Last Home Coming and Trial

Last Home Coming
October 8, 1896- Rizal learned that the Madrid

papers were full of stories regarding the revolutions in the Philippines and he was blamed from it. October 11, 1896- Rizal’s diary was confiscated during his way to Port Said, his cabin was searched nothing significant was found. On November 11, 1896 his diary was returned.

Unsuccessful Rescue in Singapore
Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto Lopez dispatch

telegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore named Hugh Fort to rescue Rizal when his arrive, by means of writ of habeas corpus When the Spanish steamer arrived Atty. Fort instituted proceedings at the Singapore Court for the immediate removal of Rizal from the said steamer. Chief Justice Loinel Cox denied the writ of habeas corpus on the ground because the steamer carry Spanish troops hence it is a warship of foreign power which under the international law was beyond the jurisdiction of Singapore Authorities

Arrival in Manila
November 3, 1896- Rizal arrived at Manila Spanish authorities gather evidence

against Rizal while Deodato Arellano, Dr, Pio Valenzuela, Moises Salvador, Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco, Temoteo Paez, and Pedro Serrano Laktaw were brutally tortured to implicate Rizal Rizal owned brother was also arrested and tortured but never said anything against his younger brother.

First Investigation
November 20, 1896- preliminary investigation

was conducted. Rizal as the accused appeared before Judge Advocate, Colonel Francisco Olive. He was subjected to a 5 day investigation, Rizal was informed about his charges and been given the chance to answer the questions they have on him though he was never permitted to confront those people who testified against him. Two Evidences presented against him, namely documentary an d testimonial.

Documentary Evidences:
A letter from Antonio to Mariano Ponce dated Madrid

October 16, 1888, showing Rizal connection with the Filipino reform campaign in Spain. A letter of Rizal to his family, dated Madrid, August 20, 1890, stating that the deportations are good for they will encourage the people to hate tyranny. A letter from Marcelo H. del Pilar to Deodato Arellano, dated Madrid, January 7, 1889, implicating Rizal in the propaganda movement campaign in Spain. A poem entitled Kundiman , allegedly written by Rizal in Manila on September 12, 1891

 A letter from Carlos Oliver to an unidentified person, dated

Barcelona, September 18, 1891, describing Rizal as the man to free the Philippines from Spanish oppression.  A masonic lodge document, dated Manila, February 9, 1892, honoring Rizal for his patriotic services. A letter signed Dimasalang ( Rizal’s pseudonym) to Tenlunz (Juan Zulueta’s pseudonym), dated Hongkong, May 24, 1892, stating that he was preparing a safe refuge for Filipinos who may persecuted by the Spanish authorities. A letter to Dimasalang to an unidentified committee, dated Hongkong, June 1, 1892, soliciting the aid of the committee in the “patriotic work”

Am anonymous and undated letter to the Editor of

Hongkong Telegraph, censuring the banishment of Rizal to Dapitan. A letter to Ildefonso Laurel to Rizal, dated Manila, informing an unidentified correspondent of the arrest and the banishment of Doroteo Cortes and Ambrosio Salvador. A letter to Marcelo H. del Pilar to Don Juan A. Tenluz (Juan Zulueta), dated Madrid, June 1, 1893 recommending the establishment of a special organization, independent of Masonry, to help the cause of the Filipino people. Transcript of a speech of Pingkian (Emilio Jacinto) in a reunion to a Katipunan on July 23, 1893, in which the following cry uttered “Long Live the Philippines! Long Live Liberty!lOng live Dr. Rizal Unity!”

Transcript of speech of Tik-Tik (Jose Turiano

Santiago) in the same Katipunan reunion where in the katipuneros shouted “ Long Live the eminent Dr. Jose Rizal! Death to the oppressor nation!” A poem by Laong Laan (Jose Rizal) entitled Talisay, in which the author makes Dapitan schoolboys sing that they know how to fight of their rights.

The testimonial evidence consisted of the oral testimonies of

Martin Constantino, Aguedo del Rosario, Jose Reyes, Moises Salvador Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco, Deodato Arellano, Ambrosio Salvador, Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Antonio Salazar, Francisco Quison, and Temoteo Paez November 6, 1896- after the investigation, Col. Olive transmitted the records of the case to Gov. Gen. Ramon Blanco, and the letter appointed Capt. Rafael Dominguez as special Judge advocate to institute the corresponding action against Rizal. Dominguez made a brief resume of the charges and returned the papers to the Governor General, who thereupon transmitted them to the Judge Advocate General Don Nicholas de la Peña for an opinion.

Peña submitted the following reccomendations:
The accused should be immediately brought to

trial He should be kept in prison An order of attachment be issued against his property to the amount one million pesos as an indemnity, and He should be defended in court by an army officer, not by a civilian officer.

Rizal’s defender:
Rizal chooses a defense council which is

the only right given to him by the Spanish authorities December 8, 1896 100 first and second lieutenants in the Spanish Army was presented to Rizal Lt. Taviel de Andrade chosen by Rizal to be his defense, he was the brother of Jose Taviel de Andrade his previous bodyguard.

Charges to the accused
He was accused of being ‘ the principal

organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating ideas of rebellion’ He pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion

Manifesto to Some Filipinos
Submitted on Dec 15 To inform the people that he condemned the

rebellion because he wanted their liberties to be attained through education and lacked the participation of ‘those from above’ Was not published because it did not condemn the rebellion in its totality but only in two aspects: lack of participation and preparation

Trial of Rizal
Prosecution (Alcocer) asked for death

sentence; if pardon, permanent disqualification and subjection to surveillance of authority, indemnity of 20, 000 pesos De Andrade in defense, delivered an impressive speech and claimed that the guilt of Rizal has not been legally established. Rizal supplemented his defender’s points in detail

Polavieja signs Rizal’s execution
Same afternoon (Dec 26), death

sentence was passed with the same condition except that indemnity was raised to 100,000pesos On Dec 28, Gov. Gen Polavieja approved the sentence, ordering Rizal be executed by firing squad two days later at 7 a.m. Luneta

References
 Coates, A. 1968. Rizal: Philippine Nationalist

and Martyr. Oxford Press. Hong Kong  Vaño, M. 1997. Jose Rizal :Champion of the Nation’s Redemption. Giraffe Books . Quezon City  Zaide, G. F. and S. M. Zaide. 1994. Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist, and National Hero. All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc. Quezon City

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