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Engleza Curs Idd an I Ambele Semestre

Engleza Curs Idd an I Ambele Semestre

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Sections

  • CHAPTER 1
  • UNIT 1 – 1-ST WEEK
  • PRE-READING TASKS
  • EVERYDAY ENGLISH
  • WAYS WITH WORDS
  • LANGUAGE FOCUS
  • GRAMMAR REFERENCE
  • UNIT 2 – 2-nd WEEK
  • UNIT 3 – 3-rd WEEK
  • READING
  • WAYS WITH WORDS:
  • UNIT 4 – 4-th WEEK
  • PRE-READING TASKS:
  • READING 1
  • READING 2
  • TEST
  • EVALUATION
  • CHAPTER 2
  • UNIT 5 – 5-th WEEK
  • UNIT 6- 6-th WEEK
  • UNIT 7 – 7-th WEEK
  • UNIT 8 – 8-th WEEK
  • UNIT 9 – 9-th WEEK
  • PRE-READING TASK:
  • GRAMMAR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE
  • CHAPTER 3
  • UNIT 10 – 10-th WEEK
  • PRE-READING TASK
  • UNIT 11-11-th WEEK
  • UNIT 12-12-th WEEK
  • UNIT 13 – 13-th WEEK
  • UNIT 14 – 14-th WEEK
  • APPENDIX 1
  • APPENDIX 2
  • APPENDIX 3
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

English for Technical Students

Autor: Arleen Ionescu

Titular disciplina: Fabian Popescu

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Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1............................................................................................... 5 UNIT 1 – 1-ST WEEK............................................................................ 5 PRE-READING TASKS..................................................................... 5 READING .......................................................................................... 5 EVERYDAY ENGLISH..................................................................... 6 WAYS WITH WORDS ...................................................................... 7 LANGUAGE FOCUS......................................................................... 9 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 10 UNIT 2 – 2-nd WEEK .......................................................................... 16 PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 16 READING ........................................................................................ 16 WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 17 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 19 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 20 UNIT 3 – 3-rd WEEK........................................................................... 28 PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 28 READING ........................................................................................ 28 WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 29 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 30 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 31 UNIT 4 – 4-th WEEK ........................................................................... 36 PRE-READING TASKS:.................................................................. 36 READING 1 ..................................................................................... 36 WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 37 READING 2 ..................................................................................... 38 WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 39 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 40 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 42 TEST .................................................................................................... 46 EVALUATION .................................................................................... 48 CHAPTER 2............................................................................................. 50

English for Technical Students

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UNIT 5 – 5-th WEEK ........................................................................... 50 PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 50 READING ........................................................................................ 50 WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 51 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 51 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 53 UNIT 6- 6-th WEEK............................................................................. 64 PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 64 READING ........................................................................................ 64 WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 65 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 65 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 66 UNIT 7 – 7-th WEEK ........................................................................... 75 PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 75 READING ........................................................................................ 75 WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 76 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 76 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 77 UNIT 8 – 8-th WEEK ........................................................................... 85 READING ........................................................................................ 85 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 86 GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 89 UNIT 9 – 9-th WEEK ........................................................................... 95 PRE-READING TASK:.................................................................... 95 READING ........................................................................................ 95 WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 96 LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 96 GRAMMAR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE ................................. 97 TEST .................................................................................................. 105 EVALUATION .................................................................................. 107 CHAPTER 3........................................................................................... 109

............ 109 PRE-READING TASK...................................................................................................... 118 LANGUAGE FOCUS................................................................................................................................................................... 133 PRE-READING TASKS:.............................................. 143 READING . 134 LANGUAGE FOCUS...... 173 ....................................................................................................................................................................................4 Chapter 1 UNIT 10 – 10-th WEEK ................................................................................................... 117 PRE-READING TASK............................................................................................................................... 157 APPENDIX 2 ........................................................................ 117 READING .................. 119 UNIT 12-12-th WEEK............................................................................................................ 155 APPENDIX 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 118 GRAMMAR REFERENCE ................ 172 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................... 109 READING ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 145 TEST ........................................................................................ 124 LANGUAGE FOCUS.......................... 143 GRAMMAR REFERENCE ... 133 READING ........................................................................................................... 153 EVALUATION ....................................................... 110 GRAMMAR REFERENCE ....................................................... 123 PRE-READING TASKS:............................................................................................................................ 110 LANGUAGE FOCUS...................... 137 UNIT 14 – 14-th WEEK ............................................................ 135 GRAMMAR REFERENCE ... 125 UNIT 13 – 13-th WEEK ........................................................................................................................................................ 133 WAYS WITH WORDS ..................................................................... 123 WAYS WITH WORDS ........ 117 WAYS WITH WORDS ........ 112 UNIT 11-11-th WEEK.................. 167 APPENDIX 3 .... 124 GRAMMAR REFERENCE ....... 123 READING ....................................................... 109 WAYS WITH WORDS ....................................................................

and even if I am very far away from home. a student in Romania: My name is George Ionescu and I am a student in the Faculty of Drilling-Production at “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti.English for Technical Students 5 CHAPTER 1 UNIT 1 – 1-ST WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Social English © The English Alphabet © The Verb to be © The Demonstrative Pronoun and the Demonstrative Adjective © Question forms •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS What’s your name? How old are you? Where do you live? What do you specialize in? READING Read the following text about George Ionescu. . I came here to study because this is the most important petroleum university in the country. a town in the North-West of Romania. I come from Oradea. I want to learn many things here.

I intend to improve my English. . “A” rhymes with day. and rhymes with my. May. After the course I want to work for a big petroleum company but I don’t know which yet. In Romania there are lots of Romanian-American. I might need it for my future job. Romanian-Canadian or Romanian-British companies. and I can speak French well and a little English. but it’s very hard work! I live in the university-hostel with three other students. EVERYDAY ENGLISH Practise saying the letters of the alphabet according to the vowel sounds: /ei/ a h j l k /i:/ b c d e g p t v /e/ f l m n s x z /ai/ i y /∂u/ o /u:/ q u w /a:/ r Learners of English can find some of the letters difficult. Brian is in the second year and John is the oldest one: he is in the fourth year.a freshman. “I” is like eye. it is very useful to speak foreign languages and on the other hand. and say. so I’m what the other hostel-mates call me .6 Chapter 1 I’m studying French and English. way. They are older than me: Steve is in the third year. Try to read the following rhymes to get used to the sounds in English: “E’ is easy and rhymes with tea. The courses started two weeks ago. on the one hand. as. I’m enjoying my course a lot.

think of Eistein. Add a letter at the beginning and you have a great weight. a. c. Add a vowel at the end of the fastener and you have a kind of tree. Try again. Follow directions: a. Find synonyms in the text for the following words: to study.English for Technical Students 7 For :”J” think of Jane. to arrive. who was a genius. “R” is what the doctor tells you to say! “Y” is like the question Why? “H” is like the sound in nature. Start with an. Spell the name of George Ionescu. You will play a word game. 2. Add a letter to the beginning of the musical sound and you have a small piece of rock. Then find out how to spell his/her name. 3. Spell your name in English to your deskmate. Add a vowel at the end of the weight and you have a musical sound. 4. WAYS WITH WORDS 1. Follow the directions and check your answers with the answer key: I. Work in small groups and find out things about your partner. c. Add a letter at the end and you have a very little animal that lives in a hill. or imagine your partner is a stranger. III. For “G”. b. Try again. Start with in: a. class. b. Add a letter at the beginning of the tree and you have another word for backbone. Add a letter at the beginning and you have something used to fasten things together. . Start with the word on. Can you keep a conversation going with someone for two or three minutes? Choose a partner who you don’t know well. II. Then work in pairs.

. ant. can’t. 6. e. c. stone. d. every day possible. c. Add a letter at the beginning of the little animal and you have the opposite of can. meet. enough. b. in every way possible. c. c. III. A word that rhymes with hair but means right and just. pin. Add a letter at the beginning of the opposite of can and you have a word that means not enough. also. Answer key: I. Another word for too that ends with -so. fair. Choose from the phrases in column B: A answers the phone? knocks on the door? says you are late? is in danger? B “Get well soon!” “Cheers!” ”Excuse me!” “Don’t mention it!” .8 Chapter 1 b. d. from films. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B. tone. TV and records. ton. e. b. pine. II. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking B without a teacher. b. in real situations. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A. 5. IV. b. b. without being told to. a. c. c. Find the words described below: a. scant. spine. Another word for sufficient that rhymes with tough. a. A word with two meanings: it may mean portion and it may also mean to leave. a. A word that sounds like meat but means getting together. IV. part. a.

Same to you. on and on = fãrã întrerupere.” says “Make yourself at home. on this ground = din acest motiv. pe de altã parte. radioul.” LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. la nesfârşit.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. on record = cunoscut. on the contrary = din contrã. = în numele cuiva. on the other hand which means pe de o parte .etc. you learned the expression on the one hand . the radio. Let’s learn more expressions containing the preposition on: to be on duty = a fi de serviciu.English for Technical Students 9 gets married? passes an exam? drinks with you? is in your way? says “Good morning!’ says “How do you do!” thanks you? is ill? sneezes? says “Good night. luând în consideraţie cã. In the text about George Ionescu. to turn on/ to switch on (the light... din partea cuiva. on a large/small scale = pe scarã mare/micã. . on behalf of sb. on the basis of = pe baza.). on account of = pe baza.” “Look out!” “How do you do!” “Hello?” “Sleep well!” “Good morning. din cauzã cã.” “Well done!” “Congratulations! “Sorry!” “Bless you!” “Thanks. and so on = şi aşa mai departe.” says “Have a good weekend.. etc.” “Come in!” “Thanks.. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri..

The sentence is: I don’t know yet. pe cale. 2. deodatã. etc. on principle = din principiu. mai.10 Chapter 1 on the score of = ca rezultat. on demand = la cerere. not yet = nu încã. GRAMMAR REFERENCE THE VERB TO BE Form Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am (‘m) not You We They He is (’s) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) a student. on the whole = în general. acum. yet may be translated in different ways: încã. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word yet. totuşi. Depending on the context in which it appears. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. on purpose = dinadins. on a sudden = brusc. nor yet = nici mãcar. în pragul. în întregime. on trial = de probã. intenţionat. Look at the last simple sentence in the text about George Ionescu. în afarã de aceasta. pânã în prezent. on condition that = cu condiţia. . pe neaşteptate. on the verge of = pe punctul de. it is strange and yet true = e ciudat şi totuşi e adevãrat. as yet = pânã acum. on the first attempt = la prima încercare.

Acela este un aparat de radio. nu sunt. . . I’m not. i. Is she an engineer? Yes. noi suntem fizicieni. Sunt ei specialişti francezi? Nu. f. I am. No. El este englez. noi nu suntem. she is. g. Cine nu . b. No. acestea sunt colegele mele.. Acelea sunt colegele tale? Nu. d. Eu sunt inginer. h. El are note foarte mari. . THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE Form Reference “near” reference “distant” reference Singular this that Plural these those Controlled Practice: 1. Acesta este un televizor. Cine este aici? John este aici. Sunteţi voi ingineri mecanici? Nu. Monica şi Andra. she isn’t. c. . . . e. Noi suntem tehnicieni. El este cel mai bun student din grupa noastră. Translate into English: a. .English for Technical Students 11 She is not (isn’t) Interrogative Where am are I? you? we? they? is he? she? it? Short answer Are you a student in Drilling? Yes.

. it is. . Sea and other severe environments.12 Chapter 1 este aici? Maria nu este aici şi nici George nu este.. Elizabeth II is the queen of England. Canterbury is a town in Kent. Ele sunt chimiste. a. Read the following article on mobile rigs. b. j. Cursurile acestea sunt ale lor. where maximum utilization……. the primary concern of the designer. e.. Acestea sunt cursurile mele. Use your dictionary. You are a chemist.g. can equal the performance of conventional platforms. Is Canterbury a town? Yes.. .. We are drilling students. Canterbury is a town. Turn these sentences into questions and answer them: e. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Then fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verb to be: Why mobile rigs can make reliable production units Conversion of early generation MODUs into production units……. a bold step for operators of North Sea and other marginal field developments. d. My father is a doctor. c.

How old are you? How often do you play football? . e. ….. that is an electric generator.... is an electric heater. waves.. Those are substances. Complete the following text using the appropriate pronouns: a. d. They haven’t got my name on them. When do you start the conference? . Where is Paris? . ……..By train. are metals. they are. …. ……. ready to use new risers and subsea equipment designs.…… an electric heater?” “No. Are …. c. What time is it? What kind of chemistry do you study? Which pen do you want. is Adam’s pencil.English for Technical Students 13 We. Thanks.. and currents on vessel motion and mooring systems. John? Yes. 3rd. tools yours.. ……. It’s over there. Is . b. QUESTION FORMS Look at the following question words: What do you do for a living? .……. is a generator. Whose are these tools? .. but they belong to me.They are Peter’s.. How do you come to Ploieşti? . What and which can be followed by a noun.Because I need it for my job. the blue one or the green one? How can be followed by an adjective or an adverb. It must be his because it’s got his name on it. people ……. is a mill.”. It’s over here. able today to know more about effects of wind.I’m a chemist. 4. Why are you learning English? .On Wednesday. April. Who is your teacher of English? .In France..Sandra Brown is.

De ce te grãbeşti? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.. Where/ When are you going now? d. e. What/ Which of these paintings do you like best? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Ask short questions on these statements. Translate the following text into English: a. I’ve just received a letter. Choose the appropriate question form in the following sentences: a. e.. what./ Who from? a. I want to take this book with me. using who. c. (for) b. where: e. mulţumesc. Will you please open this box? (with) . De unde eşti? Sunt din Timişoara. Câţi ani ai? Douãzeci şi şase. . b. Când ai venit prima oarã în Ploieşti? Anul trecut. Who/How are you? I am John Smith. d..g. What/ How are you today? c. What/Which time is the train due to arrive? b.14 Chapter 1 Controlled Practice: 1. Ce mai faci? Sunt bine.

. (from) e. I’m going to England next week. (by) d. get me a screwdriver. Please. John is very angry.English for Technical Students 15 c. (with).

for example. Try to find the personal pronouns in the text: Today. and this was not thought to be very important by the other nations of . only a few million people spoke English. How many are they? Do you know any countries in which English is used as the second language? What about countries in which English is spoken by many people? READING Read the following text on English as a world language. when English is one of the major languages in the world. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing .that in Shakespeare’s time.16 Chapter 1 UNIT 2 – 2-nd WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © English as a world language © The Personal Pronoun © Present Simple © Present Continous •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS Try to think of the English-speaking countries in the world.

English for Technical Students

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Europe, and it was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. People started to import English in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present status in the world. As I could read in an article, one person in seven of the world’s entire population speak English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. Incredibly enough, due to the extension of computerized systems and softs which are mostly in English, 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. Again incredibly, yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. International literary or scientific publications are generally printed in English and other languages such as German, Spanish or French, yet again English is the predominant language. So, the quicker you learn it, the more opportunities you may have to read interesting materials connected to your field.

WAYS WITH WORDS
1. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our achievements and successes. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions about English: Model: Have you improved your accent? Yes, I think I have. Have you: a. been to an English-speaking country? b. passed any exams in English? c. managed to translate anything into English? d. had any conversations with English native speakers? e. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people?

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Chapter 1

f. used English in your studies or work? g. read a scientific article in English? h. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists? i. learned any songs in English? j. discovered any differences between English and your own language? 2. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a foreign language. Example: You don’t have to be serious to learn English, you have to be co-operative.

confident determined independent courageous serious handsome ambitious

energetic well-organised patient enthusiastic charming steady intelligent

−_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Choose the word which best completes each sentence: a. If you want to become ... when you speak, you should forget about making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible. A. practical; B. fluent; C. handy; D. skillful. b. If you don’t understand everything you hear, then listening to a tape is a ... of time.

English for Technical Students

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A. matter; B. problem; C. waste; D. loss. c. If you’re not ... certain what someone has said, you should pretend that you have understood. A. very; B. fairly; C. surely; D. quite. d. If you want to practise speaking a good idea is to tell a story or a ... to someone. A. joke; B. tale; C. laughter; D. fool. e. When you ... an oral exam, it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after each word. A. make; B. take; C. speak; D. go.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. In this unit you learned about English as a world language. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as comparared with = în comparaţie cu; as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a; as if/ as though = ca şi cum; as far as = întrucât, pe cât, în mãsura în care; as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte; as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã; as long as = atât timp cât; as regards = în ceea ce priveşte; as a rule = de regulã, în principiu; as seen = dupã cum se vede; as shown in Fig. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Fig. 2; as such = ca atare; as well = deopotrivã, de asemenea; as well as = cât şi, tot aşa ca; as when = ca atunci când, ca în cazul în care; as yet/ so far/ up to now. up to the present = pânã în prezent; such as = astfel ca, ca de exemplu.

Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. it is all one to them = le este tot una. cu totul. all over = peste tot. all the better = cu atât mai bine. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. How do you translate in all the continents of the world? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. that is about all = ca. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he she it The accusative/The dative. first of all = înainte de toate. Form Plural we you they . all in all = în întregime. of all kinds = de toate felurile. all at once = dintr-o datã. asta-i tot. all worn out = complet uzat. in all the continents of the world.20 Chapter 1 2. GRAMMAR REFERENCE THE PERSONAL PRONOUN The nominative. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England. once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. all in good time = toate la timpul lor.

. e. Translate the folowing sentences into English: a.English for Technical Students 21 Person Sin gula r Plural First person Second person Third person (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it (to) us (to) you (to) them Controlled practice: 1. Have you told they/ them the news? . Mi-a dãruit o carte de geologie. . He is studying English as he/we intends to join an American petroleum company. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. c. El este inginer la o fabricã de ciment. Ei nu vorbesc engleza. She told me/ to me that she needed a day off. pentru cã el avea douã exemplare. Îl strig pe John. Choose the appropriate forms of the personal pronoun: a. d. dar noi îi putem ajuta. I think I saw him/ he in the street yesterday. dar nu mă aude. e. dar pe ea n-am vãzut-o. L-am vãzut pe el la curs. . b. c. . d. b. I gave her/him that book as he needed it.

regularly. Mood. Try to find the form of the verb to require. seldom. TENSE AND ASPECT Look at the first complex sentence in the text. sometimes. demonstrations and stage directions: Her drawing shows two parts of a hypebolic curve. • a fact which is true for a long time I live in Ploiesti. constantly. never. tense gives an indication of when the action happens and aspect reflects the status of action referring to duration. PRESENT SIMPLE -is used to express: • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. Doesn’t require is a verb in the indicative mood. often. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. Its tense is present and its aspect is simple.): I usually get up at 8. -is used in explanations. continually. The door bell rings. The Earth moves round the Sun. tense and aspect are grammatical categories of the verb. rarely. etc. Roughly speaking. • a fact which is always true (general truths and states): Wood floats on water. normally. Most evenings we go out. etc. occasionally. ever. usually. frequently. forever. result.22 Chapter 1 MOOD. Romanian people like to travel. She listens quietly. The Danube floats into the Black Sea. She works in a petroleum company. mood presents the attitude of the speaker towards an action or a state expressed by the verb. . I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. hardly.30.

I do. she doesn’t. Does she speak Italian? No. .English for Technical Students 23 Form Affirmative and negative I work do not (don’t) work You We They He She works does not (doesn’t) work work do not (don’t) work in a university. Interrogative Where do do I you we they does he she it work? Short answer Do you like summer? Yes. PRESENT CONTINOUS -is used to express: • an activity happening now or around now They are playing in their bedroom now.

she isn’t. . I am. • a planned future arrangement: I’m meeting you at 10 o’clock tomorrow. I’m not. doing? are (‘re) are (aren‘t) is (‘s) is not (isn’t) not working. Is she watching TV? Yes. No. she is. No. Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am not (‘m) not You We They He She It Interrogative What am are I you we they is he she it Short answer Are you coming? Yes. Form Present Continous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing).24 Chapter 1 I am designing a helix this week.

It (rain) now. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I …. but this week.. Pardon me.... f. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. i. where we ……. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses.. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland... Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continous: a. photography and tennis this week do and John ……. I (live) in Ploiesti.. lunch at one... I (cut) a cone now and she (draw) an asymptote.. It often (rain) in summer.English for Technical Students 25 Controlled Practice: 1. Maria (come) from Spain this week. We ……. b. h.. d. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest. lessons from ten to half past twelve. different things.. We’re at the Edinburgh Activity Centre... English and Italian. sir. do We …….. and then there are more have .. get at half past eight every morning and ……. j. She (speak) French. He (come) to see me tonight. I ……. here every come learn summer to learn more about their hobbies and interests. a have good time and at the same time we ……. c. about computers. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.. People…….. g. e. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it. I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. but I (think) you (stand) on my feet. do something different this year. up learn...

B. When your boss or teacher is away. try to change the subject? d. C. When you think about the future. worry about what will go wrong? c. C. like. do you: A. Kate 3. have a post-office in front of the Centre. C.. wait happily for the next one?.. So it’s hard work. blame someone else? b. B. See you soon. When someone asks you a questions and you’re not sure of the answer. But I ……. try to do something else for them?. admit you don’t know?. give an answer you think may be right?. do you: A. The weather is good. C. B. hope they won’t notice?.26 Chapter 1 lessons. do you: . Love. do you: A. shout angrily?. feel guilty? e.. We …. do you: A. it here... dream of impossible success or wealth?. When you miss a bus or a train. B. plan your future career carefully?. What do you do in these situations? a. When you forget to do something important for a friend or a member of your family.

and if you chose mostly C. start laughing and joking?. it means you are a pessimistic person. it means you are an ambitious person. . B. do not work at all? If most of your answers are A it means you are a very optimistic person.English for Technical Students 27 A. C. work hard as usual?. If you chose mostly B.

In the letter that you send with the CV. etc.28 Chapter 1 UNIT 3 – 3-rd WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Getting a job © Verbs which do not take a Continous Aspect in English © The Imperative © The possessive pronoun and adjective •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS What do you need in order to get a job? Have you ever applied for a job? Has a friend of yours ever applied for a job? Talk about the way you should introduce yourself or any other problems you think may occur. but so many of the application letters end up in the wastepaper basket. your hobbies. show some enthusiasm for the job. READING Read the following text on getting a job. as for example you may feel frustrated if you use cheap. You should know that you are supposed to use A4. Stress how suitable you consider you are for that . lined notepaper. and preferably to type your CV and the accompanying letter. The CV needs to be clear and not too long: one page is enough. and demonstrate that you have read the job advertisement thoroughly. Don’t include all your personal details (such as for example whether you are married or not. Can you notice the imperatives in the text? A job starts with an application.).

. The manager told me he couldn’t wait as he had . You have to be well-dressed and punctual to succeed in a/an . I asked my previous boss for a .... work. You could ... In our company every . but don’t write something which contradicts the data you offered them in your CV! Then. c. g. wages... I handed in my . b.. applicant. When I applied for this position.......... I sent in my . application.. d.. as I had never had that kind of job before. Not all the words are possible: a.. all day long. experiences... to do....... was helping in a shop at weekends.. e.. good luck with the interview itself! WAYS WITH WORDS: In the sentences below. interview. office. h. gain.. employee. My first .000 a month as a sales representative in this company.... j.. Not many people enjoy sitting at a/an .. earn.. use one suitable word from the list that follows. f. diploma. salary. employer.... job.. qualifications. Before I left that oil company. receives a month’s salary.. to the the address given in the advertisement. resignation.English for Technical Students 29 job. desk. department. They told me I lacked . gain. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ... reference.. i. over 2.....

Read the sentence A job starts with an application again. like that (just like that) = aşa.. In the letter that you send with the CV. with full steam on = cu toatã viteza înainte.. in order that = pentru ca. In the first sentence it introduces a direct object clause and in the other it introduces a relative clause. with an eye to = urmãrind.. for all that = cu toate acestea. that much = cam atât. din aceastã cauzã. with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. referitor. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit. 2. to do away with = a înlãtura. Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe. show some enthusiasm for . As you can see these are two meaning of the word that. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. together with = împreunã cu.30 Chapter 1 LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. as with = la fel ca şi. with reason = pe drept. Look at the following sentences belonging to this unit: You should know that you are supposed to . a termina cu. that is the point = aceasta-i problema. but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. fãrã a pierde din vedere. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã. with a view of = în scopul de a. pe bunã dreptate. .. sã. that is to say = adicã. cu privire la. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea.. that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat.

matter. recognize. I smell gas. Creionul Rotring este al Mariei. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . smell. c. notice. owe. etc. mind. etc. b.. hear. The house belongs to my mother. like. Urãsc sã mi se cearã sã fac o lucrare de azi pe mâine. • verbs of thinking: think. Acest curs conţine 14 capitole. e. understand. forget. forgive. • verbs of having and being: have. He wants to buy a new tool. realize.. hold. be.English for Technical Students 31 GRAMMAR REFERENCE VERBS WHICH DO NOT TAKE A CONTINOUS ASPECT IN ENGLISH There are verbs in English which generally are not used in the continous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see. dislike. know. etc. I don’t remember your name.. hate. I hate people calling me late at night. wish. Translate into English: a. remember.. belong to. Controlled Practice: 1. expect. contain. suppose. taste. own. d. I have a very good lathe. • verbs of emotion: love. possess. refuse. want. Aceastã sticlã conţine acid boric. Ea are doar un curs de chimie şi două de fizică. etc.

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Chapter 1

2. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a. I’m thinking/ I think of you.; b. She smells/ is smelling gas.; c. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt.; d. We have/ are having dinner now.; e. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now.

−_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

THE IMPERATIVE -is a mood which expresses an order, a command, a wish, a greeting, a piece of advice, a threat: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Let’s go! Form -the imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. Affirmative Get ready! Start working! Negative Don’t get ready! Don’t start working!

Controlled Practice: Translate the following into English:

English for Technical Students

33

a. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi!; b. Vino, te rog, la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de chimie organicã. ; c. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna!; d. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator, pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã-l folosesc şi eu.; e. Luaţi loc, vã rog, doamnã!; f. Nu pleca, pentru că nu am terminat proiectul!; g. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune.; h. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc, pentru că o faci degeaba.; i. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul.; j. Grăbeşte-te, mai ai doar cinci minute!

−_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Make the following sentences negative: a. Come here!; b. Get ready as we are in a hurry!; c. Be on time, because English people are never late.; d. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow.; e. Work faster as we need to finish this uuntil two o’clock.

−_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN AND THE POSESSIVE ADJECTIVE The possessive pronoun. Form

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Chapter 1

Person First person Second person Third person

Singular mine yours his hers its

Plural ours yours theirs

The possesive adjective. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular my your his her its Controlled Practice 1. Choose the appropriate possessive pronouns or adjectives: a. My/ mine father’s car is new. Mine/my is very old and ugly.; b. We have been looking for these magazines. Someone took them from your/our room. They belong to us We’re using the pictures for a project of ours/yours.; c. There are five billion people in our/his world and they live in all different corners ot it.; d. This is her/hers car. She bought it two months ago.; e. My results are better than yours/your.; f. Is that book yours/your as I think I saw you when you lent it to your/yours friend, Tom.; g. I don’t think this is one of Emma’s pens. I know she has lost her/hers calculator, but I haven’t heard her say she has lost a pen . What do you think?; h. My/mine speciality is paleontology. I have specialized in the study of prehistoric life through the evidence of fossils.; i. After we have acquired some knowledge about the oil industry and the kind of work that is involved, we will prove ours/our knowledge later.; j. Your/yours article on drilling wells in blazing deserts is a good one. Plural our your their

English for Technical Students 35 −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

Bucureşti Ploieşti 2000 Prahova Telephone: 044165342 . Can you find any improvements? Work with your mates and report your findings to the rest of the class: CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DETAILS Name: Radu IONESCU Address: 23 Bvd.36 Chapter 1 UNIT 4 – 4-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Writing a CV © Writing a letter of application © Classification of Nouns © Number of Nouns © The Genitive •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS: What information should your CV contain? What information should your letter of application contain? READING 1 Read the following CV.

cinema. 2001: drilling engineer at GPS Arad Summer 1999-Summer 2000: college position: required to prepare accounts Summer 1998: Bucharest Chemical Services . Chemistry. Drilling. b. Math-Cad.assistant Summer 1997: Videle Well Drilling . Your name is obviously important. EDUCATION 2001-2000: Master of Science . Lotus 1-2-3.Faculty of Well Drilling and Production “A” levels: Mathematics. so you should make sure it stands out. Recovery.”Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti 1995-2000: “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti. Conversational French Computer literacy: Wordperfect. Windows 2000. Bold is used selectively. When you state the languages you can speak. Technical Drawing WORK HISTORY Sept.English for Technical Students 37 Date of birth: 1 January 1974 Nationality: Romanian Languages: Fluent English. Don’t use qualifications such as well. conversational and fluent are the only words to use about them. Here are some pieces of advice for you when you write your CV: a. 2000-Sept. theatre.Drilling .technician INTERESTS: aerobics. . Math-Lab. WAYS WITH WORDS: 1. reading REFERENCES: available on request.

As you will see from my enclosed Curriculum Vitae.developed in my current job with GPS Arad. they will surely test you. c. as you had the best degrees in those objects which are of major importance for your future job. D. If they really want to find out about your language skills. as I believe it offers the carrer challenge which I am seeking.38 Chapter 1 very well. it is vital to highlight your student activities. READING 2 Here is the letter of application Radu Ionescu has written. etc. Education and qualifications should be listed together. . You should mention references only if they are very impressive. e. D. Vlad Ref. I graduated from “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti last year. d. The “A” levels are important. then I have had a successful year working in a scientific environment with GPS Arad. Vlad Personnel Manager Petrom Bucureşti Dear Mr. I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add value to your organization: Organizational skills . A.: drilling engineer vacancy I am writing to apply for the position of drilling enginner that you advertised in Bursa on 5 October 2001. as they may show that you are suitable for that job. Don’t make up a list of names and addresses in your reference section. Skim through the letter and see what information the applicant is conveying about himself: 23 Bvd Bucureşti Ploieşti 200 Prahova Mr A. For the Work History section.

developed through working in a team environment in my current role and through a number of holiday positionswhen I was a student./ I have a genuine interest in this kind of work. What do you think is wrong with some of the sentences listed below? a.000. d. b./ I know this type of work./ I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary. I feel sure my studies recommend me for this job. e.developed in my role as university officer where I prepared annual reports and accounts and I was responsible for a budget of 1. I look forward to hearing from you. as I am a reliable person. Choose the most appropriate and convincing sentence in each group. I have a keen interest in drilling engineering and would appreciate the opportunity of an interview to discuss why I believe I am good match for your requirements. I am quite interested in this kind of work.000 lei per annum./ I hope I am right for this sort of work.000./ I am extremely interested in this type of work./ I am a friendly and tactful person.English for Technical Students 39 Accounting skills . I am well-liked by everybody and I am very convincing./ I can maintain friendly relationships with people. c. Yours sincerely. Interpersonal skills ./ I am sure I am the most suitable person for this job./ I am totally knowledgeable about this type of work. Radu Ionescu WAYS WITH WORDS: 1. I am familiar with this type of work. Here are some lines from different letters of application of several candidates for this job. . I can make decisions when it is really necessary and I am very responsive./ I always make the best decisions in my office.

13. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being . Bucharest. Piaţa Romanã. Then write the letter to cover your CV applying for the vacancy: CONSTRUCT Ltd. Look at it and write your CV. Here is an advertisement which was published in Bursa on 4 April 2001.…. Applicants should be willing to work in teams and should be able to meet deadlines.. human resources and equipment for the construction industry requires Human Resource Officers Applications are accepted from recent graduates of Sociology or Bussiness Studies with some background in income tax laws and computer literacy. Complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a.……. Applicants should be fluent in English and French.. Please enclose a current CV and letter of application addressed to Mr Ion Pop. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another.40 Chapter 1 2. Construct (Romania) Ltd.…. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……. the opposite of short is long. position. b.. . the opposite of old is young. LANGUAGE FOCUS Vocabulary building 1. Human Resources Manager. For example. or company management.. Romanian-Canadian company providing expertise.

having a personal bank account. a deposit account..than FULL-TIME. a mortgage. When she started with the company her ………….. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ………. nobody will lend him any money. to earn 15% interest... Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a. a monthly statement. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money. Try to think of the word time. to cash a cheque. century.…………. The first shop he opened was a big success but the second was a total …….. the Stock Market.English for Technical Students 41 c. Now it’s at least four times that. a cheque card.. to buy shares in a company. b. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. d. year. a current account. Pierre is very worried because he is in ………. . but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had .………… of $00 a month... Now think of words connected to time. d. was only $000 a year. year. c.…. a building society. Word sets. When Mr Michael retired he received a . month. to put money in. e.... Many people would rather work …………. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. 2. In this way you may create a word set which may include among other words: day. The management said salaries had INCREASED. etc. e. saving and investing money.

-z. NUMBER OF NOUNS: Form Variable nouns form the plural in the following way: • -s is added to the singular: books-books. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant (-y changes to i). four girls. -x. The weather is fine. water or oil. -sh. We cannot count sugar.42 Chapter 1 GRAMMAR REFERENCE CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS Countable nouns a girl a man a tool a cup an apple a guitar a pound a car a well Uncountable nouns water sugar milk music weather money oil/ petroleum coal gas We can say two cups. We can count them. These cups are full. -ch. twenty cars. nouns ending in o: . ten pounds. tool-tools • -es is added to the singular nouns ending in -s. The coal has a good quality. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty.

the cover of the book. louse-lice.: England’s mountains. box-boxes. the spaceship’s crew. time. ox-oxen Foreign plurals stimulus-stimuli. used with neuter nouns: the tower of London. potatopotatoes (But: photo-photos) • -(e)s is added to nouns ending in -f(e) (which changes to -v): knife-knives. Complete this newspaper article. natural phenomena. datum-data. value: a two months’ practice. leaf-leaves. basis-bases. quantity. foot-feet. space. phenomenon-phenomena. etc. Controlled Practice: 1. a pound’s worth of pears • collective nouns: the governement’s decisions. shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs) Irregular plural nouns: man-men. stratum-strata. the afternoon’s heat. brush-brushes. my parents’ advice • nouns denoting measurement. woman-women. goose-geese. criterion-criteria. larva-larvae. child-children. tooth-teeth. yesterday’s newspaper. the Parliament’s laws • geographical names. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brakets: Clayton Factory for Milchester . etc. etc. city-cities. THE GENITIVE The analytical genitive is used with the preposition of. match-matches. vehicles. mouse-mice. The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • nouns denoting persons or other beings: John’s lecture.English for Technical Students 43 bus-buses. the colour of oil.

b. but (information/s) (is/are) that there will be (work/s) (is/are) hard to find at the moment. Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby. Make all other changes which are necessary: a.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town.. e.44 Chapter 1 The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. 2. Where have you put that box? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.. El foloseşte multe maşini-unelte.. d. Translate into English: a. c. This child is a naughty one. c. he was arranging this books on the shelf. Pãrintele istoriei naturale a Angliei se numeşte Gilbert White. I need to buy some kerosene for my stove. d. When I entered the room. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. and 2. Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/s) there will be. (This/These) (new/s) (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists.... The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. nu erau foarte erau . b. S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în acest domeniu al cunoaşterii.. La începutul secolului XX. The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and (is/are) famous for its “Polumode” (good/s) The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/s)” and “Plymode (jean/s) (is/are) the (one/s) for you” are well known.

e. Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de chimie. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .English for Technical Students 45 multe studente în colegii..

Where …………? …. to me and it ………. speak/ do. don’t speak/ do. C. D. it is a good idea for you to speak to …………. Whose/ her. B. 9. ………… for ……… tools? A. want/ these. 8. A. about. A. Choose the best variant: 1. C. 7. D. C. don’t want/ these. A. B. five chapters. B. D. Whose/ his. snows/ is snowing. It has been …………… for two years.... am not speaking/ am doing. They came from England two days ago. D. Do you look/ these. B. are/ much.my best to make myself understood by the others. There …………. B. 2. is snowing/ doesn’t snow. Which/ his. If you ………… to practise English more. D. are you going/ aren’t you thinking? 5... A. Are you looking/ these. I don’t understand who …………. are you going?/ don’t you think. Speak English very well. people. It …………. do you talk. This book ………. do you go?/ aren’t you thinking. belongs/ contains. do you go/ do you think.. don’t want/ those. C. C. belongs/ is containing. is belonging/ is containing. A. B. B. Which/ hers. are you talking. aren’t/ much. mistakes in your paper. Don’t you look/ these. don’t speak/ am doing. D. is snowing/ snows. D.. C. you should help us finish this? A. far too …………. want/ those. ……….……. C. a lot this winter. C. B. A. B. A. even if in Romania it generally ………… so much in this region. I ……….. 3. office is the big one? It’s John’s. 2. is belonging/ contains. D. 6. you are talking. 4. D. aren’t/ many. but I ………. C. Are you looking/ those. snows/ isn’t snowing.46 Chapter 1 TEST 1.. Translate into English: . you talk. are/ many.

. A. 7. 1. 5. B.. They are having dinner and talking about their holiday plans. A. încearcă să se gândească la ceea ce a învăţat în timpul săptămânii. He doesn’t have much free time. At the same time he works for a petroleum company in Bucharest. A. when he doesn’t have so many courses. he tries to think of what he has learnt during the week. Today it’s Saturday evening and George is at home with his family. 1 point + 1 point per ech good answer 2. Duminica. În acelaşi timp lucrează pentru o companie de petrol la Bucureşti. 9. . 4. Astăzi este sâmbătă seară şi George este acasă cu familia lui. for at the weekend he has courses at the university. 6. D.. C. El nu are mult timp liber. 8.English for Technical Students 47 George este student la Foraj. A. 3. A. 2. On Sunday. Ei iau cina şi discută despre planurile lor de vacanţă. Answer key: 1. George is a student in Drilling. atunci când nu are multe cursuri. pentru că la sfârşitul săptămânii are cursuri la universitate.. C. 1 point + 9 points per translation. 2.

What didn’t you enjoy about it? −_________________________________________________________ .48 Chapter 1 EVALUATION 1. What have you learnt from this chapter? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. What did you enjoy about it? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.

−_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently.English for Technical Students 49 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4.

Look at the tenses of the verbs. the bit cut and crushed the dirt or rock at the bottom of the well. The moment the debris at the bottom of the well was removed. They punched a hole into the ground. the stem and bit . Translate the text into Romanian: When the first real oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania. a bit. the United States. engineers used a system which was being used for digging wells for water. in 1859. They used a cutting tool. on the end of a drilling stem which they were raising and then let it fall.50 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 2 UNIT 5 – 5-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Drilling methods © Past Simple ©Past Continous © Expressions of quantity © The Adjective •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS What system is used for water wells? Which was the first oil well in Romania? READING Read this text about cable-tool drilling.

Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile. in common with = în comun cu.) Each type is suitable for use in penetrating different subsurface layers. A cutting bit drills the hole with a rotary or circular motion. in order to/ that = ca sã. A hole is punched into the ground by dropping a cutting tool into dirt or rock. Bit: a cutting tool. Cable-tool drilling: a system for drilling oil wells. oil. or gas. the United States. . Rotary drilling: another system for drilling oil wells. etc. roller bits. There are different bits used in drilling for oil (diamond drill bits. and the process was repeated over and over again. in the beginning = la început. pentru ca. WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Well: hole sunk into the earth to reach water. in 1859. the preposition in introduces both an Adverbial of place (in Pennsylvania) and an Adverbial of time (in 1859).English for Technical Students 51 were pulled up. in all together = în total. Then the bit was dropped again to crush more rock. In the sentence: When the first real oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania. This technique is used nowadays only when the wells are shallow and when there is hard rock to cut through.. in contrast to/with = în contrast cu. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. in itself = în sine. Most modern wells are drilled by the rotary drilling method. in particular = în special. fishtails.

liber. in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã. in search of = în cãutare de.(e. at stake = în joc. in turn = cu rândul. to result in = a avea ca rezultat. in return for = în schimbul a. at full load = cu sarcinã plinã/ totalã. in such a manner = în aşa mod. at liberty = fãrã restricţii. She succeeded in passing the exam). in token of = în semn de. in sum = pe scurt. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. . in practice = în principiu. in quantity = în cantitate. in that = în aceea cã. pe îndelete. ca dovadã.) = a avea succes în. at right angle = la unghi drept. to succeed in (+doing sth. at most = cel mult. intermitent. in print = tipãrit. in progress = în curs de. at request = la cerere. at intervals = la intervale. at ease = liniştit.g. How do you translate the debris at the bottom of the well? Now learn some expressions containing the preposition at: at best = în cel mai bun caz. to be interested in = a fi interesat de. at once = imediat. at a disadvantage = în dezavantaj. a reuşi în.52 Chapter 1 in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de. în douã vorbe. 2.

repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic). He stood up and went out of the room. in 1985. etc): They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago.English for Technical Students 53 GRAMMAR REFERENCE PAST SIMPLE -is used to express • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. Suddenly he remembered something. The chemists reported the results obtained yesterday. yesterday morning/ evening. He took off his shirt. . In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page @) I arrived yesterday. Form -the form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. There are many common irregular verbs. put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. yesterday. The discovery of diffraction of X-rays by von Laue (1912) led to the discovery of the Bragg Crystal spectometer. • habitual. I met him every d1ay on my way to the office. She always wore red. • a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room. Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed.

No. No. she didn’t.54 Chapter 1 You We They He/She went to Sinaia Negative -the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t). arrive? go? PAST CONTINOUS -is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past . Did she report the results obtained? Yes. When did Where did I you we they he she Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? Yes. I didn’t. I You We They He/She did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday. I did. she did. Interrogative -the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did.

English for Technical Students 55 What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was calculating the length of the diagonal of a square. doing? . You We They were were (weren’t) not Interrogative What was I he she were you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes. past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6.30 yesterday. No. When she arrived. he was sleeping. I wasn’t. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative I He She was was not (wasn’t) working. I was. she was. Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes. • . No. she wasn’t.

) They were producing drilling bits when those people started to buy shares in their company. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. (I started and finished. When the exploration was completed. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington. the drilling crew moved/ was moving in. b. h. somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. d. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. Something happened in the middle to interrupt them).56 Chapter 1 PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINOUS I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed the wire. e. (I was in the middle of the activity.000 drilling bits last year. She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room. .) I did my homework yesterday. c. (producing and looking are long activities. I was dropping/ dropped the knife. Controlled Practice: 1. Chemistry played/ was playing an essential part in the development of the refining process 20 years ago. Our crew included/ was including a seismic shooter and the man who set off/ was setting off the blast. While I was learning/ learnt for my Chemistry exam. We produced/ were producing 10. f. i. g.

which quickly was replacing/ replaced whale oil in the kerosene stoves in the 50’s. Find the correct action for each person and make a sentence: Example: Copernicus. 2.English for Technical Students 57 j. People Elvis Presley Shakespeare Picasso Neil Armostrong Americo Vespucci Artur Aish Martin Luther King Thomas Hardy Edison Actions going to the moon inventing the electric light writing “Romeo and Juliet” singing rock music playing tennis discovering America painting “Guernica” working for Black people’s rights creating novels −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .studying the planets Copernicus studied the planets. The first important commercial product from crude petroleum was kerosene.

Mr Smith (stop) and (report) the accident. but only with a singular noun: There is some coal in this mine. Supply the simple past tense or the continous past tense of the verbs in brackets: The accident (happen) at 11. Mr Smith (not stop) at the traffic lights. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences. a lot of/ lots of. As he (turn) into Brooks Bd. It (not rain) at the time.46 pm Mr Michael Johnson (cycle) north along Brooks Bd. and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. Mr and Mrs Smith (be) on their way home. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY some/any. Milchester. much/many.46 pm on September 21st at the corner St and Brooks Bd. Mr Smith (drive). He (have) his lights on. Are there any books of Physics in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie. he (hit) Mr Johnson and (knock) him off his bike.58 Chapter 1 3. but his bike (be) damaged. This (be) his first accident and now he is more careful when he drives at night. . At 11. Mr Johnson (be) not badly hurt. as it had rained before. few (a few)/ little (a little) 1. Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. but the roads (be) wet. Is there any gas in this well? We haven’t got any butter in the house.

Would you like . trouble.... 3. more kerosene? b.. Have you got ……. Put much. . d..……. Could you give me . tools. Controlled Practice 1.. homework? b. Countable nouns are used with many sentences: in interrogative and negative How many geologists work for this petroleum company? We haven’t discovered many new oil fields.……. 2.. just give me a ring. He’s got a lot of money. good conferences recently? e. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms. We don’t need …….. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. There’s a lot of gasoline in this pipeline. There are lots of drilling bits. We only need a little money to buy this.English for Technical Students 59 2. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few. or a lot of into each gap: a. If you have ……. Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much disappointment that awaited the drillers at the bottom of that dry hole.. information about the train times? c.. 4. many. Complete the following sentences with some or any: a. Have you attended ……. I tried to buy ……. but I couldn’t find …. oil.

As after you finish this course you may write scientific articles in English it is of major importance for you to know the correct order of adjectives in a sentence. THE ORDER OF ADJECTIVES IN A SERIES It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. Types of adjectives Examples adjectives. drilling books in our library... and when they do. There are ……. I want ……. d. There is however a pattern. Observation postdeterminers limiter adjectives and real. the sixth (numerals.) II. petrol in the car? THE ADJECTIVE Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. an interesting course. pencils because I’m going to draw a helix. Adjectives appear before the noun or noun phrase that they modify (e. e. a difficult exercise.60 Chapter 1 c. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. perfect . Position of adjectives. a strange coincidence). because the order seems quite arbitrary. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. possessive chapter. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. etc. demonstrative this tool adjectives. her story. they appear in a set order according to category..g. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. Is there ……. Determiners articles and other limiters four people.

metallic. round. Romanian VII. Origin denominal adjectives French. short. Polish. violet VI. green. Which words in column A can combine with words from column B? A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday! cover . English. Size and shape adjectives subject objective measure IV. new. often hunting cabin. beautiful. orange. black. Spanish. Material denominal adjectives wooden. Colour adjectives colour denoting red. yellow. gorgeous to large. book noun Controlled Practice: 1. ancient old. Qualifier final limiter. denoting what something woolen is made of VIII. small. blue. square young.English for Technical Students 61 adjectives subject to interesting. subjective measure III. Age adjectives denoting age V. brown. regarded as part of the passenger car. denoting source of noun American.

such that one of only two possible voltage levels can exist at the output. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . that is.. El colecţionează vase vechi. Translate it into Romanian: A digital integrated circuit is designed to handle digital information. and logic decisions are made according to which voltage level exists at the output for a given combination of input signals. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Other types of digital circuit operate on the memory principle.62 Chapter 1 2. e. Input signals can be either of these voltage levels. Translate into English: a. Most digital integrated circuits operate on the binary system. in these ones. Read this text on digital integrated circuits. b.. it will “remember” that the last input signal was such as to trigger it to its output state.. Pay attention to the adjective order in this text. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră. Ai încercat să descifrezi acel text din engleza veche?. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Petroleum Times”. El confecţionează două bare din aluminiu. d. c. Digital logic circuits are switched from one state to the other by a combination of several input signals. if the output is triggered to one level by an input signal. frumoase din porţelan. it will then remain at that level when the input signal is removed.

English for Technical Students 63 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

. Identify the Present Perfect Simple of the verbs: Unique Products to maximize your well’s production As Clear Fluids International. We are now known as “Well-Flow Technologies. Dirt Magnet. Inc. supplying technologically innovative fluids to improve the flow rates in your well. one that is more reflective of our speciality.” We have made substantial improvements to our field proven displacement fluid. we have been leaders in the industry. we have decided to give ourselves a new moniker. So.6-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Advertising your petroleum product © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple © Prepositions •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS If you create a new product. The result? We have designed and produced Dirt Magnet Plus.64 Chapter 1 UNIT 6. do you know how to advertise it in order to get as many buyers as you expect? How would you advertise the product your factory created? READING Read this advertisement on Dirt Magnet Plus.

with low specific gravity. WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms Flow: continous stream or discharge. în calitate de. Casing: pipe that is put inside the well as it is being drilled in order to prevent contamination of fresh water (by salt. under way = în curs de. in a general way = în genere/ în general. and so forth. in every way = în toate privinţele. In the sentence: Is is insoluble in brines and.English for Technical Students 65 The non-flammable fluid works effectively to eliminate all contaminating solids from the casing and tubing. washout of the hole by drilling fluids. way above = mult deasupra. collapse of the hole. Now learn more expressions containing the word way: by way of = prin mijlocirea. cu ajutorul. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. one way or another = într-un fel sau altul. It is also available in a low odour formulation. the expression in such a way as is translated by în aşa fel încât/ astfel încât. Drive: natural pressure which forces the oil to move. floats solids to the surface in such a way as to have a better oil-drive. in this way= în acest mod. . by the way = apropo. out of the way = afarã din cale/ drum. oil. in one way = într-un fel. floats solids to the surface in such a way as to have a better oil-drive. Is is insoluble in brines and. water. and gas). The use of Dirt Magnet Plus helps prevent damage to the formation during completion and leads to higher production rates. with low specific gravity.

Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât. (i. • activities completed in the immediate past: . So is a word which is generally used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English.e. is concerned = întrucât priveşte. 2. a face carierã. one that is more reflective of our speciality. in so far as. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe. pânã în prezent. to give way to = a ceda la. way off = la o bunã distanţã. we have decided to give ourselves a new moniker. I can tell you the story). so far = pânã acum.66 Chapter 1 way ahead = mult înainte.e. so much = atât de mult. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând. (i. so it seems = aşa se pare. He has fixed his car. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa. so far as = întrucât. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to make one’s way = a-şi croi drum. ca sã zicem aşa. astfel încât. în mãsura în care.. -is used to express: • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie. He can drive it now). way below = mai jos. Read the sentence: So. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã. GRAMMAR REFERENCE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE -relates past actions and states to the present.

He has never used such a big screwdriver. There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page @).English for Technical Students 67 She has just met him in the laboratory. (But: She met him there a few minutes ago. Affirmative and negative I We You They He She has (‘s) has not (hasn’t) have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) worked in a petroleum factory. (Since means from a definite point in the past till now. and for expresses a duration). • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996.) Has oil only been used by mankind in the last hundred years? (But: Why was oil used on such a large scale in 1999?) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once. Interrogative Have I we you been to the United Kingdom? . How long have you worked as a driller? How long has it taken the oil industry to grow to its present size? Form have/has+verb+(past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed.

I have. (He is still alive.) F.) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes. (He is dead. No. No. Neagu has written very good short stories. I haven’t. (Now I live somewhere else. she hasn’t.) I lived in this flat for two years. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND PAST SIMPLE Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do. she has.) He has worked in this refinery for four years. Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer? Yes. on the top shelf.68 Chapter 1 they Has he she Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes. Where did you find them? (certainty). I found them behind a couple of other books.) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. I have. (But: He started working in this refinery in 1997. .

d. -write a report on that? Has she written a report on that? a. Make sentences and questions about the following people Example: Alice is a drilling engineer. John is a journalist. -control/ the top of the drill pipe. Her brother is a welder. Mike is a derrickman. .be in charge of/ a team of ten members. She has supervised a drilling well in Oradea.English for Technical Students 69 Controlled Practice: 1. -make mistakes in joining together two pieces of metal? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . -check/ for dangerous levels of gas -prevent a well from exploding? c. -supervise/ a drilling well in Oradea. -work in a big petroleum company? e. -meet/ lots of famous people. -interview the President? b. Chris is a petroleum engineer -deal with engineering problems special to the oil industry. Laura is a safety inspector.

Dan: Well. But what about you. I (not hear) from you for a long time. I have. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet. Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello. My brother is still out of work. I (be) on a tram. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . how are you? I remember that you were learning for your chemistry test. I (not pass) my Physics exam yet.70 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Maria: Well. They just (give) me a pay rise. but you (not see) me. Dan. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes. I (pass) in December. Dan: Hello. not really. …. that’s one piece of good news. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks months.

How long you (work) as a drilling engineer? For eight years. e. (light) his cigarette and (approach) his colleagues quickly.English for Technical Students 71 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. d. I (spend) four years in this company. Imagine that you are talking on the phone to an old friend who you haven’t seen for about two or three weeks. Mike is a famous singer. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Simple or the Simple Past: a. “I (fly) over Paris last week”. He (sell) over three million records. c. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Write down three of four items of news about yourself that you can tell your friend. John (strike) a match. “You (see) the Eifel Tower?” b. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

rigorously solvable in only a few special cases although approximation methods exist. the calculus as used in the linear constant coefficient differential equation. and statistical theory. Two areas of mathematics seem broadly basic to engineering: namely.. Fill the blanks with since or for: a. weeks. Henry has been in hospital ……. Next is the area of the partial differential equation. I have worked in this field ……. Therefore.. the use of mathematical prediction is increasing over the experimental approach. b. The linear differential equation is a general form. here is a text in which you may learn about the use of the preposition in English: (Also see the list with prepositions which are usually mistaken by Romanian students on page @) It seems generally accepted that Mathematics is indeed fundamental for all engineering education. 1999... c.. I haven’t seen you ……. 1998. a week now. October. We haven’t had a test …. useful to engineering because we can obtain answers from it. Here the laboratory still depends on many solutions where analytic methods are not yet fully available . I’ve been in this university ……. e.72 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ 5. THE PREPOSITION As the preposition in English may be different from the preposition in Romanian. five years.. d. and for most schools all engineering students take the same mathematics sequence.. where this form applies to the physical world..

What are you afraid ... We are leaving to Sinaia . anything she has done so far.. February. two weeks.. the class. during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you..... I came here During* the film. 1988. Controlled Practice: 1. She has never been successful .English for Technical Students 73 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME In the morning/ afternoon/ evening... my holidays.. She is very fond . e. The new teacher is very patient. Easter/ Christmas.. night. etc.. two weeks’ time. children. We are going there early . 11-th January. g. j. good/ bad weather At six o ‘clock. the weekend.?... my last birthday. . b. I’m proud .. July. a long time. 25-th... The results depended ... January. f. Monday.. c..... your success. your free (spare) time.. ages Since June. nuclear Physics. Supply the right preposition: a. the morning. h. 3-rd. etc. I was interested . paleontology... d. midnight.. etc. A paleontologist is a person who has specialized . yet don’t expect us until late ... summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb. winter. summer. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. i. etc.. the war.. etc. us. the stratigraphic trap.. the 1930s.. Tuesday morning. the moment On Saturday.. etc. For seven minutes. etc. etc.

74 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

Solar energy technology can have a significant impact on the energy supply over a .English for Technical Students 75 UNIT 7 – 7-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Solar Energy © Present Perfect Continous © Modal verbs © Prepositions of place •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS How can people use solar energy? Can you convert solar energy into chemical energy? READING Read the following text on the relation between chemistry and energy research. in the development of the energy technologies needed to assure future growth. In the last few years success has been established in coverting the solar energy into chemical energy. Look at the tenses of the verbs: Chemistry is an integral part of any major energy research programme. Chemists have played a key role. even if several problems remained. and will continue to do so.

There are several differences in spelling words between British English and American English. Each cell generates only a very tiny voltage. Hundreds of cells are needed in solar arrays to give enough power for satellites or remote telecommunications equipment. At Odello in the French Pyrenees. WAYS WITH WORDS: Special terms: Chemistry: the science of the composition. make (something) certain. Assure: promise or guarantee. Research: systematic investigation to discover facts or collect information. Heat from the sun is focussed onto a boiler using many small flat mirrors. and reactions of substances. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. When sunlight shines onto layers of silicon it is directly converted into electricity.S. energy demands in 2020. as a cover or coating on a surface. convince. Have you ever encountered the word programme spelled as program? This is not a mistake. properties. It’s just the difference between British English (programme) and American English (program). Here are some of them: British English American English . arranged to form a dish shape.76 Chapter 1 40-50 year time interval and it could contribute about 25% of the projected U. Furnace: enclosed chamber containing a very hot fire. Silicon: brittle nonmetalic element widely used in chemistry and industry. Layer: single thickness of some substance. a solar furnace produces temperatures over 3000oC. enough to melt special steels. Two possible ways of using solar energy are the use of sun heat and the solar cell.

Read again the following sentence: Hundreds of cells are needed in solar arrays to give enough power for satelillites or remote telecommunications equipment. for sth. to mistake sth. aproximativ.English for Technical Students 77 theatre centre neighbour colour travelling organise analyse theater center neighbor color traveling organize analyze 2. for reasons given = pentru motivele date. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. How do you translate for? Is this a preposition or an adverb? Now let’s learn a few expressions containing this word: for about = circa. else = a lua un lucru drept altul. for the time being/ the present = pentru moment/ în prezent. a lua drept sigur. cu toate acestea. not for the world/ not for the life of me = pentru nimic în lume. cu siguranţã. to provide for = a se îngriji de. a avea grijã de. as for = cât despre. to compete for = a concura pentru. to take for granted = a lua de bunã. for example/ for instance = de exemplu. GRAMMAR REFERENCE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS . în jurul a. for certain = sigur.is used to express: • an activity begun in the past and still in progress at the moment of speaking: . for all that = totuşi.

especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continous aspect. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses a present perfect simple can be also used. etc. I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up. has been has not been (hasn’t been) Interrogative What have I have you have we been doing? . • an activity begun in the past which has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new petroleum products for several years. • a repeated activity.78 Chapter 1 They have been creating new petroleum products for several years. in which case a nuance of reproach. Affirmative and negative I You We They He She have been have not been (haven’t been) working. Why don’t you answer the phone? Form -it consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). in negative sentences. I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes. irritation. can be present.

Your eyes are red. You (cry). How long you (learn) Chinese?. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. e. e. b. d.. N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. She still (not write) the report. I’m tired. d. You’re out of breath. I saw her in August. . Translate the following sentences into English.English for Technical Students 79 have they has he has she Controlled Practice: 1. f. c. g. Pe unde ai umblat?. Use Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continous: a. You (run)?. What she (do) all afternoon?. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. i. b.. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . . but (not see) her ever since. Te caut de o orã. I (dig) all day. Câte sape de foraj ai folosit pânã acum?.. Locuim în România de trei ani.. c. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el. h. Supply the simple present perfect or the continous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a..

. Alan has been/ has gone to South America. and other pests such as herbicides. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. insects. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b. Indeed. d. including not only those that enrich the soil like fertilers but also those that kill weeds.also known as the green revolution . c.80 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. Translate the following text into Romanian: An important factor in the growth of the oil industry has been the development of petrochemicals. and pesticides. Many products have been created by chemists from petroleum. These include most of our modern plastics and fertilers. Choose the correct verb form: a. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten years and a half.could not have taken place without petroleum-based chemicals. insecticides. the increase in agricultural productivity .

Can you type quickly? Could you give me an example? Should I go home now? Need I invite them too? 3. The form is the same for all persons. There are no auxiliaries such as don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t. There are no auxiliaries such as do/does/did.English for Technical Students 81 e.” 2. etc. Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as not/ n’t immediately after the modal verb. I can’t spell your name. and there are no -ing or -ed forms. Controlled Practice: 1. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? MODAL VERBS The modal verbs are a special kind of auxiliary verbs which express the modality of the action and have some specific features. Questions are formed by putting the modal verb in front of the subject. you may. “May I open the window?” “Yes. Modals do not inflect (There is no -s in the third person singular.) She should learn more. The verb form is the infinitive (without to) She can drive. 4. I must go. etc. French and Italian. Translate the following into English: . The following are modal verbs: can/ must/ / may/ need/ shall/ will/ would/ should They have the following in common: 1. He can speak English. They “help” another verb. He insisted that Jack must go and see it himself. He can speak three foreign language well. She wouldn’t like to become a teacher like me.

Nu ştiu sã înot. j. f. pentru cã nu ne place la mare. Pot sã închid geamul?. El nu poate sã scrie în englezã. Tu vei sta unde îţi spun. c. h. otherwise she will miss the train. o sã te pedepsesc. He cannot/ mustn’t/ may not come to this wedding. b.. but I am free now so could/ should/ may you tell me your problem? PROBLEMATIC PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT AND PLACE Movement to Place at used with verbs of used wih verbs of movement: go. Nu vrem sã venim cu tine. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Vrei sã te cãsãtoreşti cu mine?. as I was extremely busy. as he is in Portugal.82 Chapter 1 a. I’m afraid she may not/ can’t/ mustn’t help you at the moment. Ea ar trebui sã se strãduiascã mai mult la examene. Should/ Could/ Will I attend this optional course? d. . “Chiar trebuie sã ne ducem la curs la ora patru?” “Da. e. c.. dacã nu. She can/may/ must go. i. dar au început un curs anul acesta. dar ştiu sã schiez şi sã patinez... g.. Ea trebuie sã plece. Choose the best variant which completes these sentences: a. e.”. d. chiar trebuie. I can’t/ couldn’t/may not help you at that time. b. not . Ei nu ştiu engleza.

(=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the promenade. the end of September. The ship had been sailing …….. a Monday evening …. The money fell .. my pocket. university..) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. I met her ……... etc.. work. our factory... the ship “Voyager” sank..... Put in the missing prepositions: ……. f.English for Technical Students 83 come. September 1931. But: I arrived at London Airport... j.. into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop. it. the station. and was on her way ……. Paris last year. i. She must be ……. They arrived late . even when the movement: I arrived at the meaning is different: She goes to house. when she left London. e.. about eight o’clock. The baby crawled ……. ……. She ran all the way ……. London. d. I shut the door but left my key ….…….. h. He strolled carelessly . b. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. the rock concert.. There’s a strike ……. the kitchen. c. the road. the shop.) Controlled Practice: 1. She has left.. England . I went …….……. g. 2...

a cave.. The sailors found a man . He cooked the fish ……. a wood fire. it …….. August 1934.. the island …….. a long blue coat ……. ……. the whole of it …….. a home-made net.. …….……..……. a ship was sailing ……. looking rather …... dark hair and a beard. and he could walk …. the island.. the day. Batty stayed ……. an hour. the middle of the Indian Ocean... a signal. almost three years...84 Chapter 1 ...... The only survivor was an Englishman called Wilfred Batty.. He climbed …….. he often fished …. a gorilla.. and the captain saw Batty’s signal.. the one hill and put a flag …. He spent three years ……. where he felt quite ……... who saved himself ……. swimming two miles. an island ……. Australia. home ……. Batty was soon home.. .……. The island was quite small. night Batty slept . air. and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia ……....

you’ll be assured that virtually all your customers and prospects have your product information at their fingertips when they need it.English for Technical Students 85 UNIT 8 – 8-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Your catalogue at home © The Cardinal Numeral © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continous •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASK If you produce a certain petroleum product which is the best way to promote your product? READING Your catalogue at home Here is a presentation of “Composite Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and Services”. That’s why your catalogue should be in the “Composite Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and Services”. When you are in “Composite Catalogue”. Translate the following text into Romanian. Can you identify the cardinal numerals in this text? The key to a successful catalogue is a successful distribution. It’s where your prospects turn when they’re ready to buy. .

reign. only 13% of your prospects can find your product information. hare. So. Homographs are those words which have one spelling but two pronunciations and two distinct meanings or usages. At the same time there are homographs in English. Homophones are words with two spellings and two meanings but only one pronunciation (scent/ sent/ cent. Customer: I don’t care what it was. perish. A lot of jokes are made with homonyms and homophones. mail.000 locations where it will be available to specifiers and buyers 24 hours a day. Answer key: dew. pair/ pear). flower/flour. Wales. When you individually mail your own catalogue. whacks.86 Chapter 1 We’ll print your catalogue and distribute it worldwide to 20. every day of the year. were.000 catalogues distributed by mail 330 never reach the prospect. whales. . consider this. They are called homophones. rain. war. Can you find homophones for the words listed below? due. tossed or mistified after delivery. Another 36 are either lost. wax. sir. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. Research indicates that out of every 1. All for a fee that’s probably less than it would cost you to print and mail half that many. In this text you have encountered the pair of words: buy/by. You can avoid this costly problem if you employ us to do this for you. hire. because there is a play on words. parish. Can you understand the following children’s jokes? Customer: Waiter! What sort of soup is this? Waiter: It’s bean soup. when it comes time to purchase. For example the homograph of the verb to tear ( a rupe) is the noun tear (lacrimă). male. hair. I want to know what it is now.

not at all. The definition of the word restaurant is: a place where you eat. The Panda bear insists on checking the word Panda bear. Johnny. didn’t you? Johnny: No. What shape should it be? What colour would you paint the sun and the wind? The sun rose and the wind blue. What’s the difference between a ball and a prince? One is thrown in the air. Why was the doctor angry? Because he had no patients. The definition is: a Panda bear is a very nice black and white bear who eats vegetables and leaves. . you drink. The waiter asks him to pay. They have an argument and they decide to look up the word restaurant. but you can get its meaning if you see the two words from which it is made up.0000 locations. Driver: Oh dear. Teacher: You missed school yesterday. A great many new words are made by putting two little words together. Mechanic: Your battery’s flat. The new word may look hard at first. 2. Worldwide is a compound word. he orders Coke and salad and wants to leave.English for Technical Students 87 A Panda bear goes to a restaurant. Read the following sentence: We’ll print your catalogue and distribute it worldwide to 20. you have a good time and you pay money when you leave. What did the salad say to the tomato? Lettuce get married. and the other is heir to the throne.

mailman. Let’s look at the words made with any: any any any any any any any any one time place body way how where thing anyone anytime anyplace anybody anyway anyhow anywhere anything Now practise and form new words from every. hammerhead. some. countryside. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Can you find the two words which formed the compound words listed below? Translate the compound words. daylight. birthday. backstop. snowmen. and every. playtime. doorman. gentleman.88 Chapter 1 We make many words from any. courtroom. horse-race. ourselves. Translate the words they are made up of: airplane. bedtime. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . gatepost. busman. summertime. some and no. another. headache. holiday.

English for Technical Students 89 Sometimes compound words are written as one word. Match a line in A with a line in B. The stress is usually on the first word such as in the case of post office. and sometimes they are written with a hyphen (-).000 a (one) thousand* (one) 1. horse-race.003 a (one) and hundred* 2 two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two 103 a hundred and two hundred three 3 three 13 thirteen 23 twenty-three 306 three 3. headache. Check the spelling in your dictionary. sometimes two.476 three . A pocket alarm traffic traffic safety rush word B clock hour time belt lights money processor A car tooth tin departure earth screw tape B paste opener park time quake recorder driver −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ GRAMMAR REFERENCE THE CARDINAL NUMERAL The form of the cardinal numeral 1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 100 a (one) 1.

2. Notes: 1.768. When you read phone numbers. Read the following years: 1543.He died in nineteen eighty-seven. 2002. you should read them figure by figure.90 Chapter 1 hundred and six thousand hundred seventy-six four and 4 four 14 fourteen 30 thirty 744 hundred fourty-four seven 4.654.000 and million one 7 seven 17 seveteen 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty The numerals hundred and thousand do not take the plural form: 500 sheets of paper . When you read years. you should read them in pairs of two figures.535. For example: My phone number is 142357. Controlled Practice: 1.467. 629. 32. 23. 1987.464.My phone number is one four two three five seven.536. 867. Read the following numbers: 4. For example: He died in 1987.578 and thousand hundred four five and seventy-eight 5 five 15 fifteen 40 fourty 999 hundred ninety nine 6 six 16 sixteen 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety nine 1. 1876.five hundred sheets of paper.000. . 756. 2. 1654. .846.

No. I hadn’t. Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course? Yes. he hadn’t. • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 we had drilled 54 wells for five years. No. Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes. Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They had had not (hadn’t) left. He had lived in this flat since he was born. I had. he had.English for Technical Students 91 PAST PERFECT SIMPLE -is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: What happened to the mud that had burried the new deposits of oil? He had read his lecture before he went to university. Form -it consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb. done? .

Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? Yes. I hadn’t.is used to express: • an action in the past begun before the time of speaking in the past and still going on that time or possibly after: Some men had been hauling the oil up to that time. .92 Chapter 1 PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS . I had. By that time we had been working on the project for two years. last year? had been had been not (hadn’t) working for a year. They had been living for generations in that house. No. been working on by that time. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect. Controlled Practice: 1. Decide the order in which these things happened. Form -it consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main perfect.

/ She showed it to me. The tourists got out of the coach./ He climbed over the wall. she counted the money./ She went to the scene of the accident./ They got back in the coach.English for Technical Students 93 Example: The bank clerk gave it to me./ He took the wheel off the car. d. she gave it to me. d. a. The prisoner ran across the yard./ He jumped out of the window. After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque. c. e. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2./ She wrapped it. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was. After she had counted the money. Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni./ They took photos./ She interviewed the people there. b. c. The mechanic put a new tyre on. ./ She counted out the money. Translate into English: a. Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat?. Îl aşteptam de o orã./ She looked at my cheque. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. b./ He put the wheel back on. . The reporter wrote a report on the accident. .

. e.94 Chapter 1 când am aflat cã avusese un accident la sondã. Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

. However. farther apart in flat countryside.English for Technical Students 95 UNIT 9 – 9-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Transporting oil © Future Simple © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASK: By what means do you transport oil? Which is the cheapest means of transport for oil? READING In this unit John Smith presents his project on transporting oil to some journalists. especially in rugged or uninhibited areas. That’s is why I think we shall need special equipment for some pipelines. In farming country with open fields. there may be no surface indication at all of the black stream of oil under the growing crops. but many others will run beneath the ground. He presents possible problems that may occur when creating the pipelines.closer together in the mountainous areas. Read the text thouroughly and be attentive at the tenses of the verbs: Some pipelines will run above the surface. the pipelines will be marked by pumping stations at an average distance of about seventy-five miles .

96 Chapter 1 We shall clean the pipes by a device called a pig. by no means = nicidecum. by sight = din vedere. So. by force = cu forţa. din cauzã cã. I’m all ears. în trepte. I think we still have some time for questions. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. as you probably know. . în nici un caz. that’s about it. Pipeline: a system designed to transport a liquid or a gas through pipes. by hearsay = din auzite. the pipelines will be marked by pumping stations. Read the following sentence again: However. by the end of week/ month/ year = spre sfârşitul sãptãmânii/ lunii/ anului. WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Stream: steady flow of liquid. by reason of = pe motiv cã. by all means = cu orice preţ. by so much more = cu atât mai mult. Pig: a device to clean a pipeline connecting the oil field with a refinery or shipping point. by chance = din întâmplare. This mechanism. Now learn some expressions containing the word by: by and by = treptat. Scrape: rub with something rough or sharp. derivaţie. So. by stages/ steps = discontinuu. by-pass = şunt. condesator legat în dervaţie. by no less than = cu nu mai puţin de. has metal blades that scrape the inside of the pipe to keep it clear of the tar-like substance that forms in it. by-pass system = sistem inelar/ cu cãi de ocolire. cu nici un preţ.

pe rând. by virtue of/ dint of = în virtutea. by this time = între timp. 2. all in good time = oricând. from that time forth = de atunci înainte. for a long time = de mult timp. the time is up = timpul a trecut. prin mijlocirea. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. for the first time = pentru prima datã. la rãstimpuri. by that time = pânã atunci. some time or other = cândva. Read the following sentence again: I think we still have some time for questions. at times = din timp în timp. time after time = în repetate rânduri. Now learn some expressions containing the word time: at the same time = în acelaşi timp. by turns = cu schimbul. GRAMMAR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE FUTURE SIMPLE -is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. within the time = în decursul.English for Technical Students 97 by then = pânã atunci. timpul va hotârî. pânã la acea datã. intervalul de timp s-a scurs. cu ajutorul. time-lag error = eroare de temporizare. time will tell = timpul va dovedi. time release = declanşare temporizatã. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary. better by far = cu mult mai bine. . I shall be thirty next year. la vremea aceea. pânã la acea vreme.

When it rains. apart from predicting the future: e. That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t. We use will and shall in many other ways. .: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday.) 2.98 Chapter 1 Notes: 1.) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me. please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way. it may mean I don’t want to help you. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She They Interrogative When shall I we will you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my drilling project? Yes. we stay inside. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me. I’ll be grateful to you.g. I won’t is not common because it is impolite. help him? shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come. Note: No. I shall.

Shall we take a drive into the f. d. 8. b. stating a planned arrangement 6. b. Perhaps j. offering . Explain it to them again. Crezi cã veţi gãsi petrol aici? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Will you send me an e-mail? 5. The wedding will take place next h. I’ll report you to the police next g.English for Technical Students 99 Controlled Practice: 1. . making a prediction c. Va deveni necesar sã gãsim noi resurse de energie. Will there be a general strike? 3. . Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã. c. . 10. . expressing future uncertainty B 1. a.b. e. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. asking for a prediction Saturday. 2. Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã. 9. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4. We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight. promising/ stating an intention time. Shall I go to the library for you? country later? 7. making an invitation Friday. expressing future hope e. Translate into English: a. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A I’m sure. threatening they’ll understand. making a request d.

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11. Will you have dinner with us on i. making a suggestion Sunday?

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in -y early heavy Adjectives with careful two or more expensive difficult interesting rapid Irregular adjectives good bad Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier heavier more careful more expensive more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest the heaviest the most careful the most expensive the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the farthest/ the

syllables

many/ much more little far* less farther/ further

furthest fore** late*** near**** former later/latter nearer the first the latest/ the last the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives with one vowel and one consonant double the consonant: fat/ fatter/ the fattest, hot/ hotter/ the hottest, etc. foremost/ the

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°° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively, in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four). * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you.); further/ the furthest are used in relation to time, quantity. The latter has also an abstract meaning. (Give me further details in order to understand it better.) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times, people used whale oil for lamps.); the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John.); the first means initial (Americans claim that the first underground oil well was drilled in the United States.). *** Later means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Drilling, the latter is student in Foreign Languages); the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. Fowles.); the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play.). ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest oil pump?); the next refers to order. (The next bus comes in an hour.)

Examples: There are two forces F1 and F2, the former is the greater./ This welder is the foremost worker in our workshop./ this is Newton’s first law of motion. This is a good conductor of electricity./ We need a better conductor./ This is the best machine in the exhibition by far. There is little advantage in using rotary drilling on this field./ There is less oil in this tank than in the other one./ Forces are not of least importance for an engineer.

COMPARATIVE SENTENCES In relation with the degrees of comparison, there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives which are very common in technical English texts: Form: the+ comparative ...... the+ comparative ...

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The bigger the force, the greater the acceleration. The more mass in the body, the less acceleration.

Controlled Practice: 1. Translate into English: a. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza, cu atât mai bine. ; b. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. ; c. Presiunea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul. ; d. Cu cât diametrul conductorului este mai mare, cu atât intensitatea este mai micã.; e. Avem nevoie de mai multe maşini-unelte.; f. Sondorul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi.; g. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã.; h. Ideea ta e mai bunã, dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta.; i. Aceastã maşinã devine din ce în ce mai importantã.; j. Dintre cele douã unghiuri, primul este mai mic, iar al doilea este mai mare.

−_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets: a. He is (lazy) student in the class.; b. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working in now.; c. He was unable to get (far) information.; d. The underground pressure was (big) than expected.; e. Today, (great) care is taken to prevent accidents.; f. (Many) heating devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the intense cold.; g. He needed (little) gasoline than he thought.; h. (Difficult) problem was solved

but it isn’t ……. but is has older ones ……. Tokyo. . i.. exciting of all. these are ……. In comparison to our cities. j.. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly. c.. than the others as it is equipped with a .. Some are facts and some are his opinions. the most expensive.. exciting ……. the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.…….……. The Electrolite is . for common people.. of course. e... they are …….. Los Angeles. Complete his sentences: a.. Tokyo’s exciting. Los Angeles has ……. Athens is ……. ……. buildings than Athens. too expensive. Yet at the same time you should think that. She found (little) errors in John’s programme than in Mary’s one.……. parks.English for Technical Students 103 by means of computerised technology. interesting from the point of view of the buildings people built there. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome) scientists... London is. for an architect.. oldest city I have ever seen.... an. London is …….……. b. London doesn’t have ……. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited.. d. the largest. even if their cars are very ellegant and …….. 4. but.. parks than Tokyo. much older ….. but London has . the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. of course. There are five in the city centre.. Los Angeles is . than Athens.

and …….. yet if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it. The latest Mercedes model is of course …….104 Chapter 1 filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. .

The ……. don’t know/ had to. for you everywhere. hasn’t been. 5. D. doesn’t go/ has taken. ask my superviser. 11. was reading/ entered. 10. about. better/ happier. C. B. wouldn’t/ in. B.. one will be appreciated by everybody. A. were you/ looked. have you been/ have been looking. D. than mine. 4. wouldn’t/ bad. couldn’t. A.. couldn’t/ on. I arrive home.. better/ good.. possibly accept his offer. D. so I ……. than the other one. my keys and I can’t find them anywhere. wasn’t/ was. He ……. better/ happy. She ……. Where ……. The weather was very bad and I was stuck in a traffic jam. A. 9. the room. C. . B. B. D. A.. If this solution is …….. 2. I ……. in. What exactly are you interested……. C... What are you looking …….. B. A. better/ better. A. 3. wasn’t/ has been. isn’t going/ took. He ……. C. was reading/ was entering. C. when I ……. on. for 7. read/ entered. hasn’t been/ was. D. but last week his car was broken and he ……. shouldn’t/ on 6. ? I ……. didn’t know/ have to. A. soon/ happy. won’t/ worst. B. C. doesn’t go/ takes. the bus. D. I don’t mind. as it was ……. better/ best. have you been/ have looked. D. C. D. D.. couldn’t/ worse. since she ……… a child. The ……. didn’t know/ had to 8.. B... I ……. B. to school by bus. D. good/ good. I am.. read/ entered. can/ the worst.English for Technical Students 105 TEST Choose the best variant: 1. C. what to do. were you/ was looking. the ……... C. I ……. haven’t known/ must.? I ……. sooner/ happier. time. B. be ……. C. B. A. A.. in.? A. doesn’t go/ took.

B. 2. Have you read/ saw. the faster/ the fastest.. The sooner we learn English. 13. have gone/ have gone.. 7. A. A. last summer? I ……. so he ……. C. A. 3. ……… the novel before we ……. the better it is. D. did you last write/ wrote. of all.. B. B. D. 15. 5. 4.. at/ lost. The quicklier we teach English. B..? A.. C. 16. B. 14. 16. have you last written/ haven’t written. C. 14. have you last written/ wrote. faster/ faster. How much did you sell your car ……. 10. B. for. the better it is. did you go/ went. with/ didn’t hear. C. C.. D. I ……… to him for ages. D. A. D. 18. D. 12. did you go/ have gone.. A. 13. for/ hasn’t heard. the better it is. C. A.. The train is ……. D. in/ hasn’t heard. at. C. A. cu atât mai bine. faster/ the fastest. the better it is. C. Where ……. 8. 15. D... did you last write/ haven’t written. than the bus. of/ lost. A. faster/ the fastest. to John? Oh. 9. B. what I was saying. B. A.50 points per each good answer . A. Did you read/ saw. B.106 Chapter 1 A. 1 point + 0. When ……. have you gone/ went. 17. Answer key: 1. He was preoccupied …… solving that problem. for/ didn’t hear. D. 18. A. but the plane is ……. C. 12. B. The quick we learn English.. in/ have lost. for/ have lost. of. C. B. is : A. C. 11. 6.. The translation of Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. Had you read/ saw. The quicklier we learn English. D. 17.. to the seaside. Had you read/ had seen. A. D.. the film? A. B. with.

What didn’t you enjoy about it? −_________________________________________________________ .English for Technical Students 107 EVALUATION 1. What did you enjoy about it? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. What have you learnt from this chapter? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.

108 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently.

where different layers of rock are exposed. Places such as canyons.English for Technical Students 109 CHAPTER 3 UNIT 10 – 10-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Exploring for petroleum © Be going to Future © Future Simple or be going to? © First Conditional •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASK What do you know about geology? What is a geologist in charge of? Who helps geologists in their search for oil fields? READING Read the following text about Mike Howard who is a geologist. often give him clues to the possible presence of oil. He is aware of the . His job involves exploring the terrain where oil may occur. Identify the future of the verbs: Mike Howard works for an oil company.

as a cover or coating on a surface. The paleontologists are going to make a special study of some fossils now. mountains. His team includes four other members: another geologist. A geologist is a specialist in the field of geology. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. Geophysics: the study of some disciplines of geology combined with those of physics. Core: a sample of rocks obtained by a drill. WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Layer: single thickness of some substance. while the geophysicist is dealing with the effects of gravity. Right now he is going to test some cores that have been brought up from below the surface of the earth. a profita la maximum de. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs.110 Chapter 1 fact that as most petroleum is underground this will make oil exploration a risky business and his job is to make sure that the company he works for doesn’t waste its money. Geology: the study of the physical features of the earth such as rocks. Paleontology: the study of prehistoric life through the evidence of fossils. to make an attempt = a face o încercare. He is asking Mike Howard to come and see the results of his test. . to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma. The core can be studied for the types of rocks and for evidence of fossils. and so on. Read this sentence again: The paleontologists are going to make a special study of some fossils now. two paleontologists and a geophysicist who are also involved in the search for oil.

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to make believe = a face sã creadã; to make it clear = a clarifica; to make it possible = a face posibil; to make for = a contribui; to make out = a înţelege, a demonstra, a redacta; to make over = a transfera, a ceda; to make ready = a fi gata, a (se) pregãti; to make a stand = a se opune; to make sure of = a se asigura de; to make short work of/ sth = a scurta, a face ceva repede, a termina, a finaliza; to make tight = a ermetiza, a etanşeiza, a închide etanş; to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî; to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile; to make up for lorst time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut; to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum, a pretinde ca şi cum, a face ca şi cum; to make use of = a întrebuinţa; to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru.

2. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way, there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make: e.g. to do one’s best = a face tot ce-i posibil; to do the donkey work = a munci din greu; to do sbd. a good turn/ a favour = a face cuiva o favoare; to do sth. with your eyes closed = a şti ceva foarte bine, a face ceva cu ochii închişi; to do harm = a face rãu; to do wonders = a face minuni; to have sth. to do with = a avea de-a face cu. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

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Chapter 1

Put make or do before the following nouns: …….. a phone call; .……. a mess; …….. my homework; …….. a mistake; ...…..a noise; .……. the shopping; …….. your best; …….. a cup of tea; .……. your bed; .……. someone a favour; …..... an excuse; …..... sense; ….....up your mind; .……. an appointment; .…….sure.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
BE GOING TO FUTURE -is used • to express a future decision, intention, or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. How long are they going to drill that well in Videle? She isn’t going to attend this Physics course. Note: The Present Continous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement, particularly with the verbs go and come. She’s coming on Monday. I’m going home. • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain. Watch out! The box is going to fall.

Form the verb to be in Present+to+infinitive Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am (‘m) not He is (’s) going to work.

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She It We You They Interrogative When

is not (isn’t)

are (‘re) are not (aren’t)

am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they

going to arrive?

Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes, I am. No, I’m not.

FUTURE SIMPLE OR BE GOING TO? Look at the use of Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: I’m going to improve my English. ( I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge). What language shall I learn? Er... I know. I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea. ( Idecided to learn English at the moment of speaking.)

Controlled Practice: Decide which is the correct verb form: a. “My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you.” b. I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on an off-shore drilling rig. c. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week. d. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations!

Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. buy that new book on MathCad. We’ll destroy the environment if you don’t look after it. pass her exams in Mathematics. she won’t be late wait for you. Main Clause Present/ Future If Clause Present Affirmative and negative If I work hard. Interrogative What Where will will you do she go if you don’t go to any university? she can’t find a job in the petroleum field? . I’ll buy this car. ’ll pass my exams. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France. she she doesn’t learn.” FIRST CONDITIONAL . talk to you anymore. If he passes the baccalaureate. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain. she we don’t hurry up. we you are late. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. he’ll go to university. we you are not polite.114 Chapter 1 e. This is replaced by the present. I she has enough money.is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes.

b. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job?. .. eşti binevenit. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. Dacã voi putea. e. d. Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut. .English for Technical Students 115 Controlled Practice 1. o sã ţi-l spun. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. Translate the folowing sentences into English: a. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. d. b. What presents will you buy if you go to that party?. Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti. c. e. c. What happens if you don’t pass this exam?. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper?.

Put if. I (arrive) at the hotel. John: Great. . Give me a ring .. and I (pick) you up. you (be) out . John: All right. What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: . Maria: Thanks. John: Good. when. Have a good trip. Bye! −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. That’s 8. or as soon as into each gap... And remember.00.00 your time. but remember I’m going out. darling.. Maria: Thanks.. I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely.. darling. Maria: Well. I (ring). I (be) at the hotel at about 10. I (ring) you .. and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye. you know the time of your flight back.116 Chapter 1 3. the plane (arrive) on time..

Sons & Mapplebeck. Can you identify the ordinal and the fractional numerals in the text? Taking trouble out of circulation.. .English for Technical Students 117 UNIT 11-11-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Taking trouble out of circulation © The Ordinal Numeral © The Fractional Numeral © The Multiplicative Numeral © Second Conditional •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASK How do you solve the problem of water circulation for condensers of power stations? READING Read the folowing text about the Delta Group. The large range of trouble-free alloys available today is the result of over a century’s experience in tube manufacture by James Booth â Company and John Wilkes.. a company which is very famous in Canada. Two thirds of the problems associated with water circulation for condensers of power stations and oil refineries from Canada are being solved by the use of non-ferrous tubes manufactured by the tube division of the Delta Group. members of the Delta Group.

Alloy: mixture of two or more metals. little more than = cu puţin mai mult decât. 2.. pânã la.. to = de la.. Tube: hollow cylinder. How do you translate the phrase more than three fourths? Now learn some expressions containing the word than: other than = cu excepţia. from. WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Condenser: electricity capacitor. Read this sentence again: Two thirds of the problems associated with water circulation for condensers of power stations and oil refineries from Canada are being solved by the use of non-ferrous tubes manufactured by the tube division of the Delta Group. How do you translate from? Now learn some expressions containing this preposition: from first to last = de la A la Z. 3rd and since then it has been specially developed to suit the varying conditions which have to be met in service. June. . separat de. from experience = din experienţã. de la început pânã la sfârşit.118 Chapter 1 More than three fourths of the power stations and oil refineries at home and abroad owe much of their efficiency to being fitted with tubes from one of these old established companies. far from it = departe de acest lucru. apart from = în afarã de. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. from this point of view = din acest punct de vedere. The Delta Group was founded in 1965. far be it from me = departe de mine..

Now practisee these expressions in sentences of your own.. no sooner.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56.. than = de îndatã ce.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1.English for Technical Students 119 rather than = mai degrabã decât.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second THE FRACTIONAL NUMERAL The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34. GRAMMAR REFERENCE THE ORDINAL NUMERAL The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seveteenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieh 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1..000.04 (nought) point nought four 1.. cã.06 one point nought six .

the verb in the conditional clause is in the past subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons. Read the following numerals: 3 2/4.879. The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles. April. 11. 1958. 27. I’d have a party. 12. 5. 1980. 11x. Read the following dates: July. etc. Main Clause Present Conditional If Clause Past Subjunctive . 8. ten times 100x a hundredfold. 2. 2001. SECOND CONDITIONAL -is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future. a hundred times Controlled Practice: 1. palaces. March.) If I lived in a big house. 4. three times 4x fourfold. January. 1974. 2 9/7. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold. four times 10x tenfold. We can always say But. (But I’m not Prime Minister. 43/42. August..) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive).120 Chapter 1 THE MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERAL The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single. 1987. 2002. If I were Prime Minister. 2. ranches. May.. (But my house is very small.

Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest anticlinal. Dacã ai vrea. we would go inside. you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. c. I’d like to hear her news if she were here.English for Technical Students 121 Affirmative and negative If I had more money.. wouldn’t have to work so hard. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. If I knew it. b. e.. Which countries would you visit −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.. d. . L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit.. I didn’t have debts.. e. tell it to us immediately. d. she would (’d) buy a new computer. I Interrogative What would you do if you were me? you travelled round the world? Controlled Practice: 1. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. c.. Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. b. I she knew the answer. ţi le-aş spune. If it rained. If you could do it. Dacã ar fi aici. −_________________________________________________________ . I would have told you the truth. Translate the following sentences into English: a. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta?.

. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ...122 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing. d. i. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going.. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use. c. g.. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arab. f. e. b. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes.. h. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension?.

English for Technical Students 123 UNIT 12-12-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Working on an oil rig © The Indefinite Article © The Definite Article © Zero Article •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS: Can you describe the kind of job a drilling engineer has? Which are his duties? Do you think this is an interesting or a boring job? READING Now read a text about Graham Macdonald. He works on an oil rig in the North Sea. Confrunt your opinions with the opinions given in this text by his boss: Graham Macdonald is an engineer. He works on the rig for two weeks and then he has two free weeks to spend . a Scottish drilling engineer.

His shift finishes at midnight. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. The rig is 100 miles off the coast of Scotland. Let’s learn some more containing the preposition to. WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Rig: apparatus for drilling for oil and gas Shift: group of workers who work during a specified period Cabin: small hut on the drilling rig where workers sleep at night. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. LANGUAGE FOCUS 1. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva. One of them is a friend of his. How do you translate the sentence The oil company’s helicopter flies him to and from the Aberdeen Airport? You have already learned some expressions containing the preposition from. He shares a cabin with three other men. to this effect = în acest scop. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. and he’s paid over $500 a week. He does an important job. to date = la zi. The oil company’s helicopter flies him to and from the Aberdeen Airport. an American called Lee Driver. Graham works twelve hours a day during his two weeks on the rig. Although the work is important. to advantage = cu profit/ folos. who comes from New Mexico. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte. The weather on the rig can be pretty bad. when he goes to bed. it’s rather a boring job. ici şi colo. .124 Chapter 1 with his family at home in Glasgow. Sometimes there are storms. Everyone’s always glad to get back to the mainland.

to be off duty = a fi liber/ în afara serviciului. lumina) Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum.English for Technical Students 125 to hand = la îndemânã. and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. to little purpose = cu puţin efect. far off = îndepãrtat. mai degeaba. întâmplãtor. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE: a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used . off the point = în afara subiectului. Here are the basic rules. în cea mai mare mãsurã. GRAMMAR REFERENCE THE ARTICLE The use of articles in English is complex. short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect. on and off = la intervale neregulate. to the letter = întocmai. to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva. to turn off/ switch off (the radio. all that’s off the point = toate acestea nu au legãturã cu problema. How do you translate it? Now learn some expressions containing the word off: off hand = fãrã pregãtire anterioarã. the light) = a închide (radioul. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. Read the following sentence again: The rig is 100 miles off the coast of Scotland. 2. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu. ad litteram.

I’m reading a course for my exam now. etc • before nouns converted from adjectives. or if they represent a union). denoting a class. the United States. to have a headache. the Pacific.126 Chapter 1 • to refer to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one. the Orient Express. The course I’m reading is very interesting. the Sahara. or an abstraction: . especially when referring to them in a general way: I went to the cinema last night. when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill. Mind the baby! • before nouns expressing certain public places. as a matter of fact. newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons. the Bahamas. means of transport. the Time. deserts. He is a Christian. the Netherlands. institutions. religion. to develop a disease. etc. hotels. rivers. class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. She is an engineer. denoting groups of islands. or it doesn’t matter which one): They live in a flat. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE: the is used: • before a singular or plural noun. channels. countries (if they are in the plural. the Hilton. I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. the Suez Canal. the Alps. chains of mountains. shops. to have a good time. to take a seat. nationality. oceans. seas. • in phrases: to be in a hurry. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural).

B.. to shake hands. months. at dawn.. B. • proper nouns denoting persons. B or C best fits each space: a. Oxford Street. Money is the root of all evil.. towns. to make friends. to be in trouble. In order to survive. etc.. etc. etc. Europe. the b. by sea. authority. Controlled Practice: 1. when we imply the use made of the building: He goes to school (to learn). Paris. Gas is cheaper than electricity. A. the/ the. on the one hand. festivals.. on the other hand. by the way. In order to fix the armchair he needs . countries. continents. a/ the. • in phrases: at night. Newsweek • nouns like school.: Mary/ Mount Everest. ZERO ARTICLE: . water.. an. church. the c. hammer and .. A. • in phrases: to tell the time. . at the moment.is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. . a.. C. B. plants need . Decide which answer A.. regions. He is speaking to .. a/ some . A. streets. nails. January..English for Technical Students 127 The rich should help the poor. C. to take place. on the whole. C. magazines and periodicals.. prison. days of the week. Sunday. lakes. mountains.. day by day. by mistake. The English are very polite.

. A. I thought you had passed . B. so he studies the physical features of the earth. Smiths are at . the/ a e. . . B./ ... . very good time at ../a/the. I want to borrow one hundred pounds.. sincerity with which he spoke. A.. They had . in London.. yet they are busy at the moment. b. C. the i.. A./ . the/ . the/the f../the.. −_________________________________________________________ ... a/ . A.. an/the/ . sincerity in such . .. Mathematics. .. home now../the. yet not everyone admires . A. a/the.. exam but it seems that it was . I must go to a bank to see my bank manager./a j. excellent dinner and had .. a/the/the/the h. I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment. Everyone was impressed by . d.. Her office is in the Baker Street. hardest of all. I took .. C.. Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example. degree in . B. an/the./the... best teachers in our highschool. B.. so he was one of .. B. a.... the/ .. C.. A. Work in pairs to find one mistake in each of the following sentences: a.. bed as I was very tired./ .. C.. . seat and waited for . I did my homework and then went directly to . c.128 Chapter 1 d./ .. 2./the. C. Physics and one in . B. . C.. He had . A.. She goes to the work in the City by train every day. an/a/the g. He’s geologist... a/ .. ./the... . Hilton. B. you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening. C.... director to come. e. way./ ./ ../ .

. Interrogative What would you have if you had seen such a . I wouldn’t have failed the driving test. licence have the exam. I would (‘d) this car. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb).is used to express impossible condition referring to the past. The condition is highly hypothetical. which can no longer be changed. she would passed I hadn’t made so many mistakes.English for Technical Students 129 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ THIRD CONDITIONAL . it contradicts reality. ellegant have bought she had known the answer. Main clause Past/Perfect conditional If clause Past perfect subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. while the verb in the conditional clause is in the past perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect).

130 Chapter 1 done Which countries would visited you have wonderful movie? you had travelled round the world? Controlled Practice: 1. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. If she (go) to university so late. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place.. e. c. Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. nu aş fi picat acest examen. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Translate into English: a. c.. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. Dacã nu ar fi nins.. −_________________________________________________________ . If I (know) this from the beginning. I (pass) the exam in the winter session. nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confrunted with) such storms. I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me. e.. Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. If I had known how to solve the problems in chemistry. d. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun. b. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. d. b... Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile. If it had rained it (be) a disaster..

. c.. e.. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way.. taking care to use the correct tense.. .. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago.. you (accept)?. If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off.. The substance would look better if. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. Finish these sentences. If he had taken my advice.English for Technical Students 131 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. g... You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4.. f. b. c. If he had asked you to do that job. I’d have brought my compass if. i.. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. Put the verbs in brackets into the corect tenses: a. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes. j. d. These are mixed conditional sentences. b. a. h.

.... I would lend it to you if.. If she rings while I’m in the tunnel.. j.. h.. If the river rises any higher. g.. e. f...132 Chapter 1 d. If she practised more. If I buy this machine . i.... If the fire had been noticed earlier. . If you had asked his permission.

The impurities from the oil are also removed in the refining process. As the vapors rise. Another process is called cracking which .that is. In the refining process the different fractions of molecules in the crude oil mixture are separated in such a way as to obtain usable products. called a fractionating tower. Then the oil is piped into a tall cylinder. they turn into liquids again -at a particular temperature at a particular level in the tower. Where are they? Think of the petroleum products these refineries produce. they condense . The first step is called distillation. The mixture of crude oil contains fractions of the different hydrocarbon molecules. Translate the text into Romanian: One of the most distinctive and at the same time most characteristic sights of the industrial age is the oil refinery. The oil is heated to a high temperature in coil of pipe that pass over a furnace. Crude oil is a mixture of a number of different chemicals that are called hydrocarbons because they are composed of atoms of hydrogen and carbon.English for Technical Students 133 UNIT 13 – 13-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Refining oil © The Adverb © The Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• PRE-READING TASKS: Think of the most important refineries in Romania. How many types of petroleum products are produced in Romania? READING Now read a general text on refining oil.

WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Refinery: the industrial plant in which oil is refined . Cracking: the process of breaking down the heavy molecules of some hydrocarbons into lighter molecules. etc. high-test. we may say that in just a little over a hundred years. Compound/Mixture: a compound of atoms which are chemically joined together into molecules. . Fractionating tower: a cylindrical tower at a refinery which is used to separate the different fractions of crude petroleum. further refining takes place.. After the basic fractionating or cracking process. Molecules: the smallest units in combinations of atoms. Hydrocarbons: substances made up of molecules formed from hydrogen nd carbon. There are several gasolines such as regular. So when we speak about refining oil. particularly of gasoline products. Distillation: the process of separating ligthter molecules from heavier molecules in a mixture by heating the mixture. their names indicating that one kind of gasoline will vaporize more quickly and efficiently than another kind. oil products have asumed a central place in our industrialized society and they will continue to do so until another fuel is discovered.134 Chapter 1 means breaking down the heavy molecules of such petroleum products as kerosene or lubricating oil into the lighter molecules of gasoline.processed and purified .into commercially usable products. A mixture combines several different molecules which are not chemically joined together. like water (two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen) or salt. special.

= a manifesta interes faţã de. to take control of = a-şi asuma controlul. to take over = a prelua.. to take on = a lua asupra sa. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to take a stand = a adopta un punct de vedere. a lua o poziţie.). to take the liberty of (+-ing form) = a-şi lua libertatea de a… (e. day after day = zile în şir. to take a view of = a considera. to take one’s own way = a-şi urma calea proprie. a se folosi de ocazia. to take note/ notice of = a ţine seama de. to take a weight off somebody’s mind = a elucida o problemã. to take account of = a ţine seama de. soon after = curând dupã. At the same time you may find the phrase to take place. after a while = dupã câtãva vreme. In this text there are several occurences of the preposition after. to take an interest in. to look after = a avea grijã de. . to take an active part in = a lua parte activã la. a se însãrcina. a considera indiscutabil. She took the liberty of doing it in her own way. a se prevala de.. to take its course = a-şi urma cursul. a valorifica.. to take care of/ to take charge of = a-şi asuma rãspunderea. a avea grijã de. a privi.. to take into account/ consideration = a lua în consideraţie. to take warning = a fi prevenit.English for Technical Students 135 LANGUAGE FOCUS 1.g. to take for granted = a lua drept sigur.. to take advantage of = a utiliza. Now learn more phrases containing the preposition after and the verb to take: after all = la urma urmelor.

carbon. In this text you learned several chemical elements such: hydrogen. Let’s learn all the chemical elements in English: 1 hydrogen H 2 helium He 3 lithium Li 4 beryllium Be 5 boron B 6 carbon C 7 nitrogen N 8 oxygen O 9 fluorine F 10 neon Ne 11 sodium Na 12 magnesium Mg 13 aluminium Al 14 silicon Si 15 phosphorus 16 sulphur S 17 chlorine Cl 18 argon Ar 19 potassium K 20 calcium Ca 21 scandium Sc 22 titanium Ti 23 vanadium V 24 chromium Cr 25 manganese Mn 26 iron Fe 27 cobalt Co 28 nickel Ni 29 copper Cu 38 strotium Sr 39 yttrium Y 40 zirconium Zr 41 niobium Nb 42 molybdenum Mo 43 technetium Tc 44 ruthenium Ru 45 rhodium Rh 46 palladium Pd 47 silver Ag 48 cadmium Cd 49 indium In 50 tin Sn 51 antimony Sb 52 tellurium Te 53 iodine I 54 xenon Xe 55 caesium Cs 56 barium Ba 57 lanthanum La 58 cerium Ce 59 praseodymium Pr 60 neodymium Nd 61 promethium Pm 62 samarium Sm 63 europium Eu 64 gadolinium Gd 65 terbium Tb 66 dysprosium Dy 75 rhenium Re 76 osmium Os 77 iridium Ir 78 platinum Pt 79 gold Au 80 mercury Hg 81 thallium Tl 82 lead Pb 83 bismuth Bi 84 polonium Po 85 astatine At 86 radon Rn 87 francium Fr 88 radium Ra 89 actinium Ac 90 thorium Th 91 protactinium Pa 92 uranium U 93 neptunium Np 94 plutonium Pu 95 americium Am 96 curium Cm 97 berkelium Bk 98 californium Cf 99 eisteinium Es 100 fernium Fm 101 mendelevium Md 102 nobelium No 103 lawrencium Lr . etc.136 Chapter 1 2. oxygen.

a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. a noun: Only John knows the whole truth.English for Technical Students 137 30 zinc Zn 31 gallium Ga 32 germanium Ge 33 arsenic As 34 selenium Se 35 bromine Br 36 krypton Kr 37 rubidium Rb 67 holmium Ho 68 erbium Er 69 thulium Tm 70 ytterbium Yb 71 lutetium Lu 72 hafnium Hf 73 tantalum Ta 74 tungsten W 104 rutherfordium Rf 105 dubnium Db 106 seaborgium Sg 107 bohrium Bh 108 hassium Hs 109 meitnerium Mt GRAMMAR REFERENCE THE ADVERB The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. a quality thereof. an adjective: He was bitterly dissapointed. Form Simple adverbs far fast here late near now Derived adverbs Compound adverbs Adverbial phrases likewise afloat homeward(s) repeatedly hardly monthly everywhere outdoors outside thereby therefore today at least at once by the way by all means in full in general . It can modify: • • • • • • a verb: We are talking about your report today. a pronoun: Me too.

Is it five months since I last really wrote? I’m sorry. hence. carefully. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. often here . extremely. fast Adverbs of place: away. wherefore. result and concession: consequently. but I’ve been very busy.138 Chapter 1 then today well bitterly happily excellently tomorrow wherein wherefore in all probability now and then of old Adverbs of manner: badly. why. so that Interrogative adverbs: how. excellently. little Adverbs of frequency: always. above. forever Adverbs of cause. when. Controlled Practice 1. early Adverbs of quantity. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. afterwards. measure. Have you seen it? I don’t go out. where. Thank you for your letter. degree and approximation: awfully. aboard. I’m working for my exams. She’s rather tired. reason. again. lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet actually. ever. Suzanne comes about once a week. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. every time. for this reason. I don’t keep my plan. I saw a marvellous film. enough. after. I’ve planned my revision. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary. I’ve finished for today. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening. It was called “The English Patient”. fore.

yours.English for Technical Students 139 We talk. And I’m hot/hotly. It would be great to see you. too. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets: John: Well. the party is going very nice/nicely. How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. Maria a lot next year there again hard soon 2. They taste good/well. Love. thanks. I had a lovely time last year. Actually. isn’t it? Well I can easy/ easily open this window here. would you like me to take you home? Helen: No. Helen: No. It seems rather loud/loudly. John: I’ll ask Susan if there’s somewhere you can go. my head aches quite bad/badly. Helen: Thank you. And you look pale/paley. I hope to visit England again. THE PASSIVE VOICE What voice is the verb in the sentence: The first step is called distillation? . that’s all right. isn’t it? Have one of these sausages. Are you all right? Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. thanks. John: I’m sure/surely the music isn’t helping too much. John: You don’t sound very happy/happily. doesn’t it? Look. I’m trying to save some money. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere for a few minutes. John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here. I think it’s slow/slowly getting worse. I might be OK.

. Form the respective tense of the auxiliary verb to be + the past participle of the lexical verb. to attend to. to possess. . Translate the following sentences into English: a. g. . There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the pasive voice such as: to have. to look after. Mi s-au furat banii. to hold. h. to send for. . Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. i. Doctorul a fost chemat. Now learn about the passive voice in English. to look at. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea. Translate it into Romanian. Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. f. to resemble. .140 Chapter 1 This is the passive voice. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. etc. b. to speak to. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea pompei elicoidale. . e.. etc. . c. The indicative mood Simple Present Present Continous Present Perfect Simple Past Past Continous Past Perfect Simple Future The imperative mood Let me be asked I am called I am being called I have been called I was called I was being called I had been called I shall be called Controlled Practice: 1. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. . The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. d. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã compoziţia acestei substanţe.

d. People in my town built this hospital last year. e.. c. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. e. Children had cast stones. b.. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000.. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. John can’t have done this. AIDS is thought to be curable. Who drew this asymptote?..English for Technical Students 141 −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. c. d. −_________________________________________________________ . b. When no agent is given supply one: a.. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. When was your car stolen?.

142 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

and Place Gas â Oil of Toronto. The company operates about 185 producing wells in the producing wells in the lake.4 bcf of gas .and four companies have been active in Lake Erie this year. Pembina Resources of Calgary. test yourself in the following way. Canada. These operators are: Consumers’ Gas Co.English for Technical Students 143 UNIT 14 – 14-th WEEK •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Lake Erie Gas © The Infinitive © The Participle © The Gerund •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• READING Now that you learned so many things about the English grammar and you also know a certain amount of words belonging to the petroleum vocabulary. most of these located in the eastern portion between Long Point and the Niagara River. . Diamond Shamrock Exploration of Calgary. drilling about 40 wells. Lake Erie gas attractive to Canadian drillers Lake Erie Production on the Canadian side has become more important during the past 25 years as smaller onshore gas fields in Ontario have become depleted. of Toronto. Pembina was the most active company in the lake in 1985. Use your dictionary and try to read and translate this article on the discovery of gas in Lake Erie. Lake Erie production accounted for more than 74% of the province’s total 19. During 1984.

000-acre holding.000 ft to penetrate the Precambrian basement. a 259-ft-long vessel with a rated 5.7000 wells have been drilled there. Drilling activity. with total production of 190 bcf. including the drillbarge Telesis. Underwater Gas Developers operates three rigs in Lake Erie. One of the world’s first offshore wells was drilled on the Canadian side of Lake Erie in 1913 . The vessel is held on-station using five 5. Most wells have been drilled using what is designated as Lake Erie jackups. has been drilling in Lake Erie for 20 years. Canadian operations.000 lb .144 Chapter 1 Consumers’ Gas which drilled about 20 wells in the lake this year and operates more than 700 there. Diamond Shamrock drilled six deep exploratory wells in the lake in 1985 on a farm-in basis with Anschutz Resources of Calgary in order to earn 50% interest in the 700. Lake Erie is the shallowest of the Great Lakes. The wells will be drilled about 10 miles offshore and are scheduled for 4. It reaches its maximum depth of 210 ft just east of Long Point in the eastern basin of the lake. in water depths of less than 80 ft.000 tons or more and moored onstation by an anchoring system.and in the ensuing 72 years more than 1.water depth normally is restricted to about 80 ft because of unconsolidated bottom sediments.extending existing onshore production. At the close of 1984. Lake Erie development continues as the most important natural gas province in Southern Ontario. some 585 wells were producing or capped awaiting pipeline hookups.000-ft drillling depth capacity. Drilling in deeper waters is performed using drillbarges. Most wells drilled in the lake have been close to shore.500-5. or “floaters”. For example. weighing 2. Although these jack-ups which are elevated by employing either hydraulic power in waters down to 350 ft . A pre-load test of the jack-ups is required to make certain they will remain stable during drilling operations.

Sentence . published in Ocean Industry.5000 ft Lake Erie well-including completion. December 1985. An average 2. During drilling. (Andy Maslowski.000 to $ 200. p. independent clause is invest made into a sentence by Others think it is useless. 1. The Magazine for Offshore Business. ordinaly and Some of us think we should in this company. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to o make their meaning clear. and completions. when the lake freezes over. At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. excess cement and rock cuttings can be discharged into the lake.costs from $ 125.200-ft-long cables controlled by 100-hp hydraulic winches. Columbus. . The drilling season in Lake Erie extends from May to October.Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples . Ohio..000. Here are some punctuation rules. 64) GRAMMAR REFERENCE PUNCTUATION There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. 1.English for Technical Students 145 Bruce anchors attached to 1 1/8-in-dia. Consulting Petroleum Geologist.000-2. plugging. An inspector from the Ministry of Natural Resources is required to be on location during periods of cementing casings. beginning it with a capital letter and ending it with a period.

. exemplifies it. or. every day. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? capital letter. nor. Separating Elements in Clauses . The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that clauses independent invest in this company. yet. but it rained the words and. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feeling may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an ! exclamation mark.146 Chapter 1 . Independent clauses The forecast promised may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea. they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. 2. reduce next year’s ? Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have mark. : When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. and so. others are closely think it is useless connected by joining them with a semicolon. followed by a comma. The Draw the figure and solve the first clause is usually problem. but.

are usually I’m taking Chemistry and Guidelines Examples together Physics and Maths this semester. . Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are they joined compounded. and Wales the island of Great contain more than share two elements are Brittain. with words sheet. to separate items in photocopy on both sides of a a series. test of and have vocabulary. and use ceramic cups. Compounds that England. Environmentally conscious Commas are used businesses use recycled paper. when there are two or more subjects. punctuation is necessary.English for Technical Students 147 When one of the elements in a clause is compounded. When the items in Students were selected on the a series are very basis long or of grades. objects. or or any without punctuation. predicates. called series. Occasionally more than two elements are joined in this way. Scotland. such as and or or usually between two items. that is. occuring the last . charged to a major credit card. memory. . and so forth. with a words such as and.

m.. Lawrence. Ma’am. insta - are twenty-four. Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples ‘ The apostrophe is The company’s management used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. numbers have been omitted... 4:00 mark shortened forms p. didn’t. semicolons may be used instead. show possession. and teacher recommendations. ABC’s. like abbreviations and initials. can by be and reading. separation commas confusing. A period is used to Prof. self-confidence to . let’. An apostrophe is used He’s. four in constructions to o’clock. Word . 3.148 Chapter 1 internal punctuation. 24 ft. - A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used . J. show where letters or 45’s. . K.Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences. There are also punctuation marks that are used with words.

Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples “ When writers use the exact In 1841. is doing is of greatest carried value out when in a up your selfish sufficiently comprehensive pattern. and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight .W.” the text. they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations. to find the the middle of a sentence. the omission must be following: “If you want marked with points of ellipsis..A..English for Technical Students 149 form compound words When two modifiers The study included first.. three proper wife. are joined together.. four “Work of the tyre that points are used.. to settle down. When the give omission includes the end of ideas..R. If part of a quotation is She told him the omitted. to get a When the omission comes in proper job. B.and containing hyphens second-year students.” one or more sentences.. . Tell me what set them off from the rest of you know. you should points are used. ... Ralph Waldo words of someone else. common elements are often not repeated.. There are .

where the adverb which modifies the verb is inserted between the particle to and the verb proper: He was too disappointed to really care about the circumstances of the accident. ot as short infinitive (not preceded by the particle to): She made me do it eventually. A special use of the infinitive is the split infinitive. it [the crust of within a quoted passage. the the earth] has cracked insertion should be set off with and brackets. he offered.150 Chapter 1 many factors which affect a pressure vessel of the types commonly used. THE PARTICIPLE There are two participle forms in English: • the -ing participle which denotes a continous action or state: I saw smoke coming through the door of the chemistry laboratory. caused different layers of rock to slip. try again − if you let me”. THE INFINITIVE The infinitive is considered to be the base form of the verb. • the past participle (the third form of the verb) which denotes the action as a result: The police wanted the law respected. Form .” − The dash can be used to “Well − uh − I’d like to indicate hesitations in speech.” [] When writers insert something “In a fault. Form It appears as long infinitive (preceded by the particle to): I didn’t want to tell you that.

thank. El vrea sã plece mai repede. b. • expresses anteriority after verbs as excuse.English for Technical Students 151 Active Voice Indefinite Participle Perfect Participle having asked asking Passive Voice being asked having been asked THE GERUND • denotes an action simultaneous with the present. Form The Gerund is formed ith the help of the -ing suffix added to the verb. Iatã câteva formule pe care sã le învãţaţi. . etc. etc. Sper sã termin de învãţat ultimul curs. . f. forgive. Thank you for letting me know. past or future expressed by the finite verb: I thanked him for letting me know. reading Passive Voice being helped being read Perfect Gerund having helped having read having been helped having been read In order to improve your knowledge about Gerund/ Infinitive. Controlled Practice: 1. pentru cã are o treabã importantã de rezolvat. motivând de ce gândeşti aşa. Translate into English: a. • has a passive meaning after verbs as desire. need. remember. you may look at appendix 3 (page @). Dacã nu . d.. e. Te-a rugat sã scrii un raport.. . Studentul a dovedit cã este foarte bun la matematicã. c. require. want. Active Voice Indefinite Gerund helping. Your hair needs cutting.

you certainly must have your watch (to reapair). Put the verbs between brackets in gerund or past participle: a.. putem pleca la universitate.. i. b... I should like the World Championship (to win) by the Romanian team. f. Îţi mulţumesc pentru cã m-ai ajutat sã rezolv acest exerciţiu la geometrie. You are always late. They stopped (to cut) the pipes.. Thank you for (to tell) me the truth. e. We need to have our roof tiles (to replace). I don’t mind your (to stay) here and (to wait) for my daughter. After (to wait) for you for half an hour. g. g.. c. i.. Te deranjeazã dacã închizi fereastra?..152 Chapter 1 faci maşina sã porneascã. h. Ploaia oprindu-se. Why are you loking at me? Go on (to work)!.. when they discovered that they had some short ones too. d. h. I’ll make them (to answer) all my questions about Canadian drilling. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. ne stricãm buna dispoziţie. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I left the hotel.

several hours ago. 5. has been able to. C. On ……. had been. ……… the truth. D. A. . A. C. B. -/ already. one hand I would like to start such a project. B. had he moved/ was. D. will rain. D. -. Have I known. up. Did I know. B. I would have told it to you. A. a. D. B. come/ -. 7. No sooner ……. D. D. A. He would have helped you if he ……… A. 6. hard/ when. B. coming/ the. D. D. rained. the/ the. B... he had moved/ was. the.. chemistry laboratory. a/ the. coming/ -. 10. A.. C. C. I would gladly acept his invitation. Hardly/ when. C. 4. D. come/ the. in. the phone started to ring. so I had to tell them the truth. Should I know. had I entered the door …….. finished your homework ………? A.. The doctor ……. rains. B. B. 2. 11. on that drilling rig when he ………. in your place. ……. I couldn’t make ……… a story. already/ -. If I ………. 12. D. A. Have you ……. has been. C. C. A. hardly/ than. was. I saw smoke ……… through the door of ……. wanted. -. B. of.. just/ -. an. was he moved/ was. C. A. scarcely/ then. C. out. had he moved/ has been. Had I known. had rained. promoted. 9. the/ a. -/ yet. D. If it ……… tomorrow we’ll postpone our businees trip. B. 3. A. could. B.. had been able to. C. 8. I went to ……. were. C. -. cinema last night.English for Technical Students 153 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ TEST Choose the best variant: 1. on ……… other I think I shan’t have the time to finish it.

. A. 18. B. 16. B. was being sent for. will need.. Do you think we ……… call him so late? A. need. 1 point + 0. was sent for.. has needed. D.50 points per each good answer . Answer key: 1. D. C. 3. She took the liberty ……… it in her own way. 17.. call me at this number.. A. C. must. 15. of to do. C. A. D.. 13. She spoke……… A. C. . B. 17. of doing. A. 9. B.. A. D. A. C. needed. D.. hadn’t understood. D. has been sent for. B. B. C. C. to do. The paper addresses a basic question……. 2. 7. hasn’t understood. had been sent for. B. 5. 13. 16.. extreme loudly. extreme loud. A. understood. C. A. A. How can we take steps needed to protect the environment? A. B. B. extremely loud. 8. 18. had to. 4. 12. In case you ……… my advice. D. A. 6. B.154 Chapter 1 A. : . 14. B. extremely loudly. B. should. . B. D. need. 10. 14. to doing. C. 11. 15. He was looking at me as if he ……… that easy equation. C. C. didn’t understand.

What did you enjoy about it? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. What didn’t you enjoy about it? −_________________________________________________________ . What have you learnt from this chapter? −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.English for Technical Students 155 EVALUATION 1.

156 Chapter 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. −_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently.

English for Technical Students 157 APPENDIX 1 Irregular verbs Base form Past Simple Past Participle to be to beat was/were beat been beaten a fi a bate a lovi a învinge to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade become bent begun bid bidden a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi to bind bound bound a uni a lega a obliga to blow blew blown a sufla a arde (fuzibilul unei Translation siguranţe) to break broke broken a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma a concasa a degrada to bring brought brought a aduce a produce to build built built a clãdi a construi to burn burnt burnt a arde .

158 Chapter 1 a calcina a ataca to burst burst burst a izbucni a exploda a crãpa to buy to cast bought cast bought cast a cumpãra a arunca a turna to catch caught caught a prinde a capta a bloca a colecta to choose chose chosen a selecta a alege to cleave cleft clove cleft cloven a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa to come came come a veni a ajunge cost to creep cost crept cost crept a costa a (se) târî a aluneca a se alungi to cut cut cut a tãia a fasona a secţiona a opri (un motor) to deal dealt dealt a se ocupa (cu) a contracta a distribui a repartiza .

English for Technical Students 159 to dig dug dug a sãpa a excava a explora to do to draw did drew done drawn a face a desena a schiţa a atrage to dream to drink to drive dreamt drank drove dreamt drunk driven a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce to eat to fall ate fell eaten fallen a mânca a cãdea a da la rebut to feed fed fed a alimenta a hrãni a aproviziona to feel to fight felt fought felt fought a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta to find found found a gãsi a descoperi a constata to fling flung flung a lansa a arunca a izbucni to fly flew flown a zbura a lansa to forecast to forbid to forget forecast forbade forgot forecast forbidden forgotten a prevedea a interzice a uita .

160 Chapter 1 to freeze froze frozen a îngheţa a refrigera to get got got a obţine a primi a deveni (a ajunge) to give gave given a da a acorda a transmite a aviza a preda to go went gone a merge a funcţiona a circula to grow grew grown a se mãri a dezvolta to hang hung hung a suspenda a agãţa a pune receptorul în furcã to have to hear to hew had heard hewed had heard hewed hewn a avea a auzi a ciopli a degroşa a tãia to hide to hit hid hit hidden hit a ascunde a lovi a ciocni a izbi to hold held held a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa .

English for Technical Students 161 a cuprinde to hurt hurt hurt a rãni a lovi a avaria to keep kept kept a ţine a reţine a menţine a întreţine to knit knit knit a înnoda a tricota a îmbina to know knew known a şti a cunoaşte to lay laid laid a pune a aşeza a întinde to lead led led a conduce a avansa a comanda to lean leant leant a înclina a (se) apleca a se sprijini to learn to leave learnt left learnt left a învãţa a pleca a pãrãsi to lend to let lent let lent let a împrumuta a lãsa a permite to lie lay lain a se afla a consta în light lit lit a aprinde .

162 Chapter 1 to lose to make lost made lost made a pierde a fabrica a face to mean meant meant a însemna a vrea să spunã to meet met met a (se) întâlni a intersecta a încrucişa to pay paid paid a plãti a achita to put put put a pune a aşeza to read to ride to ring read rode rang read ridden rung a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) to rise rose risen a (se) ridica a (se) urca a rãsãri to run ran run a alerga a funcţiona a administra to say to saw to see to seek said sawed saw sought said sawn seen sought a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta to sell to send to set sold sent set sold sent set a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta .

English for Technical Students 163 a stabili to shake shook shaken a bate a scutura a vibra to shear sheared shorn a tãia a mãrgini a forfeca to shed shed shed a arunca a difuza a vãrsa to shine shone shone a strãluci a polisa to show showed shown a arãta a manifesta to shoot shot shot a împuşca a filma to shrink shrank shrunk a se contracta a freta to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide shut sang sank sat slept slid shut sung sunk sat slept slid a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa to sling slung slung a arunca a lansa to smell to smite to speak smelt smote spoke smelt smitten spoken a mirosi a izbi a vorbi .

164 Chapter 1 to speed to spell sped spelt sped spelt a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi to spend spent spent a petrece a cheltui a întrebuinţa to spill spilt spilt a vãrsa a risipi a turna to split split split a cliva a scinda a despica a disocia to spin spun spun a centrifuga a roti a presa to spread spread spread a rãspândi a acoperi a extinde to spring sprang sprung a sãri a izvorî a se arcui to stand stood stood a sta (vertical) a rezista a suporta to steal to stick stole stuck stolen stuck a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa to strike struck struck a lovi a izbi to string strung strung a înşira .

English for Technical Students 165 a lega a încorda to strive strove striven a se strãdui a se lupta to swear to swell swore swelled sworn swollen a jura a (se) umfla a creşte to swim to swing swam swung swum swung a înota a oscila a (se) balansa a pendula to take took taken a lua a capta a necesita to teach to tear to tell to think taught tore told thought taught torn told thought a preda a rupe a spune a reflecta a gândi a socoti cã to throw to thrust threw thrust thrown thrust a arunca a împinge a înfige a apãsa to understand understood to wake to wear woke wore understood woken worn a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a uza a toci to weep wept wept a plânge a picura .

166 Chapter 1 a se prelinge to win to wind to wring won wound wrung won wound wrung a câştiga a rãni a stoarce a rãsuci a smulge to write wrote written a scrie .

at the beginning of sth. sb. . attentive at sth. on sth. to be full of (energy) to be fond of sb./sb. to be in charge of sth./ sth.English for Technical Students 167 APPENDIX 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth. to assist in sth. to argue with sb. about sth. to be at home to be aware of sth./ sb. sth. to be good at sth. to be careful about sth.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth.= somebody. to be fed up with sth.= somenthing) (break sth. in the beginning to be afraid of. to be bored with sth. an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb. to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth.

. deficiency in sth./ sb./ sth./ deficient in sth. to develop into sth. to be tired of sth. in the (20-th) century certain of sth. to be in a mess to be interested in sth. to go by bus/ train/plane. to cooperate with sb. to believe in sth. to be proud of sth. with sth. etc. to cope with sth. else to complain about sth./ sb. to be similar to sth. to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb. to be married to sb. to be impressed by sth.168 Chapter 1 to be in love with sb. to depend on sb./ sth. change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth. in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth. to benefit from sth. to debate on sth. to belong to sb. to deal with sth.

in the end at the end of sth. to forget about sb. by mistake ./sth. to look at sth./ sth. etc. to look forward to doing sth./sth. to fight against sb. to get in touch with sb. to laugh at sb. to look for sth. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb./ sth.English for Technical Students 169 to die of sth. else to dream about sb./sth./ sth. in the distance to distinguish sth. to get on (well) with sb. to be different from sb. to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South. to find put about sv./ sth. to go out with sb. to have an interview for a job to invite sb. to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb./sth. to listen to sth. to merge with sth. to go home to have a degree in sth./ sb. from sth.

to participate in sth. to talk to sb./ sb. to spend money on sth. owing to sth./ sth./ sb. to speak to sb. to specialize in sth./ sth. a story about sth. to wait for sb. to pay ($5000) for sth. about sth. similar to sb. with sb./ sth. to search for sth. for ($300) to share sth. in view of sth. preoccupation with sth. resistance to sth. to point sth. to sell sth./ sth. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you thinf of von Laue?) to throw sth. to point at sb. at sb. about sth. on the way (to school) ./ sth representative of sb. to originate in sth./ sth. a ticket for sth. to rely on sb. thanks to sb. to suffer from sth. (a gun) at sb.170 Chapter 1 at the/that moment to operate on sb.

to write (an e-mail. .English for Technical Students 171 to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth./ sb. a letter) to sb.

172 Chapter 1 APPENDIX 3 Verbs which are always followed by a GERUND: The drilling engineer denied experiencing a gusher. admit appreciate avoid celebrate consider defer delay deny detest dislike dispute enoy escape excuse explain find finish forgive mention mind miss pardon postpone practice prevent recall risk suggest understand Verbs wich are always followed by an INFINITIVE: The regional Electricity companies expect to earn an additional 23% profit this year. begin continue prefer start . afford agree appear decide expect hope intend need offer plan pretend promise refuse seem want Verbs which are followed by either an INFINITIVE or a GERUND Nowadays many countries prefer to generate/generating electricty from renewable sources of energy.

New York. Soars. Dãnilã. Editura tehnicã. Vince.randomhouse. Vocabulary Development.English for Technical Students 173 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A. http://www. Macmillan. English Teaching Division. upper-intermediate. 6. 4. 1991. J. Michael. http://www. http://ccc. 1989. Bucureşti. 1984. 1984. Macmillan.commnet. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. Dãnilã. Student’s Book.com . ***. Soars. Viorica. John & Liz. Lin. Sanford. Bucureşti. Prentice Hall Inc. Bucharest. London Edinburgh. Reading Comprehension. The British Council... Deighton. Oxford University Press. 12. Hong. Headway.google. Student’s Book. 1976. Student’s Book. ***. Martinet. 1984. 1982. Engleza pentru ingineri şi tehnicieni. A Basic English Grammar.com 15. New York. 1985. Eastwod. John & Liz. pre-intermediate. Excel at First Certificate. 1996. Engleza tehnicã. A Practical English Grammar. 13. Cavallioti Publishing House. The Great Preposition Mystery. 3. The Language of the Petroleum Industry in English. Oxford University Press. Bishop.. 11. Thomson. Hong Kong. 10. 7. 9. 5. A. Lee C. 14. Oxford University Press. Editura Amarcord.htm 16. Washington. Lougheed. 2.C. Oxford. Viorica. D. 1967. Adrian B. Oxford. New Jersey. 1991. 1986.. Oxford.J. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalaureat şi admitere. 8. Timişoara. 1998. Oxford University Press.edu/grammar/adjectives. Grammar Review for Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL. Katherine V.. English for Science and Technology. Heinemann. Eugene J. Exercises. Editura tehnicã. Exercises 1. V.. Headway. Hall.

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