct solutions and applying them in association with specific setting cues. while dynamic intelligence measures what you can do with what you know in the real world. Grigorenko & Sternberg. Because dynamic environments require continual evaluation and adaptation. Sternberg. 2003. and collaboration. When we have a conversation. discovery. integration. In other words. We spend much of our lives choosing to enter situations of greater dynamic potential. Think of static intelligence as measuring what you know.RDI PROGRAM The deficits universally found in ASD appear to belong to what is termed Dynamic Intelligence (Day & Cordon. 1998. and most aspects of daily life are dependent on dynamic abilities. and collaboration. marriage. The following chart outlines some critical distinctions between dynamic and static forms of intelligence: Dynamic Continuous processing Regulating and adapting Flexible problem-solving Dynamic analysis Episodic memory Experience sharing Self-evaluation and self-regulation Simultaneous Flexible and contextual content use Static Discrete processing Performing Absolute problem-solving Static analysis Rote-procedural memory Instrumental communication Behavioral compliance Sequential Content accumulation Almost all human communication and interaction occurs in dynamic encounters. Granic & Hollenstein. if I pick the right response. friendship. I will be successful. 2000). The term dynamic implies the continual introduction of new information as well as the ongoing transformation of current information based upon changed contexts and relationships (Gaussen. or solution and apply it in the way I was taught. 1993. Forsythe. The dynamic elements of settings provide us with opportunities for growth. We go to hear someone lecture not because we want them to repeat what they have written in a book. We choose friends and mates who will encourage us to develop and grow. formula. once again talk about what we spoke about last week. Dynamic encounters provide an enormous payoff. but to hear something new. they are referred to as regulatory. In more static settings. but require a good deal of effort and different types of abilities than static environments. we certainly do not ask to.

It entails actively searching for opportunities for growth and goal attainment. 2001. Children with ASDs leave the pathway of dynamic learning somewhere in the first two years of life and are thus deprived of further opportunities for dynamic learning. Johnson. & Minshew. constraints and resources. 1996). Charman. Dynamic analysis is only possible when we learn that there are multiple ways we can organize meaning from any particular event or setting. By the end of their second year. Kemner. 1999. 2003. from rudimentary to highly sophisticated cognitive abilities. 2004. we have separated the elements of dynamic intelligence into five ‘‘processes. Channon. 2003). Regulation requires ongoing monitoring of the system and detection of important changes. Dynamic analysis is the act of evaluating the adaptational significance of our environment on a moment-to-moment basis. 2004. Emerich. 1993. or lacking the typical resources to solve problems. typical infants have gone a long way towards learning to manage the difficulties inherent in dynamic systems.’’ Creative-Flexible Thinking Creative thinking involves altering problem solutions and ways of perceiving a problem. Goldstein. Hoeksma. Domains of Dynamic Intelligence In order to develop a systematic progression of objectives. We integrate the realities of environmental demands.. ¥ Think of how often in a typical way problems arise that require flexibility? ¥ Consider how rare it is for you to feel completely certain about your decisions? ¥ Are the proper tools and resources always available when you need them? How do you manage? Dynamic Analysis Environments present many potential ways we can organize. relate.RDI PROGRAM of any single response or formula is a guarantee of failure in dynamic settings. Creaghead. Hughes & Russell. 2003). Grether. Jarrold. Lopez & Leekam. 2003. Instead of absolute thinking. Research has confirmed problems in dynamic analysis as a core aspect of ASDs (Burack. Landry & Bryson. & Cools. & Grasha. with personal interests. 2001. 2003. Crawford. they require relative or regulatory functioning. Regulation involves making continual adjustments to maintain optimal states of functioning in dynamic. & Rios. constantly evolving systems. van Spaendonck. Craig & Baron-Cohen. and prioritize information. Verbaten. & Van Engeland. 2004. The 12-month-old actually prefers dynamic encounters because he feels competent in managing the tension inherent in such challenges and has already learned that the ‘‘edge’’ of his competence is the most rewarding place to be (Sroufe. This is a critical problem for people with ASD (Berger. 1994. Aerts. Heap. Flexible problem-solving involves finding ‘‘work arounds’’ when running into unexpected problems. Murray. Mann & Walker. based on ongoing monitoring of current effectiveness. Dawson et al. ¥ How many times in a day do you employ ‘‘good enough’’ thinking? ¥ How do you know when a change is central or peripheral? ¥ How well would you function if you did not analyze contextual information? 292 . It also requires the ability to rapidly distinguish important (central) from unimportant (peripheral) changes in the system and to rapidly adapt actions to maintain functioning given system changes.

Powell. Gutstein & Whitney. Hobson. or that stands out and has personal meaning to us. 2000. & Sigman. Daley. Downs & Smith. Baldwin. changed. combining something from you with something from me with the hope that something unique and unexpected emerges. 1989. 2004. 1997. Camaioni. they are therefore unable to build up stores of remembered skills in such a way that they 293 . & Cesari. Perucchini. Millward. It entails extracting something that is personally important. & Jordan. plans. ¥ What is the role of language in communication? Can you communicate without words? What happens to adults who have a stroke and lose their language? Are ‘‘non-verbal’’ ASD children really only ‘‘non-verbal’’ or are they also ‘‘non-communicative’’? ¥ Imagine a conversation that did not include the desire to create bridges between minds. the single best predictor of future language for young children on the autism spectrum is the degree to which they develop the earliest manifestations of experience sharing (Baron-Cohen. Mewwer. different. Muratori. As we become proficient communicators we learn that we can fluidly share our internal and external experiences as well as linking our past. Shalom. regardless of their cognitive or language abilities.RDI PROGRAM Episodic Memory Episodic memory involves more than just remembering details of a past episode. and future. Experience sharing requires ongoing ‘‘continuous process’’ monitoring and evaluation of mutual comprehension and interest. Keen. 1998. ¥ What would your life would be like if you could not mentally prepare yourself for potential future events? ¥ How would you motivate yourself to reach goals if you could not ‘‘preview’’ the feeling of success prior to reaching it? ¥ How successful would you be if you were unable to learn from your own mistakes? Experience Sharing Human communication differs from all other species in that it offers the opportunity to share our subjective experiences of the world. you do not have access to your personal past in a manner that allows you to project into the future. Gardiner. create goals. In fact. 2006. Parrini. Gutstein. even as it continues to grow and develop. 2004. & Berthollier. 2004. and really tie the past in with the future. 2003). Berger. Bowler. You do not learn to dream. 1998. The lack of a self in autism proves devastating in terms of the problem-solving capability of individuals. What is there to talk about? Self Awareness Self awareness involves developing a coherent sense of self. Over 20 research studies confirm that episodic memory deficits appear to be universal in ASD (Bowler. The essence of all human communication entails sharing and integrating experiences. Without episodic memories. a ‘‘me’’ that we perceive as unique and coherent. Geller. 2003. & Crowson. Bono. Hobson & Lee. Gardiner. present. 2003). 2000. 2000. & Grice. Researchers have noted a lack of experiencesharing communication in individuals on the spectrum. 2002. The self becomes the primary organizing principle for appraisal and evaluation. You do not develop the ability to anticipate and think in a hypothetical sense about what might happen in your future. as they are unable to develop memories of themselves as problem-solving agents.

an effort that results in a ‘‘meeting of minds’’ in which the partner’s thoughts make contact. 1984. Galpert. 1997. 1997. Papoudi. through parental guidance. Waterhouse. 2002). Hill. Nair. & Robarts. We develop our sense of self through contrast and comparison with others. 1990. PARENTS LEARN TO BE COMPETENT GUIDES Guided participation. 1990. 1998. Goldfield. & Loftus. 1982. & Waltrip. L’Ecuyer. 2005). & Sigman. Kaye. Gipps. the adult and child must strive for a common approach to the situation. evaluating. Our hope is that through reengaging the IR. 1991. Russell & Hill. For information. Gomez & Baird. and mental skills to move from the social-interactive plane to the internal-thinking plane. 1999. Sakihama. Weissmann. When we study societies and cultures all over the world. & Boyatzis. 1995. Mundy & Sigman. Hodapp. Hobson. 1992. THE INTERSUBJECTIVE RELATIONSHIP The Intersubjective Relationship (IR) is perceived by developmental psychologists as the essential lab for learning to function in dynamic systems—environments in which new information is continually introduced and where success requires ongoing monitoring of the meaning of information in a contextual manner (Tomasello. Spencer. & Stilson. ideas. 1998. Powell & Jordan. Rather we learn through acting as an inexperienced apprentice with an adult guide who gradually introduces us to more and more complexity in the world. Kamio. A primary focus for RDI consultants is helping parents and their children restore the critical IR that is inherently damaged by ASD. Charman et al. Sigman & McGovern. and reacting to the changes in their world. et al. Trevarthen. Okada. Kromelow. Morris. Hill & Russell. You have never taken a course in any of the areas of dynamic intelligence. Youngstrom. 1993). can begin to develop on the pathway of dynamic learning opportunities and can internalize the complex mental processes that are essential to attaining a quality of life. describes the way that adults teach children to become competent in real-world thinking and problem solving (Rogoff. & Chiat. Kasari. Toichi. 2002. a term associated with psychologist Barbara Rogoff. Lee. through participating in the IR. 1999. 2001). and coincide. It has also been found by researchers to be the deficit that is most persistent and resistant to change over time (Sigman. 2005. connect. 2001. 1989. Sims. 1993. ASD children’s early failure to develop intersubjectivity is the most documented deficit in the autism research (Bacon. Tanguay. 1999. Fein. 1994. Mundy. Our guides also gradually require us to become more of a partner in maintaining the regularity of the system. Robertson. Mundy. & Allen. 294 . 1996). the child. 2004. Trevarthen & Aitken. In a sense. Chan. & Watson.. 2004. In the IR each participant in the dialogue strives to grasp the subjective perspective of the other. Aitken. Klein. ASD individuals appear to have striking deficits in selfdevelopment (Dawson & McKissick.RDI PROGRAM can reflect on them strategically. it is very clear that the way in which children learn to function in dynamic systems is not through direct instruction. children are able to temporarily ‘‘appropriate’’ their parents’ mental processes—their ways of analyzing. Dawson. The underlying ‘‘engine’’ of guided participation is intersubjectivity: a sharing of focus and purpose between children and their more skilled partners (Harding.. 1984.

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(d) onset before age five years. (b) pervasiveness— attachment difficulties must be seen across several different contexts and with several different caregivers. or indiscriminately friendly behavior in early or middle childhood coupled with attention seeking and poorly modulated social interactions. Child psychiatry (2nd ed. shows clinging behavior in infancy. and are differentiated from insecure attachments. S.g. the child may respond to caregivers with a mixture of approach. the following criteria are relevant for diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder: (a) severity—there is no attachment in any meaningful sense and no enduring relationship with caregivers. (f) mental age greater than 10–12 months. Research has indicated that the only way to clearly distinguish between the two in terms of the social difficulties is that reactive attachment disorders tend to respond more positively to interventions and therapy leading to the child no longer showing the behaviors (e. (2005).). & Scott. and resistance to comfort. Goodman. or that there has been a clear history of neglect or abuse in early childhood in those who develop reactive attachment disorder. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. In the latter (inhibited). Insecure attachment also does not necessarily lead to difficulties with social responsiveness and relatedness. 2005. APA. (c) distress or disability—the disorder causes the child persistent social disability or persistent distress. 123). R.. DC: Author. when placed in stable and positive foster care the child becomes more reciprocal and shows rapid emergence of social responsiveness). Around 40 percent of children may be classified as insecurely attached (Goodman & Scott. 299 . Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. avoidance. In the former (disinhibited). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. p. It is clear from these descriptions that there could be some difficulty in distinguishing reactive attachment disorders from autism spectrum disorders as the behaviors described may be evident in both. 2000).. whereas this is a core characteristic of reactive attachment disorder..). (2000). They lack emotional responsiveness and may act aggressively in response to distress—either their own or another person’s. text rev. 2000) defines two types of reactive attachment disorder: disinhibited type and inhibited type.REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER OF INFANCY OR EARLY CHILDHOOD REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER OF INFANCY OR EARLY CHILDHOOD The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. the child lacks selectivity in the people from whom comfort is sought. Washington. (e) not autistic—the lack of other autism impairments such as repetitive or ritualistic behaviors or communication difficulties indicates that the child does not have an autism spectrum disorder that could explain the impaired social relationships. and (g) pathogenic care—an early abnormal care giving environment either due to several changes of primary caregiver or due to neglect of the child’s emotional or physical needs. The condition is therefore not pervasive. Reactive attachment disorders are rare. but in insecure attachment this can relate to only one caregiver with the child being appropriately and securely attached to other caregivers. According to the DSM-IV-TR (APA.

Zeanah. (b) coordination of eye gaze. icons. visual strategies. rules. often referred to as ‘‘give and take. In M. augmentative and alternative communication. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. gestures and sign language. T.e. Rutter & E. Oxford: Blackwell Science.. It is important to remember that frequently information. or enjoyment (Wetherby & Woods. (d) lack of warm expression to others with gaze. 64. RASCHELLE THEOHARRIS RECIPROCAL COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION Reciprocal communication refers to a specific component of interaction involving appropriate communication based on the understanding of the conversational partner’s message.).RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE FURTHER INFORMATION O’Connor. (1996). Beyond insecurity: A reconceptualisation of attachment disorders of infancy. and (h) absence of showing interest. Reciprocal communication tends to extend conversations as an individual’s comment (i. and procedures are presented verbally. Taylor (Eds. Consider incorporating pictures. (f) repetitive movements of the body. Certain behaviors can be red flags that alert parents and professionals to a child’s potential needs and/or delays. 776–792). ‘‘Did you not get enough sleep last night?’’). There are numerous red flags that differentiate those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from children with other developmental disabilities and from typically developing youngsters. 300 . FIONA J. etc. gestures. (e) unusual vocal prosody. 2002). See also American Sign Language. Comments that would serve as a starting point for reciprocal communication may fail to receive a response from individuals with ASD. ‘‘I am tired’’) is met by comments and questions (i. (c) facial expression. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started a new campaign in 2005 that highlighted the need for parents of infants and toddlers to know the warning signs of autism.’’ are hallmarks of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Attachment disorder of infancy and childhood. and sounds.. H. Child and adolescent psychiatry (4th ed. Challenges with reciprocity. 42–52.. (2002). These red flags include: (a) lack of appropriate eye gaze. pp. See also American Sign Language. social skills. (g) not responding to name. SCOTT RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE Receptive language is the ability to understand and process spoken and written language (listening and reading). JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT RED FLAGS A red flag is an alert or warning intended to draw attention to a problem or potential problem. directions. communication with or between individuals with ASD can seem disjointed or one-sided. Processing auditory information is difficult for some individuals with autism. Individuals with ASD are often explicitly taught to engage in reciprocal communication.. G. consequently.e. sharing interest. Picture Exchange Communication System. hands. visual strategies. corrections. C.

Most notably. there is some debate as to whether sensory reinforcers serve as primary or secondary reinforcers. 34. Unpublished manual. TERRI COOPER SWANSON REINFORCER Reinforcement is a procedure that increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again. water. Atlanta. (2004).. H.. KATHERINE E. such as specific foods. and movies. Dickinson. A reinforcer is what is used to bring about that increase in behavior. & Lord. Tallahassee. J. J. J. G. A. & Munson. Primary reinforcers are those things that are biologically necessary: food.S. (2005). or social interaction. National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. All other reinforcers are secondary. Section 504 is internationally recognized as the foundational civilrights legislation for persons with disabilities.. A. Dawson. J. Systematic observation of red flags for autism spectrum disorders in young children (SORF).. M. § 701 et seq. sensory processing. LACAVA REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 guarantees certain rights to individuals with disabilities. COOK 301 . REFERENCE Pub. 394 (September 26. 239–251. Residential facilities can be public or privately owned. Wetherby.. GA: Author. paving the way for further legislation for individuals with disabilities. 473–493. L. Reinforcers can also be divided into primary and secondary types. Woods. Early recognition of 1-year-old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation. (2002). Students with visual impairments and hearing impairments represent the largest percentage of students receiving educational services in residential facilities. Florida State University. 87 Stat. & Woods. A. PAUL G. 93-112. Law No. Cleary. See also sensory integration. See also Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. 14.. 1973). M. FL. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.. codified at 29 U. Allen. Development and Psychopathology. Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. C. (2002). KATIE BASSITY RESIDENTIAL FACILITY Students receive special education and related services in a facility where the students receive care and services 24 hours a day. J. Learn the signs: Act early [Brochure]. Wetherby.RESIDENTIAL FACILITY REFERENCES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. however. and sex.C. toys. FURTHER INFORMATION Osterling. A. Secondary reinforcers may be a tangible item.

Third. On-site activities emphasize visual. a number of autism-specific. During the 1970s and 1980s. Second. with up to six clients in each (LaVigna. and agricultural environments. Some residential programs preferred smaller ratios of four per home. what are the facility’s mission and goals and do they match or meet your family’s needs? Every facility is going to have their own unique philosophy and it is important that it matches your family’s. 302 . it is important for the family and the individual with ASD to consider the following. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). most programs consisted of group homes in urban or suburban settings. In an effort to promote maximum integration into the community. 1990). The initiative for most residential supports currently available came from parents and teachers concerned about the future of their children and students as they transitioned into adulthood. The general model of these programs focuses on residents and staff working together to contribute to all aspects of the community. Individuals with autism need to be assessed on their strengths and needs when planning for continuity of services. as well as individualized life skills instruction. optimizing development though independence and competence in various areas (Lettick. When considering residential support programs. Taking a tour of the facility will help to learn what features the facility has to offer. will allow formal and informal conversations with staff. 1983). First. 1990). 1983. 1983). staff training. Some sites offer educational and behavioral programming with a range of school. Community-based programs often focus on sharing common goals of residents (Sloan & Schopler.RESIDENTIAL SUPPORTS RESIDENTIAL SUPPORTS As children grow into adults. Wall. Larger facilities are able to provide increased opportunities for social interactions and allow for an increase of staff members to provide a variety of background skills including more flexible supervision of residents. Larger settings also provide natural subgroups for social and work participation around common interests and skills (Kay. and understanding of the characteristics of each individual is extremely important. larger residential group settings have proven beneficial as well. does the facility offer the type or level of support that is appropriate for your child? For individuals with ASD. ask to talk with other families whose children live or work at the facility. Finally. This is a great way to find out about the quality of the facility and services that they provide. Many community-based models include self-contained programs offering vocational and residential components. community-based. having the appropriate environment. residential programs were developed across the United States. or garden apartments and town homes with two or three residents (CSAAC. During the last two decades. families are faced with the complexities of how to best meet their child’s needs and provide support for an appropriate living arrangement. visit the residential site to determine if the program is the right fit. work. where residents interact with nondisabled neighbors in the community. and facilitating individual independence (LaVigna. fine-motor and gross-motor skills in order to maximize each individual’s possibilities for success. 1977). which will provide first-hand information as to how individuals are treated and cared for. no single residential treatment approach is appropriate for everyone. 1995).


Community Services for Autistic Adults and Children (CSAAC). (1995). Adult residential program, adult vocational program [Brochure]. Rockville, MD: Author. Kay, B. R. (1990). Bittersweet Farms. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 309– 322. LaVigna, G. W. (1983). The Jay Nolen Center: A community-based program. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Autism in adolescents and adults (pp. 381–410). New York: Plenum Press. Lettick, A. L. (1983). Benhaven. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Autism in adolescents and adults (pp. 355–379). New York: Plenum Press. Sloan, J. L., & Schopler, E. (1977). Some thoughts about developing programs for autistic adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2, 187–190. Wall, A. J. (1990). Group homes in North Carolina for children and adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders, 20, 353–366.

STACEY L. BROOKENS RESOURCE ROOM During a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) meeting, the team determines the most appropriate placement for the student in the least restrictive environment (LRE). The resource room is one possible environment in which the student could spend part of the school day. The resource room can offer students extra instruction or support in deficit areas (such as homework help, organization, and test or homework modification). The amount of time a student spends in the resource room is determined by the IEP team according to the student’s individual needs. RASCHELLE THEOARRIS RESPITE CARE The autism spectrum includes children and adults with a variable range of complex issues. What is common to all families whose children have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a comprehensive need for a myriad of services and supports. Near the top of the list for many families is the need for a break from the constant demands of parenting. This is often referred to as a need for respite. DEFINITION OF RESPITE The concept of respite first appeared in the late 1960s based on the belief that a child with special needs would be served best at home. Most often, respite is thought of as temporary, short-term care for an individual with special needs. According to United Cerebral Palsy (n.d.), ‘‘Respite . . . is a service in which temporary care is provided to children or adults with disabilities, or chronic or terminal illnesses, and to children at risk of abuse and neglect.’’ For purposes of discussion, the definition of respite will be broadened to include providing both temporary and ongoing support for children or adults with ASD within the context of their own home. SAMPLE JOB RESPONSIBILITIES The job responsibilities of a respite provider span a wide range of duties, dependent on the particular needs of the individual with ASD being supported. Duties change over time dependent on the developmental needs of a particular child or adult with ASD. 303


Following are examples of duties with a younger child with ASD: (a) personal care and/or teaching of personal hygiene (bathing, face and hand washing, tooth brushing, dressing, (b) dispensing of medication, (c) food preparation, (d) implementing intervention strategies (e.g., Developmental Individual-Difference Relation-Based Intervention, Applied Behavior Analysis, Relationship Development Intervention, etc.), (e) transportation to therapy appointments, (f) engaging in prescribed activities between therapy sessions (e.g., speech, physical, occupational, vision therapy, etc.), (g) preparation of visual calendars and schedules, (h) regular communication with early intervention or school personnel, and (i) facilitating social interaction with peers. For an older school-aged child with ASD, although many of the just-mentioned duties are applicable, new responsibilities emerge as a child matures. Examples include: (a) facilitating self-care, (b) overseeing preparation for the school day (e.g., selecting clothes, preparing lunch, gathering necessary school materials together, etc.), (c) facilitating completion of daily homework, and (d) attendance at Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings. As a child with ASD approaches their high school years, the focus of respite responsibilities shifts in the direction of supporting transition to adult life and greater independence. Examples include: (a) community skills (e.g., bus training, shopping, banking, etc.), (b) food preparation (table setting, kitchen clean-up, grocery lists, etc.), (c) use of public transportation, (d) seeking needed information and resources (e.g., via Internet, phone book, etc.), and (e) aid in developing social and recreational outlets. JOB DESCRIPTIONS A useful job description should include a statement that describes the philosophy underlying how a provider is expected to treat that person. For example, if supporting the person to learn self-advocacy is a high-priority goal, one would expect the worker to solicit input from the child or young adult whenever possible, and to show respect for whatever is communicated. Key job responsibilities and expectations need to be spelled out so that an applicant has a clear idea of what the job entails (Lieberman, 2005). QUALITIES TO SEEK IN A PROVIDER Prior to hiring an in-home respite worker, one must do some advance preparation. This entails thinking through specific duties that will be required. It also requires identifying desired personality qualities in a provider that will allow for a better match with the culture of the child or young adult’s home. For example, a spontaneous, right-brain type of person will not fit easily into a household that operates best with solid structure and routine. (For a more detailed explanation, see Lieberman. A Stranger Among Us, 2005, Ch. 2.) DETERMINING BOTTOM-LINE ISSUES FOR HIRING When hiring a respite provider, each family must decide what the essential bottomline issues are in order to rule out inappropriate applicants. Following is a sample list of bottom-line issues that might be used for screening:
¥ Comfort relating to people with ASD or other neurological differences ¥ Use of a reliable car, good driving record, and current driver’s license ¥ Nonsmoker


RESPITE CARE ¥ Current schedule fits with desired hours and days ¥ Able to make one-year commitment ¥ Pay requirements within family’s ability to pay. (Lieberman, 2005, p. 64)

SPECIFIC AREAS TO EXPLORE IN A FACE-TO-FACE INTERVIEW It is helpful to find somebody who has been exposed to people with ASD or other kinds of disabilities. Beyond that, there are other important areas to explore in-depth in a face-to-face interview. Self-Care and Emotional Stability Working with a child or young adult with ASD requires, at the very least, calmness, a great deal of patience, and personal maturity. One way to assess whether a candidate possesses these qualities is to ask questions that explore self-care and emotional stability. ‘‘The ideal candidate should ‘have a life’ outside of work . . . you don’t want someone who is looking to meet the bulk of her emotional needs in your household . . . You are looking for answers that demonstrate the ability to maintain control when confronted with a child’s challenging behaviors’’ (Lieberman, 2005, pp. 80–81). A good candidate should have a regular and healthy routine for managing stress, whether a regular fitness activity, a recreational sport, yoga or dance, prayer, or meditation practice. People who practice healthy stress management in their own lives are better equipped to handle difficult behaviors exhibited by children or young adults under stress. Relationship to Drugs and Alcohol It is definitely pertinent to explore an applicant’s relationship with drugs or alcohol. Most people who are in active recovery from drugs and/or alcohol are likely to be forthcoming in sharing the amount of time in recovery. A good rule of thumb is for someone to be in active recovery from addiction for at least 1 year before considering that person as a viable candidate. On the other hand, don’t automatically rule out someone with a history of addiction. Those who overcome this challenge in their lives can exhibit strength of character that serves them well in supporting a child or young adult with ASD. A word of caution: If an applicant with a history of addiction claims to no longer use a certain drug but still has an occasional drink, be prepared to question that person in greater detail. Addicts in recovery must stay away from all drugs if they truly intend to live a clean and sober lifestyle. Comfort with Expressing Emotion Be cautious of someone who claims never to get angry. Nobody can avoid some degree of internal agitation just from living in today’s fast-paced society. Those feelings must be expressed periodically to avoid unpredictable ‘‘explosions.’’ Working with a child or young adult with behavioral challenges can tax a provider’s emotions. It would therefore be important to assess how comfortable that applicant is with experiencing a full range of emotions in a healthy way. Ability to Set Limits A quality provider must be comfortable with setting limits. Someone who says ‘‘yes’’ to doing things she is not comfortable doing is at risk for burning out or building up 305


resentment. It works best when that person has bottom lines about what she will or won’t do. Setting limits is also important in providing support to a child or young adult with ASD. Behaviors may arise that require a calm, but firm response that helps that child or young adult to learn appropriate boundaries. Examples of behaviors might include such things as invading someone’s private space, grabbing something out of another person’s hand, monopolizing a conversation without noticing a lack of interest on the part of the listener, etc. Attitudes Toward Discipline How a candidate was disciplined as a child would have a direct effect on how he handles challenging situations with the child or young adults he is supporting. If someone has been physically abused, it is essential that a candidate can demonstrate emotional work that has been done to counteract the negative effects of being abused. Explore the candidate’s ideas about what discipline is and how it should be implemented. Discipline is teaching desired behavior, that is, helping a child or young adult to understand what is expected. It is distinctly different from punishment, which is defined as reacting, based on what that person has done wrong. It often takes the form of venting anger in response to challenging behavior. Punishment does not teach desired behavior. In short, look for candidates who clearly understand the difference between discipline and punishment. Closely aligned with investigating attitudes toward discipline is how an applicant interprets the challenging behaviors exhibited by children and young adults with ASD. One way this can be accomplished is to pose a challenging situation and ask that person how she would handle it. How an applicant answers is a good indicator of whether she grasps the neurological basis of behavior in this population. Avoid candidates who automatically assign negative intent to difficult behaviors. This kind of attitude is rarely helpful when supporting people with ASD, and in fact, can be harmful. Positive Behavioral Support Positive behavioral support is a more appropriate response to challenging behaviors. This involves seeking to understand what a child or young adult may be trying to say through their behavior. Howard and Pitonyak (2005), in an article entitled ‘‘All Behavior Is Meaningful,’’ say:
Difficult behaviors result from unmet needs . . . Supporting a person with difficult behaviors requires us to get to know the person as a human being influenced by a complex personal history. While it is tempting to look for a quick fix, which usually means attacking the person’s behavior to make it go away, intervening in a person’s life without understanding something about the life he or she is living is disrespectful and counterproductive. (p. 3)

Listen for indications that the candidate is able to avoid taking challenging behavior personally and screen out candidates who seem concerned with enforcing compliance. The best applicant will demonstrate an understanding of the many factors to take into consideration when trying to positively address difficult behavior, including the person’s health, the sensory environment, changes in circumstances, and so forth. 306


Utilizing respite providers in the home is often overlooked as an option. Hiring a provider is a complex and time-consuming process fraught with uncertainty. But with careful preparation, a clear job description, upholding bottom lines, and a thoughtful in-depth interview, a quality provider can enhance the life of a child or young adult with ASD, while providing much needed respite to family members. REFERENCES
Howard, E., & Pitonyak, D. (2005). All behavior is meaningful—magic can happen! ASP Cares (June), 3. Lieberman, L. (2005). A stranger among us: Hiring in-home support for child with autism spectrum disorder or other neurological differences. Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. United Cerebral Palsy. (n.d.). What is respite care? Retrieved December 14, 2006, from www. ucp.org/ucp_channeldoc.cfm/1/11/51/51-51/2106.

LISA ACKERSON LIEBERMAN RESPONDENT CONDITIONING Respondent conditioning, also referred to as classical conditioning, is a type of learning within the behavioral school of thought. It is the process of pairing a neutral stimulus, something that inspires no response from the individual, with something that instigates an automatic reaction from the individual, an unconditioned stimulus. This pairing takes place until the neutral stimulus causes the same reaction as the unconditioned stimulus, without the presence of the unconditioned stimulus. The formerly neutral stimulus is then referred to as a conditioned stimulus. This process was originally referred to as classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov, in his famous study with dogs. See also antecedent-behavior-consequence analysis; applied behavior analysis; behavior modification. KATIE BASSITY RESPONSE COST Response cost falls into the category of punishment. In a response-cost system, a person is denied a certain piece of or the whole reinforcement for each behavior they perform that is deemed inappropriate. As in the definition of punishment, a procedure is not a response cost if after the reinforcement is taken away, the behavior does not decrease (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987; Azrin & Holz, 1966). Response cost has been successful in token-based treatment programs in a variety of settings, including clinics, homes, hospitals, and schools (Kazdin, 1972). Because response cost utilizes the removal of positive reinforcement, positive reinforcement must be available and the reinforcers must be effective (Alberto & Troutman, 1999). Additionally, reinforcers must have the ability to be withdrawn (which is why edible reinforcers do not typically work). Fines for speeding and loss of tokens for talking out of turn are examples of response-cost procedures. See also applied behavior analysis; token economy. REFERENCES
Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (1999). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.


RESPONSE LATENCY Azrin, N. H., & Holz, W. C. (1966). Punishment. In W. A. Honig (Ed.), Operant behavior: Areas of research and application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1987). Applied behavior analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kazdin, A. E. (1972). Response cost: The removal of conditioned reinforcers for therapeutic change. Behavior Therapy, 3, 533–546.




RESPONSE LATENCY Response latency is the amount of time between a given command and the student’s response. This measure may be used for a variety of purposes, including as a check for mastery and/or fluency. For example, a teacher asks a student to name an animal and immediately begins to count silently. If the student responds when the teacher reaches the count of five, the response latency for this situation would be 5 seconds. KATIE BASSITY

RESTRICTED INTEREST These topical interests can become all consuming to the exclusion of others. Often, individuals on the autism spectrum will only talk or read about their interest, not participate in it. Restricted interests is one of the characteristics that defines Asperger’s disorder as ‘‘restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal in intensity or focus’’ (APA, 2000). A survey by Online Asperger Syndrome Information and Support (OASIS) found the top five specialized interest topics to be: peer-appropriate fads or interests; video or computer games; works of art, movies, fictional books, or television programs; and computers (Bashe & Kirby, 2001, p. 39). Sometimes, the restricted interests lean toward the strange or odd. These have included interest in: bleach bottles, alarms and alarm systems, lawn mowers, organs and organ music, road signs, maps, clocks, time, directions (north, south, east, west), telephone books, game shows, and insects (Bashe & Kirby, 2001, p. 40). REFERENCES
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. Bashe, P. R., & Kirby, B. L. (2001). The OASIS guide to Asperger syndrome, advice, support, insights and inspiration. New York: Crown Publishers.


RETROSPECTIVE VIDEO ANALYSIS (RVA) Retrospective video analysis (RVA) uses home videos for documentation of a child’s development. RVA has been used as an option for assessing very early periods in development. RVA can help identify behaviors that distinguish between autism and other developmental disabilities in children as young as 8 months of age. JAN L. KLEIN 308


RETT’S DISORDER Rett’s disorder is currently included within Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) classifications of mental disorders and listed as a pervasive developmental disorder. However there is some controversy around whether it should be classified instead as a neurological disorder (e.g., Tsai, 1992). Rett’s disorder is characterized according to DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) as follows: There must be the presence of normal prenatal and perinatal development, normal psychomotor development through the first 5 months after birth, and normal head circumference at birth. Then, after a period of normal development there should be onset of all of the following: (a) deceleration of head growth between ages 5 and 48 months, (b) loss of previously acquired purposeful hand skills between ages 5 and 50 months with the subsequent development of stereotyped hand movements (e.g., hand wringing or hand washing), (c) loss of social engagement early in the course (although social interaction often develops later), (d) appearance of poorly coordinated gait or trunk movements, and (e) severely impaired expressive and receptive language development with severe psychomotor retardation. Other criteria not required for diagnosis but commonly observed include breathing dysfunctions including hyperventilation or apnea, electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities including slowing of normal electrical patterns, appearance of epileptiform patterns, and reduction in REM sleep, seizures, muscle rigidity or spasticity, scoliosis, teeth grinding, and small feet (Schilling, 1997). Diagnosis of Rett’s disorder is usually made between 6 and 24 months of age, and is believed to be present primarily in girls, with few confirmed male cases recorded (Hagberg, 1985), although the possibility remains of undiagnosed male cases. Recent research has indicated the possibility of a gene for Rett’s disorder, MECP2 (Amir et al., 1999), with one reported male with the gene mutation who only survived to 1 year of age (Meloni et al., 2000). It is possible that the fatality of the gene mutation in males is what accounts for no known male cases of Rett’s disorder. Although there is now a known genetic mutation, diagnosis is still predominantly based on the presence or absence of behavioral and clinical criteria. Rett’s disorder is a rare condition thought to occur in about 1 in every 10,000– 15,000 live births (Glasson, Thomson, Fyfe, Leonard, Bower, et al., 1998; Deb, 1998). Following a relatively short period of normal development, there is a sudden regression with irreversible effects leading to a severe developmental disorder affecting cognitive, motor, communication, and social functioning (Perry, Sarlo-McGarvey, & Factor, 1992). Many of the early characteristics present similarly to autism, and Witt-Engerstrom and Gillberg (1987) report that around 78 percent of girls with Rett’s disorder have been previously misdiagnosed as having infantile autism. In fact, the inclusion of Rett’s disorder in the pervasive developmental disorders in DSM-IV-TR (2000) was in part to try and reduce the number of incorrect autism diagnoses (Volkmar & Lord, 1998). Van Acker (1997) argues that there are certain characteristics that distinguish between Rett’s disorder and autism in young girls, and that assessing motor development could be an important means for making accurate differential diagnosis. Specifically, in Rett’s disorder both communication and motor skills regress simultaneously, whereas in autism regression, if it occurs, tends to be in communication alone. Van Acker (1997) goes on to suggest that assessment in other areas should include: 309


(a) respiratory patterns, (b) ability and speed of movements, (c) purposeful hand movements, (d) degree and type of stereotypical movements, (e) ability to acquire new skills, (f) physical development, and (g) overall developmental milestones. However, he also contends that due to the developmental nature of the disorder any diagnosis of Rett’s disorder should be tentative until between ages 3 and 5 years. REFERENCES
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. Amir, R. E., Van der Veyver, I. B., Wan, M., Tran, C. Q., Franke, U., & Zoghbi, H. Y. (1999). Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2. Nature Genetics, 32, 185–188. Deb, S. (1998). Self injurious behaviour as part of the genetic syndromes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 385–388. Glasson, E. J., Thomson, M. R., Fyfe, S., Leonard, S., Bower, C., Rousham, E., et al. (1998). Diagnosis of Rett syndrome: Can a radiograph help? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 40, 737–742. Hagberg, B. (1985). Rett’s syndrome: Prevalence and impact on progressive severe mental retardation in girls. Acta Pediatrica Scandanavica, 74, 405–408. Meloni, I., Bruttini, M., Longon, I., Mari, F., Rizzolio, F., D’Adamo, P., et al. (2000). A mutation in the Rett syndrome gene, MECP2, causes X-linked mental retardation and progressive spasticity in males. American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 982–985. Perry, A., Sarlo-McGarvey, N., & Factor, D.C. (1992). Stress and family functioning in parents of girls with Rett syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 235–248. Schilling, D. (1997). Our Rett syndrome page. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from http://pages. prodigy.com/DebbieSchilling. Tsai, L. Y. (1992). Is Rett syndrome a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 551–561. Van Acker, R. (1997). Rett syndrome: A pervasive developmental disorder. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd ed.) (pp. 60–93). New York: Wiley & Sons. Volkmar, F. R., & Lord, C. (1998). Diagnosis and definition of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 1–31). In F. R. Volkmar (Ed.), Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Witt-Engerstrom, I., & Gillberg, C. (1987). Rett syndrome in Sweden. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 149–150.


RETT’S DISORDER–DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR 299.80 RETT’S DISORDER According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000), the diagnostic criteria for Rett’s disorder include all of the following: (a) apparent normal prenatal and perinatal development, (b) apparent normal psychomotor development through the first 5 months after birth, and (c) normal head circumference at birth. Additional criteria include all of the following with onset following the period of normal development: (a) deceleration of head growth between ages 5 months and 48 months, (b) loss of previously acquired purposeful hand skills between ages 5 months and 30 months with the subsequent development of stereotyped hand movements (e.g., hand-wringing or hand washing), (c) loss of social engagement early in the course (although often social interaction develops later), (d) appearance of 310


poorly coordinated gait or trunk movements, and (e) severely impaired expressive and receptive language development with severe psychomotor retardation. REFERENCE
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT RIMLAND, BERNARD Bernard Rimland (1928–2006) received his PhD in experimental psychology and research design from Pennsylvania State University in 1953. A few years later, his son Mark was born. It was Mark, who was diagnosed with early infantile autism, who sparked his father’s interest in better understanding the rare disorder. Much of Dr. Rimland’s work has been controversial. Specifically, Dr. Rimland was one of the first professionals in the field to speak out against the ‘‘refrigerator mother’’ theory. In the 1990s, he was one of the first to call attention to the rise in autism and the use of vaccinations containing thimerosol. Dr. Rimland founded the Autism Society of America in 1965 and the Autism Research Institute in 1967, where he carried out his work until his death. TERRI COOPER SWANSON RUMINATION SYNDROME Rumination is the chewing of food. In rumination syndrome, a person chews and swallows food and then regurgitates it back to the mouth to chew and swallow again. Rumination may be voluntary or involuntary. In infants, rumination may begin at the age of 3–6 months and usually resolves on its own. In adults, the disorder may accompany physical and/or psychological disorders. Contrary to thought, the regurgitated material does not taste bitter or sour. Severe health consequences can develop if the disorder is not treated. These include bad breath, tooth enamel damage, dehydration, weight loss, pneumonia, and even death. LYNN DUDEK


. Individual Education Plan development. communication. vocational. REFERENCES Bruininks. Saulnier. Tsatsanis. & Hill.100 individuals across 15 states with these norms extending beyond adolescence (from 3 months to 80+ years of age).. K. Wetherby.. F. 772–798). R. Weatherman. 2003). R. and social self-sufficiency in real-life situations (Klin. R. Tsatsanis.. standardization. eating and meal preparation) and includes a measure of the impact of problematic behavior on adaptive functioning... Clinical evaluation in autism spectrum disorders: Psychological assessment within a transdisciplinary framework. R. A. A. Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed. Weatherman.g. Rubin. Cohen (Eds. Personal Living Skills) and 22 subscales (e. Saulnier. F. It was developed to address the critical need identified by professionals and parents for a . can be very useful in individual evaluation. C. (1996). The SIB-R was normed on 2. Chicago: Riverside Publishing Company. This model was derived from a theoretical. PETER GERHARDT SCERTS MODEL The Social Communication. & Volkmar.as well as a research-based foundation on communication and social-emotional development in children with ASD. K. The scales of independent behavior–revised. Klin. Woodcock. The SIB-R is generally regarded as a valid and reliable assessment of adaptive functioning and. (2005). Bruininks. R. The SCERTS Model was collaborated and developed by a group of interdisciplinary professionals. Emotional Regulation. See also individualized transition plan. and functional transition planning. 1996) is a standardized measure of adaptive behavior across 7 skill clusters (e. Klin. Paul. New York: Wiley & Sons.). Adaptive behavior generally refers to those skills or skill sets associated with personal. and socialemotional abilities faced by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related disabilities (Prizant.g. H.. transition planning.. & Volkmar. pp. In F. when properly administered. & D. W. 2005).. B. & Hill. & Laurent.S SCALES OF INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOR–REVISED (SIB-R) The Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised (SIB-R. and Transactional Support or the SCERTS Model is a comprehensive educational approach and multidisciplinary framework designed to enhance the core challenges. Volkmar. Woodcock.

For children who display unconventional or problem behaviors. 8. 2006). 18): 1. Natural routines across home. p. the model is systematic and semistructured but also flexible. and motor) are interrelated and interdependent. many other children with challenges in social communication and emotional regulation would potentially benefit from the SCERTS Model (The SCERTS Model. 4. Laurent. relative to a child’s adaptive abilities and the necessary skills for maximizing enjoyment. Rubin. Functions of behavior may include communication. functional communication abilities and emotional regulatory capacities are of the highest priority in educational and treatment efforts. In addition. clinical settings. and in everyday activities at home and in the community (Prizant. 7. Laurent. First.. Assessment and educational efforts must address these relationships. social-emotional.. 5. and engagement in adaptive skills. and independence in daily experiences. & Rydell. CORE VALUES OF THE SCERTS MODEL The SCERTS Model is grounded in explicitly stated core values and principles that guide educational and treatment efforts (Prizant et al. All domains of a child’s development (e. & Rydell. Following are the statements of core values and guiding principles (The SCERTS Model. All behavior is viewed as purposeful. It is the primary responsibility of professionals to establish positive relationships with children and with family members. Family members are considered experts about their child. 2006. it is a framework that provides guidelines for implementing a comprehensive therapeutic and educational plan. 2006). Progress is measured in reference to increasing competence and active participation in daily experiences and routines. In contrast to either adult-directed instructions or facilitative approaches.SCERTS MODEL comprehensive multidisciplinary team model for children with ASD (Prizant. Rubin. the model attempts to find the balance and work in the middle 314 . cognitive. and community environments provide the educational and treatment contexts for learning. A child’s unique learning profile of strengths and weaknesses plays a critical role in determining appropriate accommodations for facilitating competence in the domains of socialcommunication and emotional regulation.g. Principles and research on child development frame assessment and educational efforts. emotional regulation. although the model was designed for children with ASD. instead. 2006). ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCERTS MODEL There are three essential characteristics underlying the SCERTS Model identified by the model collaborators (Prizant et al. the model was designed to have broad application in educational settings. and for the development of positive relationships.. success. Goals and activities are developmentally appropriate and functional. 2. school. Thus far. 3. and principles of familycentered practice are advocated to build consensus with the family and enhance the collaborative process. Wetherby. Wetherby. All children and family members are treated with dignity and respect. communicative. Assessment and educational efforts are viewed as collaborative processes with family members. 6. The development of spontaneous. 2006). 2002). Furthermore. the model is not a treatment approach or methodology. there is an emphasis on determining the function of the behavior and supporting the development of more appropriate ways to accomplish those functions.

. relaxation techniques. the model collaborators believed that children must acquire capacities in two major areas of functioning: joint attention and symbolic behavior (Prizant et al. children become more capable in sharing attention and emotion as well as expressing intentions in reciprocal interactions when their capacities of joint attention increase. They further identified those two areas as foundations of social communication based on the following two reasons. The ultimate goal targeted in the SC component of the SCERTS Model is to support a child in developing his or her foundational capacities in joint attention and symbolic behavior that support communicative and social competence and emotional well-being. 315 . the model is flexible enough to incorporate practices from a variety of approaches and teaching strategies. self-help and independent living skills. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION (SC) The Social Communication (SC) component of the SCERTS Model addresses the over-riding goals of helping a child to be a confident. 2006). 2006).. successful. Second. and sensory supports. 2006). It is believed that with these capacities.. CORE COMPONENTS OF THE SCERTS MODEL The acronym SCERTS refers to Social Communication (SC).SCERTS MODEL Table 6. Second. In addressing this goal. First. and that are philosophically consistent with the core values and guiding principles of the model are considered compatible with practice in the model (Prizant et al. Emotional Regulation (ER). increasingly proficient. instead of solely focusing on training skills. However. children develop more sophisticated and abstract means to communicate and play with others when their capacities of symbolic behavior increase. children are more likely to find satisfaction and even great joy in being with. and Transactional Support (TS). and active communicator and participant in social activities (Prizant et al. 2006). such as augmentative communication. The primary goals in the model are to develop educational. relating to. These are the core components of the SCERTS Model as well as the primary developmental dimensions that Prizant and his colleagues (2002) believe should be prioritized in a program designed to support the development of children with ASD and their families (see Table 6). An Overview of Ultimate Goals of the SCERTS Model Social Communication Enhance capacities for joint attention Enhance capacities for symbolic behavior Emotional Regulation Enhance capacities for self-regulation Enhance capacities for mutual regulation Enhance capacity to recover from dysregulation Transactional Support Educational and learning support Interpersonal supports Family support Support among professionals ground. and learning from others (Prizant et al. Last. it should be noted that only those that support social communication and emotional regulation. the model addresses underlying capacities as well as supports the development of functional skills..

and (c) theme-oriented activities (Prizant et al.SCERTS MODEL EMOTIONAL REGULATION (ER) The Emotional Regulation (ER) component of the SCERTS Model focuses on supporting a child’s ability to regulate emotional arousal (Prizant et al. (b) cooperative turn-taking games. Thus far. (b) to independently remain organized (referred to as self-regulation). (c) to provide learning experiences with other children leading to the development of meaningful peer relationships. they believed the child will be optimally available for learning once he or she has those emotional regulatory capacities and skills. They typically follow a logical sequence to conclusion. which refers to the use of meaningful activities and purposeful activities (Prizant et al.. 2006).. (b) to coordinate efforts among all partners in using interpersonal supports most conducive to social communication and emotional regulation. THE MEANFUL ACTIVITIES (MA) & PURPOSAL ACTIVITIES (PA) APPROACH In light of designing individualized learning activities and modification of everyday activities to be both motivating and functional for a child.. and experiencing positive emotions (Prizant et al. and (c) to recover from states of emotional meltdown (referred to as recovery from dysregulation). the ultimate goals of the TS component of the SCERTS Model are: (a) to develop and provide the necessary learning and educational supports for a child. three types of activities are included: (a) goal-directed activities. doing puzzles. 316 . TRANSACTIONAL SUPPORT (TS) Transactional Support (TS) is the third and concluding core component of the SCERTS Model. TYPES OF ACTIVITIES In the MA & PA approach.. direct strategies. relating to others. 2006). the model collaborators emphasized that transactional support needs to be infused across different activities and social partners since meaningful learning occurs only within the social context of everyday activities (Prizant et al. Transactional support includes: (a) interpersonal supports. The model collaborators believed that emotional regulatory capacities enable a child (a) to seek assistance and/or respond to others’ attempts to provide support for emotional regulation (referred to as mutual regulation). and emotional support (Prizant et al. Therefore. the ultimate goal of the ER component of the SCERTS Model is to support a child in adapting to and coping with the daily challenges he or she will face in maintaining optimal states of arousal most conducive to learning. 2006). Furthermore. 2006). and (d) to support families with educational resources. 2006). and so on. such as making a sandwich. Goal-Directed Activities Goal-directed activities are the activities that have a sequence of steps with a clear and easily perceived end goal. the SCERTS Model applies the Meanful Activities (MA) & Purposal Activities (PA) approach. (c) support to families. Furthermore.. (b) learning and educational supports.. The primary function of engaging in such activities is to reach the end goal. and (d) support among professionals and other service providers. 2006).

the MA & PA approach of the SCERTS Model is defined by the following six criteria made by the model collaborators. Identify appropriate transactional supports for social communication and emotional regulation. Fourth.SCERTS MODEL Cooperative Turn-Taking Games The primary goal of cooperative turn-taking games is in the success of social reciprocity. purposeful. 2. Identify developmentally appropriate goals and outcomes. Theme-Oriented Activities Theme-oriented activities are organized around and may have multiple embedded components. 6. activities should be selected on the basis of a child’s interests. the logical sequence of the activity. They are as follows: 1. If an activity is not inherently motivating. and social reciprocity. Infuse goals across at least three activities across settings. and motivational. One-to-one or small-group planned activity routines may be provided as opportunities for increased practice or rehearsal of skills that require more instructional opportunities. First of all. 3. and responding to the communication of partners. and strengths. Within Steps 2–4. Rather. and mutual enjoyment derived from such shared activities. or qualities that support the child’s learning and emotional regulation. making choices. the steps within the activity. information. activities that occur across settings or that can readily be scheduled to occur are designed and/or modified to support the learning of functional skills. turn-taking. the success is measured by qualities like shared emotional experience. 7. Second. 5. Identify at least three activities that are meaningful. and clear indicators of when the activity is completed. activities should be designed and/or transactional supports should be used to provide a child with a clear sense of the goal of the activity. activities should provide a child with multiple and frequent opportunities for initiating communication. efforts should be made to infuse the activity with supports. Such activities do not necessarily have clear end goals in the same sense as goal-directed activities. topics. repairing breakdowns. Such activities may be most appropriate for children at the more advanced language level. In summary. 4. activities should have an understandable structure for social participation and turn-ranking. Identify/select optimal levels of social complexity in activities based on the child’s learning need and strengths. identify the sequential skills that are embedded into each activity. whenever possible. Third. (b) individualizing educational programming to meet the unique needs of each child with ASD. Fifth. activities should make sense relative to a child’s daily life activities and routines. and (c) providing the transactional supports necessary to best support a child with ASD while implementing the program. That is. Those components may be related to functional skills in daily routine such as going to school or visiting a doctor that involve sequences of smaller events that are organized in a logical manner. Last but not least. 18–19). motivations. GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTING ACTIVITIES In the training manual of the SCERTS Model (pp. activities should 317 . the model collaborators provided guidelines for (a) implementing activities within natural settings and routines according to the MA & PA approach. cooperation.

M. Honig & J. Laurent.. A. (1977). 318 . Skinner. The SCERTS Model: Enhancing communication and socioemotional abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder. Applied behavior analysis.. F. R. 1957). & Rydell. reinforcement of a response is stopped.. play-oriented therapies. In W. Wetherby. Different schedules of reinforcement lead to different patterns of response. & Heward. symbolic thought. The SCERTS Model: A comprehensive educational approach for children with autism spectrum disorders. from http://www. JESSICA KATE PETERS AND TARA MIHOK SCHIZOPHRENIA According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV-TR. W. 2006.. E. Prizant. Infants and Young Children. 2000). M. NJ: Prentice Hall. Laurent. J. family-centered approach to enhancing communication and socioemotional abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder. M. Prizant. REFERENCES Prizant. (2006). A. (2003). 1977). M.. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. Retrieved December 10. Schedules of reinforcement are rules used to provide reinforcement for a target behavior (Skinner. Ratio schedules require a specific number of responses before a reinforced response (Ferster & Skinner. B. The SCERTS Model: A transactional. schizophrenia is a mental disorder that lasts for at least 6 months and includes at least 1 month of active symptoms. T. & Heward. social skills training. REFERENCES Cooper. C. Schedules of reinforcement. Continuous schedules of reinforcement provide reinforcement for each instance of the behavior. Rubin. Heron. B. Handbook of operant behavior. 14. M.. The SCERTS Model (2006). See also augmentative and alternative communication. 1953). M..com/frequently_asked_questions. & Skinner. KAI-CHIEN TIEN SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT Many different schedules of reinforcement may be applied to a person’s behavior. 296–316. New York: Macmillan. E. Jenison Autism Journal. (1957).scerts.). A. (1987). an intermittent schedule of reinforcement means that reinforcement follows at any rate that is lower than a continuous rate (Cooper. (2002).. C. Finally. leading to a decline in the response (Zeiler.. L. Science and human behavior. P. J. Ferster. A. F. Zeiler. In extinction. B.. A. Rubin. E. APA. J. Introduction to the SCERTS Model. Wetherby. Heron. 16. Englewood Cliffs. (1953). M. Interval schedules may have a consistent time period (fixed interval schedule) or a variable time period between reinforcers (variable interval schedule). Wetherby.. & Laurent. B.SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT involve the participation of children who provide good language and social models as well as to support the development of positive relationships. K.htm. Interval schedules of reinforcement require a minimum amount of time that must pass between reinforced responses (Ferster & Skinner. 2–19. E. Rubin. C. Schedules of reinforcement: The controlling variables. Staddon (Eds. The number of responses may be fixed from one reinforcer to the next (fixed ratio schedule) or it may vary between reinforcers (variable ratio schedule). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. NJ: Prentice Hall. P... B. & Rydell. E. A. Upper Saddle River. 1957). O. 1996). B. C..

the person believes that he or she is being spied on or followed). Characterized by disorganized speech and behavior and inappropriate or flat affect. SUBTYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA There are five subtypes of schizophrenia: ¥ Paranoid. Also. trance or excessive motor activity. however. animals that others can’t see). The age of onset for men is between 18 and 25 years and for women is between 25 and the mid-30s. The dysfunction is clearly below the level that the person had achieved before the onset of the disorder. beauty. Characterized by frequent preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations. visual (e. This type of schizophrenia presents the core symptoms but does not meet the criteria for paranoid. ¥ Undifferentiated. gustatory. ¥ Residual. and stereotyped movements. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia are 10 times more at risk for developing schizophrenia than the general population. ¥ Disorganized. it is rare prior to adolescence. Difficulties involve doing daily activities such as maintaining proper hygiene or dressing in unusual ways. religious.g.g.g. Their content include a variety of topics. mutism or echolalia. or certain gestures or comments from people are specifically directed to him or her). which can be manifested in many ways. or self-care. the person believes that passages from books.. and an unexpressive face. which are disturbances of thinking involving misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences. In some cases the speech is so unorganized that it is nearly incomprehensible. gives answers that are only minimally or not at all related to the question. whereby the person switches from one topic to another. and attenuated symptoms of odd beliefs or unusual perceptual experiences.SCHIZOPHRENIA SYMPTOMS Active symptoms include: ¥ Delusions. or somatic or grandiose (e. poor speech. or catatonic types. olfactory. 319 . lights. from decreased reactions to the environment to unpredictable agitation. and the person is unable to initiate and persist in goal-directed activities...g. ¥ Catatonic. or is an important person). reduced body language. referential (e.g. seeing people. which are the most frequent. such as persecutory (e. ¥ Negative symptoms. The outbreak may be sudden. This disorder involves dysfunction in one or more major areas of functioning such as interpersonal relations. Refers to instances when there has been at least one episode of schizophrenia but the actual clinical picture is without the core symptoms. They can be auditory. (e. Characterized by motoric immobility. Characterized by the presence of flat affect. the person believes that he possess a special ability. extreme negativism. or social detachment. loss of interest in work or school. hearing voices external to themselves). which are sensory perceptions but without the external stimulus that triggers them. and tactile. outbursts of anger. ¥ Disorganized or catatonic motor behavior.. ¥ Hallucinations.. work. which include poor eye contact. speech is brief and laconic. ONSET AND COURSE The onset of schizophrenia typically occurs between the late teens and mid-30s. education. the majority of individuals manifest some early signs that develop slowly and gradually such as deterioration in hygiene. disorganized. song lyrics. ¥ Disorganized speech.

36. PREVALENCE Schizophrenia has been identified all around the world. S. Dr. Dr. 363. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. FURTHER INFORMATION American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.). J. Haltiwanger.nami.SCHOOL FUNCTION ASSESSMENT The course and outcome of schizophrenia are variable. Deeney. Haltiwanger. ERIC Eric Schopler (1927–2006) received his PhD from the University of Chicago in Clinical Psychology and then joined the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC)..5–1. & McGurk. Costerl. TX: Pro-Ed.. The Lancet. R. The SFA is a tool that examines how much support is needed by the student so they can participate to the fullest extent possible and includes the adaptations will be needed to ensure that participation can happen. Schopler carried out his work at Division TEACCH until his death.. text rev. Deeney.org.narsad.000. 2063–2072. (1997). S.5 to 5. T. National Institute of Mental Health: www.. TERRI COOPER SWANSON 320 .nih.gov. REFERENCE American Psychiatric Association.org. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. 177–193.5 percent. It was at UNC in 1966 that Dr. DC: Author. K. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. Annual incidences range from 0.nimh. National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI): www. SUSANA BERNAD-RIPOLL SCHOOL FUNCTION ASSESSMENT The School Function Assessment (SFA. Complete remission is uncommon. (2004). Schopler wrote over 400 books and articles and received numerous awards for his work. (1998). and prevalence among adults is often reported to be 0. Schopler furthered his dissertation research into what is now known as the TEACCH program (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-Handicapped Children). BROOKE YOUNG SCHOPLER. Austin. (2000). Schizophrenia. & Haley. W. School function assessment. T. & Haley. The TEACCH program is recognized throughout the world. REFERENCE Costerl. 1998) looks at functional tasks throughout a school day (kindergarten through grade 6) and the level of supported participation needed by the student. Washington. Mueser. National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression: www. See also structured teaching.0 per 10. whereas others chronically show the symptoms. Some patients will exhibit remissions.. This questionnaire can be utilized to assist with collaborative program planning by school teams.

487). At this printing. nor was it effective. communication. Food and Drug Administration does not approve the use of secretin as a treatment for autism as there have been no clinical trials conducted. and imitation..g. the professionals often depend on parents or others who know the child well to provide information on the child (e. brain. eating behaviors. R.. or observations. Y. KAI-CHIEN TIEN SCREENING TOOL FOR AUTISM IN TWO-YEAR-OLDS (STAT) The Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT. W. Child development inventories. The review found that none of the research articles reported that secretin showed significant effects. See also screening. 321 . (1992). W. TN. Vanderbilt University. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. liver. Upper Saddle River. as Vanderbilt University continues to study the validity of the administration. In 2004. checklists. Ireton.S. and pancreas. Minneapolis. O. See also Autism Screening Questionnaire. & Umansky. S. Young children with special needs. Unpublished manuscript. Screening is usually conducted through tests. REFERENCE Stone. the U. Childhood Autism Rating Scale. 1997) uses 12 interactive questions to assess an array of domains including play.SECRETIN SCREENING According to Ireton (1992). sleeping patterns. To be more specific. Nashville. NJ: Pearson Education. BROOKE YOUNG SECRETIN Secretin is a peptide hormone that is found in the small intestine. To complete administration of the STAT. (2004). evaluators need a 20–30 minute semistructured play situation. REFERENCES Hooper. and so on). (1997).. In the process of screening. STAT Manual Screening Tool for Autism in Two-YearOlds. Secretin is a controversial treatment for autism. Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11=2–5. screening is a quick process to identify young children who may be at risk for a disability or developmental problem or who may need further assessments for diagnosis. The purpose of the STAT is to assist in the early identification and intervention of children with autism. ‘‘the term screening technically refers to the process of selecting out for further study those high-risk individuals whose apparent problems might require special attention or intervention’’ (p. Sturmey conducted a double-blind review of 15 articles related to the use of secretin to treat autism. Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. The STAT is currently only given out at training workshops. H. & Ousley. Stone & Ousley. Hooper and Umansky (2004) also stated that screening is a procedure used to identify infants and preschoolers who may be in need of a more comprehensive evaluation. L. MN: Behavior Science Systems.

or run the bases and. For example. . therefore. school districts receive money based upon compliance with the law. 2002). Section 504 states: No otherwise qualified individual with a disability .SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 REFERENCE Sturmey. TERRI COOPER SWANSON SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 contains a variety of provisions focused on rights. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is. 2002. or opportunities to participate as a result of physical barriers. an individual with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tries out for a baseball team and does not have the skills to throw. DEFINING TERMS Section 504 protects otherwise qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability. This means that a person with a disability must be qualified to do something before the presence of the disability can be a factor in discrimination. Department of Education (as cited by the U. on the basis of disability: ¥ Deny qualified individuals the opportunity to participate in or benefit from federally funded programs. Discrimination under Section 504 in this case would not be an issue because the individual is not otherwise qualified to be on the team (Smith. 2001. (2005).). Since Section 504 is a civil rights statute. Research in Developmental Disabilities. Unlike the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). in a sense. is not picked for the team. be denied the benefits of. . services. advocacy. shall solely by reason of her or his disability be excluded from the participation in.C. (29 U. Section 504 protects individuals. 2006).S. ¥ Deny access to programs.S. the federal government does not provide additional funding for students identified under Section 504 (deBettencourt. § 794) 322 . According to the U. or other benefits. for which they are otherwise entitled or qualified. and fringe benefits. Smith. 2001. n. ¥ Deny employment opportunities. training. Department of Health and Human Services. Whereas IDEA is federally funded. hit the ball. or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. and protections for individuals with disabilities (U. 26. birth through adulthood. civil rights legislation for persons with disabilities by prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disabling conditions by programs and activities receiving or benefiting from federal financial assistance (deBettencourt. benefits.d. under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. P. services. catch.S. promotion. 2002). a recipient of federal financial assistance may not. Specifically. Secretin is an ineffective treatment for pervasive developmental disabilities: A review of 15 double-blind randomized controlled trials. 87–97. 2002). Department of Health and Human Services.S. including hiring.A.

manner. learning. manner. (p. walking. stooping. This is a very subjective process. cosmetic disfigurement. then. genitourinary. 323 . assessment decisions do not require written parental consent. Basically. or ¥ significantly restricted as to the condition. ‘‘substantially limits’’ may be defined as: ¥ unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can perform. It is important to note that children who qualify for protection and services under IDEA also qualify for protection under Section 504. the duration of the disability. Major life activities include a wide variety of daily activities such as caring for oneself. 2002). The burden of providing proof of this disability falls on the individual (Madaus & Shaw. digestive. they are entitled to all the rights and privileges of this act as well (Turnbull. good professional practice would suggest that parental consent be obtained. However. (Smith. there is no provision that allows for independent evaluation at the school district’s expense (deBettencourt. § 706[8]): ¥ has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of such person’s major life activities. As with the requirements of IDEA. decisions should be based upon: the nature and severity of the disability. or ¥ is regarded as having such an impairment. or (b) any mental or psychological disorder such as emotional or mental illness (Smith.SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 To be eligible for services under Section 504. 2002). and a reevaluation is required before a ‘‘significant’’ change in placement takes place. speaking. 2004). A person is considered to have a disability if he or she (Rehabilitation Act. performing manual tasks. Section 504 requires ‘‘periodic’’ reevaluation. but contrary to IDEA. respiratory. Thus. & Stowe. eating. ¥ has a record of such an impairment. hemic and lymphatic. Specifically. 337) Smith (2001. musculoskeletal. skin. and any long-term impact of the disability. speech organs. hearing. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 defines a physical or mental impairment as: (a) any physiological disorder or condition. and endocrine. Brennan. or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological. A team of knowledgeable personnel is charged with the task of determining whether a disability substantially limits a major life activity. for the 504 determination. reproductive. 2002. or duration for which the average person in the general population can perform that same major life activity. or duration for which an individual can perform a particular major life activity as compared to the condition. p. breathing. parent notification is required. cardiovascular. special sense organs. Unlike IDEA. 2002) QUALIFYING FOR SERVICES To qualify for services under Section 504. a person must satisfy this definition for disability. 260). 2002) recommends that when teams are defining limits they make comparisons to the average child or person. any function that is performed routinely by individuals is considered a major life activity. a student must be identified through evaluation procedures that gather information from a variety of sources. According to Smith (2001). seeing. and working.

hhs. Office of Civil Rights. systematic. E. Section 504 is the civil rights legislation that protects persons. H. (2002). Section 504: What teachers need to know. In summary. Retrieved September 15.. There are no specific requirements for parent participation.ed. T. For many school-aged children. 2002). F. qualified individuals with disabilities are persons who. United States Department of Education.html.S. 81–87. 32(5).). it protects all other individuals who meet the definition for having a disability outlined within the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. REFERENCES Blazer. L. M. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 SERVICES Under Section 504.html. § 701 et seq. ‘‘Reasonable accommodation’’ means that employers must take reasonable steps to accommodate the disability unless it would cause them undue hardship. Your rights under Section 504 of the rehabilitation act. W. C. 28–33. (2004). U. but best practice suggests reviewing the document annually. Teaching Exceptional Children. 479–493. J. Again. deBettencourt. Teaching Exceptional Children. and public schools: What educators need to know. 29 U. nor is a time period specified for review of the 504 plan. with reasonable accommodation. C. The Individualized Education Program (IEP) form may be used. Section 504 is not limited to individuals within the school. 32(2). R. it is important to keep in mind that a person must be otherwise qualified for the job in order for the employer to be required to make reasonable accommodations. SHEILA M. collaborative approach to program planning that includes parents. Brennan. Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. can perform the essential functions of the job for which they have applied or have been hired to perform (Smith. The rehabilitation act. Blazer (1999) outlines a structured. the student. Remedial and Special Education. who qualify for services under IDEA. 22(6). 37(5). Smith.. from http:// www. (2002). it is recommended. A brief overview of special education law with focus on autism. the ADA. Turnbull. T. & Stowe. an ‘‘appropriate’’ education means an education that is comparable to that provided to students without disabilities (deBettencourt. 40(2). E. Intervention in School and Clinic. The vast majority of accommodations will occur in the general education setting. Retrieved September 15. birth through death. 16–23. Intervention in School and Clinic. Section 504. S. Rehabilitation Act of 1973. SMITH 324 . J. & Shaw. (n. (2002).gov/ policy/speced/reg/narrative. from http://www. L. In addition.. For purposes of employment. (2001). (2004). 2002). 259–266.gov/ocr/504.d. Although a written document is not mandated. (1999). United States Department of Health and Human Services. Developing 504 classroom accommodation plans: A collaborative. Accommodations are one way that schools provide services for individuals that qualify for a 504 plan. 2006. but many schools use a different form for the Section 504 plan. 34(3). 2006. and school personnel. Understanding the differences between IDEA and Section 504. Smith.C. the major life activity affected by their disability is learning. III. Madaus. parent-student-teacher approach. W. 335–343. B. Section 504: Differences in the regulations for secondary and postsecondary education.

it is considered a medical emergency. SEIZURE DISORDER AND AUTISM There are many causes for a person to develop seizures. The Exceptional Parent. these are not epileptic seizures. If this occurs. MAYA ISRAEL 325 . or a particular sound. seizures. After the seizure. Some people experience seizures frequently and others experience them quite infrequently. Part 1: An introduction to seizure disorders and existing therapies. the child slowly begins to regain consciousness.SEIZURE DISORDER SEIZURE DISORDER Seizure disorder (or epilepsy) is a neurological disorder in which abnormal electrical signals occur in the brain. In the tonic phase. (2001). The Exceptional Parent. These studies have found that seizure disorders are more common in individuals with autism who have a lower IQ. 33(3). or birth defects that affect the brain. Tuchman. several studies have reported that individuals with autism are at a greater risk for developing a seizure disorder. In fact. Additionally. Partial Seizures In these seizures. 31(8). Brain waves. a strange taste or smell. In the clonic phase. (2003). although. These seizures used to be referred to as petit mal seizures. and the child with autism. COMMON TERMINOLOGY Aura Many people experience a ‘‘warning feeling’’ right before a seizure occurs. These warning feelings may include a change in body temperature. meningitis. in some cases. G. stroke. Tonic-Clonic Seizures In these seizures. R. and people are affected differently by them. Febrile Seizures These seizures result from a child experiencing a rapidly increasing fever. Although they look like tonic-clonic seizures. the child’s extremities jerk. There are different kinds of seizure disorders. Options in seizure management: The vagus nerve stimulator—experiences to date. the child loses consciousness and becomes rigid. 104–107. 107–112. the child may look like he or she is simply daydreaming for a few seconds. the excessive electrical signals occur in only one part of the brain and are many times unnoticeable. Some known causes include head injury. a child undergoes two phases. Status Seizures These seizures occur so rapidly that the child does not regain consciousness between seizures. FURTHER INFORMATION Jurasek. poisoning. brain tumors. there are no known causes for the seizures.

’’ oppositional. Often selective mutism is misdiagnosed. schizophrenia. ¥ The disturbance interferes with educational or occupational achievement or with social communication.. such as the home and school. or who have lived in a foreign country. and therefore children with the disorder do not receive appropriate treatment. fear. or comfort with. The evaluation process should include a comprehensive interview with the parent and observations in different settings where the child is expected to speak. ¥ The disturbance is not better accounted for by a communication disorder (e.. There is no correlation or association between children who are selectively mute and those who are on the autism spectrum. Children with selective mutism have a real fear of speaking and often will stand motionless when requested to speak. 125–127) defines selective mutism as: ¥ Consistent failure to speak in specific social situations (in which there is an expectation for speaking. but these are not implicit in the mutism disorder. and they display atypical social interactions and repetitive behaviors. at school) despite speaking in other situations. The child with suspected selective mutism should be evaluated by a knowledgeable psychologist and a speech language pathologist should conduct a thorough language evaluation. There are several approaches to treatment for selective mutism. Due to the rarity of selective mutism. can be slowly extended into two children. Behavioral approaches include the use of positive reinforcement and desensitization techniques. the spoken language required in the social situation. make up a proportion of children who are selectively mute. Individual children with the disorder sometimes display excessive shyness.g.SELECTIVE MUTISM SELECTIVE MUTISM Selective mutism is a childhood disorder. APA. characterized by the persistent failure to speak in at least one social environment. e. They may ‘‘wait out’’ a person trying to guess what the child wants or needs to communicate. or defiant. Children with selective mutism often will respond by head nodding or gestures. whereas children with autistic disorders do not process language in the same way as typically developing children. pp.g. Slowly introducing the child to social environments in nonthreatening ways can help reduce the child’s anxiety of speaking. Features and severity of selective mutism vary from child to child. or other psychotic disorder. and sometimes misinterpret the child’s behavior as ‘‘just shy. stuttering) and does not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR. 326 . ¥ The duration of the disturbance is at least one month (not limited to the first month of school). Play or interaction with one other child in the classroom setting when no one else is there. ¥ The failure to speak is not due to a lack of knowledge of. It usually occurs before a child is 5 years old and in most cases the child will speak to their parents and/or select others. The differences are distinct in that children who are selectively mute have the ability to speak and process language normally. and embarrassment. although there can be associated articulation or phonological difficulty or receptive or expressive language disorder. anxiety. few professionals are familiar with the disorder. They usually do not display other speech or language problems. 2000. Many children from bilingual families.

COOK SELF-DETERMINATION Promoting self-determination has become an increasingly important topic in disability advocacy and supports. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. D. Psychological approaches to treatment. Practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of selective mutism. 34(7). S. Moss. in large measure. can be used effectively when the child does not feel threatened to speak and can help a child lessen his or her anxiety. and family involvement and acceptance. because people with disabilities have identified enhanced self-determination as being important to and because 327 . H. (1998). D. (1999). 938–946. Cognitive behavior therapy is used to redirect fears and highlight the child’s positive characteristics. Scheib. & McCracken. & Leonard. frequent socialization. self-determination. C. Sonies. (2002). S. especially when paired with behavioral treatments. Prevalence and description of selective mutism in a school-based sample. K. Certain medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that help reduce anxiety and/or depression have been found to be effective for treating selective mutism. Psychotherapy. 381–391. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.. 417–434. Other treatment approaches include self-esteem boosters. 35. L. DC: Author. and resources without undue influence from others. J. Bergman.. P. FURTHER INFORMATION Anstendig. 13. ANN PILEWSKIE SELF-ADVOCACY Self-advocacy is the practice of knowing of and controlling one’s own rights. REFERENCE American Psychiatric Association. such as play therapy and psychotherapy.. Students with mental retardation represent the largest disability category represented in self-contained classrooms. text rev. K. E. Piacentini.. L. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 41. Is selective mutism an anxiety disorder? Journal of Anxiety Disorders. Washington. KATHERINE E.). Selective mutism: A review of the treatment literature by modality from 1980–1996. Anstendig. (1995). J. See also advocate. R. B. (2000).. The child should be positively reinforced when he or she is comfortable receiving praise or encouragement. JEANNE HOLVERSTOTT SELF-CONTAINED CLASSROOM A self-contained classroom is an educational setting outside of the general education classroom where students with disabilities receive educational and related services for the majority of their school day. Dow. T. responsibilities.. 836–846.SELF-DETERMINATION and then a small group when the child with selective mutism becomes more comfortable and begins to speak. school involvement.. This is.

however. and self-management skills.g. Particularly with regard to individuals with more significant intellectual impairments.. in some circumstances. including human behavior and thought. In addition. and interests) instead of being coerced or forced to act in certain ways by others or by circumstances. determined) by the person as opposed to being caused by someone or something else. Research with adolescents with disabilities has shown that students who leave high school more self-determined achieve more positive adult outcomes. Educational efforts focus on teaching students the skills and knowledge they will need to act in a self-determined manner. Determinism refers to the idea or proposition that all events. having the student be the chairperson for the meeting. make or cause things to happen in their own lives. The meaning of the term has its roots in the philosophical doctrine of determinism. self-determined behavior is intentional and goal oriented. During the twentieth century. People with disabilities express the desire both to have greater opportunities to become more self-determined as individuals and to the right to self-determination as a group. choices. preferences. Curricular areas include teaching decision making. a frequent practice involves instructional efforts and supports to enable students to play a meaningful role in their own transition planning meeting. self-advocacy. then. SELF-DETERMINATION IN DISABILITY ADVOCACY AND SUPPORTS Efforts to promote self-determination in disability advocacy and services have taken several forms. as applied to citizens of a country or to members of a minority group such as people with disabilities. They act volitionally (based on their own will. goal setting. Self-determined behavior refers to human behavior that is caused (e. A second application of the self-determination construct to disability advocacy and supports has involved initiatives that enable people with disabilities (and. Again. problem solving. That is. Among the first such initiatives were programmatic efforts to provide instruction and opportunities to promote the self-determination of transition-age youth with disabilities. the self-determination construct began to be used with reference to the right or rights of people to self-governance. People who are self-determined. but that it is the person who is causing this to happen. it is important to note that what constitutes ‘‘self-determined’’ behavior is not independently performing all the steps in achieving a goal. self-determination implies that it is the people themselves (self-) who have the right to cause things to happen to and for them—the essence of governing. providing opportunities for students to express preferences and make choices has also been recognized as important. even in this group context. when 328 . Just as important. Thus. including better employment. The right to selfdetermination.SELF-DETERMINATION research has shown that adolescents and young adults who are more self-determined achieve more positive adult outcomes and a more positive quality of life. community inclusion. implies that individuals have the right to a voice in decisions that impact their lives—to have a say in governing themselves. are caused by events that occurred before the event. and independent living outcomes. including. self-determined people intentionally and purposefully act to achieve goals in their lives.

However. M. (2003). Mental Retardation. 23. Ward. without coercion. Teaching Exceptional Children. As an alternative. E. W... D. D.. respect. 33(2). Mithaug.. L. L. Test. Karvonen. (1998). M. S. 53–61. M. Effects of intervention to promote self-determination for individuals with disabilities. & Wehmeyer. M.. Theory in self-determination: Foundations for educational practice. & Powers. 14. Recognizing the importance of promoting self-determination is an important way to ensure that people are treated with dignity and respect and to enable people to attain true equality. M. B. and equality as people without autism’’ (pp. D.. 5–16. Browder. their family members) to make decisions about how money and other resources that are intended to provide supports are allocated and used. M. who then made decisions about what services to purchase. These models often involved person-centered planning. Teaching self-determination to students with disabilities: Basic skills for successful transition. & Wood.SELF-DETERMINATION necessary or appropriate. B. 219–277. Springfield. J. R. J. (2000). (2000). M.. (1995). 250–251). stated that ‘‘people with autism should be treated with the same dignity... A right to our own life. M.. S. 209–220.. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities... Agran. J. W. What is central to both of these initiatives and similar efforts is that they enable people with disabilities to act in a self-determined manner—that is. 38. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. (2001). L. Wehmeyer. VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Reston. W. & Hughes. C. M. S.. 250–252. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. Karvonen. and the use of service brokers. individualized budgeting. Miller. R. 329 . L. & Stancliffe. Adult outcomes for students with cognitive disabilities three years after high school: The impact of self-determination. and to make or cause things to happen in their lives. (2003). & Wehmeyer. P. Palmer. Jean Paul Bovee. Test. D. & Algozzine. Wehmeyer. 71. Sowers. (1999). 48–54. L.. (1998). (1998). M.. D. IL: Charles C Thomas. model programs began to be developed in which the funding went to the person with the disability and/or his or her family. Review of Educational Research. B. FURTHER INFORMATION Algozzine. M. Wood. & Palmer. Self-determination and individuals with significant disabilities: Examining meanings and misinterpretations. our own way. B. J. Publisher. Choosing a self-determination curriculum: Plan for the future. L. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. Abery. Promoting self-determination in early elementary school: Teaching self-regulated problem-solving and goal setting skills. (2003). W. A practical guide to teaching self-determination.. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities. Historically. Wehmeyer. M. Writing in 2000. 24. REFERENCE Bovee. Remedial and Special Education. who act on behalf of the person with the disability or his or her family to identify what options exist to provide the types of supports identified by the person and his or her family. Wehmeyer. 115–126. Martin. L. many people with disabilities found that available services did not fit their needs well.. A functional model of self-determination: Describing development and implementing instruction. Wehmeyer... Browder. a man with autism. M. funding for services was given to agencies that created these supports. to act volitionally. 15(4). 131–144. Enhancing the participation and independence of students with severe physical and multiple disabilities in performing community activities. 33. Field.

T. M. (1988). Developing functional communication skills: Alternatives to severe behavior problems. E. 11. Agran. These include possible biochemical problems (release of beta-endorphins from the injury). 63.). wrist. headaches. Edelson. 299–312. seizure activity. E. MICHAEL L. 121–148). I. Sometimes seen in individuals with autism or severe developmental disabilities. and other necessary skills expected for independence. & Schwartz. masking of pain from competing infections. 18. socializing appropriately with peers and coworkers.. grooming). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 245–255. Self-determination and positive adult outcomes: A follow-up study of youth with mental retardation or learning disabilities. brushing teeth. At the most basic level. maintaining a job. A thorough functional behavioral/ medical analysis is needed to determine causes and interventions for self-injurious behavior. exercising judgment in terms of interacting with others and decision making. & Martin. and welts. K. Palmer. sensory stimulation to increase arousal levels. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. M. or gastrointestinal problems. bleeding. At a more advanced level. J. V. M. Taubman. Implications of sensory stimulation in self-destructive behavior.. (2000). Exceptional Children. 66. 140–145. S. or arm. Wehmeyer. traveling in the community independently.SELF-HELP SKILLS Wehmeyer. Teaching students to become causal agents in their lives: The self-determining learning model of instruction. D. sensory integration. head-banging. using money to make purchases. Mithaug. M. Exceptional Children. (1997). (1984). Some social contexts to self-destructive behavior. 89. seizures. feeding oneself. WEHMEYER SELF-HELP SKILLS Self-help skills generally focus on necessary skills for an individual to perform independently the routine activities of daily living. V. redness. (1983). B. living successfully in semi-independent or independent circumstances. & Larsson. (1997). and caring for one’s possessions.. D. CA: Brooks Cole Publishing Company. open wounds. 99–117.. M. M. M. American Journal of Mental Deficiency. Singh (Ed. S.. BABKIE SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is any self-inflicted physical behavior that causes bruises. M.. frustration due to communication difficulties. 439–453. Identifying the variables maintaining self-injurious behavior. Prevention and treatment of severe problems: Models and methods in developmental disabilities (pp. See also functional behavior assessment. these include dressing oneself. L. L. and social attention. In N. and scratching or rubbing the skin. B. self-injurious behavior may have many reasons for its manifestation. demonstrating knowledge of personal hygiene (bathing. ANN PILEWSKIE 330 . These behaviors are most commonly inflicted by biting the hand. self-advocacy. Edelson. ANDREA M. & Lovaas.. Dyer. these skills can include knowing how and who to ask for assistance. tissue damage. & Crimmins. FURTHER INFORMATION Durand. O.. See also adaptive behavior. S.. Pacific Grove.

PRESTIA SENSORIMOTOR EARLY CHILDHOOD ACTIVITIES Young children with poor sensory processing abilities. The child who runs his hand along the wall as he walks down the hall may be seeking sensory input from the changes in textures on the wall. benefit from specific sensorimotor input in order to modulate their nervous systems so that they can participate in activities of daily living. PRESTIA SENSORIMOTOR Sensorimotor refers to the connection between movement and sensation. KELLY M. Early childhood sensorimotor activities involve integration on multiple levels. Sensory seekers are constantly looking for sensory stimuli in their environment in an attempt to fulfill their sensory need. and the activities themselves integrate each child’s nervous system in an organized manner. for sensory stimuli. or tolerance. the period of time when their sensory systems are at the most crucial neurological development. KELLY M. for sensory stimuli in which they withdraw or avoid certain environments or activities that are overwhelming or unpleasant for them. There are many ways to introduce these sensory-rich experiences to children with sensory processing disorder (SPD). KELLY M. the nervous system processes that information. PRESTIA SENSATION SEEKING Sensation seeking is a neurological characteristic of individuals who have a high threshold. an individual with a low threshold for tactile stimulation may refuse to wear loose or scratchy clothing. an integrative team of therapists and teachers work together. PRESTIA SENSATION AVOIDING Sensation avoiding is a neurological characteristic of individuals who have a low sensory threshold. For example. KELLY M.SENSORIMOTOR EARLY CHILDHOOD ACTIVITIES SELF-REGULATION Self-regulation is the ability of an individual to recognize her own sensory needs and adjust her actions and behaviors as needed to meet the demands of the activity or situation in which she is engaged. or tolerance. and the body turns that information into a meaningful. The activities are integrated within the context of a child’s educational curriculum. These activities 331 . for example including sensory strategies incorporated into a child’s daily routine along with sensorimotor activities can help a child maintain a ‘‘just right’’ alertness for participation and focusing. especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). appropriate motor response. The brain receives sensory information via one or more of the sensory systems. Such activities are most beneficial in early childhood.

See also imagination. 5. Learn to move. coloring. language skills for communication. J. REFERENCES Ayres. JENNY CLARK BRACK 332 . the structure of the early childhood sensorimotor activities always follows a prescribed sequence: 1. finally saying. (1979). as activities are developed around thematic educational curriculum. The children work on refined fine-motor coordination skills so that they can hold a pencil. blowing a feather (for deep diaphragmatic breathing for sensory modulation). vestibular. sensory processing. Brack. ‘‘kissing their brains’’ for self-affirmation. An eye-hand coordination activity helps children develop skills necessary for school readiness. they are developing essential school readiness skills for cognitive development. A cool-down activity helps children attain a ‘‘just right’’ alertness level so that they are prepared to focus on the fine-motor activity. and emotional development to give courage and hope for children with sensory processing difficulties. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. J. (b) they are theme based. social skills for cooperative and imaginative play. 6. This involves the children giving themselves a hug. There can be many different themes included with these early childhood sensorimotor activities. (proprioceptive input). Transitions can be difficult for children with SPD and especially children who are on the autism spectrum. A ‘‘heavy work’’ activity involving the proprioceptive system helps to modulate the nervous system allowing the children to focus. 2. (c) they use a transdisciplinary approach to treatment in which an integrated team crosses the disciplinary lines collaborating and modeling for one another utilizing best practice for services. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. and manipulate fasteners such as buttons and zippers. sensory processing dysfunction. 3. use crayons and scissors. 7. proprioception. (2004). so that sequenced activities follow sensorimotor development for each lesson plan. 1979). as a storybook is included in every lesson plan. C. social skills training. A. A fine-motor activity completes the routine as the children engage in functional activities. Shawnee Mission. pushing on their heads. 4. Therefore a transition sequence is included in every lesson plan. anything from apples to zoo. you’re ready to start!’’ While the children are engaged in the sensorimotor activities. ‘‘You’re so smart. move to learn: Sensorimotor early childhood activity themes. Sensory integration and the child. A movement activity involving the vestibular system helps to alert the nervous system for engagement. and cutting. such as handwriting.SENSORIMOTOR EARLY CHILDHOOD ACTIVITIES are based on four principles: (a) they are created around the sensory integration (Ayers. and literature based. A warm-up activity cues children that group time is ready to begin and introduces them to the theme. allowing children to develop early emergent literacy skills. A balance activity is a higher level of sensory integration and balance skills are necessary for large motor skills development. and (d) the children engage in the sensorimotor activities within classroom settings for inclusion with peer models. As outlined by Brack (2004).

integrated manner. inappropriate behaviors result from a dysfunction in the nervous system between the sensory receptors: the brain and the motor responses (Ayres. and the muscles and nerves that produce behaviors and responses. and complex behavior. eliciting adaptive behaviors facilitates a nervous system that functions in an organized. Finally. organize. as well as anticipates. cognitive functioning takes place. sensory integration is often used to describe a theory developed in the 1970s by Dr. a neurological process. Second. 1979). organize and prioritize that input. the brain functions as a whole but the individual sensory systems are organized in a hierarchy. cognitive. Individuals have a strong desire to explore and learn about their environment and its contents for themselves. Jean Ayres. and a form of therapy. Sensory integration is a model that describes. This means that behaviors can change as the nervous system matures. its structure and processes can be modified or changed. The lower areas are where the sensory information is received and organized. Conversely. and neurological development. an occupational therapist who researched sensory functioning in individuals with learning disabilities. Sensory integration theory believes that the development of behaviors is circular. Fourth. areas. promotes further maturation of the nervous system.SENSORY INTEGRATION SENSORY HISTORY Sensory history is documented information from a primary caregiver regarding an individual’s sensory preferences and patterns of behavior. Ayres also described sensory information as ‘‘food for the brain’’ (Ayres. Ayres proposed that maladaptive. and produce an appropriate behavior or response. the central nervous system is ‘‘plastic’’—that is. Fisher and Murray (1991) describe five assumptions of sensory integration as a theory. A. PRESTIA SENSORY INTEGRATION Sensory integration is often used interchangeably to describe three different. such as language. the brain. known as an adaptive behavior or adaptive response. sensory integration within the nervous system occurs in a developmental sequence. It is the ability of the brain to receive input from various receptors in the body. and integrate information properly. learning. The higher areas are where more complex. which in turn. our brains must process sensory information for optimal physical. The emergence of the higher levels is dependent upon the ability of the lower levels to receive. but related. First. Third. The term sensory integration can describe a theory. 1979). The brain is composed of low and high areas. Sensory integration also describes the neurological process between the sensory receptors. an accurately and appropriately functioning sensory and nervous system is reflected through adaptive responses. behavior from a neurological perspective. Similar to the way our bodies process food for nourishment and physical activity. in that each behavior gives feedback to the nervous system. there is an inner drive within people to develop integration between their sensory systems and nervous system through sensorimotor activities. First. Simply ‘‘being’’ or ‘‘seeing’’ is not enough for people. This information is important in developing appropriate interventions and setting up the individual’s environment for optimal performance. The sensory receptors have two 333 . KELLY M.

and know where our bodies end and where the world begins. Bundy (Eds. A. In A. TX: Harcourt Assessment. A. sensory integration can also refer to a specific therapeutic intervention. New York: Berkley Publishing Group. E. (1991).). C. See also maladaptive behavior. If sensory stimulation is too intense or not meaningful for the individual. often provided by an occupational therapist. & Murray. self-injurious behavior. G.SENSORY INTEGRATION main functions. the receptors respond to gather information about the environment to create a sort of ‘‘map’’ of the body and the environment. often combined with physical activity. & A. It also helps us to differentiate objects in the environment. then no change in response or an adverse change in responses may occur. When an imbalance of these two systems occurs. Interventions that combine increasing challenges with activities in which the individual is already successful often have the most successful results for changing behaviors. Typical sensory integration is important for the development of self-control. The out of sync child has fun. J. The overall goal of sensory integration therapy is to rewire the nervous system to process and organize sensory information more efficiently and effectively to produce adaptive responses. For example. and is meaningful to the individual. and how they respond to typical sensory stimuli. C. Fisher. Ayres. 1999) or The Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (Ayres. S. Davis Company.. the intervening therapist may use specific assessment tools to gather important information about how the individual is functioning. (1989). sensory receptors respond to a sensation to alert or arouse the brain to generate awareness. atypical or inappropriate behaviors and responses can be seen. In typical sensory integration. self-esteem. (1999). Third. San Antonio. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. The Sensory Profile (Dunn. A. W. The sensory integration and praxis test. The sensory profile. a dysfunction of sensory integration occurs. Before an intervention begins. Philadelphia: F. Second. which provides controlled sensory input. First. and higherlevel cognitive functions (Kranowitz. Sensory Integration Theory and Practice (pp. 1989) are tools used by professionals to gather information regarding the individual’s ability to process sensory information. 2003). to produce an adaptive response. as well as learn from our environment. Kranowitz. A. This is important for detecting harmful situations. Introduction to sensory integration theory. motor skills. These ‘‘maps’’ help the brain to organize a response and take appropriate action. Fisher. E. REFERENCES Ayres. The behaviors and responses of the individual receiving sensory integration therapy must be carefully monitored by the intervening therapist to determine if the sensory input is appropriate in intensity and length. Sensory integration therapy is a direct intervention. Murray. J. Specialized certifications and training programs in sensory integration therapy are available for professionals. these two functions of the sensory receptors work together and balance one another so that we may be alerted to harmful situations. When sensory integration within the body is disrupted or dysfunctional. G. 15–17). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. KELLY M. Dunn. 3. A. A. Sensory integration and the child. (2003). (1979). PRESTIA 334 .

thus allowing the child to function appropriately.SENSORY INTEGRATION DYSFUNCTION SENSORY INTEGRATION AND PRAXIS TEST (SIPT) The Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT. 2005). see Table 7. This is known as sensory integration dysfunction (SID). Ayres. and (f) vision. Individuals with SID do not effectively utilize sensory information coming through the sensory systems in a manner that is functional. 1999). LISA ROBBINS SENSORY INTEGRATION DYSFUNCTION Individuals on the autism spectrum are often called lazy. (b) the Short Sensory Profile (McIntosh. Many individuals with ASD have difficulty regulating their sensory systems. overactive. J. As a result. or lazy (Miller & Lane. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. 1999). Schyu. 1989). Miller. These interventions aid the sensory systems of individuals with SID to organize themselves. 1989) is a standardized battery consisting of 17 subtests designed to identify patterns of function and dysfunction in sensory integration and motor planning (praxis). or even accident prone. (c) proprioception. changing the input into information that the body can use. It is appropriate for use with children ages 4 through 8 years. The Sensory Integration and Praxis Test. A variety of sensory assessments are available to provide the necessary information for professionals. REFERENCE Ayres. Ayres. It was in this first book that she described the first six sensory modalities: (a) the vestibular system. Administration of this assessment is time-consuming (2–3 hours) and scoring is tedious (computer scoring programs can help cut down on scoring time). Jean Ayres (1973) wrote Sensory Integration and Learning Disorders. and (c) Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT. to provide the correct form of sensory integration therapy. A. Competent administration and interpretation of this assessment require specific training and certification provided by Sensory Integration International or Western Psychological Services. These descriptions often misrepresent individuals when it comes to the child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These seven sensory systems work together to interpret the sensory input coming in from the environment. Commonly used assessments include: (a) the Sensory Profile (Dunn. such as occupational therapists. (1989). For further descriptions of each sensory system and where they are found. (d) the auditory system. & Dunn. Administration and interpretation of these assessments are typically the first steps in determining the type(s) of sensory integration therapy necessary for an individual. In response. individuals with SID appear to be clumsy. (b) the tactile system. 11 months of age. SID is the inability of the sensory system to interpret input from the environment in a manner that is usable. 2000). an individual may avoid confusing or distressing sensations or seek out more of the sensation to find out more about it (Biel & Peske. (e) olfaction. Today professionals in the area of sensory systems have added the gustatory system to the sensory systems to make the total seven. 335 . unoriented. stubborn.

Miller.. (1999). Sensory Integration Special Interest Section Quarterly. N. Shawnee Mission. N.SENSORY INTEGRATION DYSFUNCTION Table 7. 336 . K. Inner ear—stimulated by head movements and input from other senses. 5). Shawnee Mission. N. & Dunn. (1973). putrid. Location and Functions of the Sensory Systems System Tactile (touch) Location Skin—density of cell distribution varies throughout the body.. heat. Miller. L. J. KS: AAPC. Sensory integration and praxis test. and genitals. (2005). D. W. sharp. flowery. A. Areas of greatest density include mouth. McIntosh. Miller.. Chemical receptors in the nasal Provides information about different structure—closely associated types of smell (musty. W. 23(1). L. K. (1989). texture. Biel. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Learn to move. 1–4. dull. Provides information about sounds in the environment (loud. 2000. bitter. E. Tells about speed and direction of movement. REFERENCES Ayres. (2000). hands. pressure. The Sensory Profile: A contextual measure of children’s responses to sensory experiences in daily life. Source: From Asperger Syndrome and Sensory Issues: Practical Solutions for Making Sense of the World (p. & Robbins. A. Provides information about where our body is in space. J. high. (1999).. by B. pungent). Short sensory profile. TX: The Psychological Corporation. cold. Cook. Provides information about different types of taste (sweet. spicy). S. move to learn: Sensorimotor early childhood themes. soft. J. J. Myles. Asperger syndrome and sensory issues: Practical solutions for making sense of the world. Retina of the eye—stimulated by light... Provides information about objects and persons. N. Cook. & L... (2000). T. L. especially visual. J. Ayres. with the gustatory system. & Lane. Shawnee Mission. soft. Inner ear—stimulated by air/ sound waves. and whether or not we or our surroundings are moving. Myles. S. TX: The Psychological Corporation. Dunn. Miller. Helps us define boundaries as we move through time and space. & Peske. low. FURTHER INFORMATION Brack. A. Raising a sensory smart child. San Antonio. Muscles and joints—activated by muscle contractions and movement. Function Provides information about the environment and object qualities (touch. Vestibular (balance) Proprioception (body awareness) Visual (sight) Auditory (hearing) Gustatory (taste) Olfactory (smell) Chemical receptors in the tongue—closely entwined with the olfactory (smell) system. B. V. Provides information about where a certain body part is and how it is moving. (2004). Robbins. San Antonio. Sensory integration and learning disorders. L. Toward a consensus in terminology in sensory integration theory and practice: Part 1: Taxonomy of neurophysiological processes. J. Schyu. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. sour. salty. hard. L. Rinner. L. near far). pain). KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. acrid. C. Rinner. T.. New York: Penguin Books. S.

P. Inc. Albuquerque. Understanding sensory dysfunction: learning. (2003).. caregivers.. It provides a description of emotional and 337 . M. E. REFERENCE Reisman. MA: Therapro. or (b) it can be used by an occupational therapist as a semistructured interview for parents. and others. L. PRESTIA SENSORY PROFILE The Sensory Profile (Dunn. (1996). Kranowitz. KELLY M. Items are considered to reflect possible patterns of sensory processing difficulties. vestibular. (2005). sensory integration disorder. or teachers familiar with a child in approximately 30 minutes. development and sensory dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. G. not typical. & Sutton. PRESTIA SENSORY PROCESSING DYSFUNCTION Sensory processing dysfunction is the inability to accurately perceive sensory information from the environment through one or more of the sensory systems. C. & Anderson. Respondents mark whether or not a described behavioral response is typical. Las Vegas: Sensory Resources. KELLY M. S. sensory integration disorder. NM: Therapy Works. Emmons. See also proprioception. B. Items are organized into four sections: tactile. The items on the profile describe children’s behavioral responses to different sensory experiences. Shawnee Mission. (1998). LISA ROBBINS SENSORY PROCESSING Sensory processing is the process of receiving sensory information from the environment through one or more of the senses and transmitting that information to the brain. Farmington. London: Jessica Kingsley. ADHD.).SENSORY PROFILE Brack. JENNIE LONG SENSORY INTEGRATION INVENTORY–REVISED (SII-R) The Sensory Integration Inventory–Revised (SII-R.. KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Reisman & Hanschu. or unsure if the behavior is typical or not.. & Shellenberger. C. learning disabilities and bipolar disorder. and their ability to modulate/adjust their reactions efficiently. Williams. How does your engine run? A leader’s guide to the Alert Program for Self-Regulation. J. sensory processing dysfunction. teachers. The out of sync child: Recognizing and coping with sensory integration dysfunction. staff. M. Aquilla. J. See also sensorimotor early childhood activities. 1999) is a norm-referenced questionnaire completed by someone who is very familiar with the child. See also sensory integration. Sensory integration inventory–revised.. (2005). 1992) is a screening tool can be used in two ways: (a) it can be completed by ther