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Not Just Condensation: How Comic Books Interpret Shakespeare Author(s): Marion D.

Perret Reviewed work(s): Source: College Literature, Vol. 31, No. 4, Shakespeare and Popular Culture (Fall, 2004), pp. 7293 Published by: College Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25115229 . Accessed: 16/02/2012 01:10
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Not Just Condensation: BooksInterpret HowComic Shakespeare
Marion D. Perret

Marion D. Perret is an English Today
professor College. Her atManhattanville essays on comic

comic seemed chasm to and

books the screen

once bridge what a world educational and high culture.




book versions of Shakespeares plays have appeared in The Language of Comics: Word to


comic productions, of Shakespeare can be appreci ated on different levels by different audiences: stage versions them as cribs, by their artwork, by that panels can stimulate

who use by schoolchildren older students who analyze teachers who and focus examine find

and Image andApproaches

Teaching Shakespeare's

and by scholars, who discussion, how they reflect social concerns or

to literature. Non-academic but approaches visually literate viewers move easily back and forth among the popular visual media of film, television, and comics. Men as children never tucked inside Batman their schoolbooks in class now boredom and women who comics superhero to rescue them from films about


of shame. Many and Spidey without them have acquired enough awareness of film to appreciate the means by which technique

cooperate of a Shakespeare play offers an interpreta Just as every performance his character and the direc of each actor's tion?or for several. in words and actions. almost known name. and pow capable of effects more ofWill Eisner's term Illustrated Hamlet worthy the new Classics erful make are all Shakespeare's. from explaining For so the action can be easily understood. tributor. interpretation clarifies. because students Classics took over First Publishing series the about changed except the everything the new target audience was "in their mid-20s" and college educated. though not all of Shake "sequential art. the Pendulum Classics. count relied on these comic ver these comics when before sions well and high less elementary. began collecting and in the 1950s and 1960s.48) Pictures became possible. illustrated digests as well comic of plots book and versions sketches of of readers Shakespeare's plays character: inescapably. How much they interpret and how these comics as inform. conception an what the production into vision meld of tor's broader understanding comic book version of a Shakespeare play offers should emphasize?every their aim is to introduce artist the and the adapter. We may also recognize how the medium makes Shakespeare as we how and readers of the audience make plays necessary. interpretive. Gilberton's with skills the children original Classics reading Illustrated author of comics the most appealed to children of many of history comprehensive he was six (Jones 2002. to sim of aword they may not know. Jr. For young interpretation meaning to amore adult understanding of the emo a of subtext consciousness brings Pollock's . students knew asmuch about Cliffs Notes school reports. dramatic. middle. Perret 73 a comic's artist makes words of how and actions the creators increase our awareness If we too can visually exciting. and artists of comic books adapt afresh what and re-present his plays to us. When William ages: B. and the artwork King Lear is highly. the meaning ification.1 according to a depends interpret Shakespeare in for children audience. and character line plifying plot a of level it reveals also but still older children.Jones. the age of the target audience." and its words out are The included. Publishing byWorkman Shakespeare plays put speare's s Othello and of Zarate of do offer the complete text. Although higher to the catalog of their current dis are American Guidance Service..8-4.8 level. to get them through book Illustrated. large extent upon their intended grades. youngest predominantly appropriate. as about the classics. in the interpretation clar is this most the For form readers. subtle.1-2). deeper men and women. we may appreciate Shakespeare and timeless. designed specifically for school at 3. adaptation actively in giving a comic book imaginary life. Though by interpretation to the stories and characters just are not entertainingly. Whatever appears. amuch more approach sophisticated (Levine 1989.Marion D. often daringly. the this series.

. all these audiences share to some degree the artist's task of to the story. knowledgeable to to of balance the basic the medium condense and requirement constantly unpacking to convey as fully as possible the play's com against the obligation or more is than shown and said. considering and stable meaning points out. when play. young reader might us that Hamlet of the page words a when the adapter's caption tells example. interpre surprisingly tation takes the form of definition. may Occasionally.74 College 31.jumps between words and pictures. a footnote explains that he waits of any age who and fear" (Shakespeare 1994a. pay attention to the story rather than how the story is being shaped. artist intended the comic book's audience. zigzagging In much in a new way" (1992. the entire process to rescan the and often interrupting look the same way. visual be blatant subtle. but less skilled or less more The challenge of the artist is readers need direction. just as our sense of the subtext to a line the line. 18)2. then shifts simultaneously.4 Literature [Fall 2004] in thought and action. waits "anxiously" for night. adds artist of how the conventions interpretation a co-creator who and challenges the reader to become shapes his material to find yet more meaning. The understanding they bring to the pic comes from verbal interpretation in a caption tures frequently appearing block or banner at the top of a panel. for this interpretation then his mind's eye sees evidence . Naive in the action occurring readers. just as the eye of the comic's reader does not simply move clarify across the page glance. Readers a few comics explain at the bottom not know?for "with wonder are unacquainted with Shakespeare's work have no way to detect interpreta tion masked as simple information. information ing at how a comic book interprets a Shakespeare continually back and forth between and audience. howev er. Though many readers will not turn from action to learn definitions because they find the pictures to be the unfolding dictionary enough. and ambiguity explores ambivalence Consciously or unconsciously. the mind's eye moves medium and material. top to bottom. while that visual perspective may convey an intel recognize sophisticated or lectual emotional readers have no difficulty point of view. of playscript may come from the stage direction accompanying while in the the words of the reader's eye takes surveying the panel caption in the as a whole. for the medium requires every reader to fill bringing meaning in the gutter between panels. First. plexity depth by suggesting any aspect of this artistic juggling quickly leads to exploring Examining other aspects. As Ronald [are] continually left to right. upon interpretation Depending or or verbal. For mature the readers familiar with tion expressed awareness of the medium. . Comics-savvy readers the meaning and resonance of images. Schmitt deferred but takes in the whole sequentially from one page panel at a to spiraling.158). nearly another. "Signification as the eye .

its seemingly author acters' words. reduced from sad. The in twelve of the nineteen panels in Part II. the adapter must shorten the play. which further considering of the text.12). No matter who the audience is. 30). since we know more does. We revenge because we do not of Hamlet's action long second act. which Hamlet realizes that he must have positive proof that King Claudius has murdered his father. Above summarizes and interprets for us: ly informative banner. with his has lost his wits appears on the splash page. then sheathing his dagger.This overly help is feeling and thinking. Consequently. Perret 75 pictures that follow. most In the series "Stories famous soliloquy Shakespeare's is so distressed by grief that he "Hamlet Ophelia ful banner as he enters does more by Famous Authors is introduced by a banner thinks of suicide Illustrated." informing us and fails to see 1950. itative interpretation tends to discourage the when the visual endorses image caption's reading. spective soliloquy worth Farr Hamlet's reduces Naunerle readers grade the Pendulum "To be or not version's fourth the great hall" (Shakespeare than tell us what the Prince not ponder why Hamlet puts off taking see enough of him to sense delay: Polonius is in five.Hamlet.The sole visual suggestion deeply disturbed Hamlet shows Hamlet. or not to be. Shakespeare's a tragedy by Shakespeare to the confines of the comics medi cut. Polonius's mad. Because from the char tion gains objective authority by being visually distinguished are contained in speech balloons. especially when a speech is too well known to be passed over in silence.MarionD. it also influences our perception at two soliloquy panels it introduces. version In the "Famous Authors" much than seems to happen because do internal suggested visually.000 um?cutting an almost insurmountable words and pictures?is challenge. it might be better to die" (Shakespeare 1994a. he decides to pretend insanity in order . nothing tends to be announced rather For remembering. especially comes pervasive kind of interpretation to most in comics comic book: pictures though play during nuance to and what than of actions louder words. thus chang ing the structure and our response. gives depth speak must most be is and of these the words characters they speak. adapter's phrasing. which his show Hamlet staring dagger. "Life is ing. which this frozen action we find a high hand on his brow. staring at Ophelia. If death is like sleep. and of the why he fails to notice what we see. and we do not see how that the Prince is. Reducing A less recognizable translation from and more lines of Hamlet down to only 48 pages of the nearly 40. The need to con dense and simplify can force an adapter to eliminate all that makes an intro to be" question to in 222 the words becomes 14. prominent to Hamlet has that love driven main action. prove attempt than polonius lacks suspense. We need not read pondering whether a cap the soliloquy to know his answer to this existential question.

a character what he has Cutting confronting can change our impression ofthat character.2 before immediately the famous Hamlet with the comic jumping for by the springling of it." Because this brief asHamlet's speech expresses the same bloodthirstiness soliloquy in the prayer scene (3. Grant can cut that longer speech.4[Fall Literature 2004] that he may not betray his feelings as he seeks evidence. his uncle s Lord Chamberlain and private spy. Moving book's Part III.1). Between Laertes "to thine own self be true" (1.76 College 31. returns to the end of to 3. dismisses his friends. . daughter of Polonius. he is deeply in love with Ophelia. In contrast. Polonius explains to the King his theory is "mad for her love" (2. . the play's third act. However.73-96). Dutch structure to exter reshapes Shakespeare's dramatic emphasize out words action.Difficult as it is to do.2. the Prince ponders "to be or not to Hamlet discuss what between (3. so that the planning of the Mousetrap is followed they have just Hamlet and Ophelia learned from on and Claudius be. emphasizes Claudius reveals in both this aside and his prayer of 3. he knows that he must now appear to have lost all affection for Ophelia and to try to destroy the love she bears for him. science. the last these scenes Polonius advises page shows him rejecting her (3. Hamlet with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern.3. which that reveal nal rather than internal is less easily drawn. Act II in this version begins and ends with Hamlet and Ophelia: the splash focused rational account of what room (2." aside.1). The adapter. Dana E. does more .2.These alterations obscure motivation have shown soliloquy and eliminate about 600 lines that would with Polonius. after he ing of his crime (3. (Shakespeare 1950. leaving Claudius to be.3?and the lack of such to a mere three panels all the exchanges sensitivity in his enemy. 8) More calculation than on deep love. however. stereotypical villain Hamlet imagines him the adapter of Berkley/First's the spiritual sensitivity Hamlet. Hamlet the Players?and." and Polonius on encounter the eavesdropping backward. reorders as well as cuts his source. "How smart a lash that speech doth give my conscience (3. for it invites us to consider how to respond rather than to feel with him. agonized 98-99). this abbreviated on inside Hamlet does little to increase our empathy goes with the Prince. speaks like a fiend: "Now could I drink hot blood and do such bitter business as the day would quake to look on. strips King spiritual in his the attempt to pray (3. Reducing between characters after the frightened King flees from the playlet's mirror this adapter gives us a Prince who. Dutch. The radical condensa than leave unclear Hamlet's motivation for passing tion.1.3.2). 2. In become eliminating Claudius's . Steven Grant.36-72.1 in the in Ophelia's page pictures their silent meeting play).2).3 and 2. con but Claudius alone with his briefly importantly.3): Polonius direct Ophelia how to behave with that Hmlet (1.51 Dutch from the troubled the dimension shown later 54). 269-386).

the one to appear on the cover is chosen. often also suggests the artistic treatment. Choosing crowding est as well moment Theseus domestic to represent this play is further complicated by several factors: and Hippolyta. concerns and values. highbrow ond Classics Illustrated versions of A Midsummer Night's Dream reveal how affect interpretation of Shakespeare's larger social and cultural influences vision. which (Shakespeare Kiefer s cover for the Famous and Laertes shows Hamlet revenge Authors grave. From these. tells us less about Shakespeare's play than about wrestling this series' approach?as the inside cover promises. and the playwright's list of events into a living history that has meaning for both its chronological are the play's characters and the reader. and the young lovers. Perret 77 Marion up his one chance to kill the King safely: it leads us to see that at this moment the conscience-stricken Claudius is closer to Heaven than Hamlet is. characterized. which condensation. Blum's cover for the Classics Illustrated (Barthes Hamlet his son to shows the Ghost 1952). which summoning (Shakespeare to the presents not only a moment join him on the battlements. this play may at first its reader. Henry 1950). usually pictures a dramatic situa the reader's attention. This early version offers few significant moments that can pique inter as visually evoke the world of the play as a whole. The reader often encounters even before opening the comic book. To turn a themes. minor characters. the covers of the first and sec vision of their series. the adapter has to decide which key in two directions when the story could move moments?"hinge-points" 1977. the on an amateur the quarrels of fairies or the difficulty of putting not interest the ordinary comics reader.D.3 in a flash: arguably the ulti this interpretation tion to catch the major the cover. only one or two of these plots can be pictured on the overwhelm a cover without it and confusing the intended audience. ly representing mize or misrepresent what Shakespeare wrote. 93-94). version in Ophelia's In contrast. With four dis tinct plot lines related as much by theme as by action. as well it can convey a general sense of the play as a whole because usually as attract the reader's eye. seem are to not exist who the men. interpretation the covers of these two versions Where instantly convey the editorial or lowbrow." Depending the comic's cover may epito the play or drawing customers. Alex A. the reader will get "thrills the publisher cares more about accurate upon whether aplenty.While atrical may . disappear for almost three acts. important action but also a consciousness that haunts the hero until he achieves the his father demands. mainly highly especially to be confused and confusing. There may be no better approach than the one both both artists chose: to embody themes relating to the imagination. Cutting both presupposes and reveals the interpretation which the by adapter decides what mate is and is not The visual important reader may discover to the unfolding of action or character.

which lunge from his branch. The artist. us to dated The looks series. playful activity forms the two triangles. and her chin tilts up almost surrounded by tiny but fully developed fairies. The reader's eye goes first to the in the center of a sylvan scene with an outline great golden moon floating is a deep blue sky stud the moon like a cloud or thought balloon. like see is disquieting of the pair. suggests the cultural attitudes of its time and an interpretation onate with the readers of that time. provides a charming vision of pure delight. beneath the weaver. and Bottom. there are no have entirely disappeared?despite shadows. gives ly into two triangles. She is ously inviting. The erotic emphasis of this cover. eyes demurely downcast. the title block. Richard Case. slightly pelvis dreaming the curve of her hip. the lower right one mainly dark brown lies mottled with patches of dull red. the the sweetness in sex. that at first glance fairies. and uninterested totally In contrast. The slightly open lips letage of her clinging dress. who Young fairies peep out from trees and grass while one soars overhead. Caught up in chasing each other or the border between no attention to the dreamer. very today. gives more weight than the less shockable of the 1951 version even more The 1996 cover triangle. The cover of the 1951 A Midsummer Classics Illustrated the style of each res that would in the original Night's Dream. looks down the context invites us to see as a leer. In the lower triangle a young woman one to a tree. but in inviting pursuit.16-17). the moon stars. has sex is disturbingly indeterminate. 1996 cover of the second Classics on its mind. Titania kneels. both overcast with grey. male and female?all some also naked below?whose unclad above the waist. the idyllic setting. the our culture. Alex Blum. like a child in prayer. stands a strange grey form . half-exposed by the d?col emphasizing are sensu turns upward.4[Fall 2004] covers give "to airy nothing a local habitation" (5. who seem gently loving and young very much us a cover and somewhat dark threatening. and what we Illustrated version. doubling on the woman with a broad grin. but her bosom. In the upper postmodern. as she places a rope of blossoms over sitswith folded hands. Those who have not read the play will be struck by the childlike innocence of what they see: the bright primary colors. at is Her of turned foot the side. below would strike readers readers of today.78 College Literature 31. artist. which to the sexual than to the innocent. the fairy queen.1. Those who have read the play will know that Bottom and Titania the bowed are enchanted Athens and will note that the dark elements of the wood outside the bright moonlight. wearing the ass's head bestowed upon him by the impish Puck. riding on a bee. the upper left divided diagonally a medium one predominantly blue. these smiling fairies pay forward as if about to human-sized the upper triangle the Puck. as though she desires to be kissed. head of Bottom. Behind ded with are Titania.

Careful from the stump are not only but also various projections kinds of the standing pipes that sprout from rooftops?what appeared a tree is not just organic but also man-made. The enigmatic object remains mysterious. at and Titania. beneath an intervening lies stretch of the cover's white and beneath background. A reader today might Illustrated version dismiss by 1951. and more of Case's. It comprehends the bringer of that joy. The bold primary colors of the first cover have been replaced by a more muted world of the later the moonlit and shaded palette that makes and less certain. unnatural and nightmarish. Perret 79 seems like the remains of a blasted tree.18-21) Case our turns us. or played against. except that the drawings have been recolored by a com puter. has been empha Richard Case. but pretation no longer be ignored by a psychologically conscious audience. fearful imagination so its inspection shattered branches reveals that the than create a striking cover for this comic The artist has done more our imaginations to construct the meaning of his pic book. played down. The slight haze that mutes sickle of crescent moon blank veiled behind this dark form looks as a to strike the increasingly grey front begins The face. the huge cloud containing Bottom Overlooked first. Or in the night. colors shade into one another. if itwould but apprehend some joy. Instead of contrasting appear more magical sharply. when Jan Kott's book Shakespeare. into an illustration we The interpretation give this cover?half the cultural attitudes of Shakespeare's words. he not only interests sophisticated s us to that Theseus belief accept artfully prepares sleight-of-hand Such tricks hath strong imagination That. looking back at Blum's work from can see more.1. inter that can like its horns. By compelling us a in reading the comic. floating toward the dreamer and the viewer on a patch of blue that could be either water or sky. artist. Stars are high in the distance. Our sized by many productions Contemporary discussed Shakespeare's Dream as an erotic nightmare?an that is now played up. more open to interpretation.MarionD. we the perspective thoughtfully. imagining some fear. but by ture. half-created perceived. How easy is a bush supposed a bear! (MND 5. but in the the moonlight the surreal shape appears to loom. his co-creators. The tree seems rootless. of 1996 rather than imaginations?reflects the covers of this later version though the artwork between that 45 years earlier. leaving people and things less clearly defined. version cover of the first the less sophisticated senti of A Midsummer Night's Dream as merely Classics but when mental or somewhat Victorian. threatening. is identical to . summons up the play's shadow side. which since 1964.

"It's good that you did and think that he will come to see my n't. No thought bubbles connect him to the peaceful vision that floats above him. aman in Athenian garb. Othello's as the astonishing calm under threat of Shakespeare's "Keep up your bright swords. sometimes with another. although Brabantio has not yet said one word character against the man diminishes along with who the tension noble "stole" his daughter.2. taking up most of the cover. fall asleep in the forest.4[Fall Literature 2004] dreamer. The preface to Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from the writ Shakespeare. await the angry Brabantio book. In and his men.What Shakespeare wrote may be misrepresented readers who. carefully eliminate as far as possible references that might seem insensitive to a raised consciousness. which adapts the plays' stories for children. making the visual connection left out by the artist. vii). 10). thoughts and actions" in 1973 as a series (1807. view Though we assume the dream is the man's. laudable its intent. cannot detect interpretative manip ulation of picture or text. young lovers who Could nightmare. for the dew will rust them" (1.60) is reduced to the adapter's pedestrian. strengtheners of virtue. problem purging replaces Pendulum's the comic effort to make Othello inoffensive at times renders it obscure. though instantly apparent. "I wanted he said about you!" (Shakespeare 1994b. visually aMoor. the same question ture of layers of reality: How like Bottom dreaming? We. In this version. In retro we one cannot realize that this dreamer of the characters. Pyramus watching like these occur only upon reflection. as lago and Othello to kill Brabantio for the bad things the adapter's "honest" lago says. and she has a this dreamer represent us? The cover raises for the reader struc Shakespeare does through his "boxes-within-boxes" do we know whether we are fully awake or in the forest and the newly married couples and Thisbe. . but that each cover inspection or de-emphasizes to the concerns of its culture is according Such natural and timeliness. 10). not knowing the play. after close Interpretative questions of the cover picture or reading of the story. the Pendulum Classics.80 College 31. only one dreams. appealing to the audi can a it is hard for readers to recognize become problematic because ence. this however one For instance. may be players unaware that we are in a play. conceived for schoolchildren. a withdrawing from all selfish and mer a sweet lesson of all and honorable cenary thoughts. ends with that both young and mature readers will find the plays "enrichers ers' wish of the fancy. I love his daughter Desdemona side of things" (Shakespeare 1994b. The practice of adjusting text or emphasis to accord with current issues and values is far from new. In this spirit. such optimism may seem somewhat shows illustrated list of characters the helpfully justified: Othello as a handsome man dressed in flowing desert robes. emphasizes bias book to comic they share. we are not told this?the another er interprets. of the four be spect.

through selection visual too bland to be interesting. any shaping through with the play. with other men as well as Kate. Visually. without offense reveals the difficulty of condensing giving or making showing Shaping them bias. Seventeen with his fiery future wife. this educational series longer clear. never used. show him other men?Kate's because the world of the play men. eight. they no book. In fact. his first panels depict In this sequence. but it can affect the reader's sense of the play and the values it the reader gets of Pendulum's The endorses. not women. even In this comic about in talk three these men. We scenes receive much less attention. One of the first impressions Taming of the Shrew (Shakespeare 1994c) is that most of the scenes are crowd if the reader does not know the play. but panel shows a version is male-dominated. that the rivalry for ed and. woman alone. Glancing into comics form. especially sense this partly because the Kate and Petruchio Bianca is the main plot. what we see through Kate and through the selec . which of the material precedes cannot be detected by one unfamiliar treatment. and why Othello believe Desdemona find Cassio would might are no at attractive than he. we realize that most of the scenes in this response to Petruchio. partly because Petruchio appears among a different object. rather which than as the tamer. he he plans and puts into action alone or with is just one of the guys. women appear apart from men. we may not even realize of to present the men's and the correctness of their authority assumption truth. plays sometimes perceived as to be drawn. or ser encounter vants. the hero does not look black. whom we see only in terms of her In retrospect. the rival suitors. Petruchio gets ten panels entirely to himself. three panels show Petruchio by himself. Crucial motivations also disappear: why ety from which Desdemona to he Brabantio his the hero often invited into objects daughter's marrying more his home. as we do so often in are crowded?with Zeffirelli's that Shakespeare gives Kate no solil like this comic forces that recognition upon us. and the word "black" is (9).MarionD. play. oquy until something to the reader's impres of the panels contributes the men's visual dominance sion that men control even a shrew's domestic world.What we see of Kate illustrates the their values as objective. Here. physical characteristics not even his age. alone with Kate. none of Othello's is mentioned. The panels tend of shrew-taming his methods in to father. The comic book seems film. comes. unbiased need for her to be tamed. Perret 81 which in a note as "a person from the northern part of Africa" is explained In this Othello. albeit with the suitors for Bianca as yet another wooer. To deprive Othello of his rich blackness the impoverishes source Venetian soci for Othello loses the cultural of his the self-doubt. We never see Kate's face in close-up. torments Kate the three for panels in which Except no to existence have Bianca about her suitors. and only panels. six.

An affection not ver (Shakespeare in the confines book. Though her action of bringing wife's duty to her husband is cut. sir. this time in Kate's line. In the play. is it you wish.104). and suggests relationship for the couple complex found obedience is demonstrated than can be pictured asks. no mere household slave. the play's Kate is obedience. your will. my husband?" 1994c.1 Petruchio risks public the actor. that you emphasizing Kate are "What comic book's the the last words of send for me?" (5. but the adapter's silent shaping invites us to experience Kate's viewpoint and to think about it. however. In this to not does have Kate book. another small but significant adjustment of the balance of power between text. In the Pendulum humiliation not only by her words.1. Whether is apparently not worth mentioning: Kate simply must learn to herself and accept the fact that her husband governs even the food and domestic each other control she eats and meets on such a situation course?her find she wears. reshaping of Shakespeare's scene. Iwill give thee a kiss. Where "What of a comic . stay" Pendulum version gives their brief exchange five panels. [She kisses him. it is Petruchio who us I will kiss you" (Shakespeare let home mind: "Then his go again. allows us to regard her resentment as less pathological than logical. of visually for his intelligence. for this Kate too much is well ambi some power over her husband?the for children does not offer text reinforces the comic's visual guity. When a him Kate.4[Fall 2004] tion of material for each panel. need 1994c. As if to insure that a version verbal not worry of their relationship. Feminists comic about the mutuality not matched.The that Kate. 60). Since most women the clothing today would now Kate directors have when first she intolerable. fortunately rejection by asking for though embarrassed. 57). changes capitulate. He gets the kiss he orders. depending appreciation in Shakespeare's 5. insur (5. This shrew gets small chance to state her case. has ing that the readers will recognize power he gives her by loving her. the Lambs as have perceived the male-dominant interpretation accurately repre senting Shakespeare's vision. pray thee love. in for Kate for kiss the street. No.2. lest they turn back once more home: "Nay.141). would If they could have seen this later adaptation for children. strength. calls into question more a shrew and shrewd. because he gives it. Their version of this play focuses on obedience or not Kate and Petruchio love power relationships. as for the first time Petruchio version the scold's new if his wife refuses him.] Now. and. this on scene not in in later the last but this only shaping. complies lovingly.82 College Literature 31. wit. but by conclusively her long lecture on a in the other wives. rather formally. just mated. physique. usually to the audience?unseen Petruchio indicate by him. of their rela in the street illustrates the growing mutuality brief exchange to risk public trusts Kate enough tionship.

beside Kate. Kate is delighted other household Kates" (2. shows a virile Old Hamlet. offers the play's text uncut. Petruchio and Kate like. about every male of the appropriate age in Elsinore may judge by what they wear. The last panel in the comic book shows the smiling couple about to depart. This constant visual (1.86) to fight affects Hamlet's reminder of the need for courage and for willingness our sense sense of himself and would of affect him. Even the gentle Horatio wears chain and Guildenstern. The King wears a dagger. will notice it does not answer. who pay that the young readers for whom to visual text than to verbal and word. armor. or sincerely taking up in playing with each other? This comic book at times merely delighting Before them seems points to be less uncertain at once: of its interpretation than trying to give two view for the mind's eye. they taking on or an in their roles act.2. which in this medium. The nearly omnipresent armor keeps us conscious of invasion and aware that this of the possibility now a has role. gest questions characters Branagh's Anticipating version the Pendulum comic The books downplay first. however.275). (Shakespeare 1994a) or omit: Denmark's this Dane emphasizes what other films and tense relationship with Norway. that trouble both film Hamlet the interplay text. is prepared for war.1. sword and dagger. visually. unlike his scholar son. sword drawn. prince political philosophical as as to the reader: "suits of woe" to Hamlet is symbolic well Clothing represent one kind of duty. proper just putting society. invite us to think of the bowing These theatrical elements couple as what a actors look curtain Are successful call. another. the result is double-vision this comic is designed. to have dwindled cerned. a heavy drape.D. and helmet indoors. Perret 83 Marion in the comic's version of the street scene may bally expressed switch from "will" to "wish" and from "sir" to "my husband. full page panel fallen body of Old Fortinbras. skillfully filled by his uncle. as do Rosencrantz when we first see him is pictured as a vigorous man in his prime. astride the Just if we mail who is a warrior. had not the artist pic . unlikely more attention between picture Nevertheless. side by side in a last farewell. raises questions aminor but repeated visual detail may sug (1996). he bows. It is." changed words may also suggest her awareness of a power which the husband's whim is iron while the comic's into the ambiguity of the play's text. the Prince. We view them over the shoulders of those who marvel that "Petruchio has indeed tamed a shrew. and Polonius." is a largish stretch of empty floor. which in the play and critics of the play. and she curtseys. blissfully enjoying by the possibility adds a different complication. The picture husband's request for another public kiss her long speech irony that complicates Our final view of Petruchio and Kate underlie although the the in relationship text suggests a little of as far as this comic book is con a Kate "comformable as her of of Kate is untinged in the play.

begins. tightly focused on colors. the color of pas sionate love and flaring anger?appropriately. Othello that seems disturbingly unstable: diagonal colonnade through amoonlit shadows cast by the blue pillars on the lavender blue wall make the wall . what most ers she mistakenly emotions. For instance. true lovers instinctively drawn to each other. however. the setting of the second temptation becomes expressionistic.1) blue) walk black seem In a more interpreters love and fidelity Othello's ("true" scene As the and lago Iago's jealousy (green). partly because the spreading green reflects the jealousy not only of lago. are clad the object sky blue and leaf green. the artist may at times invite questioning that leads to more about the the basic in comic probing thought play.The appro of this color change is immediately the priateness apparent. are use thinks her. In both versions Helena. seems almost more the workings of a character's mind and heart than in presenting external actions in the unfolding torments As Othello plot. priority Shakespeare books remains clarity of story line. This of color clarifies on the mocking basic level.4[Fall 2004] tured the Prince value-laden deepens caped and muscled throughout the like Superman. As lago tortures Othello. and the artist. with shapes and colors acting as visible of the invisible and inner battle between scene (4. wears red. lago by forcing him to at his mental of Cassio's closely picture lying "with" or "on" s Desdemona. since she. The silent threading of scenes becomes a commentary that clothing consideration. Oscar Zarate. whom it has turned into amonster. guiding our understanding of the action and the characters' sophisticated art version such as the Workman sequential a more Othello (Shakespeare color often produces 1983).84 College Literature 31.The computer-recolored lovers is color-coded proper pairings in 3. Acclaim in nature's she lacks (Demetrius turns angrily on the admir and self-confidence). should belong In both versions help the reader remember who Hermia and Lysander. complex action of and character. Much of the action of Othello is inter understanding interested in picturing nal. in both the original Gilberton edition of A Midsummer Night's Dream (Shakespeare 1951) and the Though edition 1997). lago face distorts and begins to turn emerald (84). Here costume colors as well as hair color to whom. of desire unnaturally created by the fairy juice. the quartet of (Shakespeare to help us keep track of who should belong together: the two brunettes and the two blondes (Helena and Demetrius) (Hermia and reader ismost likely to become are the confused about which Lysander).1. but also of Othello. whom lago is reshap ing into his own distorted image. where nearly all allegiances are broken and the estab lished pattern is turned inside out. partly because as a was of monster" introduced earlier description jealousy "green-eyed look (64).

complete Shakespeare's (Shakespeare not is artist the is novel of graphic Because this 130 page comic book length. writhing when he raved of "noses. should come from unobtrusive much editing. we soon the medium. per chic relationship. ears. To is a given. against the green background. as Will Eisner points out. to sputtering to frozen silence. forced to condense. rigidly arched in an epileptic fit. The phallic blue blade. though rewarding. himself whose magician in his pain. a as as can matter of insight well become perspective. very impor tant question: How much add to should a comic book interpretation ed audience. how much be interpretation to the viewer by pictures or captions that dictate a single reading. and the watching lago. How much of the and his reader's under imagination strength developing of Shakespeare's work. which includes 1983). against a background suddenly leached of color. that most these several means standing In conveying . then into a chaos Othello lago. The advantages and disadvantages of such free interpretations clearly shows Othello dom to interpret visually are apparent in Zarate 's few departures from eye level perspective. a brief consideration of itmay sharpen our focus on a very basic.MarionD. color clarifies both the quence dramatic upon the it does so depends and the psychological subtext. Whether powerfully choose to look at color. and lips. Behind this almost completely creating heart-shaped of jagged blue nerves or veins. As twists Othello's the becomes mind. surreal. among changing physical argumentative positions. reflecting their psy lago setting turn into bars. in this Shakespeare's play? Interpretation "in practice. action an interpretation to the reader. a substitute for Othello's stands but the general has been reduced from elo vertical. and the intend find ourselves taking into account the material. tongue. now green only in his vest. apertures flooded with green light. isolate any one component of the artwork for consideration. But how medium. Like shape-shifters. eyesight. green with jealousy. the blue columns toppling rather these haps protecting Othello. composition of the page. conveyed how much be teased out of the reader by open-ended images? The comic is the Workman of interpretation text. imprisoning blue cage. or shape of a panel. In this scene. then into huge mentor. is artificial and because both However. skillfully used.When Othello crashes to the floor. Perret 85 in and out than solidly perpendicular. The two men move and columns. in any case ensuring that he cannot escape his tor deep blue seaweed-like plants that bend and branch. but instead has the luxury of spelling out or suggesting as he chooses. appears a demonic elongated fingers cast spells. though than others." begin to straighten into columns again. places the handle of his dagger between Othello's lips. all the aspects of the comic's some more we art play a part. the blue forms.148). the artist imagines for the reader" (1982. time-consuming.

pouring In two panels are two much smaller ones. 34).With goes about business as usual with the reader can see how all these actions relate and come may not be good.86 College 31. the lovers is but half himself without flesh. to their apparent figures cast shadows far out of proportion uses this kind of distancing perspective. divided by high hedges. who walk its alleys. and lago departing on the right to find Othello to see Cassio and Desdemona they conferring. stacked vertically the top one ("O. the shifting relationship of Othello 'twere now to be most Cyprus (Shakespeare the lovers' profound wordless shows Between formal the man.2 he creates a full-page panel (1983. Emilia joins Cassio and. and Desdemona. 57) the characters' move giving a bird's-eye view of a garden maze. entering at the upper left corner. pink lips curving Although here the lovers' skin tones blend almost ty is usually pictured as rosy-cheeked. while move tells him how determinedly downward through the maze. not yet one separated. at the bottom left Othello detachment. from they depart together Separated by the shrubbery. in spirit that they cannot be and that they. his widened face?a right eye. Olympian foresee that what will some lords.Together imperceptibly that each of two pictures create the illusion of half a single face. smile. my fair warrior!") we see an extreme close-up of Othello's bit of his brow. to summarize 3. these happy. Instead. and the top two-thirds of his In the bottom panel portrait heedless we see Desdemona's right ("My dear Othello!") a Venetian this beau into and chin. are three figures: Emilia. The of the military hero. Desdemona right of the panel to them seek her. nostril. Zarate. structured images of face and hand mark important points in Carefully "If it were now to die. suggesting nose. and the bottom joy at being reunited. diagonally at the bottom is pleading his case to Othello. are so united the other. as he greets his bride in tier of four panels pictures panel at the left edge is a the panel at the right edge out his soul to his beloved.4[Fall Literature 2004] Although his graphics offer comic book. Zarate symbols per square inch of any aware of the reader's need for is enough overviews when many plot strands come the most panels giving actions that would be confusing if viewed at eye together in simultaneous level. which however. he favors visual synec information objective foreshortened provides draws the doche: tight close-ups on parts of the body whose expressiveness to from observation reader interpretation. across the slender white the space dividing the panels. rarely for the reader." declares Othello 1983. Mapping Shakespeare clarity to provide this view captures both the isolation and interconnectedness of those ments. At the top of the panel. standing toward the so he can bring him center. The overhead perspective allows us to view the characters working their way through a literal maze sun the into a symbolic one of their own creation?in the late afternoon causes. of propriety. For instance. The terrible dis . Cassio.

thinking that the woman of her nose? but why is a chunk missing from one side represents Desdemona. points Understanding a can take off" of then the sequence. pictures really 'meaning' Here Shakespeare's words are honored by use of the full text. reflecting a as were a acts his wife in his home in if he brothel. In the second temptation we see Othello. the believing himself as well it. must images to find struggle through . however. she out of a bear!" and see his hands close on the neck virtue. "O. than apt. potent oversimplifies manly husband who. seething with jealousy. When Othello talks with lago about his conversation with Cassio 1983. wisp of ("What horrible fancy's this?") we see Desdemona gold en hair. 90-91). as Othello the of leaves shadows 1983. like awild animal lurking es to watch Sometimes (4. shaggy eyebrow. nearly all the panels contain the bust of a golden (Shakespeare nose has been broken.1). The contrast in words and coloring accents their the eyes now window the lovers' divided souls.2. face extreme In the composition. difference. primitive emotions. If it is a symbol for the "divine" Desdemona's supposed fall from a chipped nose seems hardly adequate. like Othello. Othello become busy co-creators out in As Scott McCloud "Ifwords lock in the Comics. symbolically cutting off both song and breath. but often out by surreal artwork that excites the viewer's imagination. about Desdemona lago and Cassio talking. the visual image seems more puzzling Sometimes. Readers of theWorkman of meaning. this ing upon his wall. right eye.MarionD. in the bush scene thinks. Othello. close-ups of their eyes. weighed the visual image leads to real insight. can still say "But yet the pity of as illuminating. words metaphoric. right panel s fair skin. and blue left eye. Zarate 's images disturb and some plays to be seen and heard. lago!" Distracting haunt reader. not decoded. a of world and that we. On Shakespeare wrote seems s in emotion it that Zarate of Othello pages nearly every expressed or or a literal is expanded undercut by visual equivalent. match only in mirrored left panel ("Let me see your eyes: look in my face") we see Othello's dark and in bloodshot brown the skin. 88). Although s fear that her gesture motivates lago "Strangle her" and suggests Othello's it the than his charms are more resolution. the ironic juxtaposition will sing the savageness this of this statue. Two panels. (1993. betrayed. resembling green spear points (Shakespeare become slashes that make his face look like one of the African masks hang return to raw. Perret 87 tance that grows between in another composite them is visually represented one now believing action this the of where 4. We grasp almost without whose woman. Only slightly more helpful is of word and image as we hear Othello say. (96). whore. Suggesting Othello's image pictures a passion intense and simple: love for Cassio in no way com plicates his desire to kill his friend. 159).

The art of Shakespeare their understanding work. certainly not readers make of these images may than Shakespeare's. powerful images invite readers interpretation. a is implied by allow time for grasping what particular phrasing This Words are a play's bones. Haifa that children who chologist. denies. to be fleshed out in performance for the theater or the mind's eye. explicitly mov'd" control what we 1983. terms that reduce to translate their own responses. and to the readers' need for vision. What only have more relevance to their lives than to Shakespeare's play. In elaborating on the psychological sub text of a character's words. The excitement of a fully realized performance? on stage or screen. like every playwright. ultimately. becoming that competes to itself. itmay interfere with the character's of the play as a whole. or image. Zarate cannot completely (Shakespeare we not him for from all free but this does make of what see. perhaps into psychological into words less nuanced and precise individuality. At times exotic readers may look more closely at the words. appreciates a receptive and Though responsive audience. Zarate s artwork calls attention with the action of the play. but they do so less for clarifica tion of details of Shakespeare's of the one love story than for confirmation as are co-creators from Yet artist of a the the because images. images and words say imply. Zarate should not be self-indulgent vision?he at times moves too far from the world of the play into the surreal world of his personal and his intrusive." a psy century ago Fredric Wertham. the primary task for the artist of a comic book version is to convey as clearly as possible what the play says. like other books. stage of "picture-reading. comics. offers opportunity to be savored along with whatever images the artist uses to stage the play for the reader's mind: because they are a print medium. responsibility to present what his for he has an obligation what suggest. is now "much unshakable that this hero.4[Fall 2004] what or expressionistic images a visual commentary assume a life of their own. to his perception or invite the reader to be so. resonance of Shakespeare's words for the complex units.When is real and who is honest. 66). they drawing comic book based upon Othello has a triple obligation?to Shakespeare's of Shakespeare's vision.88 College Literature 31. every artist. will be evaluated not just for itself but also in relation to the source it illustrates and illuminates. in a comic book or the reader's imagination? whether starts with the script. "gazing at the successive pictures of the . never get past the love comics would that is. whose words must be seen on the page before they can audience be heard or resonate worried in the mind. the irony of what Othello unspoken but must not be missed?for in the heat of battle. Shakespeare's where words become visible rather than audible graphic medium. visual interpretation should bring out the emo is the lines so that the reader cannot overlook what tional reality underlying instance.

high school discover that a comic book version of a Shakespeare . though they are and though only a few of them (Mandrake's substitute for Shakespeare as s Pollock's Zarate Othello.Yet generation" are part of the visual pattern. with visual images teaches and increases appreciation of Shakespeare have a place in college courses on comics or other narrative graphic art?Yes. "Narrative its medium" of 1999. The process of reading as we to his fill in what happens between book version joins our imagination as sounds. "literature Comic books may not answer a scholar's complex questions. a generation that go with Illustrated versions a helpful liferation of analytical cribs found the Classics its built-in to the plays. While Seeing Shakespeare ver a and of well the pages skillfully illustrated comic book adapted turning to be struck by how good sion. King Lear) have pictures that illuminate as art. when (McKenzie not in his medi and word interaction between artist catalyzes only picture um but also in the reader's mind. words hear printed panels. with study guides. for the post-literate (1993. 435). when more and older students are turning to graphic novels for can base sophisticat exciting artwork and adult content. when Neil Gaiman ed comic and college books on A Midsummer teachers may Nights Dream and The Tempest. in a different medium brings fresh insights.The playwright did not invent twice-heard the story is?if his tales: he borrowed turn and adapted plots from sources in other media. but they can it remains true that and new questions. but what makes a (Chatman quite independent tale absorbing is the way it is told. his task of quickening words Sharing for a short time. of his skill. the Acclaim introduction series. Perret 89 Marion con reading of printed letters" (1954. set still pictures of action into motion. not a cerebral medium" 1987. a reader who does not know the play is likely itself is a deep structure he ever pauses to reflect. the are comics as worth well illustrate and changes Despite analyzing Do comic book versions other than those focused of students before the pro the need to condense. even a scholar can learn from a comic book. a theater. While give a teacher fresh perspective the "comics are a visual. At commercials. Hamlet. even to a small degree. visual and verbal literacy work where words and careful looking at comics challenges thought. His cern was to some extent justified.D. for almost 40 years later Roger Sabin notes that both "industry PR" and some comics artists speak of comic books as comic book with aminimal in a comic book. together synergistically. they no do.50). is a time when comics superheroes appear in films and betting they still will. The out in into dramas books from stories and histories played ing process of translating narratives from page to stage taught Shakespeare how so effectively4 that his stories shine and sur to use the power of his medium action tends to be striking in terms of phys prise even in amedium where a comic ironic than rather ical violence plot twists.272). in any course that introduces students to Shakespeare.139).

seeing and adjusting vision. Furthermore. whether visual. responsively. comic in using them. can and an and comic books be thoughtfully. at ing variations of two basic questions. Class comics freshly at something they thought they knew. this problem can less likely to arise.90 College 31. and it is hard to for a comic book ver justify spending as much as for a paperback edition of the sion of Shakespeare the play. the mind moves around ideas.4[Fall Literature 2004] a point of connection with their students. "Why?" and "So what?"This of class time and specific leading questions first. once they have learned to see these. Shakespeare lives through his writings only when they are read carefully. by directing attention by cultural values and bias. to of students interactive interesting way introducing reading. and the attention span of is likely to be short. book versions are an underexplored of Shakespeare to to engage the exercises seeking design imaginative of a few panels can lead students to look discussion for the teacher interest. around the page. can Shakespeare How comic books be used effectively in a literature a class? They should probably not be used whole: few versions are easy only to obtain. but a way of making his relevance Interpreting Shakespeare clear to each century. Shakespeare knowing or even verbal these students text. When only a few panels or a few pages are used in class (which is qualifies as "fair use"). is not sacrilege. But what play provides really makes these comic books useful pedagogically is that the cutting required by the medium inescapably interprets Shakespeare by reshaping plots and mod to themes and dramatic structure. the floundering book showed rather than what the playwright said. Using the panel of a comic book version in class can lead them to focus on details. ifying character. by posing reflecting open-ended questions. can take about 12 minutes such as "Why would the artist choose to show a skull in the pupil of Hamlet's does this suggest about what eye just after he has killed Polonius? What is thinking? Is there any other character who might appropriately Hamlet be pictured with a skull as his center of vision?" A quiz question focusing on a single visual detail like this can teach students how to move from recogniz . can a of become unless the teacher leads the class to power pictures problem see the way the version differs from its source: since for most of us sight is the dominant student may remember what the comic sense. students learn from college on the students' willingness comic books depends as much to Shakespeare are as on the of serious attention suspend any disbelief that comics worthy teacher's Even resource students' imagination so. and how well. most often by repeat nudged process. What. Reading well-designed as of moves mind while visual the for eye develops agility increasing literacy. in culture and val Although many students today are sensitive to differences come a to few to class how do close reading of a ues. they can be toward considering more deeply and broadly.

students may learn to appreciate Shakespeare's artistry grammar school of double scene carefully. themselves. a comes to know director rehearsing. that the text itself is an interpretation. concerns arise because of comic books. in the quotations . Today. is identified inmy text not as Lake but as Pendulum. to cut to the he will condense or empha from the page stage. "not of an age. awareness of what makes Shakespeare. of simple questions ing a fact to examining Sequences or wrong with "What's missing this picture?. or place influences tively. since. but minds. informed me. 2 To avoid confusion comic book s text. of only line 9 February). as Dan Malan. author of The Complete Guide 1 For to Classics art" Illustrated." that go beyond and enjoyable books can be a convenient only a text. transposing. Quarto] [the of his actors as well of Hamlet. but for all time. script ting play as old as the plays is almost size as needed." Notes accuracy as well as clarity. Aware of his medium immediately in practical as well as theoretical terms. as even his rival Ben Jonson acknowl edged." "What difference does make?" or "What kind of relationship do you think these characters have this moment?" "How would you expect them to react if someone walked "Why do they not and character like this at in respond this way?" can lead to questions to their shaping. 62). then reflecting upon how by a similar process: by reading a that simplifies and clarifies. While not of the nature of Shakespeare's medium. currently distributed by American Guidance Service. interpreting.D. then turn this is translated into a visual medium to them an increased bringing with ing back study the verbal medium. numbers in Shakespeare's from Shakespeare text with not found page in the numbers comic's to the e-mail (2000. as the limitations just the nature the capabilities ever more of staging and thus sees in the process of get clearly how he must shape the production. Interpreting Shakespeare's plays First is an "If As Bernice indeed Kliman observes. Used imagina shaping and understanding can help the college student begin to recognize critical and theoretical concerns. the series now entitled the Lake Illustrated Classics. then cutting. "Lake is about a 3rd generation publisher ofthat author. Comic means of helping students grasp that a single text may be interpreted several and that the culture of the time ways. comic books problems These of the text. Looking carefully at a plot well chosen panel in class may help students comprehend more about adap can open up not tation than poring over books would: the shared exploration unexpectedly?. he may have learned in acting version to appreciate the artistry of classical authors through a Latin into English. Like other Elizabethan schoolboys. then from this English translation: from process back into Latin. began almost after Hamlet was first staged" (1988. Perret 91 Marion its significance. Shakespeare kept on learning as he went on writing.

NC: McFarland. B. of the Once and same we impact clarity reasons peculiarities. 1982. New York: Press. New York: Oxford University Press. Eisner. CT: Illustrated by Henry Press. New York: Routledge. Classics Illustrated.92 College 31. 1987. By Mary and Charles Lamb. "What Novels Can Do That Films Can't (AndVice Versa). 61. 1984. Lamb. Bernice Kliman. McKenzie. Jr. ed. Cited appear complete contains bibliographical 3 Andrew Explaining notes information.Rutherford. and CMG Join to Revive Publishers Weekly. Barthes. Adult Comics: An Introduction. Dutch. New York: Oxford University 1977. McCloud. 1993. Shakespeare. 2000. but changed. "the hermeneutic we can go circle. Works Cited Andrew."Deconstructive Schmitt. process" (1984. 8. Comics. Charles. 436). In examining how the covers of the Pendulum Classics and Acclaim Books reflect the values of their cultures. Adaptation 97). Trans. the differences in form.. How toDraw and Sell Comic Stripsfor Newspapers and Comic Books! Cincinnati: North Light Books. Hill & Chatman. content. Adapted by Dana E. Dan. Will. Tales from Shakespeare. Classics Illustrated:A Cultural History with Illustrations. the number in parentheses is the number of the page in the comic book being discussed. Concepts in Film Theory. Jefferson. Ronald. 1989.William. "Berkley. William 1807 Reprint. 4 Though he is not discussing plays and comic books. Bridgeport. E-mail to the author." Dudley a text we must discussing is similarly both a leap and a have a global conception of itsmeaning. about central to interpretation and analyzing that "before theory. Chatman s point is one whose narrative grasp those truth we reveals can with all recognize: great the "Close the for study peculiar of film powers and novel of the versions two media. it is both more accurate and less date ance confusing of are to give when given the date when artwork have the Works or text first appeared The entry dates rather of first than the reprinting. scene. Hamlet: Film. FL: Poorhouse Press. Television. Kiefer. Levine. Comics and Sequential Art. and Criticism. Dudley." In Film. Authors Illustrated. Northampton. New York: R. Roger. Image-Music-Text. Leo Braudy andMarshall Cohen. MA: Kitchen Sink Press. andAudio Performance. and line numbers indicating where the passage may be found in Bevington s edition of The Complete Works of Shakespeare. 48." Scott. Understanding Comics. 2002. ed. Theory. Hamlet. Malan.Tuck & Sons. NJ: Fairleigh-Dickinson University Press. Sabin. of the two versions strikingly emerge" (1999. 1993. Wang. First. 24 November. 5th. Roland. W 1988.Tamarac. 1999. therefore cultural in the attitudes text. Beth. Jones. Stephen Heath. 9 February. Alan. Unless another source is identified.4 Literature [Fall 2004] version are given act. Famous 1950." Journal of Popular Culture 25:153 1992. Preface. 1901. Seaboard . Seymour.

Illustrated Classics by Alex Illustrated by Alex A. 1980. Illustrated by Tom Mandrake. Wertham. 87. Gilberton. New York: Berkley/First. New York: -. Pendulum Classics.Marion D. 1952. Hamlet. -. Perret 93 -. Reprint Belmont. Foresman. 1983. CA: Lake Illustrated Classics. The Complete Works -. 1980. 1994b. Adapted by Samuel Willinsky. Adapted by Naunerle Farr. CA: Lake Illustrated Classics. Illustrated by Alex A. Blum.New York: Rinehart. TTie Seduction of the Innocent. Scott. The Taming of the Shrew. Reprint Belmont. David Bevington. Hamlet. New York: Gilberton. Adapted by Samuel Willinsky. Blum. Illustrated by Fred Carillo. Classics Illustrated 5. Ed. York: Gilberton.ed. Othello. 3rd. Adapted by Naunerle Classics. Pendulum 1994c. 99. 1994a Hamlet. 1997. A Midsummer Nights Dream. Adapted by Samuel Willinsky. -. 1951. New York:Workman Publishing. -. CA: Lake Illustrated Classics. 1951. Classics Glenville: Illustrated. 1980. of Shakespeare. Classics Illustrated 87. cover by Richard Case. Cruz. -. View Reprint. Reprint Belmont. A Midsummer Illustrated Nights Dream. Illustrated by Oscar Zarate. -. Adapted by Naunerle Farr. Adapted by Steven Grant. 1980. Illustrated by E. Othello. -. Blum. New A. 1990. Fredric. . Farr. R. 1954. Pendulum Classics.

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